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Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy

Adrian Sh Ooi, David H Song
Implant-based procedures are the most commonly performed method for postmastectomy breast reconstruction. While donor-site morbidity is low, these procedures are associated with a higher risk of reconstructive loss. Many of these are related to infection of the implant, which can lead to prolonged antibiotic treatment, undesired additional surgical procedures, and unsatisfactory results. This review combines a summary of the recent literature regarding implant-related breast-reconstruction infections and combines this with a practical approach to the patient and surgery aimed at reducing this risk...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Antonio Ieni, Valeria Barresi, Giuseppina Rosaria Rita Ricciardi, Barbara Adamo, Vincenzo Adamo, Giovanni Tuccari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Wanaporn Charoenchokthavee, Duangchit Panomvana, Virote Sriuranpong, Nutthada Areepium
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer treatment, but interindividual variabilities in TAM-metabolizing enzymes exist and have been linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the respective encoding genes. The different alleles and genotypes of these genes have been presented for Caucasians and Asians. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the incomplete functional alleles and genotypes of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Julieta Leone, Bernardo Amadeo Leone, José Pablo Leone
Breast cancer in the elderly is an increasing clinical problem. In addition, ~60% of deaths from breast cancer occur in women aged 65 years and older. Despite this, older women with breast cancer have been underrepresented in clinical trials, and this has led to less than optimal evidence to guide their therapy. The management of elderly women with early breast cancer is a complex process that requires careful evaluation of life expectancy, comorbidities, patient values, and risks and benefits of available treatment options...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Hang Cheng, Jeffrey W Clymer, Nicole C Ferko, Leena Patel, Ireena M Soleas, Chris G Cameron, Piet Hinoul
BACKGROUND: Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However, the meta-analysis did not include studies of BCS patients and focused on a subset of surgical complications. The objective of this study was to compare Harmonic technology and conventional techniques for a range of clinical outcomes and complications in both mastectomy and BCS patients, including axillary lymph node dissection...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Björn Logi Isfoss, Bo Holmqvist, Helena Jernström, Per Alm, Håkan Olsson
In this study, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)-expressing cells in stroma of histologically normal breast tissue from premenopausal women were investigated in situ regarding cellular morphology, cell distribution, and relation to the additional stem cell markers, CD44 (+) and CD24 (-). These results were correlated with hormonal and genetic risk factors for breast cancer. Triple immunofluorescence labeling was performed on tissues from premenopausal women with a family history of breast cancer, and breast reduction specimens from premenopausal women with no family history of breast cancer were used as a control group...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Mushabbab Al Asiri, Mutahir A Tunio, Reham Abdulmoniem
BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the impact of radiation-induced ovarian ablation (RT-OA) on amenorrhea cessation rates, progression-free survival, and overall survival in pre/perimenopausal women with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Medline, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases and search engines were searched to identify randomized controlled studies comparing RT-OA with control for early or metastatic breast cancer. Further, radiotherapy doses, techniques, and associated side effects were evaluated...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Joëlle Collignon, Laurence Lousberg, Hélène Schroeder, Guy Jerusalem
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the absence of HER2 overexpression. These cancers represent a heterogeneous breast cancer subtype with a poor prognosis. Few systemic treatment options exist besides the use of chemotherapy (CT). The heterogeneity of the disease has limited the successful development of targeted therapy in unselected patient populations. Currently, there are no approved targeted therapies for TNBC. However, intense research is ongoing to identify specific targets and develop additional and better systemic treatment options...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Moataz Ehab, Mohamad Elbaz
Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Denise A Yardley
There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Katherine E Hanlon, Alysia N Lozano-Ondoua, Puja J Umaretiya, Ashley M Symons-Liguori, Anupama Chandramouli, Jamie K Moy, William K Kwass, Patrick W Mantyh, Mark A Nelson, Todd W Vanderah
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoid compounds, both nonspecific as well as agonists selective for either cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) or cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), have been shown to modulate the tumor microenvironment by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells in several model systems. The mechanism of this modulation remains only partially delineated, and activity induced via the CB1 and CB2 receptors may be distinct despite significant sequence homology and structural similarity of ligands. METHODS: The CB2-selective agonist JWH-015 was used to investigate mechanisms downstream of CB2 activation in mouse and human breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in a murine mammary tumor model...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Omar Farouk, Mohamed A Ebrahim, Ahmad Senbel, Ziad Emarah, Waleed Abozeed, Mohamed O Seisa, Summer Mackisack, Salah Abdel Jalil, Safaa Abdelhady
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in very young patients represents a unique issue that needs more attention as the number of cases is increasing and it has special characteristics at presentation, diagnosis, and biologic behaviors which reflect on both treatment strategies and survival. The aim of the current study was to analyze and report the clinico-pathological characteristics and treatment procedures used for breast cancer in very young patients over the last decade in a single Egyptian cancer center...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Chagkrit Ditsatham, Areewan Somwangprasert, Kirati Watcharachan, Phanchaporn Wongmaneerung, Jiraporn Khorana
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to collect data regarding breast cancer profiles and factors that affect local recurrence and distant metastasis after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in Chiang Mai University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective review in a single institution of newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer patients who were treated with BCS between April 9, 2001 and December 25, 2011. RESULTS: A total of 185 patients treated with BCS were included in this study, with an average age of 46...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Claire C Davies, Dorothy Brockopp, Krista Moe
Hypersensitive scar tissue formation along the incision line and drain site is a common side effect following mastectomy. If this scar tissue is not addressed, it can lead to decreased flexibility and function in the involved upper quadrant. Astym(®) treatment is a new approach to soft tissue injuries, and is evidenced in animal studies to promote the healing and regeneration of soft tissues. It has also been found to reduce pain and increase function in people with soft tissue dysfunction. The aim of Astym treatment is to engage the regenerative mechanisms of the body in order to resorb scar tissue, stimulate tissue turnover, and regenerate soft tissues...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Theresa A Koleck, Yvette P Conley
Research is beginning to suggest that the presence and/or severity of symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors may be associated with disease-related factors of cancer. In this article, we present a novel approach to the identification and prioritization of biologically plausible candidate genes to investigate relationships between genomic variation and symptom variability in breast cancer survivors. Cognitive dysfunction is utilized as a representative breast cancer survivor symptom to elucidate the conceptualization of and justification for our cellular, disease-based approach to address symptom variability in cancer survivors...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Tineke Casneuf, Amy E Axel, Peter King, John D Alvarez, Jillian L Werbeck, Tinne Verhulst, Karin Verstraeten, Brett M Hall, A Kate Sasser
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important growth factor for estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer, and elevated serum IL-6 is associated with poor prognosis. METHODS: The role of the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway was investigated in ERα-positive breast cancer. A panel of cell lines was treated with exogenous IL-6. An IL-6 specific gene signature was generated by profiling ten ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines alone or following treatment with 10 ng/mL recombinant IL-6 or human marrow stromal cell-conditioned media, with or without siltuximab (a neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody) and grown in three-dimensional tumor microenvironment-aligned cultures for 4 days, 5 days, or 6 days...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Foluso O Ademuyiwa, Amy Cyr, Jennifer Ivanovich, Maria A Thomas
Breast cancer in young women is relatively rare compared to breast cancer occurring in older women. Younger women diagnosed with breast cancer also tend to have a more aggressive biology and consequently a poorer prognosis than older women. In addition, they face unique challenges such as diminished fertility from premature ovarian failure, extended survivorship periods and its attendant problems, and the psychosocial impact of diagnosis, while still raising families. It is therefore imperative to recognize the unique issues that younger women face, and plan management in a multidisciplinary fashion to optimize clinical outcomes...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Hatem Soliman, Melanie Mediavilla-Varela, Scott J Antonia
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in using cancer vaccines to treat breast cancer patients in the adjuvant setting to prevent recurrence in high risk situations or in combination with other immunomodulators in the advanced setting. Current peptide vaccines are limited by immunologic compatibility issues, and engineered autologous cellular vaccines are difficult to produce on a large scale. Using standardized bystander cell lines modified to secrete immune stimulating adjuvant substances can greatly enhance the ability to produce immunogenic cellular vaccines using unmodified autologous cells or allogeneic medical grade tumor cell lines as targets...
2015: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Sanjoy Chatterjee, Animesh Saha, Indu Arun, Sonali Susmita Nayak, Subir Sinha, Sanjit Agrawal, Mayur Parihar, Rosina Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer, changes in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2 status, and Ki-67 index (IHC4 status) and its correlation with pathological complete response (pCR) or relapse-free survival (RFS) rates could lead to better understanding of tumor management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pre- and post-NACT IHC4 status and its changes were analyzed in 156 patients with breast cancer. Associations between pCR, RFS rates to IHC4 status pre- and post-NACT were investigated...
2015: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Raina M Ferzoco, Kathryn J Ruddy
Male breast cancer is a rare disease. There are limited data to inform optimal treatment and follow-up strategies in this population. Currently, most follow-up guidelines are drawn from the vast literature on female breast cancer, despite the fact that male breast cancer has unique biological characteristics. In this review, we discuss clinical characteristics of male breast cancer as well as current best practices for long-term care with a focus on surveillance, screening, and treatment-related symptom management in male breast cancer survivors...
2015: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
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