Read by QxMD icon Read

Research and Reports in Urology

Elena Esra Foditsch, Reinhold Zimmermann
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a controlled approach for sacral neuromodulation (SNM) to improve both nerve targeting and tined lead placement, for which a new computed tomography (CT)-guided implantation technique was analyzed in minipigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included five female, adult Göttingen minipigs. In deep sedoanalgesia, the minipigs were placed in an extended prone position. Commercially available SNM materials were used (needle, introduction sheath, and quadripolar tined lead electrode)...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Liyong Xing, Zhifei Liu, Gang Deng, Huan Wang, Yanfeng Zhu, Peng Shi, Bingyue Huo, Yindong Li
PURPOSE: Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis (XP) is a rare form of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis that can clinically mimic high-grade prostatic carcinoma. It is difficult to diagnose it definitely in clinical settings. METHODS: We report a case of XP with prostate-rectal fistula and review the relevant literatures. RESULT: A 75-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding when he urinated. A locally advanced carcinoma of prostate was suspected initially following the physical, imaging, and hematologic examinations...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Aaron Spitz, Marc Gittelman, Lawrence I Karsh, Sanja Dragnic, Ahmed M Soliman, Aditya Lele, Damian Gruca, Michael Norton
INTRODUCTION: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs is a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer. GnRH analog therapy can reduce testosterone to "castrate" levels, historically defined as <50 ng/dL. With the advent of newer assays, a lower threshold of <20 ng/dL has recently been proposed. We report the results of a retrospective analysis of two Phase III trials of 4- and 6-month depot microsphere formulations of leuprolide acetate (LA), a GnRH agonist that has previously demonstrated efficacy in testosterone suppression to <50 ng/dL in patients on ADT...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Vladimir Avkshtol, Yanqun Dong, Shelly B Hayes, Mark A Hallman, Robert A Price, Mark L Sobczak, Eric M Horwitz, Nicholas G Zaorsky
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6-15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks) is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Mark A Moyad, Robert U Newton, Ulf W Tunn, Damian Gruca
Improved diagnosis and treatment regimens have resulted in greater longevity for men with prostate cancer. This has led to an increase in both androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use and duration of exposure, and therefore to its associated adverse effects, such as sexual dysfunction, osteoporosis, reduced muscle mass, increased fat mass, and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Given that the adverse effects of ADT are systemic, often debilitating, and difficult to treat, efforts continue in the development of new strategies for long-term management of prostate cancer...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Marcella G Willis-Gray, Alexis A Dieter, Elizabeth J Geller
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition affecting millions of men and women worldwide. It is an embarrassing condition with far-reaching consequences. Although many treatment options exist, no single treatment has been proven to be most effective. Often a combination of therapy is required to successfully manage OAB symptoms. In this review, we provide an overview of OAB, including risk factors for development of OAB; keys to diagnosis; therapeutic options including conservative and medical management, as well as treatments for refractory OAB; when to consider referral to a specialist; and resources for clinicians and patients...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Rima Tinawi-Aljundi, Shannon T Knuth, Michael Gildea, Joshua Khal, Jason Hafron, Kenneth Kernen, Robert Di Loreto, Joan Aurich-Costa
PURPOSE: The ability to test for and detect prostate cancer with minimal invasiveness has the potential to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies. This study was conducted as part of a clinical investigation for the development of an OligoFISH(®) probe panel for more accurate detection of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eligible male patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound biopsies were enrolled in the study. After undergoing digital rectal examination with pressure, voided urine was collected in sufficient volume to prepare at least two slides using ThinPrep...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
James Anaissie, Wayne Jg Hellstrom
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and debilitating disorder seen in over 50% of men older than 70 years. Oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment for ED, but cannot be used by a significant subset of patients due to systemic side effects and drug-drug interactions. Second-line therapy may include intracavernosal therapies, but are associated with poor compliance due to their invasive nature. Alprostadil has a mechanism of action different from that of PDE5 inhibitors...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Gianni Paulis, Gennaro Romano, Andrea Paulis
Peyronie's disease (PD) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the tunica albuginea of the penis. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a possible invalidating symptom of PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, psychological impact, and risk factors of ED in patients with PD. The study was conducted by carrying out a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 309 patients with PD who visited our andrology clinic. All patients underwent the following tests: body mass index, common blood tests and hormone assays, questionnaire for erectile function assessment, dynamic penile color Doppler ultrasonography, imaging of the penis at maximum erection with photographic poses according to Kelâmi, psychosexual impact evaluation with PD Questionnaire (symptom bother score), evaluation of depression symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and evaluation of the intensity of penile pain with the pain intensity numeric rating scale...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Max Nutt, Zachary Reed, Tobias S Köhler
The potential influence of vasectomy being a risk factor for the development of prostate cancer is not a new concept, with more than 30 publications addressing the topic. Given the global frequency of vasectomy and the prevalence of prostate cancer, this subject justifiably deserves scrutiny. Several articles have claimed that vasectomy puts men at risk for future development of prostate cancer. We explore articles that have shown the contrary (no link), explore the studies' strengths and weaknesses, describe possible prostate cancer pathophysiologic mechanisms, and apply Bradford Hill criteria to help discern correlation with causation...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Hak J Lee, Kasra Yousefi, Zaid Haddad, Firas Abdollah, Lucia Lc Lam, Heesun Shin, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Elana Godebu, Song Wang, Ahmed Shabaik, Elai Davicioni, Christopher J Kane
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the Decipher test in predicting lymph node invasion (LNI) on radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. METHODS: We identified 1,987 consecutive patients with RP who received the Decipher test between February and August 2015 (contemporary cohort). In the contemporary cohort, only the Decipher score from RP specimens was available for analysis. In addition, we identified a consecutive cohort of patients treated with RP between 2006 and 2012 at the University of California, San Diego, with LNI upon pathologic examination (retrospective cohort)...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Renu S Eapen, Sidney B Radomski
Overactive bladder (OAB) is common in both men and women. It is a symptom complex that causes significant detriment to quality of life in patients. Although the prevalence of OAB is similar in both sexes, there are sex-specific differences in individual symptoms and the impact on quality of life. The coexistence of benign prostatic hyperplasia with OAB can worsen quality of life in men. This review examines the major studies that looked at the epidemiology of OAB as it relates to both sexes. It focuses on both the overall prevalence rates and the incidence of individual symptoms...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Konstantinos Dimitropoulos, Stavros Gravas
Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are prevalent in the general population, especially in those of advanced age, and are characterized by notable diversity in etiology and presentation, and have been proven to cause various degrees of impairment on quality of life. The prostate has traditionally been regarded as the core cause of male LUTS. As a result, medical treatment aims to provide symptomatic relief and effective management of progression of male LUTS due to benign prostatic enlargement. In this context, α1-blockers, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, and 5α-reductase inhibitors have long been used as monotherapies or in combination treatment to control voiding LUTS...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Kevin A Ostrowski, John R Gannon, Thomas J Walsh
INTRODUCTION: Peyronie's disease (PD) has significant effect on patients and their partners. We provide a current review of the epidemiology as well as the nonsurgical and surgical treatment of PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of literature pertaining to PD with focus on epidemiology and treatment options. CONCLUSION: PD is common and likely underreported. The availability of new and highly effective treatment options will catalyze patient awareness and subsequently the prevalence of disease...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Pilar Pais, Agustí Villar, Santiago Rull
BACKGROUND: The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen - 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Yuen Shan Wong, Yuk Him Tam, Kristine Kit Yi Pang
We report on two children aged 2 and 6 years, who underwent laparoscopic ipsilateral ureteroureterostomy for their renal duplex anomalies. Both patients had complete duplex and were investigated by ultrasound, micturating cystourethrogram, magnetic resonance urography, and radioisotope scan. One patient had high-grade vesicoureteral reflux to lower moiety complicated with recurrent urinary tract infections, while the other had obstruction to upper moiety due to ectopic ureter. The pathological moieties of both patients were functional...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Blayne Welk, Kuan Liu, Salimah Z Shariff
OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of urologic investigations among traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study from Ontario, Canada. We included all adult TSCI patients injured between 2002 and 2012. The primary outcome was the frequency of urodynamic testing, renal imaging, and cystoscopy. Primary exposure was the year of injury. The impact of age, sex, comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and lesion level was assessed with Cox regression models...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Takumi Takeuchi, Yumiko Okuno, Mami Hattori-Kato, Masayoshi Zaitsu, Koji Mikami
A splice variant of androgen receptor (AR), AR-V7, lacks in androgen-binding portion and leads to aggressive cancer characteristics. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent nested PCRs for the amplification of AR-V7 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) transcripts were done for whole blood of patients with prostate cancer and male controls. With primary reverse transcription PCRs, AR-V7 and PSA were detected in 4.5% and 4.7% of prostate cancer, respectively. With nested PCRs, AR-V7 messenger RNA (mRNA) was positive in 43...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Shieh-Ling Bang, Mohammed Belal
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is an under-diagnosed problem affecting up to 50% of women worldwide. SUI is a source of psychological distress to the individual and also imposes a financial burden to the individual and the health care system. The role of surgery in the treatment in SUI has evolved steadily in the last two decades. The synthetic mid-urethral sling and its different insertion methods have gained widespread popularity and are now the most frequently used surgical interventions for women with SUI in Europe...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Gianni Paulis, Davide Barletta, Paolo Turchi, Antonio Vitarelli, Giuseppe Dachille, Andrea Fabiani, Romano Gennaro
Peyronie's disease (PD) is a chronic disorder involving the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa of the penis. A conservative treatment is indicated in the first stage of disease. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic impact and possible side effects of treatment with pentoxifylline (PTX) in combination with other antioxidants in 307 patients with early-stage PD. Patients were subdivided into three groups: A, B, and C. Both groups, A and B, comprising of 206 patients, underwent treatment, whereas Group C was the control group (n=101)...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"