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Research and Reports in Urology

Yasushi Nakai, Nobumichi Tanaka, Satoshi Anai, Makito Miyake, Isao Asakawa, Yosuke Morizawa, Shunta Hori, Kazumasa Torimoto, Tomomi Fujii, Masatoshi Hasegawa, Kiyohide Fujimoto
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs), disease-related quality of life (QOL), and health-related QOL (HR-QOL) of patients who received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and methods: In 121 patients who had received IMRT and were followed up for >2 years, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), and 8-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-8) were used before IMRT, at the halfway point in IMRT, immediately after IMRT, and 1-24 months after the completion of IMRT...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Mário Maciel de Lima, Sebastião Salazar Jansem Filho, Marcos Tobias-Machado
Purpose: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men, with higher prevalence in developed countries. Nothing much is known regarding the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in Brazilian population or among the indigenous groups in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to correlate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and age in the tribe with Macuxi ethnicity, from the jungles of Amazon (between Brazil and Venezuela). Patients and methods: This was an epidemiological cross-sectional study aimed to find the correlation between age and PSA in the 110 Brazilian Indian tribal men of Macuxi ethnicity...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Reza Zare, Magnus Grabe, Gregers G Hermann, Per-Uno Malmström
Background: The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine the feasibility of incorporating blue light flexible cystoscopy (BLFC) and biopsy/fulguration into routine outpatient follow-up of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients. Methods: The study included patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who were scheduled for routine follow-up. Hexaminolevulinate was instilled in the outpatient department, and the bladder was examined under white light and then with BLFC...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Ilan Gielchinsky, Matthijs J Scheltema, Thomas Cusick, John Chang, Ron Shnier, Daniel Moses, Warick Delprado, Quoc Nguyen, Carlo Yuen, Anne-Maree Haynes, Phillip D Stricker
Introduction: Three percent of all new diagnosed prostate cancer (PC) patients are under the age of 50. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is considered as increasingly powerful tool for decision-making in diagnosis of PC and in some active surveillance protocols. Since prostate architecture changes with age, we evaluated the sensitivity of mpMRI to detect clinically significant PC in patients under the age of 50 compared to pair-matched older patients. Methods: Data from a prospective collected and ethics approved database were retrospectively analyzed...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Toyoharu Kamibeppu, Koji Yamasaki, Kozue Nakahara, Takahiro Nagai, Naoki Terada, Hiromasa Tsukino, Shoichiro Mukai, Toshiyuki Kamoto
Background: Caveolin (Cav)-1 and Cav-2 are cell membrane proteins, which are structural proteins of caveolae and are reported to be positive regulators of cell survival and metastasis in prostate cancer (PC). In a previous study, we reported that elevated levels of Cav-1 and Cav-2 were significantly associated with PC progression. However, their functions in PC have not yet been clarified. In this study, we examined the function of Cav-1 and Cav-2 in PC cell invasiveness and motility...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Safendra Siregar, Reni Farenia, Suwandi Sugandi, Rully M Roesli
Introduction: Urethral stricture is a disease with a high recurrence rate. Angiotensin II via AT1 receptor increases collagen formation through its effects on TGF-β1 and inhibition of collagenase activity. In this study, we evaluated the antifibrotic effect of angiotensin II receptor blocker on urethral stricture formation by creating a urethral stricture model in a male rabbit. Material and methods: Thirty three male adult rabbits were separated into 3 groups (control, treatment, and sham)...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Sanjay B Kulkarni, Omkar Joglekar, Mohammad H Alkandari, Pankaj M Joshi
Failed hypospadias includes patients with multiple attempts at hypospadias surgery. These present as recurrent stricture, urethrocutaneous fistula glans dehiscence, urethral dehiscence, chordee, and glans deformity. Failed hypospadias is a complex and challenging issue. Various surgeries and techniques have been described for hypospadias. We need uniform guidelines for management of failed hypospadias. In this paper, we highlight the current and feasible options in the management of failed hypospadias which would deliver best long-term cosmetic and functional outcomes for the patients...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Hormoz Karami, Mehdi Abedinzadeh, Mohammad Kazem Moslemi
Purpose: It was intended to compare meatal stenosis (MS) as a late complication of neonatal circumcision by using two different methods of Plastibell Device circumcision. Materials and methods: A total of 2,307 healthy term newborns (6-36 hours) who were born between 2007 and 2009 in Niknafs Medical Center of Rafsanjan, Iran, were simply randomized into two groups in a controlled, nonblinded clinical trial. In group A (1,102 neonates), the frenulum was maintained intact without any manipulation, and in group B (1,205 neonates) frenular hemostasis was performed in all cases by thermal cautery...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Yosuke Morizawa, Makito Miyake, Keiji Shimada, Shunta Hori, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Yasushi Nakai, Nobumichi Tanaka, Tomomi Fujii, Kiyohide Fujimoto
Background: The clinical use of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has improved the safety of cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, the overexpression of these CSFs in cancers has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in various malignancies. We evaluated the potential of CSF expression as a predictor of clinical outcome in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC)...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Sayed A Tantawy, Hany Mi Elgohary, Dalia M Kamel
Background: A significant number of men who are younger than 50 years visit urologists for interminable prostatitis. This study aimed to thoroughly investigate the effect of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) phonophoresis on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNBP). Subjects and methods: Sixty patients with CNBP were randomly assigned to three groups: Group A, wherein patients were treated with PSO using phonophoresis; Group B, where patients underwent transperineal continuous low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS); and Group C, wherein patients underwent placebo LIUS...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Taiki Kato, Kentaro Mizuno, Hidenori Nishio, Yoshinobu Moritoki, Akihiro Nakane, Satoshi Kurokawa, Hideyuki Kamisawa, Tetsuji Maruyama, Takahiro Yasui, Yutaro Hayashi
Introduction: Lichen sclerosus (LS), or balanitis xerotica obliterans, is a chronic, inflammatory disease accompanied by cicatrizing skin conditions resulting in pathologic phimosis. LS can be detected clinically by the whitish appearance of the glans or the foreskin, thickened, nonretractable foreskin, dysuria, and spraying. However, diagnosis is confirmed histopathologically. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether LS can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical manifestation and symptoms...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Gianni Paulis
This article focuses on the role that oxidative stress plays in chronic prostatitis, not only with respect to the known impact on symptoms and fertility but also especially in relation to possible prostate cancer development. Prostatitis is the most common urologic disease in adult males younger than 50 years and the third most common urologic diagnosis in males older than 50 years. If the germ-causing acute prostatitis is not eliminated, the inflammatory process becomes chronic. Persistent inflammation causes ongoing production of large quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and both oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, with consequent activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and genes encoding for further production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemotactic factors, and growth factors...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Robert Novotny, Tomas Marada, Jaroslav Chlupac, Ondrej Viklicky, Jiri Fronek
Background: We report the case of a 43-year-old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, class III lupus nephritis, with predialysis creatinine levels around 350 μmol/L (3.95 mg/dL) after partial resection of the left kidney with histologically verified papillary carcinoma in 2010. Preoperative computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a small 8 mm tumor in the left upper kidney pole. The patient was indicated for simultaneous bilateral nephrectomy and orthotopic renal transplantation with the aim to minimize invasiveness of the procedure as well as for curable tumor removal...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Hosam Serag, Shirley Bang, Y Zaki Almallah
Objectives: To report a real-time contemporary practice and outcome of artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) in patients with postradical prostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPI) in the UK. Methods: A retrospective observational study of patients who underwent AUS implantation (AMS 800) from 2007 to 2013. Data were collected on patients' demographics, infection and erosion rate, mechanical failure, reoperation, and continence rates. The study strictly included patients with postradical PPI only...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Mohankumar Vijayakumar, Arvind Ganpule, Abhishek Singh, Ravindra Sabnis, Mahesh Desai
Introduction: Imaging is a vital cog in the wheel of diagnosis and management of patients suspected with renal and ureteric calculi, and it is imperative to choose the appropriate investigation that is accurate as well as safe for the patient. At present, computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for a patient suspected to have stone disease. However, CT scan is associated with the hazards of radiation and high cost. Ultrasonography (US) is cheap and also devoid of any radiation hazard to the patient...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Areg Grigorian, Joshua K Livingston, Sebastian D Schubl, Bima J Hasjim, Daniel Mayers, Eric Kuncir, Cristobal Barrios, Victor Joe, Jeffry Nahmias
Background: To provide a descriptive analysis of scrotal and testicular trauma in the USA. Additionally, we hypothesized that motorcycle collision would have a higher association with scrotal or testicular trauma and subsequent scrotal or testicular operation, compared to a bicycle collision. Methods: The National Trauma Data Bank (2007-2015) was queried to identify adult male patients with scrotal or testicular trauma. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Kymora B Scotland, Dirk Lange
Urosepsis is a potentially life-threatening phenomenon that may occur after an ureteroscopic procedure. With the increasingly widespread adoption of ureteroscopy, there is a concern that the rates of urosepsis may increase. This review examines the current work being undertaken to minimize postprocedure infections both in the field of device development and in clinical care. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urosepsis will be discussed.
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Johannes Cansius Prihadi, Christopher Kusumajaya
Background: Teratomas are tumors consisting of two or three germ layers, seen commonly during childhood. Teratomas have been reported to occur in various sites and organs. Bladder teratoma is a very rare extragonadal tumor, moreover in adults. Although teratomas are known as benign lesions in childhood, they may act as malignant tumors when detected during adulthood. This requires total tumor resection, particularly in adult cases, and the addition of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cases with the potential of malignancy...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Matan Mekayten, Vladimir Yutkin, Mordechai Duvdevani, Dov Pode, Guy Hidas, Ezekiel H Landau, Fadi Youssef, Ofer N Gofrit
Background: Bladder recurrence after nephroureterectomy (NU) is common. However, there is no acceptable policy of adjuvant intravesical treatment after NU. Objective: To assess the rate of bladder recurrence following NU and to identify the high-risk subgroups that may become candidates for adjuvant intravesical therapy after NU. Patients and methods: Ninety-one patients (mean age 66.4 years) underwent NU. High-grade (HG) tumors were found in 63 patients and low-grade (LG) tumors in 28...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Yusuke Ito, Marianne D Sadar
Enzalutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) both before and after chemotherapy. Enzalutamide is more effective than its predecessor bicalutamide, which was analyzed in head-to-head studies of patients with CRPC. This family of nonsteroidal antiandrogens is now comprised of four drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration with two investigational drugs in clinical trials. Antiandrogens have been employed clinically for more than five decades to provide a rich resource of information...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
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