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Comparative Cytogenetics

Sofia Mazzoleni, Michail Rovatsos, Odessa Schillaci, Francesca Dumas
We explored the topology of 18S and 28S rDNA units by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the karyotypes of thirteen species representatives from major groups of Primates and Tupaia minor (Günther, 1876) (Scandentia), in order to expand our knowledge of Primate genome reshuffling and to identify the possible dispersion mechanisms of rDNA sequences. We documented that rDNA probe signals were identified on one to six pairs of chromosomes, both acrocentric and metacentric ones. In addition, we examined the potential homology of chromosomes bearing rDNA genes across different species and in a wide phylogenetic perspective, based on the DAPI-inverted pattern and their synteny to human...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Tássia Tatiane Pontes Pereira, Ana Caroline Coelho Corrêa Dos Reis, Danon Clemes Cardoso, Maykon Passos Cristiano
Chromosome counts and karyotype characterization have proved to be important features of a genome. Chromosome changes during the diversification of ants might play an important role, given the diversity and success of Formicidae. Comparative karyotype analyses on ants have enriched and helped ant systematics. Among leafcutter ants, two major chromosome counts have been described, one frequent in Atta Fabricius, 1804 (2n = 22 in all Atta spp. whose karyotype is known) and the other frequent in Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (2n = 38 in the majority of species whose karyotype is known)...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Karina de Oliveira Brandão, Dinaíza Abadia Rocha-Reis, Caroline Garcia, Rubens Pazza, Lurdes Foresti de Almeida-Toledo, Karine Frehner Kavalco
Several cytogenetic markers show chromosomal diversity in the fish such as "armoured catfish". Although studies have characterized many species in the major genera representing these Siluridae, particularly in the genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, trends in chromosome evolution of this group remain unclear. The Paraíba do Sul river basin contains the armoured catfish Hypostomus affinis Steindachner, 1877, which is unique because of its distribution of repetitive DNAs, the 5S and 18S rDNA. Identified samples and registered collections in Brazilian museums were identified as the same typological species, while we observed wide variations in the physical location of this gene in the karyotype based on fluorescent in situ hybridization results...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Camilla Bruno Di-Nizo, Karina Rodrigues da Silva Banci, Yukie Sato-Kuwabara, Maria José de J Silva
Rodents constitute one of the most diversified mammalian orders. Due to the morphological similarity in many of the groups, their taxonomy is controversial. Karyotype information proved to be an important tool for distinguishing some species because some of them are species-specific. Additionally, rodents can be an excellent model for chromosome evolution studies since many rearrangements have been described in this group.This work brings a review of cytogenetic data of Brazilian rodents, with information about diploid and fundamental numbers, polymorphisms, and geographical distribution...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Yulia A Lipikhina, Elena V Evtushenko, Evgeny A Elisafenko, Alexander V Vershinin
Centromeres are essential for correct chromosome segregation during cell division and are determined by the presence of centromere-specific histone 3 (CENH3). Most of the diploid plant species, in which the structure and copy number of CENH3 genes have been determined, have this gene as a singleton; however, some cereal species in the tribe Triticeae have been found to have CENH3 in two variants. In this work, using the set of the wheat-rye addition lines we wanted to establish the chromosomal assignment of the CENH3 genes in the cultivated rye, Secale cereale (Linnaeus, 1753), in order to expand our knowledge about synteny conservation in the most important cereal species and about their chromosome evolution...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Silvestri María Celeste, Alejandra Marcela Ortiz, Germán Ariel Robledo, José Francisco Montenegro Valls, Graciela Inés Lavia
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3897/CompCytogen.v11i1.10339.].
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Seppo Nokkala, Valentina G Kuznetsova, Christina Nokkala
Characteristics of parthenogenesis in Cacopsylla ledi (Flor, 1861) were analyzed using cytological and molecular approaches. In all three populations studied from Finland, i.e. Turku, Kustavi and Siikajoki, males were present at a low frequency but were absent from a population from Vorkuta, Russia. In a follow-up study conducted in the Turku population during 2010-2016, the initial frequency of males was ca. 10 % and showed no intraseasonal variation, but then dramatically decreased down to approximately 1-2 % level in seasons 2015-2016...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Svetlana V Pavlova, Sergei A Borisov, Alexander F Timoshenko, Boris I Sheftel
Karyotype studies of common shrews in the vicinity of Lake Baikal (Irkutsk Region, Eastern Siberia) resulted in the description of two new chromosomal races of Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Lypotyphla, Mammalia), additional to 5 races formerly found in Siberia. In the karyotypes of 12 specimens from 3 locations, the polymorphism of metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes of the Robertsonian type was recorded and two distinct groups of karyotypes interpreted as the chromosomal races were revealed. They are geographically distant and described under the racial names Irkutsk (Ir) and Zima (Zi)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Vladimir A Lukhtanov, Alexander V Dantchenko
Finding a new species is a rare event in easy-to-see and well-studied organisms like butterflies, especially if they inhabit well-explored areas such as the Western Palaearctic. However, even in this region, gaps in taxonomic knowledge still exist and here we report such a discovery. Using a combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular markers we demonstrate that Polyommatus blue populations from Daghestan (South Russia), previously identified as P. aserbeidschanus, represent in fact a new species which is described here as P...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Vladimir A Lukhtanov, Nazar A Shapoval
DNA barcoding has been suggested as a universal tool for molecular species identification; however, it cannot be applied in cases when morphologically similar species share their DNA barcodes due to the common ancestry or mitochondrial introgression. Here we analyze the karyotype of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) morgani (Le Cerf, 1909) from the region of its type locality in the southern Zagros Mountains in Iran, provide first chromosomal evidence for P. (A.) antidolus (Rebel, 1901) in Iran and demonstrate that these two species can be easily identified through analysis of their karyotypes whereas they share their mitochondrial barcodes...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ilya Kirov, Ludmila Khrustaleva, Katrijn Van Laere, Alexander Soloviev, Sofie Meeus, Dmitry Romanov, Igor Fesenko
An idiogram construction following chromosome measurements is a versatile tool for cytological, cytogenetic and phylogenetic studies. The information on chromosome length, centromere index and position of cytogenetic landmarks along with modern techniques (e.g. genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization, banding, chromosome painting) can help to shed light on genome constitution, chromosome rearrangements and evolution. While idiogram construction is a routine task there are only few freely available programs that can perform chromosome measurements and no software for simultaneous measuring of chromosome parameters, chromosomal landmark and FISH signal positions and idiogram construction...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
André Luís Laforga Vanzela, Adriano Alves de Paula, Carolina Cristina Quintas, Thiago Fernandes, Joana Neres da Cruz Baldissera, Thaíssa Boldieri de Souza
Species of Cestrum (Linnaeus, 1753) have shown large diversity in the accumulation and distribution of repetitive DNA families, and B chromosomes have been described in seven species. Some types of repetitive DNA were identified in A and B chromosomes in species of this plant group, such as AT-rich SSR, 35S and 5S rDNA, C-Giemsa and C-CMA/DAPI bands and retrotransposons. To increase our understanding of the relationships of A and B chromosomes, the B of C. strigilatum Ruiz & Pavón, 1799 was microdissected, amplified and hybridized in situ against chromosomes of this species, and in six other species of this genus...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Sergey N Matveevsky, Svetlana V Pavlova, Maret M Atsaeva, Jeremy B Searle, Oxana L Kolomiets
Here we focus on the XY1Y2 condition in male common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, applying electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry for a comprehensive analysis of structure, synapsis and behaviour of the sex trivalent in pachytene spermatocytes. The pachytene sex trivalent consists of three distinct parts: short and long synaptic SC fragments (between the X and Y1 and between the X and Y2, respectively) and a long asynaptic region of the X in-between. Chromatin inactivation was revealed in the XY1 synaptic region, the asynaptic region of the X and a very small asynaptic part of the Y2...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Carlos Eduardo Faresin E Silva, Rodrigo Amaral de Andrade, Érica Martinha Silva de Souza, Eduardo Schmidt Eler, Maria Nazareth Ferreira da Silva, Eliana Feldberg
We investigated the karyotype of 18 didelphid species captured at 13 localities in the Brazilian Amazon, after conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the 18S rDNA probe. Variations were found in the X chromosome, heterochromatin distribution and the 18S rDNA sequence. The main variation observed was in the position of the centromere in the X chromosome of Caluromys philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosa murina Linnaeus, 1758. For both species, the X chromosome showed a geographical segregation in the pattern of variation between eastern and western Brazil, with a possible contact area in the central Amazon...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Judith Mary Lamo, Satyawada Rama Rao
In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753) which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800) and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Luiz Antônio Carlos Bertollo, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Pedro Manoel Galetti Jr, Orlando Moreira Filho
Brazilian fish cytogenetics started as early as the seventies in three pioneering research groups, located at the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Botucatu, SP), Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar, São Carlos, SP) and Universidade de São Paulo (USP, São Paulo, SP). Investigations that have been conducted in these groups led to the discovery of a huge chromosomal and genomic biodiversity among Neotropical fishes. Besides, they also provided the expansion of this research area, with the genesis of several other South American research groups, in view of a number of dissertations and doctoral theses developed over years...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ilya Gavrilov-Zimin
Jansenus burgeri Foldi, 1997 (Margarodidae s.l., Xylococcinae, Kuwaniini) was studied cytogenetically for the first time. It was shown that the species reproduces bisexually, displays XX/X(0) sex chromosome system and 2n=6/5 (female/male) including two pairs of long autosomes and a pair of shorter X-chromosomes in female. The chromosome complement, adult female morphology and the life cycle of J. burgeri are illustrated. The cytogenetic data are in fact the first ones for Kuwaniini scale insects, because Kuwania oligostigma De Lotto, 1959 briefly cytogenetically studied by Hughes-Schrader (1963), in my opinion, may be excluded from the genus Kuwania Cockerell, 1903 and the tribe Kuwaniini, since this species shows aberrant morphological characters, specifically the total absence of abdominal spiracles and the presence of tubular ducts...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Matheus Pires Rincão, João Lucas Chavari, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Ana Lúcia Dias
The present study aimed to cytogenetically analyse five Ctenidae species Ctenus ornatus (Keyserling, 1877), Ctenus medius (Keyserling, 1891), Phoneutria nigriventer (Keyserling, 1891), Viracucha andicola (Simon, 1906), and Enoploctenus cyclothorax (Philip Bertkau, 1880), from Brazil. All species presented a 2n♂ = 28 except for V. andicola, which showed 2n♂ = 29. Analysis of segregation and behavior of sex chromosomes during male meiosis showed a sex chromosome system of the type X1X20 in species with 28 chromosomes and X1X2X30 in V...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Érica Martinha Silva de Souza, Maria Claudia Gross, Carlos Eduardo Faresin E Silva, Cibele Gomes Sotero-Caio, Eliana Feldberg
Species in the subgenus Artibeus Leach, 1821 are widely distributed in Brazil. Conserved karyotypes characterize the group with identical diploid number and chromosome morphology. Recent studies suggested that the heterochromatin distribution and accumulation patterns can vary among species. In order to assess whether variation can also occur within species, we have analyzed the chromosomal distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in A. planirostris (Spix, 1823) and A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818) from Central Amazon (North Brazil) and contrasted our findings with those reported for other localities in Brazil...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Olesya G Buleu, Ilyas Y Jetybayev, Alexander G Bugrov
The karyotypes of three species of Pyrgomorphidae grasshoppers were studied: Zonocerus elegans (Thunberg, 1815), Pyrgomorpha guentheri (Burr, 1899) and Atractomorpha lata (Mochulsky, 1866). Data on karyotypes of P. guentheri and Z. elegans are reported here for the first time. All species have karyotypes consisting of 19 acrocentric chromosomes in males and 20 acrocentric chromosomes in females (2n♂=19, NF=19; 2n♀=20, NF=20) and X0/XX sex determination system. A comparative analysis of the localization of C-heterochromatin, clusters of ribosomal DNA, and telomere repeats revealed inter-species diversity in these cytogenetic markers...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
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