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Comparative Cytogenetics

Stenio Eder Vittorazzi, Luciana Bolsoni Lourenço, Mirco Solé, Renato Gomes Faria, Shirlei Maria Recco-Pimentel
All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Peter H Adler, Alparslan Yildirim, Zuhal Onder, G Taskin Tasci, Onder Duzlu, M Ozkan Arslan, Arif Ciloglu, Baris Sari, Nilgun Parmaksizoglu, Abdullah Inci
An extreme example of nonrandom rearrangements, especially inversion breaks, is described in the polytene chromosomes of the black fly Simulium bergi Rubtsov, 1956 from Armenia and Turkey. A total of 48 rearrangements was discovered, relative to the standard banding sequence for the subgenus Simulium Latreille, 1802. One rearrangement, an inversion (IIS-C) in the short arm of the second chromosome, was fixed. Six (12.5%) of the rearrangements were autosomal polymorphisms, and the remaining 41 (85.4%) were sex linked...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Klaudia Kruppa, Márta Molnár-Láng
Multicolour genomic in situ hybridization (mcGISH) using total genomic DNA probes from Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Săvulescu & Rayss, 1923) Á. Löve, 1984 (genome J(b) or E(b), 2n = 14), and Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh, 1814) Á. Löve, 1980 (genome St, 2n = 14) was used to characterize the mitotic metaphase chromosomes of a synthetic hybrid of Thinopyrum intermedium (Host, 1805) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey, 1985 and Thinopyrum ponticum (Podpěra, 1902) Z.-W. Liu et R.-C.Wang, 1993 named "Agropyron glael" and produced by N...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Anne-Marie Dutrillaux, Bernard Dutrillaux
The mitotic karyotypes of 17 species of African Goliathini (Cetoniinae) are described using various chromosome banding techniques. All but one are composed of 20 chromosomes, mostly metacentric, forming a karyotype assumed to be close to that of the Polyphaga ancestor. The most derived karyotypes are those of Goliathus goliatus Drury, 1770, with eight pairs of acrocentrics and Chlorocana africana Drury, 1773, with only14 chromosomes. In species of the genera Cyprolais Burmeister, 1842, Megalorhina Westwood, 1847, Stephanocrates Kolbe, 1894 and Stephanorrhina Burmeister, 1842, large additions of variable heterochromatin are observed on both some particular autosomes and the X chromosome...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Érica Alves Serrano, Cristian Araya-Jaime, Elkin Y Suárez-Villota, Claudio Oliveira, Fausto Foresti
Characidium gomesi Travasso, 1956 specimens from the Pardo River have up to four heterochromatic supernumerary chromosomes, derived from the sex chromosomes. To access the meiotic behavior and distribution of an active chromatin marker, males and females of Characidium gomesi with two or three B chromosomes were analyzed. Mitotic chromosomes were characterized using C-banding and FISH with B chromosome probes. Meiocytes were subjected to immunofluorescence-FISH assay using anti-SYCP3, anti-H3K4m, and B chromosomes probes...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Alexandre Dos Santos Rodrigues, Aline Souza Medrado, Débora Diniz, Claudio Oliveira, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso
Lignobrycon myersi is an endemic fish species from a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Based on molecular evidence, Lignobrycon myersi and genera Triportheus Cope, 1872, Agoniates Müller & Troschel, 1845, Clupeacharax Pearson, 1924 and Engraulisoma Castro, 1981 were placed in the family Triportheidae. In the present work, we report the first cytogenetic data for Lignobrycon myersi to test the hypothesis that Lignobrycon and Triportheus are closely related. Studied specimens presented 2n=52 with 28 metacentric (m), 18 submetacentric (sm) and six subtelocentric (st) chromosomes for males and 27 m, 19 sm and 6 st for females, characterizing a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Luísa Antônia Campos Barros, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso de Aguiar, Cléa Dos Santos Ferreira Mariano, Vanderly Andrade-Souza, Marco Antonio Costa, Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie, Silvia das Graças Pompolo
Cytogenetic data for the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 are available, to date, for a few species from Brazil and Uruguay, which have uniform chromosome numbers (2n = 38). The recent cytogenetic data of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), including its banding patterns, showed a distinct karyotype (2n = 22), similar to earlier studied Atta Fabricius, 1804 species. Karyological data are still scarce for the leafcutter ants and many gaps are still present for a proper understanding of this group. Therefore, this study aimed at increasing cytogenetic knowledge of the genus through the characterization of other six species: Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890), Acromyrmex coronatus Fabricius, 1804, Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887), Acromyrmex echinatior (Forel, 1899), Acromyrmex niger (Smith, 1858) and Acromyrmex rugosus (Smith, 1858), all of which were collected in Minas Gerais - Brazil, except for Acromyrmex echinatior which was collected in Barro Colorado - Panama...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Allison Anjos, Vilma Loreto, Diogo C Cabral-de-Mello
B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryotes and are usually heterochromatic and rich in repetitive DNAs. Here we describe characteristics of a B chromosome in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) through classical cytogenetic methods and mapping of some repetitive DNAs, including multigene families, telomeric repeats and a DNA fraction enriched with repetitive DNAs obtained from DOP-PCR. Eumastusia koebelei koebelei presented 2n=23, X0 and, in one individual, two copies of the same variant of a B chromosome were noticed, which are associated during meiosis...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Natalia D M Carvalho, Edson Carmo, Rogerio O Neves, Carlos Henrique Schneider, Maria Claudia Gross
Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by C ot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Robert B Angus, Teresa C Holloway
Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Nadjat Azizi, Rachid Amirouche, Nabila Amirouche
Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Xuan Li, Zujing Yang, Huan Liao, Zhengrui Zhang, Xiaoting Huang, Zhenmin Bao
Construction of cytogenetic maps can provide important information for chromosome identification, chromosome evolution and genomic research. However, it hasn't been conducted in many scallop species yet. In the present study, we attempted to map 12 fosmid clones containing tandem repeats by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857). The results showed 6 fosmid clones were successfully mapped and distributed in 6 different pairs of chromosomes. Three clones were respectively assigned to a pair of metacentric chromosomes, a pair of submetacentric chromosomes and a pair of telocentric chromosomes and the remaining 3 clones showed their loci on three different pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes by co-hybridization...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Juan Martín Ferro, Alberto Taffarel, Darío Cardozo, Jimena Grosso, María Pía Puig, Pablo Suárez, Mauricio Sebastián Akmentins, Diego Baldo
Oreobates Jiménez de la Espada, 1872 is a large group of South American frogs with terrestrial reproduction and direct development, located in the superfamily Brachycephaloidea. About 260 brachycephaloidean species have been cytogenetically studied so far, at least with standard techniques. However, this information represents fewer than 17% species of the family Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008, where the genus Oreobates is included. In the present work, using a diversity of standard and molecular techniques, we describe the karyotype of Oreobates barituensis Vaira & Ferrari, 2008, Oreobates berdemenos Pereyra, Cardozo, Baldo & Baldo, 2014 and Oreobates discoidalis (Peracca, 1895), from northwestern Argentina...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Matías Maximiliano Malleret, Carolina Alicia Labaroni, Gabriela Verónica García, Juan Martín Ferro, Dardo Andrea Martí, Cecilia Lanzone
The genus Akodon Meyen, 1833 is one of the most species-rich among sigmodontine rodents and has great chromosome variability. Akodon montensis has a relatively broad distribution in South America, and Argentine populations are located in the southernmost region of its range. Brazilian populations have important chromosomal variability, but cytogenetic data from Argentina are scarce. We performed a chromosome characterization of natural populations of Akodon montensis using conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NORs and base-specific fluorochromes...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Anelise Machado Marques, Amélia Carlos Tuler, Carlos Roberto Carvalho, Tatiana Tavares Carrijo, Marcia Flores da Silva Ferreira, Wellington Ronildo Clarindo
Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Brunna Almeida, Roberto Leonan Morim Novaes, Marcia Aguieiras, Renan de França Souza, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa Esbérard, Lena Geise
Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50, in both Lonchophylla bokermanni and Lonchophylla peracchii...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Paulo Marcos Amaral-Silva, Wellington Ronildo Clarindo, Tatiana Tavares Carrijo, Carlos Roberto Carvalho, Milene Miranda Praça-Fontes
Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and for understanding the evolutionary history of different taxa. However, the chromosome number is the only karyotype aspect reported for the species of Dorstenia so far. In this study, the nuclear genome size of Dorstenia arifolia (Lamarck, 1786), Dorstenia bonijesu (Carauta & C. Valente, 1983) and Dorstenia elata (Hooker, 1840) was evaluated and their karyotype morphometry accomplished, with the aim of verifying the potential of those parameters to understand evolutionary issues...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Tatiane Ramos Sampaio, Larissa Bettin Pires, Natália Bortolazzi Venturelli, Mariana Campaner Usso, Renata da Rosa, Ana Lúcia Dias
The family Curimatidae is a fish group usually considered chromosomally conserved in their diploid number. However, some studies show small changes in the karyotype microstructure, and the presence of B chromosomes, indicating a chromosomal diversification within the group, even if structural changes in the karyotypes are not visible. Few studies associate this trait with an evolutionary pattern within the family. This study aimed to characterize the karyotype, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), and heterochromatin distribution of six species of Curimatidae of the genera Cyphocharax Fowler, 1906 and Steindachnerina Fowler, 1906: Cyphocharax voga (Hensel, 1870), Cyphocharax spilotus (Vari, 1987), Cyphocharax saladensis (Meinken, 1933), Cyphocharax modestus (Fernández-Yépez, 1948), Steindachnerina biornata (Braga et Azpelicueta, 1987) and Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) and contribute data to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the chromosomal evolution of this group of fish...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Takahiro Taguchi, Satoshi Kubota, Takuma Mezaki, Erika Tagami, Satoko Sekida, Shu Nakachi, Kazuo Okuda, Akira Tominaga
Karyotype analysis was performed on the scleractinian coral Coelastrea aspera Verrill, 1866, commonly found along temperate coasts in Japan (30-35°N) and in coastal waters in the Indian and Pacific oceans. G-banding of Coelastrea aspera was successfully performed, although the banding pattern was not as clear as that in mammals. The karyogram clearly revealed that this coral had a homogeneously staining region (hsr) in chromosome 11. This hsr consisted of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) related genes, which was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes generated using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) primers and those generated through chromosome microdissection...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Alexander G Bugrov, Ilyas E Jetybayev, Gayane H Karagyan, Nicolay B Rubtsov
Although previous cytogenetic analysis of Pamphagidae grasshoppers pointed to considerable karyotype uniformity among most of the species in the family, our study of species from Armenia has discovered other, previously unknown karyotypes, differing from the standard for Pamphagidae mainly in having unusual sets of sex chromosomes. Asiotmethis turritus (Fischer von Waldheim, 1833), Paranocaracris rubripes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846), and Nocaracris cyanipes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846) were found to have the karyotype 2n♂=16+neo-XY and 2n♀=16+neo-XX, the neo-X chromosome being the result of centromeric fusion of an ancient acrocentric X chromosome and a large acrocentric autosome...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
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