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Comparative Cytogenetics

Marcela Baer Pucci, Viviane Nogaroto, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Marcelo Ricardo Vicari
Available data on cytotaxonomy of the genus Characidium Reinhardt, 1867, which contains the greatest number of species in the Characidiinae (Crenuchidae), with 64 species widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region, were summarized and reviewed. Most Characidium species have uniform diploid chromosome number (2n) = 50 and karyotype with 32 metacentric (m) and 18 submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. The maintenance of the 2n and karyotypic formula in Characidium implies that their genomes did not experience large chromosomal rearrangements during species diversification...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Petra Macháčková, Ľuboš Majeský, Michal Hroneš, Eva Hřibová, Bohumil Trávníček, Radim J Vašut
The species-rich and widespread genus Taraxacum F. H. Wiggers, 1780 (Asteraceae subfamily Cichorioideae) is one of the most taxonomically complex plant genera in the world, mainly due to its combination of different sexual and asexual reproduction strategies. Polyploidy is usually confined to apomictic microspecies, varying from 3x to 6x (rarely 10x). In this study, we focused on Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum (= T.sect.Ruderalia; T.officinale group), i.e., the largest group within the genus. We counted chromosome numbers and measured the DNA content for species sampled in Central Europe, mainly in Czechia...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Jin-Hai Wang, Xiao-Dong Zheng
To provide markers to identify chromosomes in the genome of octopods, chromosomes of three octopus species were subjected to NOR/C-banding. In addition, we examined their genome size ( C value) to submit it to the Animal Genome Size Database. Silver staining revealed that the number of Ag-nucleoli was 2 ( Octopusminor (Sasaki, 1920)), 2 ( Amphioctopusfangsiao (d'Orbigny, 1839)) and 1 ( Cistopuschinensis Zheng et al., 2012), respectively, and the number of Ag-nucleoli visible was the same as that of Ag-NORs on metaphase plates in the same species...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Svetlana V Pavlova, Larisa S Biltueva, Svetlana A Romanenko, Natalya A Lemskaya, Anton V Shchinov, Alexei V Abramov, Viatcheslav V Rozhnov
Gymnures are an ancient group of small insectivorous mammals and are characterized by a controversial taxonomic status and the lack of a description of karyotypes for certain species. In this study, conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, CBG- and GTG-banding, Ag-NOR), CMA3 -DAPI staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric DNA probes were used to examine for the first time the karyotypes of lesser gymnures of group Hylomyssuillus Müller, 1840 from northern and southern Vietnam...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ivanny Coelho da Fonseca, Luan Aércio Melo Maciel, Frank Raynner Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro Rodrigues
The genus Pimelodus LaCépède, 1803 comprises 35 formally recognized species distributed along the major neotropical river basins. Despite conservatism in diploid number with 2n=56, an intense variation of chromosomal morphology (karyotypic formula) has been documented in Pimelodus species. In the present study, we analyzed karyotypes of 20 specimens, identified as Pimelodusblochii Valenciennes, 1840 and collected from the lower courses of the Tapajós, Amazonas and Trombetas Rivers. The karyotypes were characterized by Giemsa conventional staining, C-banding, silver staining (Ag-NOR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Mukhamed Kh Karmokov
The study presents data on the karyotype characteristics and features of chromosomal polymorphism of Chironomus "annularius" sensu Strenzke (1959) (Diptera, Chironomidae) from three populations of the Caucasus region (South and Central Caucasus, and Eastern Ciscaucasia). We found 17 banding sequences in the Caucasian populations. We observed inversion polymorphism in almost all chromosome arms except for arm G. The genetic distances between all the studied populations of Ch. "annularius" were calculated using Nei criteria (1972)...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Mingjun Cheng, Yanli Zhao, Xiaodong Wen, Ping Zhang, Lei Zhang, Asif Ali, Tingzhao Rong, Qi Lin Tang
This study was aimed to investigate the stability of chromosomes during meiosis in autopolyploid and allopolyploid maize, as well as to determine an association of chromosomes between maize (Zea mays ssp. mays Linnaeus, 1753) and Z. perennis (Hitchcock, 1922) Reeves & Mangelsdor, 1942, by producing a series of autopolyploid and allopolyploid maize hybrids. The intra-genomic and inter-genomic meiotic pairings in these polyploids were quantified and compared using dual-color genomic in-situ hybridization...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Alexandra Avelar Silva, Lucas Soares Braga, Alberto Soares Corrêa, Valerie Renee Holmes, John Spencer Johnston, Brenda Oppert, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes, Mara Garcia Tavares
Cytogenetic characteristics and genome size are powerful tools for species characterization and identification of cryptic species, providing critical insights into phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. Sitophilus Linnaeus, 1758 grain weevils can benefit from such tools as key pest species of stored products and also as sources of archeological information on human history and past urban environments. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationship among these weevil species remains controversial and is largely based on single DNA fragment analyses...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Veronika V Golygina, Iya I Kiknadze
A revision of mapping of main and alternative banding sequences in chromosome III (EF) has been made for 14 species of the Chironomus plumosus group. In total, new versions of mapping are presented for 18 banding sequences of arm E and 18 banding sequences of arm F. A new way of tracing the origins of banding sequences in chromosome III of the Ch. plumosus group in comparison with basic banding sequences of the genus Chironomus is suggested. The presented data indicate that h'pluE2 in arm E and p'borF2 in arm F are the closest to banding sequences of Ch...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Siham Ouchia-Benissad, Kafia Ladjali-Mohammedi
The development of avian cytogenetics is significantly behind that of mammals. In fact, since the advent of cytogenetic techniques, fewer than 1500 karyotypes have been established. The Barbary partridge Alectoris barbara Bonnaterre, 1790 is a bird of economic interest but its genome has not been studied so far. This species is endemic to North Africa and globally declining. The Chukar partridge Alectoris chukar Gray, 1830 is an introduced species which shares the same habitat area as the Barbary partridge and so there could be introgressive hybridisation...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Tiago Marafiga Degrandi, Jean Carlo Pedroso de Oliveira, Amanda de Araújo Soares, Mario Angel Ledesma, Iris Hass, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Ricardo José Gunski
Kingfishers comprise about 115 species of the family Alcedinidae, and are an interesting group for cytogenetic studies, for they are among birds with most heterogeneous karyotypes. However, cytogenetics knowledge in Kingfishers is extremely limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the karyotype structure of the Ringed Kingfisher ( Megaceryle torquata Linnaeus, 1766) and Green Kingfisher ( Chloroceryle americana Gmelin, 1788) and also compare them with related species in order to identify chromosomal rearrangements...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Clóvis C Motta-Neto, André Marques, Gideão W W F Costa, Marcelo B Cioffi, Luiz A C Bertollo, Rodrigo X Soares, Kátia C Scortecci, Roberto F Artoni, Wagner F Molina
Representatives of the order Labriformes show karyotypes of extreme conservatism together with others with high chromosomal diversification. However, the cytological characterization of epigenetic modifications remains unknown for the majority of the species. In the family Labridae, the most abundant fishes on tropical reefs, the genomes of the genus Bodianus Bloch, 1790 have been characterized by the occurrence of a peculiar chromosomal region, here denominated BOD. This region is exceptionally decondensed, heterochromatic, argentophilic, GC-neutral and, in contrast to classical secondary constrictions, shows no signals of hybridization with 18S rDNA probes...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Eliza F de M B do Nascimento, Bruna V Dos Santos, Lara O C Marques, Patricia M Guimarães, Ana C M Brasileiro, Soraya C M Leal-Bertioli, David J Bertioli, Ana C G Araujo
Peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753) is an allotetraploid cultivated plant with two subgenomes derived from the hybridization between two diploid wild species, A. duranensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994) and A. ipaensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994), followed by spontaneous chromosomal duplication. To understand genome changes following polyploidy, the chromosomes of A. hypogaea , IpaDur1, an induced allotetraploid ( A. ipaensis × A. duranensis )4x and the diploid progenitor species were cytogenetically compared...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Rafael Kretschmer, Vanusa Lilian Camargo de Lima, Marcelo Santos de Souza, Alice Lemos Costa, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Ricardo José Gunski, Analía Del Valle Garnero
In this work we performed comparative chromosome painting using probes from Gallus gallus (GGA) Linnaeus, 1758 and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL) Latham, 1790 in Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, 1859 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae), an exclusively Neotropical species, in order to analyze whether the complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) proposed for Oscines and Suboscines is shared with more basal species. S. frontalis has 82 chromosomes, similar to most Avian species, with a large number of microchromosomes and a few pairs of macrochromosomes...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Liping Hu, Liming Jiang, Ke Bi, Huan Liao, Zujing Yang, Xiaoting Huang, Zhenmin Bao
Mitotic chromosome preparations of the interspecific hybrids Chlamys farreri (Jones & Preston, 1904) × Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857), C. farreri × Argopecten irradians (Lamarck, 1819) and C. farreri × Mimachlamys nobilis (Reeve, 1852) were used to compare two different scallop genomes in a single slide. Although genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using genomic DNA from each scallop species as probe painted mitotic chromosomes of the interspecific hybrids, the painting results were not uniform; instead it showed species-specific distribution patterns of fluorescent signals among the chromosomes...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Carina Gutiérrez-Flores, José L León-de la Luz, Francisco J García-De León, J Hugo Cota-Sánchez
Polyploidy, the possession of more than two sets of chromosomes, is a major biological process affecting plant evolution and diversification. In the Cactaceae, genome doubling has also been associated with reproductive isolation, changes in breeding systems, colonization ability, and speciation. Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson, 1885) Britton & Rose, 1909, is a columnar cactus that has long drawn the attention of ecologists, geneticists, and systematists due to its wide distribution range and remarkable assortment of breeding systems in the Mexican Sonoran Desert and the Baja California Peninsula (BCP)...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
František Šťáhlavský, Vera Opatova, Pavel Just, Leon N Lotz, Charles R Haddad
The knowledge of cytogenetics in the harvestmen family Phalangiidae has been based on taxa from the Northern Hemisphere. We performed cytogenetic analysis on Guruia africana (Karsch, 1878) (2n=24) and four species of the genus Rhampsinitus Simon, 1879 (2n=24, 26, 34) from South Africa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe was used to analyze the number and the distribution of this cluster in the family Phalangiidae for the first time. The results support the cytogenetic characteristics typical for the majority of harvestmen taxa, i...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Sofia Mazzoleni, Michail Rovatsos, Odessa Schillaci, Francesca Dumas
We explored the topology of 18S and 28S rDNA units by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the karyotypes of thirteen species representatives from major groups of Primates and Tupaia minor (Günther, 1876) (Scandentia), in order to expand our knowledge of Primate genome reshuffling and to identify the possible dispersion mechanisms of rDNA sequences. We documented that rDNA probe signals were identified on one to six pairs of chromosomes, both acrocentric and metacentric ones. In addition, we examined the potential homology of chromosomes bearing rDNA genes across different species and in a wide phylogenetic perspective, based on the DAPI-inverted pattern and their synteny to human...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Tássia Tatiane Pontes Pereira, Ana Caroline Coelho Corrêa Dos Reis, Danon Clemes Cardoso, Maykon Passos Cristiano
Chromosome counts and karyotype characterization have proved to be important features of a genome. Chromosome changes during the diversification of ants might play an important role, given the diversity and success of Formicidae. Comparative karyotype analyses on ants have enriched and helped ant systematics. Among leafcutter ants, two major chromosome counts have been described, one frequent in Atta Fabricius, 1804 (2n = 22 in all Atta spp. whose karyotype is known) and the other frequent in Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (2n = 38 in the majority of species whose karyotype is known)...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Karina de Oliveira Brandão, Dinaíza Abadia Rocha-Reis, Caroline Garcia, Rubens Pazza, Lurdes Foresti de Almeida-Toledo, Karine Frehner Kavalco
Several cytogenetic markers show chromosomal diversity in the fish such as "armoured catfish". Although studies have characterized many species in the major genera representing these Siluridae, particularly in the genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, trends in chromosome evolution of this group remain unclear. The Paraíba do Sul river basin contains the armoured catfish Hypostomus affinis Steindachner, 1877, which is unique because of its distribution of repetitive DNAs, the 5S and 18S rDNA. Identified samples and registered collections in Brazilian museums were identified as the same typological species, while we observed wide variations in the physical location of this gene in the karyotype based on fluorescent in situ hybridization results...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
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