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Comparative Cytogenetics

André Luís Laforga Vanzela, Adriano Alves de Paula, Carolina Cristina Quintas, Thiago Fernandes, Joana Neres da Cruz Baldissera, Thaíssa Boldieri de Souza
Species of Cestrum (Linnaeus, 1753) have shown large diversity in the accumulation and distribution of repetitive DNA families, and B chromosomes have been described in seven species. Some types of repetitive DNA were identified in A and B chromosomes in species of this plant group, such as AT-rich SSR, 35S and 5S rDNA, C-Giemsa and C-CMA/DAPI bands and retrotransposons. To increase our understanding of the relationships of A and B chromosomes, the B of C. strigilatum Ruiz & Pavón, 1799 was microdissected, amplified and hybridized in situ against chromosomes of this species, and in six other species of this genus...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Sergey N Matveevsky, Svetlana V Pavlova, Maret M Atsaeva, Jeremy B Searle, Oxana L Kolomiets
Here we focus on the XY1Y2 condition in male common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, applying electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry for a comprehensive analysis of structure, synapsis and behaviour of the sex trivalent in pachytene spermatocytes. The pachytene sex trivalent consists of three distinct parts: short and long synaptic SC fragments (between the X and Y1 and between the X and Y2, respectively) and a long asynaptic region of the X in-between. Chromatin inactivation was revealed in the XY1 synaptic region, the asynaptic region of the X and a very small asynaptic part of the Y2...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Carlos Eduardo Faresin E Silva, Rodrigo Amaral de Andrade, Érica Martinha Silva de Souza, Eduardo Schmidt Eler, Maria Nazareth Ferreira da Silva, Eliana Feldberg
We investigated the karyotype of 18 didelphid species captured at 13 localities in the Brazilian Amazon, after conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the 18S rDNA probe. Variations were found in the X chromosome, heterochromatin distribution and the 18S rDNA sequence. The main variation observed was in the position of the centromere in the X chromosome of Caluromys philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosa murina Linnaeus, 1758. For both species, the X chromosome showed a geographical segregation in the pattern of variation between eastern and western Brazil, with a possible contact area in the central Amazon...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Judith Mary Lamo, Satyawada Rama Rao
In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753) which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800) and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Luiz Antônio Carlos Bertollo, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Pedro Manoel Galetti Jr, Orlando Moreira Filho
Brazilian fish cytogenetics started as early as the seventies in three pioneering research groups, located at the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Botucatu, SP), Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar, São Carlos, SP) and Universidade de São Paulo (USP, São Paulo, SP). Investigations that have been conducted in these groups led to the discovery of a huge chromosomal and genomic biodiversity among Neotropical fishes. Besides, they also provided the expansion of this research area, with the genesis of several other South American research groups, in view of a number of dissertations and doctoral theses developed over years...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ilya Gavrilov-Zimin
Jansenus burgeri Foldi, 1997 (Margarodidae s.l., Xylococcinae, Kuwaniini) was studied cytogenetically for the first time. It was shown that the species reproduces bisexually, displays XX/X(0) sex chromosome system and 2n=6/5 (female/male) including two pairs of long autosomes and a pair of shorter X-chromosomes in female. The chromosome complement, adult female morphology and the life cycle of J. burgeri are illustrated. The cytogenetic data are in fact the first ones for Kuwaniini scale insects, because Kuwania oligostigma De Lotto, 1959 briefly cytogenetically studied by Hughes-Schrader (1963), in my opinion, may be excluded from the genus Kuwania Cockerell, 1903 and the tribe Kuwaniini, since this species shows aberrant morphological characters, specifically the total absence of abdominal spiracles and the presence of tubular ducts...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Matheus Pires Rincão, João Lucas Chavari, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Ana Lúcia Dias
The present study aimed to cytogenetically analyse five Ctenidae species Ctenus ornatus (Keyserling, 1877), Ctenus medius (Keyserling, 1891), Phoneutria nigriventer (Keyserling, 1891), Viracucha andicola (Simon, 1906), and Enoploctenus cyclothorax (Philip Bertkau, 1880), from Brazil. All species presented a 2n♂ = 28 except for V. andicola, which showed 2n♂ = 29. Analysis of segregation and behavior of sex chromosomes during male meiosis showed a sex chromosome system of the type X1X20 in species with 28 chromosomes and X1X2X30 in V...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Érica Martinha Silva de Souza, Maria Claudia Gross, Carlos Eduardo Faresin E Silva, Cibele Gomes Sotero-Caio, Eliana Feldberg
Species in the subgenus Artibeus Leach, 1821 are widely distributed in Brazil. Conserved karyotypes characterize the group with identical diploid number and chromosome morphology. Recent studies suggested that the heterochromatin distribution and accumulation patterns can vary among species. In order to assess whether variation can also occur within species, we have analyzed the chromosomal distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in A. planirostris (Spix, 1823) and A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818) from Central Amazon (North Brazil) and contrasted our findings with those reported for other localities in Brazil...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Olesya G Buleu, Ilyas Y Jetybayev, Alexander G Bugrov
The karyotypes of three species of Pyrgomorphidae grasshoppers were studied: Zonocerus elegans (Thunberg, 1815), Pyrgomorpha guentheri (Burr, 1899) and Atractomorpha lata (Mochulsky, 1866). Data on karyotypes of P. guentheri and Z. elegans are reported here for the first time. All species have karyotypes consisting of 19 acrocentric chromosomes in males and 20 acrocentric chromosomes in females (2n♂=19, NF=19; 2n♀=20, NF=20) and X0/XX sex determination system. A comparative analysis of the localization of C-heterochromatin, clusters of ribosomal DNA, and telomere repeats revealed inter-species diversity in these cytogenetic markers...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Chao-Wen She, Lin Wei, Xiang-Hui Jiang
The two cultivated Canavalia (Adanson, 1763) species, Canavalia gladiata (N. J. von Jacquin, 1788) A. P. de Candolle, 1825 and Canavalia ensiformis (Linnaeus, 1753) A. P. de Candolle, 1825 are closely related based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic data. However, the similarities and differences in genome organization between them have not been evaluated at molecular cytogenetic level. Here, detailed karyotypes of both species were constructed using combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining, rDNA-FISH and self-genomic in situ hybridization (sGISH)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Iwan E Molgo, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
Determining the distribution of cytotypes across the geographic distribution of polyploid complexes can provide valuable information about the evolution of biodiversity. Here, the phytogeography of cytotypes in section Cuthbertia (Small, 1903) Hunt, 1986 is investigated. A total of 436 voucher specimens was georeferenced; 133 new specimens were collected. Based on flow cytometry data, DNA content of all cytotypes in section Cuthbertia was estimated. Utilizing chromosome counts and flow cytometric analysis, cytotype distribution maps were generated...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Robert B Angus, Constance Jeangirard, Desislava Stoianova, Snejana Grozeva, Valentina G Kuznetsova
An account is given of the karyotypes and male meiosis of the Water Scorpion Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and the Water Stick Insect Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Nepomorpha, Nepidae). A number of different approaches and techniques were tried: the employment of both male and female gonads and mid-guts as the sources of chromosomes, squash and air-drying methods for chromosome preparations, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome study. We found that N. cinerea had a karyotype comprising 14 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system, which is X1X2X3X4Y (♂) / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀), whereas R...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ricardo José Gunski, Andrés Delgado Cañedo, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Mario Angel Ledesma, Nestor Coria, Diego Montalti, Tiago Marafiga Degrandi
Penguins are classified in the order Sphenisciformes into a single family, Spheniscidae. The genus Pygoscelis Wagler, 1832, is composed of three species, Pygoscelis antarcticus Forster, 1781, P. papua Forster, 1781 and P. adeliae Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841. In this work, the objective was to describe and to compare the karyotypes of Pygoscelis penguins contributing genetic information to Sphenisciformes. The metaphases were obtained by lymphocyte culture, and the diploid number and the C-banding pattern were determined...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Fang He, Yuhai Wang, Yinguang Bao, Yingxue Ma, Xin Wang, Xingfeng Li, Honggang Wang
A combination of meiotic pairing analysis and in situ hybridization (genomic in situ hybridization [GISH], multicolor GISH [mcGISH] and fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]) of five Triticum aestivum (Linnaeus, 1753) - Elytrigia elongata (Podpěra, 1902) (2n = 10x = 70) amphiploids was employed to investigate the genomic constitution and relationships between wheat and alien chromosomes. GISH, multicolor GISH and FISH patterns of mitotic chromosomes indicate that the genomic constitution of the five partial amphiploids (XY693, XY7430, SN19, SN20 and SN122) are 14A + 12B + 14D + 8Js + 8J, 12A + 16B + 14D + 2St + 8Js + 2J + 2 W-E, 14A + 14B + 14D + 4St + 8Js, 14A + 14B + 14D + 2St + 10Js + 2J, and 14A + 14B + 14D + 2St + 8Js + 4J, respectively...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Yan Zhao, Jihong Xie, Quanwen Dou, Junjie Wang, Zhong Zhang
The genomes of five Agropyron Gaertner, 1770 species were characterized using all potential di- or trinucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs and four satellite DNA repeats as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. The sites of 5S and 45S rDNA were relatively conserved among the diploid and tetraploid species. A number of sites for the dinucleotide SSRs AC, AG, and pSc119.2 was detected in all investigated species except A. mongolicum Keng, 1938. Several different trinucleotide SSRs were identified in different tetraploid species...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Jin-Hai Wang, Xiao-Dong Zheng
Karyotype analysis was carried out on gill cells of three species of octopods using a conventional air-drying method. The karyotype results showed that all the three species have the same diploid chromosome number, 2n=60, but with different karyograms as 2n=38M+6SM+8ST+8T, FN (fundamental number)=104 (Cistopus chinensis Zheng et al., 2012), 2n=42M+6SM+4ST+8T, FN=108 (Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920)) and 2n=32M+16SM+12T, FN=108 (Amphioctopus fangsiao (d'Orbigny, 1839-1841)). These findings were combined with data from earlier studies to infer the genetic relationships between nine species via cluster analysis using the karyotype evolutionary distance (De ) and resemblance-near coefficient (λ)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Cristian Araya-Jaime, Natalia Lam, Irma Vila Pinto, Marco A Méndez, Patricia Iturra
Orestias Valenciennes, 1839 is a genus of freshwater fish endemic to the South American Altiplano. Cytogenetic studies of these species have focused on conventional karyotyping. The aim of this study was to use classical and molecular cytogenetic methods to identify the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and chromosome organization of four classes of repetitive DNA sequences (histone H3 DNA, U2 snRNA, 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA) in the chromosomes of O. ascotanensis Parenti, 1984, an endemic species restricted to the Salar de Ascotán in the Chilean Altiplano...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Aorarat Suntronpong, Watcharaporn Thapana, Panupon Twilprawat, Ornjira Prakhongcheep, Suthasinee Somyong, Narongrit Muangmai, Surin Peyachoknagul, Kornsorn Srikulnath
Among teleost fishes, Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew, 1793) possesses the lowest chromosome number, 2n = 24. To characterize the chromosome constitution and investigate the genome organization of repetitive sequences in M. albus, karyotyping and chromosome mapping were performed with the 18S - 28S rRNA gene, telomeric repeats, microsatellite repeat motifs, and Rex retroelements. The 18S - 28S rRNA genes were observed to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4 at the same position with large propidium iodide and C-positive bands, suggesting that the molecular structure of the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 4 has evolved in a concerted manner with amplification of the 18S - 28S rRNA genes...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Andrei V Polyakov, Viktor V Panov
Despite many studies, the impact of chromosome rearrangements on gene flow between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758) remains unclear. Interracial hybrids form meiotic chromosome complexes that are associated with reduced fertility. Nevertheless comprehensive investigations of autosomal and mitochondrial markers revealed weak or no barrier to gene flow between chromosomally divergent populations. In a narrow zone of contact between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races hybrids are produced with extraordinarily complex configurations at meiosis I...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Yuling Liu, Zhen Liu, Renhai Peng, Yuhong Wang, Zhongli Zhou, Xiaoyan Cai, Xingxing Wang, Zhenmei Zhang, Kunbo Wang, Fang Liu
Cytogenetic maps of Gossypium hirsutum (Linnaeus, 1753) homoeologous chromosomes Ah01 and Dh01 were constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using eleven homoeologous-chromosomes-shared bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) clones and one chromosome-specific BAC clone respectively. We compared the cytogenetic maps with the genetic linkage and draft genome assembly maps based on a standardized map unit, relative map position (RMP), which allowed a global view of the relationship of genetic and physical distances along each chromosome, and assembly quality of the draft genome assembly map...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
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