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Comparative Cytogenetics

María M Sosa, María B Angulo, Julián A Greppi, Verónica Bugallo
Cytogenetic characterization and determination of DNA content by flow cytometry of five species of Mecardonia Ruiz et Pavon, 1798 (Gratiolae, Plantaginaceae) was performed. This is the first study of nuclear DNA content carried out in the genus. Mitotic analysis revealed a base chromosome number x = 11 for all entities and different ploidy levels, ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 22) to hexaploid (2n = 6x = 66). The results include the first report of the chromosome numbers for Mecardonia flagellaris (Chamisso & Schlechtendal, 1827) (2n = 22), Mecardonia grandiflora (Bentham) Pennell, 1946 (2n = 22), Mecardonia kamogawae Greppi & Hagiwara, 2011 (2n = 66), and Mecardonia sp...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Lívia S R Teixeira, Karin Regina Seger, Cíntia Pelegrineti Targueta, Victor G Dill Orrico, Luciana Bolsoni Lourenço
The diploid number 2n = 30 is a presumed synapomorphy of Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843, although a noticeable variation in the number of biarmed/telocentric chromosomes is observed in this genus. Such a variation suggests that several chromosomal rearrangements took place after the evolutionary origin of the hypothetical ancestral 30-chromosome karyotype; however, the inferred rearrangements remain unknown. Distinct numbers of telocentric chromosomes are found in the two most cytogenetically studied species groups of Dendropsophus...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
David Sadílek, Robert B Angus, František Šťáhlavský, Jitka Vilímová
In the article we summarize the most common recent cytogenetic methods used in analysis of karyotypes in Heteroptera. We seek to show the pros and cons of the spreading method compared with the traditional squashing method. We discuss the suitability of gonad, midgut and embryo tissue in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 chromosome research and production of figures of whole mitosis and meiosis, using the spreading method. The hotplate spreading technique has many advantages in comparison with the squashing technique...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Angélica Nunes Tiepo, Larissa Forim Pezenti, Thayná Bisson Ferraz Lopes, Carlos Roberto Maximiano da Silva, Jaqueline Fernanda Dionisio, José Antônio Marin Fernandes, Renata Da Rosa
The subfamily Harpactorinae is composed of six tribes. Phylogenetic studies bring together some of Harpactorinae tribes, but by and large the data on evolutionary relationships of the subfamily are scarce. Chromosome studies are of great importance for understanding the systematics of different groups of insects. For Harpactorinae, these studies are restricted to some subfamilies and involved only conventional chromosome analysis. This work analyzed cytogenetically Ricolla quadrispinosa (Linneus, 1767). The chromosome number was determined as 2n = 24 + X1X2Y in males...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Elena A Pazhenkova, Vladimir A Lukhtanov
It is generally accepted that cases of species' polyphyly in COI trees arising as a result of deep intraspecific divergence are negligible, and the detected cases reflect misidentifications or/and methodological errors. Here we studied the problem of species' non-monophyly through chromosomal and molecular analysis of butterfly taxa close to Melitaea didyma (Esper, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). We found absence or low interspecific chromosome number variation and presence of intraspecific variation, therefore we conclude that in this group, chromosome numbers have relatively low value as taxonomic markers...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Sofia Samaropoulou, Pepy Bareka, Georgia Kamari
Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae) is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and Fritillaria montana are statistically evaluated for the first time...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Vladimir A Lukhtanov, Elena A Pazhenkova, Asya V Novikova
The blue pansy Junonia orithya Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) is widely distributed along the tropical areas of Africa, Asia and Australia. It is also known as a migrant species in the Levant. Here we record Junonia orithya in south Israel and provide a DNA-barcode-based evidence for its Asian (non-African) origin.
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Karla C B Santana, Diego S B Pinangé, Santelmo Vasconcelos, Ana R Oliveira, Ana C Brasileiro-Vidal, Marccus V Alves, Ana M Benko-Iseppon
Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3)...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Valentina G Kuznetsova, Gadzhimurad N Khabiev, Boris A Anokhin
Myrmeleontidae, commonly known as "antlions", are the most diverse family of the insect order Neuroptera, with over 1700 described species (in 191 genera) of which 37 species (in 21 genera) have so far been studied in respect to standard karyotypes. In the present paper we provide first data on the occurrence of the "insect-type" telomeric repeat (TTAGG) n and location of 18S rDNA clusters in the antlion karyotypes studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We show that males of Palpares libelluloides (Linnaeus, 1764) (Palparinae), Acanthaclisis occitanica (Villers, 1789) (Acanthaclisinae) and Distoleon tetragrammicus (Fabricius, 1798) (Nemoleontinae) have rDNA clusters on a large bivalent, two last species having an additional rDNA cluster on one of the sex chromosomes, most probably the X...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Pansa Monkheang, Arunrat Chaveerach, Runglawan Sudmoon, Tawatchai Tanee
Scadoxus multiflorus Martyn, 1795 is an ornamental plant with brilliantly colored flowers. Even though its chromosomes are rather large, there is no karyotype description reported so far. Therefore, conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA, and human telomere sequence (TTAGGG)n probes (Arabidopsis-type telomere probes yielded negative results) were carried out. The chromosome number is as reported previously, 2n = 18. The nine chromosome pairs include two large submetacentric, five large acrocentric, one medium acrocentric, two small metacentric and eight small submetacentric chromosomes...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ana Camila Prizon, Luciana Andreia Borin-Carvalho, Daniel Pacheco Bruschi, Marcos Otávio Ribeiro, Ligia Magrinelli Barbosa, Greicy Ellen de Brito Ferreira, Andréa Cius, Claudio Henrique Zawadzki, Ana Luiza de Brito Portela-Castro
Ancistrus Kner, 1854 is a diverse catfish genus, currently comprising 66 valid species, but karyotype data were recorded for 33 species, although only ten have their taxonomic status defined. Considerable karyotype diversity has been found within this genus, with 2n varying from 34 to 54 and structural variability including heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In many cases, uncertainty on the taxonomic status of the study populations hampers reliable interpretation of the complex chromosomal evolutionary history of the group...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Mauro Nirchio Tursellino, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade Silva, César Quezada Abad, Wilmer Arnoldo Moreira Blacio, Omar Rogerio Sánchez Romero, Claudio Oliveira
We used conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, Ag-NOR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes to investigate the karyotype and cytogenetic characteristics of Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther, 1860) from Ecuador. The specimens studied have a karyotype with 2n=54 biarmed chromosomes (32 M + 22 SM) and C-positive heterochromatin located on the centromeric, pericentromeric, interstitial, and terminal regions of some chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer regions occurred terminally on the long arm of chromosome pair 2...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Rafael Henrique da Rocha, Lucas Baumgärtner, Leonardo Marcel Paiz, Vladimir Pavan Margarido, Carlos Alexandre Fernandes, Éder André Gubiani
Corydoras Lacepède, 1803 is the most specious genus of Corydoradinae subfamily and many of its species are still unknown in relation to molecular cytogenetic markers. However, the diploid number and karyotypic formula were recorded for many species of this group. In current study, we provided the first cytogenetic information of Corydoras carlae Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1983, an endemic fish species from Iguassu River basin, Paraná State, Brazil. The individuals were collected in Florido River, a tributary of Iguassu River and analysed with respect to diploid number, heterochromatin distribution pattern, Ag-NORs and mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ilya A Gavrilov-Zimin
A new monotypic genus and species, Komodesia circuliplurimagen. et sp. n., from Flores Is. (Indonesia) and the new species, Antonina diversiglandulosasp. n., from Southern Thailand are described and illustrated. Chromosomes of these species and also the ones of Antonina purpurea Signoret, 1872 and Antonina thaiensis Takahashi, 1942 are studied for the first time: 2n = 30, 20, 12 and 22+Bs correspondingly; the male embryos of all four species demonstrate Lecanoid paternal heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Mukhamed Kh Karmokov, Azamat Y Akkizov
Data on the karyotype characteristics, larval morphology and features of chromosomal polymorphism of a population of Glyptotendipes salinus Michailova, 1983 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tambukan Lake (on the northern macroslope of the central Caucasus) are presented. It was found that diagnostic larval characters of Glyptotendipes salinus from Caucasus in general are similar to those described in previous studies, but with some significant differences. By some morphological characteristics Caucasian larvae appeared to be closer to Glyptotendipes barbipes than to ones provided for European larvae of Glyptotendipes salinus by Contreras-Lichtenberg (1999)...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Karlla Danielle Jorge Amorim, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Rodrigo Xavier Soares, Allyson Santos de Souza, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix da Costa, Wagner Franco Molina
Wrasses (Labridae) are extremely diversified marine fishes, whose species exhibit complex interactions with the reef environment. They are widely distributed in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Their species have displayed a number of karyotypic divergent processes, including chromosomal regions with complex structural organization. Current cytogenetic information for this family is phylogenetically and geographically limited and mainly based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, the distribution patterns of heterochromatin, GC-specific chromosome regions and Ag-NORs, and the organization of 18S and 5S rDNA sites of the Atlantic species Thalassoma noronhanum (Boulenger, 1890), Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner, 1867), Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791) and Halichoeres penrosei Starks, 1913, belonging to the tribe Julidini were analyzed...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ilya V Kirov, Katrijn Van Laere, Nadine Van Roy, Ludmila I Khrustaleva
The genus Rosa Linnaeus, 1753 has important economic value in ornamental sector and many breeding activities are going on supported by molecular studies. However, the cytogenetic studies of rose species are scarce and mainly focused on chromosome counting and chromosome morphology-based karyotyping. Due to the small size of the chromosomes and a high frequency of polyploidy in the genus, karyotyping is very challenging for rose species and requires FISH-based cytogenetic markers to be applied. Therefore, in this work the aim is to establish a FISH-based karyotype for Rosa wichurana (Crépin, 1888), a rose species with several benefits for advanced molecular cytogenetic studies of genus Rosa (Kirov et al...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Zujing Yang, Xuan Li, Huan Liao, Liping Hu, Zhengrui Zhang, Bosong Zhao, Xiaoting Huang, Zhenmin Bao
The innate immune system plays a pivotal role in defending invasion of microorganisms for scallops. Previous studies on immune-related genes in the Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) have mainly focused on characterization and expression pattern in response to bacterial challenge, no research has been carried out on the cytogenetic level yet. In the present study, eight fosmid clones containing the sequences of key immune-related genes (PyNFkB, PyTRAF2, PyTRAF4, PyTRAF7, PyMyd88-1, PyMyd88-3, PyMKK-7 and PyTNFR) were isolated and seven of them were successfully mapped on chromosomes of Patinopecten yessoensis utilizing fluorescence in situ hybridization...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Natalia V Golub, Viktor B Golub, Valentina G Kuznetsova
As of now, within the lace bug family Tingidae (Cimicomorpha), only 1.5% of the species described have been cytogenetically studied. In this paper, male karyotypes of Stephanitis caucasica, Stephanitis pyri, Physatocheila confinis, Lasiacantha capucina, Dictyla rotundata and Dictyla echii were studied using FISH mapping with an 18S rDNA marker. The results show variability: the major rDNA sites are predominantly located on a pair of autosomes but occasionally on the X and Y chromosomes. All currently available data on the distribution of the major rDNA in the Tingidae karyotypes are summarized and shortly discussed...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Marco Antônio A Peixoto, Marina P C Oliveira, Renato N Feio, Jorge A Dergam
To increase the number of cytogenetic characters used in Ololygon tripui systematics, we applied some cytogenetic techniques such as Giemsa, C- and NOR-banding, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and repetitive microsatellite DNA probes to the study of four populations from Minas Gerais State (southeastern Brazil). All populations showed 2n = 24 and FN = 48, and chromosomal formula 8m + 10sm + 6st. Nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) were located on chromosome pair 6 in all populations, although in the Tripuí locality additional markings were observed on one homologue of chromosome pair 3...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
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