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International Journal of Stem Cells

Fariba Chalajour, Arpi Siyahian, Frank L Hanley
Background and Objective: The potency of tissue resident stem cells is regulated primarily by inputs from the local microenvironment. Isolation of stem cells through enzymatic digestion of tissue may affect epigenetic regulation of cell fate and performance. Here we employ a non-enzymatic method to harvest and investigate tissue resident stem cells from the adult porcine pulmonary valve. Methods and Results: The presence of c-Kit⁺ stem cells within the valve tissue was confirmed by immunohistochemistry...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Sanjay Gottipamula, K N Sridhar
Background and Objectives: The human Amniotic epithelial cells (AME) derived from amniotic membrane of placenta have been considered as the potential fetal stem cell source with minimal or no ethical concerns and are important therapeutic tool for anti-fibrotic and regenerative therapies. Methods and Results: Here, we evaluated the isolation, media screening, scale-up and characterization of AME cells. The isolation, expansion of AMEs were performed by sequential passaging and growth kinetics studies...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Hung Pham, Richard Tonai, Miya Wu, Chiara Birtolo, Monica Chen
Background and Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing, non-specialized cells used clinically in tissue regeneration and sourced from bone marrow, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood and umbilical cord tissue (UCT). To demonstrate an alternative method for MSC detection, cryopreserved UCT and expanded MSC were screened for MSC markers CD73, CD90, CD105 and CDH-11 by RT-PCR. Methods and Results: Human UCT were washed, sectioned, cryopreserved with 10% DMSO and stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Jeong Su Ok, Seon Beom Song, Eun Seong Hwang
Background and Objectives: Therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) generally require substantial expansion of cell populations. However, the replicative life span of MSCs is limited and their multipotency declines over continued passages, imposing a limitation on their application especially in aged individuals. In an effort to increase MSC life span, we tested the effects of nicotinamide (NAM), a precursor of NAD⁺ that has been shown to reduce reactive oxygen species generation and delay the onset of replicative senescence in fibroblasts...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Changhee Kang, C-Yoon Kim, Hyuk Soon Kim, Se-Pill Park, Hyung-Min Chung
All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a highly effective treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a cytogenetically distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, ATRA-based treatment is not effective in other subtypes of AML. In non-APL AML, ATRA signaling pathway is impaired or downmodulated, and consequently fails to respond to pharmacological doses of ATRA. Therefore, complementary treatment strategies are needed to improve ATRA responsiveness in non-APL AML. In this study, we investigated the combined effect of ATRA and bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, proven to have potent anti-cancer activity mainly through inhibition of c-Myc...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Sibel Çağlar Okur, Sinan Erdoğan, Cansu Subaşı Demir, Gülşen Günel, Erdal Karaöz
Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability reason of childhood that occurs secondarily to non-progressive damage in the brain whose development is still ongoing. Methods: 6-year-old dystonic-spastic male CP patient received allogenic mesenchymal stem cells treatment four times as 1×10⁶/kg in intrathecal and intravenous administration of Umbilical Cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) ways. Before and after the treatment, the patient was followed-up with FIM (Functional Independent Measurement), GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System 88), Tardieu Scale, TCMS (Trunk Control Measurement Scale), MACS (Manual Ability Classification Scale), CFSS (Communication Function Classification System) for 18 months and received intensive rehabilitation...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Fernando de la Portilla, Yaiza Yuste, Sheila Pereira, Carolina Olano, Maria Victoria Maestre, Francisco Javier Padillo
Background: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in inflammatory bowel diseases because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. We investigated their local use in an experimental model of colitis in the rat. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced into 20 Wistar rats with local TNBS instillation. Allogeneic stem cells were derived from rat adipose tissue and labeled with PKH2 linker dye with creation of a control and a second group treated by a local injection into the rectal wall of 2×10⁶ allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs)...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Renee E Albers, Kaisa Selesniemi, David R C Natale, Thomas L Brown
Background: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β ) signaling has been shown to control a large number of critical cellular actions such as cell death, differentiation, and development and has been implicated as a major regulator of placental function. SM10 cells are a mouse placental progenitor cell line, which has been previously shown to differentiate into nutrient transporting, labyrinthine-like cells upon treatment with TGF- β . However, the signal transduction pathway activated by TGF- β to induce SM10 progenitor differentiation has yet to be fully investigated...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Geeta Shroff, Arpita Srivastav, Rohan Shroff
Background: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to treat various human disorders currently labeled as incurable and/or terminal illness. However, the fear that the patients' immune system would recognize them as non self and lead to an immune rejection has hampered their use. The main cause for immune rejection is usually the incompatibility of both donor and recipient's major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Methods: We describe a hESC line developed through a patented technology that does not lead to immune reaction upon transplantation...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Alex Sargent, Genevieve Shano, Molly Karl, Eric Garrison, Christian Miller, Robert H Miller
Background and Objectives: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are an attractive cell based therapy in the treatment of CNS demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Preclinical studies demonstrate that BM-MSCs can effectively reduce clinical burden and enhance recovery in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used animal model of MS. However, a number of recent clinical trials have not shown significant functional benefit following BM-MSC infusion into MS patients...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Chang-Woo Lee, Dongrim Kang, Ae-Kyeong Kim, Dong-Young Kim, Dong-Ik Kim
Hypoxic culture is widely recognized as a method to efficiently expand human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without loss of stem cell properties. However, the molecular basis of how hypoxia priming benefits MSC expansion remains unclear. We report that hypoxic priming markedly extends the cell cycle lifespan rather than augmenting the multipotency of MSC differentiation lineage. Hypoxic priming does not affect to chromosome damage but significantly attenuates the susceptibility of chromosome damage. Our results provide important evidence that multipotency of human MSCs by hypoxic priming is determined by cell cycle lifespan...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Fatemeh Nasri, Maryam-Sadat Mohtasebi, Esmaeil Hashemi, Maryam Zarrabi, Nasser Gholijani, Eskandar Kamali Sarvestani
Background and Objectives: The goal of treatment for MS is to reduce the inflammation and induce the regeneration of degenerated axons. Considering the anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs), in this study the therapeutic efficacy of allogeneic MSCs and MSCs-derived neural progenitor cells (MSCs-NPs) was investigated in cellular therapy of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods and Results: MSCs, MSCs-NPs and MSCs+MSCs-NP were administered intravenously to EAE mice on days 22, 29, and 36 post immunization...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Hun-Jun Park, Youngseung Cho, Hanter Hong, Na Jin Kim, Il-Hoan Oh
Background and Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have emerged as breakthrough treatments for myocardial infarction. However, the efficacy of MSC remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate treatment effect of MSC in terms of mechanical, regenerative, and clinical outcomes for patients with myocardial infarction (MI) using meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search and critical review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database literature published from inception through December 2017 was performed...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Nathaphon Tangjit, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Anuson Khaneungthong, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
Background and Objectives: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are a promising clinical resource for various tissue defects, including lumbar spondylosis, neural compression, and cleft palate. Use of media containing animal-derived serum carries potential risk of infectious diseases and unwanted immunogenicity. To increase the potential utility of SHED for clinical application, SHED was adapted to xeno-free conditions. Methods: Define xeno-free culture media were compared with the conventional serum containing media in the culture of SHED...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Hussein Abdellatif, Gamal Shiha
Background and Objectives: Lack of understanding of the interplay between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the immune system has severely hampered stem cell research. Programmed death-1 (PD-L1) has been reported on parenchymal cells in patients with chronically inflamed livers and found to play an essential role in T cell homeostasis regulation. However, the bidirectional interaction between HSCs and lymphocytes remains elusive. Here, we aimed to get more insight into circulating CD34+ HSCs PD-L1 expression and T cell apoptosis in chronic HCV infected patients...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Chiara Tani, Sabrina Vagnani, Linda Carli, Francesca Querci, Anja A Kühl, Simone Spieckermann, Constanze Pamela Cieluch, Simone Pacini, Rita Fazzi, Marta Mosca
Objective: Pre-clinical and uncontrolled studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) showed that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have a potential therapeutic role in refractory cases. The optimal therapeutic strategy in these patients remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of 1×106 /kg body weight of allogenic MSCs, that is a significantly lower dosage with respect to the fixed 1×106 MSC used in animal models, can be effective in improving the clinical course of a murine SLE model...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
Andreas Pfützner, Dorothee Schipper, Andreas Pansky, Claudia Kleinfeld, Barbara Roitzheim, Edda Tobiasch
Background and Objectives: In advanced β -cell dysfunction, proinsulin is increasingly replacing insulin as major component of the secretion product. It has been speculated that proinsulin has at least the same adipogenic potency than insulin, leading to an increased tendency of lipid tissue formation in patients with late stage β -cell dysfunction. Methods and Results: Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from liposuction material were grown in differentiation media containing insulin (0...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
Noha I Hussien, Nesrine Ebrahim, Ola M Mohammed, Dina Sabry
One of the new promising therapies in treatment of diabetes mellitus is mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which have an interesting therapeutic potentiality based on their paracrine effect and transdifferentiation potentiality. Also obestatin improves the generation of functional β cells/islet-like cell clusters in vitro, suggesting implications for cell-based replacement therapy in diabetes. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combination of both MSCs and obestatin on an experimental model of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
Omar S El-Tookhy, Ashraf A Shamaa, Gehan G Shehab, Ahmed N Abdallah, Omnia M Azzam
Background and Objectives: The present study investigated whether MSCs derived microvesicles (MVs) or (Exosomes) can exert therapeutic effects on an experimental model of cutaneous injury and explored the underlying involving mechanisms. Methods and Results: Three bilateral full thickness circular wounds were created on the back of two groups of dogs using 2-cm dermal punch. The wounds were at least 2.5 cm apart. Saline was subcutaneously injected in 4 places around each wound area in group-I (control), whereas an equal volume of exosomal solution of MSCs derived MVs was similarly injected in group-II...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
Zahra Khodabandeh, Zahra Vojdani, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Soghra Bahmanpour
Background: Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (HWJMSCs) isolated from medical waste product can be considered as an accessible source of cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell-derived hepatocytes have poor function and need appropriate niche to reconstruct the liver structure. Therefore, we attempted to find a novel approach in differentiating HWJMSCs into functional hepatic cells using 3D culture conditions and liver extract that recapitulates vital stage in liver development...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
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