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International Journal of Stem Cells

Hwan-Woo Park, Soonyi Oh, Kyung Hee Lee, Bae Hwan Lee, Mi-Sook Chang
Background and Objectives: Glial scarring and inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI) interfere with neural regeneration and functional recovery due to the inhibitory microenvironment of the injured spinal cord. Stem cell transplantation can improve functional recovery in experimental models of SCI, but many obstacles to clinical application remain due to concerns regarding the effectiveness and safety of stem cell transplantation for SCI patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) that were genetically modified to express Olig2 in a rat model of SCI...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Tae Won Ha, Hyun Soo Kang, Tae-Hee Kim, Ji Hyun Kwon, Hyun Kyu Kim, Aeli Ryu, Hyeji Jeon, Jaeseok Han, Hal E Broxmeyer, Yongsung Hwang, Yun Kyung Lee, Man Ryul Lee
Improved approaches for promoting umbilical cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homing are clinically important to enhance engraftment of CB-HSCs. Clinical transplantation of CB-HSCs is used to treat a wide range of disorders. However, an improved understanding of HSC chemotaxis is needed for facilitation of the engraftment process. We found that ectopic overexpression of miR-9 and antisense-miR-9 respectively down- and up-regulated C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression in CB-CD34⁺ cells as well as in 293T and TF-1 cell lines...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Changhee Kang, Jong Soo Kim, C-Yoon Kim, Eun-Young Kim, Hyung-Min Chung
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a fatal hematological malignancy which is resistant to a variety of chemotherapy drugs. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) plays a novel role in chemoresistance in some cancer cells and this pathway is a central mediator of cell survival and apoptotic regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ERK5 inhibitor, XMD8-92, on proliferation and apoptosis in AML cell lines. Findings showed that XMD8-92 inhibited the activation of ERK5 by G-CSF and decreased the expression of c-Myc and Cyclin D1...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Soo-Hwan Kim, Jieun Jung, Kyung Jin Cho, Jong-Ho Choi, Hyeong Seon Lee, Gi Jin Kim, Seung Gwan Lee
The immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important mediator of their therapeutic effects in stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine. The regulation mechanism of MSCs is orchestrated by several factors in both intrinsic and extrinsic events. Recent studies have shown that the dynamic expression of cytokines secreted from MSCs control T cell function and maturation by regulating the expression of FoxP3, which figures prominently in T cell differentiation. However, there is no evidence that placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have strong immunomodulatory effects on T cell function and maturation via FoxP3 expression...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
C-Yoon Kim, In-Kyu Hwang, Changhee Kang, Eun-Bin Chung, Cho-Rok Jung, Hanseul Oh, Young-Hoon Jeong, Sung-Hwan Moon, Jong Soo Kim, Ki-Sung Hong, Jae-Hak Park, Hyung-Min Chung
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells widely used in conventional and regenerative medicine due to their ability to self-renew, proliferate and differentiate. Recently, genetic modification of stem cells using genome editing is the most advanced technique for treating hereditary diseases. Nevertheless, the low transfection efficiency of hESCs using enzymatic methods is still limited in in vitro preclinical research. To overcome these limitations, we have developed transfection methods using non-enzymatic treatments on hESCs...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Lobna Elkhateb, Adel Zohdy, Suzi Sobhy Atalla, Manal Hassan Moussa, Ghada Galal Hamam, Fatma Abd Elkarim Abu Zahra
Bone defect occurs as a consequence of many conditions. Diseased bones don't heal properly and defects in face area need proper bone reconstruction to avoid psychological and social problems. Tissue engineering is an emerging new modality of treatment. We thought to study different methods to fill skull bone defect in rats in order to find the most safe and effective method. So, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of acellular dermal graft (ADM) versus propylene mesh both either loaded or unloaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in healing of skull bone defect of a 5 mm diameter...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Yonghee Song, Somyung Lee, Jeong-Rae Kim, Eek-Hoon Jho
Ubiquitination of proteins plays an essential role in various cellular processes, including protein degradation, DNA repair, and cell signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown that protein ubiquitination is implicated in regulating pluripotency as well as fate determination of stem cells. To identify how protein ubiquitination affects differentiation of embryonic stem cells, we analyzed microarray data, which are available in the public domain, of E3 ligases and deubiquitinases whose levels changed during stem cell differentiation...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Maha Baligh Zickri, Gihan Ibrahim Aboul-Fotouh, Abeer Ibraheem Omar, Asmaa Ahmed El-Shafei, Ahmed Mahmoud Reda
Background and Objectives: Insulin secretion entirely depends on Ca2+ influx and sequestration into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of β-cells, performed by Sarco-ER Ca2+ -ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) . In diabetes, SERCA2b is decreased in the β-cells leading to impaired intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and insulin secretion. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) play a potential role in transplantation in animal models. The present study aimed at investigating and comparing the therapeutic effect of non-transfected AMSCs and SERCA2b gene transfected AMSCs on the pancreas of induced diabetes type 1 in rat...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Fariba Chalajour, Arpi Siyahian, Frank L Hanley
Background and Objective: The potency of tissue resident stem cells is regulated primarily by inputs from the local microenvironment. Isolation of stem cells through enzymatic digestion of tissue may affect epigenetic regulation of cell fate and performance. Here we employ a non-enzymatic method to harvest and investigate tissue resident stem cells from the adult porcine pulmonary valve. Methods and Results: The presence of c-Kit⁺ stem cells within the valve tissue was confirmed by immunohistochemistry...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Sanjay Gottipamula, K N Sridhar
Background and Objectives: The human Amniotic epithelial cells (AME) derived from amniotic membrane of placenta have been considered as the potential fetal stem cell source with minimal or no ethical concerns and are important therapeutic tool for anti-fibrotic and regenerative therapies. Methods and Results: Here, we evaluated the isolation, media screening, scale-up and characterization of AME cells. The isolation, expansion of AMEs were performed by sequential passaging and growth kinetics studies...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Hung Pham, Richard Tonai, Miya Wu, Chiara Birtolo, Monica Chen
Background and Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing, non-specialized cells used clinically in tissue regeneration and sourced from bone marrow, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood and umbilical cord tissue (UCT). To demonstrate an alternative method for MSC detection, cryopreserved UCT and expanded MSC were screened for MSC markers CD73, CD90, CD105 and CDH-11 by RT-PCR. Methods and Results: Human UCT were washed, sectioned, cryopreserved with 10% DMSO and stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Jeong Su Ok, Seon Beom Song, Eun Seong Hwang
Background and Objectives: Therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) generally require substantial expansion of cell populations. However, the replicative life span of MSCs is limited and their multipotency declines over continued passages, imposing a limitation on their application especially in aged individuals. In an effort to increase MSC life span, we tested the effects of nicotinamide (NAM), a precursor of NAD⁺ that has been shown to reduce reactive oxygen species generation and delay the onset of replicative senescence in fibroblasts...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Changhee Kang, C-Yoon Kim, Hyuk Soon Kim, Se-Pill Park, Hyung-Min Chung
All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a highly effective treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a cytogenetically distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, ATRA-based treatment is not effective in other subtypes of AML. In non-APL AML, ATRA signaling pathway is impaired or downmodulated, and consequently fails to respond to pharmacological doses of ATRA. Therefore, complementary treatment strategies are needed to improve ATRA responsiveness in non-APL AML. In this study, we investigated the combined effect of ATRA and bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, proven to have potent anti-cancer activity mainly through inhibition of c-Myc...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Sibel Çağlar Okur, Sinan Erdoğan, Cansu Subaşı Demir, Gülşen Günel, Erdal Karaöz
Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability reason of childhood that occurs secondarily to non-progressive damage in the brain whose development is still ongoing. Methods: 6-year-old dystonic-spastic male CP patient received allogenic mesenchymal stem cells treatment four times as 1×10⁶/kg in intrathecal and intravenous administration of Umbilical Cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) ways. Before and after the treatment, the patient was followed-up with FIM (Functional Independent Measurement), GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System 88), Tardieu Scale, TCMS (Trunk Control Measurement Scale), MACS (Manual Ability Classification Scale), CFSS (Communication Function Classification System) for 18 months and received intensive rehabilitation...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Fernando de la Portilla, Yaiza Yuste, Sheila Pereira, Carolina Olano, Maria Victoria Maestre, Francisco Javier Padillo
Background: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in inflammatory bowel diseases because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. We investigated their local use in an experimental model of colitis in the rat. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced into 20 Wistar rats with local TNBS instillation. Allogeneic stem cells were derived from rat adipose tissue and labeled with PKH2 linker dye with creation of a control and a second group treated by a local injection into the rectal wall of 2×10⁶ allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs)...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Renee E Albers, Kaisa Selesniemi, David R C Natale, Thomas L Brown
Background: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β ) signaling has been shown to control a large number of critical cellular actions such as cell death, differentiation, and development and has been implicated as a major regulator of placental function. SM10 cells are a mouse placental progenitor cell line, which has been previously shown to differentiate into nutrient transporting, labyrinthine-like cells upon treatment with TGF- β . However, the signal transduction pathway activated by TGF- β to induce SM10 progenitor differentiation has yet to be fully investigated...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Geeta Shroff, Arpita Srivastav, Rohan Shroff
Background: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to treat various human disorders currently labeled as incurable and/or terminal illness. However, the fear that the patients' immune system would recognize them as non self and lead to an immune rejection has hampered their use. The main cause for immune rejection is usually the incompatibility of both donor and recipient's major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Methods: We describe a hESC line developed through a patented technology that does not lead to immune reaction upon transplantation...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Alex Sargent, Genevieve Shano, Molly Karl, Eric Garrison, Christian Miller, Robert H Miller
Background and Objectives: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are an attractive cell based therapy in the treatment of CNS demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Preclinical studies demonstrate that BM-MSCs can effectively reduce clinical burden and enhance recovery in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used animal model of MS. However, a number of recent clinical trials have not shown significant functional benefit following BM-MSC infusion into MS patients...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Chang-Woo Lee, Dongrim Kang, Ae-Kyeong Kim, Dong-Young Kim, Dong-Ik Kim
Hypoxic culture is widely recognized as a method to efficiently expand human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without loss of stem cell properties. However, the molecular basis of how hypoxia priming benefits MSC expansion remains unclear. We report that hypoxic priming markedly extends the cell cycle lifespan rather than augmenting the multipotency of MSC differentiation lineage. Hypoxic priming does not affect to chromosome damage but significantly attenuates the susceptibility of chromosome damage. Our results provide important evidence that multipotency of human MSCs by hypoxic priming is determined by cell cycle lifespan...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Fatemeh Nasri, Maryam-Sadat Mohtasebi, Esmaeil Hashemi, Maryam Zarrabi, Nasser Gholijani, Eskandar Kamali Sarvestani
Background and Objectives: The goal of treatment for MS is to reduce the inflammation and induce the regeneration of degenerated axons. Considering the anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs), in this study the therapeutic efficacy of allogeneic MSCs and MSCs-derived neural progenitor cells (MSCs-NPs) was investigated in cellular therapy of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods and Results: MSCs, MSCs-NPs and MSCs+MSCs-NP were administered intravenously to EAE mice on days 22, 29, and 36 post immunization...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
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