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Toxicological Research

Komariah Komariah, Wasmen Manalu, Bambang Kiranadi, Adi Winarto, Ekowati Handharyani, M Orliando Roeslan
Valproic acid (VPA) plays a role in histone modifications that eventually inhibit the activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC), and will affect the expressions of genes Pdx1, Nkx6.1, and Ngn3 during pancreatic organogenesis. This experiment was designed to study the effect of VPA exposure in pregnant rats on the activity of HDAC that controls the expression of genes regulating the development of beta cells in the pancreas to synthesize and secrete insulin. This study used 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into 4 groups, as follows: (1) a control group of pregnant rats without VPA administration, (2) pregnant rats administered with 250 mg VPA on day 10 of pregnancy, (3) pregnant rats administered with 250 mg VPA on day 13 of pregnancy, and (4) pregnant rats administered with 250 mg VPA on day 16 of pregnancy...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Chang Gyun Park, Hyun Ki Cho, Han Jae Shin, Ki Hong Park, Heung Bin Lim
Air pollution is increasing, along with consumption of fossil fuels such as coal and diesel gas. Air pollutants are known to be a major cause of respiratory-related illness and death, however, there are few reports on the genotoxic characterization of diverse air pollutants in Korea. In this study, we investigated the mutagenic activity of various particles such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), combustion of rice straw (RSC), pine stem (PSC), and coal (CC), tunnel dust (TD), and road side dust (RD). Ultra-fine particles (UFPs) were collected by the glass fiber filter pad...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Mi Young Ahn, Ban Ji Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, Jae Sam Hwang, Kun-Koo Park
Anti-diabetes activity of Catharsius molossus (Ca, a type of dung beetle) glycosaminoglycan (G) was evaluated to reduce glucose, creatinine kinase, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in db mice. Diabetic mice in six groups were administrated intraperitoneally: Db heterozygous (Normal), Db homozygous (CON), Heuchys sanguinea glycosaminoglycan (HEG, 5 mg/kg), dung beetle glycosaminoglycan (CaG, 5 mg/kg), bumblebee ( Bombus ignitus ) queen glycosaminoglycan (IQG, 5 mg/kg) and metformin (10 mg/kg), for 1 month...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Somchit Eiam-Ong, Yuyen Nakchui, Mookda Chaipipat, Somchai Eiam-Ong
It has been demonstrated that vanadate causes nephrotoxicity. Vanadate inhibits renal sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na, K-ATPase) activity and this is more pronounced in injured renal tissues. Cardiac cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is enhanced by vanadate, while increased cAMP suppresses Na, K-ATPase action in renal tubular cells. There are no in vivo data collectively demonstrating the effect of vanadate on renal cAMP levels; on the abundance of the alpha 1 isoform (α1 ) of the Na, K-ATPase protein or its cellular localization; or on renal tissue injury...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Jong-Hyun Nho, Ho-Kyung Jung, Mu-Jin Lee, Ji-Hun Jang, Mi-Ok Sim, Da-Eun Jeong, Hyun-Woo Cho, Jong-Choon Kim
Anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin and doxorubicin are effectively used more than radiotherapy. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug, used for treatment of various forms of cancer. However, it has side effects such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity increases tubular damage and renal dysfunction. Consequently, we investigated the beneficial effect of cynaroside on cisplatin-induced kidney injury using HK-2 cell (human proximal tubule cell line) and an animal model. Results indicated that 10 μM cynaroside diminished cisplatin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3 activation, cisplatin-induced upregulation of caspase-3/MST-1 pathway decreased by treatment of cynaroside in HK-2 cells...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Güneş Açikgöz, Berna Hamamci, Abdulkadir Yildiz
Alcohol consumption triggers toxic effect to organs and tissues in the human body. The risks are essentially thought to be related to ethanol content in alcoholic beverages. The identification of ethanol in blood samples requires rapid, minimal sample handling, and non-destructive analysis, such as Raman Spectroscopy. This study aims to apply Raman Spectroscopy for identification of ethanol in blood samples. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized to obtain Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) spectra of blood samples...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Luca Romanelli, Maria Grazia Evandri
Solvents can be used in the manufacture of medicinal products provided their residual levels in the final product comply with the acceptable limits based on safety data. At worldwide level, these limits are set by the "Guideline Q3C (R6) on impurities: guideline for residual solvents" issued by the ICH. Diisopropyl ether (DIPE) is a widely used solvent but the possibility of using it in the pharmaceutical manufacture is uncertain because the ICH Q3C guideline includes it in the group of solvents for which "no adequate toxicological data on which to base a Permitted Daily Exposure (PDE) was found"...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
In-Bong Song, Hyejung Gu, Hye-Ju Han, Na-Young Lee, Ji-Yun Cha, Yeon-Kyong Son, Jungkee Kwon
Environmental stimuli can lead to the excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is one of the risk factors for premature skin aging. Here, we investigated the protective effects of 7-MEGATM 500 (50% palmitoleic acid, 7-MEGA) against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and its underlying therapeutic mechanisms in the HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Our results showed that treatment with 7-MEGA prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced damage significantly increased the viability of HaCaT cells...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Mi Hyun Kang, Bae-Hwan Kim
The objective of this study was to determine the oral wound healing effects of acai berry water extracts (ABWE) in rat oral mucosa. To estimate the anti-oxidative effects of ABWE, the contents of phenolic compounds, and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) abilities were evaluated. Wound healing effects of ABWE were tested following 6-day exposure after induction of wound by applying 50% acetic acid to oral mucosa of Sprague-Dawley rats. Macroscopic and histopathological analyses were performed to determine wound healing effects of ABWE...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Syahirah Ahmad Sayuti Nurul, Hamzah Hazilawati, Rosly Shaari Mohd, Farhan Hanif Reduan Mohd, Mohamed Mustapha Noordin, Md Esa Norhaizan
The term Butterfly tea refers to decoction of Mariposa christia vespertilionis leaves which is widely consumed by cancer patients throughout Malaysia and has gained a huge popularity among Malaysians, not only cancer patients but also researchers to discover the real potential of this plant. Herein, the study is aimed at evaluating the possible toxicity in 28-day subacute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract M. christia vespertilionis in male Sprague Dawley rats. The 28-day subacute toxicity study was conducted to detect the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Na-Jin Kang, Sang-Chul Han, Hyun-Jae Kang, Geum Ko, Weon-Jong Yoon, Hee-Kyoung Kang, Eun-Sook Yoo
[This corrects the article on p. 325 in vol. 33, PMID: 29071017.].
January 2018: Toxicological Research
Minji Kang, AhRam Han, Da-Eun Kim, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim, SeungJin Bae
Animal experiments have been widely conducted in the life sciences for more than a century, and have long been a subject of ethical and societal controversy due to the deliberate infliction of harm upon sentient animals. However, the harmful use of animals may also negatively impact the mental health of researchers themselves. We sought to evaluate the anxiety level of researchers engaged in animal use to analyse the mental stress from animal testing. The State Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate how researchers feel when they conduct animal, as opposed to non-animal, based experiments (95 non-animal and 98 animal testing researchers)...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
Byeong Suk Chae
Pretreatment of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a hyporesponsive state to subsequent secondary challenge with high-dose LPS in innate immune cells, whereas super-low-dose LPS results in augmented expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, little is known about the difference between super-low-dose and low-dose LPS pretreatments on immune cell-mediated inflammatory and hepatic acute-phase responses to secondary LPS. In the present study, RAW 264.7 cells, EL4 cells, and Hepa-1c1c7 cells were pretreated with super-low-dose LPS (SL-LPS: 50 pg/mL) or low-dose LPS (L-LPS: 50 ng/mL) in fresh complete medium once a day for 2~3 days and then cultured in fresh complete medium for 24 hr or 48 hr in the presence or absence of LPS (1~10 μg/mL) or concanavalin A (Con A)...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
Yeun-Hwa Gu, Takenori Yamasita, Ki-Mun Kang
As a part of general toxicity studies of Enterococcus Faecalis 2001 (EF 2001) prepared using heat-treatment bacillus mort body EF 2001 in mice, this study examined the toxicity of EF 2001 in single and repeated administrations following the previous report in order to apply this product to preventive medicine. The safety of oral ingestion of EF 2001 was examined in 6-week-old male and female ICR mice with 1,000 mg/kg, 3,000 mg/kg and 5,000 mg/kg body weight/day administrated by gavage of the maximum acceptable dose of EF 2001...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
Yong-Hoon Lee, Yong Hyun Chung, Hyeon-Yeong Kim, Seo Ho Shin, Sang Bae Lee
Cyclohexanone (C6 H10 O, CAS No. 108-94-1) is a colorless oily liquid obtained through the oxidation of cyclohexane or dehydrogenation of phenol. It is used in the manufacture of adhesives, sealant chemicals, agricultural chemicals, paint and coating additives, solvent, electrical and electronic products, paints and coatings, photographic supplies, film, photochemicals, and as an intermediate in nylon production. Owing to the lack of information on repeated inhalation toxicity of cyclohexaone, in this study, we aimed to characterize the subacute inhalation toxicity...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
Ibukun P Oyeyipo, Bongekile T Skosana, Frans P Everson, Hans Strijdom, Stefan S du Plessis
The efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to an increase demand for therapeutic use, thereby necessitating investigation into drug toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of HAART on sperm parameters and testicular oxidative stress in lean and obese rats. Wistar rats (males, n = 40, weighing 180~200 g) were assigned randomly into 4 groups and treated accordingly for 16 weeks as follows: Control (C): lean group fed with standard rat chow; Diet induced obesity (DIO): obese animals fed a high caloric diet; C + ART: lean animals treated with HAART; DIO + ART: obese animals treated with HAART...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
Chul Ho Kang, Sung Ja Rhie, Young Chul Kim
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of marigold methanol extract (MGME) in human dermal fibroblasts. Total polyphenolic and flavonoid contents in MGME were 74.8 mg TAE (tannic acid equivalent)/g and 85.6 mg RE (rutin equivalent)/g, respectively. MGME (500 μg/mL) increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like antioxidant activities by 36.5, 54.7, and 14...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
Ann-Yae Na, Eun-Ju Yang, Ju Mi Jeon, Sung Hwan Ki, Kyung-Sik Song, Sangkyu Lee
Ethanol-induced fat accumulation, the earliest and most common response of the liver to ethanol exposure, may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), an important constituent of Glycyrrhizae Radix, is a chalcone derivative that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and phytoestrogenic activities. However, the effect of ISL treatment on lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and alcoholic hepatitis remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effect and underlying mechanism of ISL on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis by treating AML-12 cells with 200 mM ethanol and/or ISL (0~50 μM) for 72 hr...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
Min Ho Han, Hong Jae Kim, Jin-Woo Jeong, Cheol Park, Byung Woo Kim, Yung Hyun Choi
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring water-soluble polyphenolic pigments in plants that have been shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, as well as other chronic human disorders. However, the anti-obesity effects of anthocyanins are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthocyanins isolated from the fruit of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Our data indicated that anthocyanins attenuated the terminal differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, as confirmed by a decrease in the number of lipid droplets, lipid content, and triglyceride production...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
JiYoun Kim, JaeHee Lee, SoJung Shin, AhRang Cho, Yong Heo
Laboratory animal models have been developed to investigate preventive or therapeutic effect of medicinal products, or occurrence or progression mechanism of atopic dermatitis (AD), a pruritic and persistent inflammatory skin disease. The murine model with immunologic phenomena resembling human AD was introduced, which demonstrated skewedness toward predominance of type-2 helper T cell reactivity and pathophysiological changes similar as human AD following 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) sensitization and challenge...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
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