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Toxicological Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503266/inhalation-toxicity-of-bisphenol-a-and-its-effect-on-estrous-cycle-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-rats-upon-whole-body-exposure
#1
Yong Hyun Chung, Jeong Hee Han, Sung-Bae Lee, Yong-Hoon Lee
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in a polymerization reaction in the production of polycarbonate plastics. It has been used in many consumer products, including plastics, polyvinyl chloride, food packaging, dental sealants, and thermal receipts. However, there is little information available on the inhalation toxicity of BPA. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine its inhalation toxicity and effects on the estrous cycle, spatial learning, and memory. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 10, 30, and 90 mg/m(3) BPA, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks via whole-body inhalation...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503265/the-effects-of-caffeine-on-the-long-bones-and-testes-in-immature-and-young-adult-rats
#2
Yoojin Kwak, Hyeonhae Choi, Jaesook Roh
This study was to evaluate the age-dependent effects of caffeine exposure on the long bones and reproductive organs using male rats. A total of 15 immature male rats and 15 young adult male rats were allocated randomly to three groups: a control group and two groups fed caffeine with 120 and 180 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exposure to caffeine at either dose significantly reduced body weight gain; a proportional reduction in muscle and fat mass in immature animals, whereas a selective reduction in fat mass with relatively preserved muscle mass in young adult animals...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503264/skin-wound-healing-effects-and-action-mechanism-of-acai-berry-water-extracts
#3
Mi Hyun Kang, Seunghye Choi, Bae-Hwan Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the wound healing effect of acai berry water extracts (ABWE) and a possible underlying mechanism involved in its action using various in vitro and in vivo models. The wound healing effect of ABWE was evaluated by migration assay using HS68 fibroblast cells. In addition, its effect on mRNA expression of procollagen, fibronectin, and MMP-1 was determined. Moreover, the wound healing effect of ABWE was evaluated in in vivo wound models through macroscopic and microscopic observation...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503263/spontaneous-peripheral-ameloblastic-odontoma-in-a-male-sprague-dawley-rat
#4
Yinghua Li, Han-Ik Bae, Hak-Soo Kim, Min-Soo Kang, Bo-Ho Gong, Won-Hee Jung, Sranna Lee, Jin-Sook Bae, Kap-Ho Kim, Si-Whan Song, Jae-Hyun Lee, Boo-Hyon Kang
Peripheral ameloblastic odontoma is a rare variant of odontogenic tumor occurring in the extraosseous region. The present report describes a spontaneous tumor in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The clinically confirmed nodule in the right mandibular region was first observed when the rat was 42 weeks and remained until the terminal sacrifice date when the animal was 48 weeks of age. At necropsy, a well demarcated nodule, approximately 2.5 × 2.0 × 2.0 cm, protruded from the ventral area of the right mandible...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503262/detection-of-toxic-heavy-metal-co-ii-trace-via-voltammetry-with-semiconductor-microelectrodes
#5
Suw Young Ly, Chang Hyun Lee, Jae Mo Koo
The cobalt (Co(II)) ion is a main component of alloys and considered to be carcinogenic, especially due to the carcinogenic and toxicological effects in the aquatic environment. The toxic trace of the Co(II) detection was conducted using the infrared photodiode electrode (IPDE) using a working electrode, via the cyclic and square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The results indicated a sensitive oxidation peak current of Co(II) on the IPDE. Under the optimal conditions, the common-type glassy carbon, the metal platinum, the carbon paste, and the carbon fiber microelectrode were compared with the IPDE in the electrolyte using the standard Co(II)...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503261/anti-photoaging-effects-of-angelica-acutiloba-root-ethanol-extract-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#6
Min Ah Park, Mi Ja Sim, Young Chul Kim
The effects that ultraviolet rays elicit on collagen synthesis and degradation are the most common causes of wrinkle formation and photo-aging in skin. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of Angelica acutiloba root ethanol extract (AAEE) to promote collagen synthesis and inhibit collagen degradation in human dermal fibroblasts. By examining total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, electron donating ability, radical scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase-like activity, we found that AAEE exhibited fairly good antioxidant activity...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503260/dynamics-of-hexavalent-chromium-in-four-types-of-aquaculture-ponds-and-its-effects-on-the-morphology-and-behavior-of-cultured-clarias-gariepinus-burchell-1822
#7
Moshood Keke Mustapha
Hexavalent chromium is a bio accumulative toxic metal in water and fish. It enters aquaculture ponds mainly through anthropogenic sources. Hexavalent chromium concentrations and its effects on the morphology and behavior of Clarias gariepinus were investigated from four aquaculture ponds for 12 weeks. Chromium was measured using diphenyl carbohdrazide method; alkalinity and hardness were measured using colometric method and analyzed with Bench Photometer. Temperature and pH were measured using pH/EC/TDS/Temp combined tester...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443181/development-of-a-test-method-for-the-evaluation-of-dna-damage-in-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#8
Hye Lyun Jeon, Jung-Sun Yi, Tae Sung Kim, Youkyung Oh, Hye Jeong Lee, Minseong Lee, Jin Seok Bang, Kinarm Ko, Il Young Ahn, Kyungyuk Ko, Joohwan Kim, Hye-Kyung Park, Jong Kwon Lee, Soo Jung Sohn
Although alternative test methods based on the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) are being developed to replace animal testing in reproductive and developmental toxicology, they are still in an early stage. Consequently, we aimed to develop alternative test methods in male animals using mouse spermatogonial stem cells (mSSCs). Here, we modified the OECD TG 489 and optimized the in vitro comet assay in our previous study. This study aimed to verify the validity of in vitro tests involving mSSCs by comparing their results with those of in vivo tests using C57BL/6 mice by gavage...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443180/terpenes-from-forests-and-human-health
#9
REVIEW
Kyoung Sang Cho, Young-Ran Lim, Kyungho Lee, Jaeseok Lee, Jang Ho Lee, Im-Soon Lee
Forest bathing has beneficial effects on human health via showering of forest aerosols as well as physical relaxation. Terpenes that consist of multiple isoprene units are the largest class of organic compounds produced by various plants, and one of the major components of forest aerosols. Traditionally, terpene-containing plant oil has been used to treat various diseases without knowing the exact functions or the mechanisms of action of the individual bioactive compounds. This review categorizes various terpenes easily obtained from forests according to their anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, or neuroprotective activities...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443179/inhibition-of-carcinogen-activating-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-by-xenobiotic-chemicals-in-relation-to-antimutagenicity-and-anticarcinogenicity
#10
REVIEW
Tsutomu Shimada
A variety of xenobiotic chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl- and heterocyclic amines and tobacco related nitrosamines, are ubiquitous environmental carcinogens and are required to be activated to chemically reactive metabolites by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP), in order to initiate cell transformation. Of various human P450 enzymes determined to date, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A13, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4 are reported to play critical roles in the bioactivation of these carcinogenic chemicals...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133516/evaluation-of-estrogenic-activity-of-extract-from-the-herbal-mixture-cynanchum-wilfordii-hemsley-phlomis-umbrosa-turczaninow-and-angelica-gigas-nakai
#11
Se Jong Kim, Sun Woo Jin, Gi-Ho Lee, Yong An Kim, Hye Gwang Jeong
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) consists of highly effective prescription medications for treating menopausal symptoms; however, these agents have exhibited side effects including the risk of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Therefore, interest in phytotherapy-based materials as a natural source of alternatives to estrogen therapy has increased. However, some of these herbal medicines have been reported to increase the risk of estrogen-induced cancer. Herbal formulations composed of a combination of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley (CW), Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow (PU), and Angelica gigas Nakai (AG) extracts (CPAE) have been used for treating menopausal symptoms...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133515/recognition-of-transmembrane-protein-39a-as-a-tumor-specific-marker-in-brain-tumor
#12
Jisoo Park, Hyunji Lee, Quangdon Tran, Kisun Mun, Dohoon Kim, Youngeun Hong, So Hee Kwon, Derek Brazil, Jongsun Park, Seon-Hwan Kim
Transmembrane protein 39A (TMEM39A) belongs to the TMEM39 family. TMEM39A gene is a susceptibility locus for multiple sclerosis. In addition, TMEM39A seems to be implicated in systemic lupus erythematosus. However, any possible involvement of TMEM39A in cancer remains largely unknown. In the present report, we provide evidence that TMEM39A may play a role in brain tumors. Western blotting using an anti-TMEM39A antibody indicated that TMEM39A was overexpressed in glioblastoma cell lines, including U87-MG and U251-MG...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133514/anti-melanogenic-effect-of-oenothera-laciniata-methanol-extract-in-melan-a-cells
#13
Su Eun Kim, Chae Myoung Lee, Young Chul Kim
We evaluated the antioxidant activity and anti-melanogenic effects of Oenothera laciniata methanol extract (OLME) in vitro by using melan-a cells. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of OLME was 66.3 and 19.0 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of OLME (500 μg/mL) were 94.5%, 95.6%, and 63.6%, respectively. OLME and arbutin treatment at 50 μg/mL significantly decreased melanin content by 35...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133513/effect-of-vitamin-d3-on-biosynthesis-of-estrogen-in-porcine-granulosa-cells-via-modulation-of-steroidogenic-enzymes
#14
So-Hye Hong, Jae-Eon Lee, Sung-Min An, Ye Young Shin, Dae Youn Hwang, Seung Yun Yang, Seong-Keun Cho, Beum-Soo An
Vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble secosteroid responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, and other materials. Vitamin D3 deficiency, therefore, can cause health problems such as metabolic diseases, and bone disorder. Female sex hormones including estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in the granulosa cells of ovary. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovary and cultured for the experiments. In order to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on the ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot assay...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133512/phototoxicity-evaluation-of-pharmaceutical-substances-with-a-reactive-oxygen-species-assay-using-ultraviolet-a
#15
Yong Sun Lee, Jung-Sun Yi, Hye Rim Lim, Tae Sung Kim, Il Young Ahn, Kyungyuk Ko, JooHwan Kim, Hye-Kyung Park, Soo Jung Sohn, Jong Kwon Lee
With ultraviolet and visible light exposure, some pharmaceutical substances applied systemically or topically may cause phototoxic skin irritation. The major factor in phototoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen and superoxide anion that cause oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins. Thus, measuring the generation of ROS can predict the phototoxic potential of a given substance indirectly. For this reason, a standard ROS assay (ROS assay) was developed and validated and provides an alternative method for phototoxicity evaluation...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133511/evaluating-the-influence-of-side-stream-cigarette-smoke-at-an-early-stage-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-progression-in-mice
#16
Jong Won Kim, Hyejin Yun, Seong-Jin Choi, Sang-Hyub Lee, Surim Park, Chae Woong Lim, Kyuhong Lee, Bumseok Kim
Side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS) is known to be as harmful and hazardous to human health as is active smoking. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the exposure to SSCS and its stimulatory and subacute effects on the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A methionine and choline-deficient plus high fat (MCDHF) diet was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. During the first three weeks of MCDHF diet feeding, each diet group was exposed to SSCS (0, 20, 40 μg/L) or fresh air for 2 hrs per day and 5 days per week...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133510/investigation-of-the-regulatory-effects-of-saccharin-on-cytochrome-p450s-in-male-icr-mice
#17
Jun Hyeon Jo, Sunjoo Kim, Tae Won Jeon, Tae Cheon Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Saccharin, the first artificial sweetener, was discovered in 1879 that do not have any calories and is approximately 200~700 times sweeter than sugar. Saccharin was the most common domestically produced sweetener in Korea in 2010, and it has been used as an alternative to sugar in many products. The interaction between artificial sweeteners and drugs may affect the drug metabolism in patients with diabetes, cancer, and liver damage, this interaction has not been clarified thus far. Here, we examined the effects of the potential saccharin-drug interaction on the activities of 5 cytochrome P450 (CYPs) in male ICR mice; further, we examined the effects of saccharin (4,000 mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion after pretreatment of mice with saccharin for 7 days and after concomitant administration of bupropion and saccharin...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133509/subchronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-acanthopanax-divaricatus-var-albeofructus-in-rats
#18
Myoung Jun Kim, Mi Ju Lee, Yong-Hoon Lee, Sun Hee Park, Duyeol Kim, Cheol Beom Park, Jin Seok Kang, Jong-Koo Kang
Acanthopanax divaricatus (Siebold & Zucc.) Seem. var. albeofructus (ADA), a traditional medical herb, has been used to treat arthritis and muscular injury, to strengthen muscle and bone, and to get vital energy. However, information regarding its toxicity is limited. ADA was administered by oral gavage to groups of rats at doses of 0 (control), 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000 mg/kg five times per week for 13 weeks. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, necropsy, histopathological finding, vaginal cytology, and sperm morphology were compared between control and ADA-treated groups...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133508/effects-of-didecyldimethylammonium-chloride-ddac-on-sprague-dawley-rats-after-13-weeks-of-inhalation-exposure
#19
Yong-Soon Kim, Sung-Bae Lee, Cheol-Hong Lim
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is used in many types of biocidal products including tableware, carpets, humidifiers, and swimming pools, etc. In spite of increased chances of DDAC exposure through inhalation, studies on the inhalation toxicity of DDAC are not common even though the toxicity of DDAC might be significantly higher if it were to be administered through routes other than the respiratory system. DDAC aerosols were exposed to Sprague-Dawley rats in whole body exposure chambers for a duration of 13 weeks...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133507/oxidative-stress-nrf2-and-epigenetic-modification-contribute-to-anticancer-drug-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Kyoung Ah Kang, Jin Won Hyun
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor, controls the expression of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative and electrophilic stress to maintain redox homeostasis. However, recent studies demonstrated that, in cancer, aberrant activation of Nrf2 by epigenetic alterations promotes high expression of cytoprotective proteins, which can decrease the efficacy of anticancer drugs used for chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the relationship between oxidative stress, Nrf2, epigenetic modification, and anticancer drug resistance, which should aid in development of new strategies to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
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