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Journal of Emergency Management: JEM

Erik G Prytz, Jonas Rybing, Carl-Oscar Jonson
OBJECTIVE: This study reports on an initial test using a validated workload measurement method, the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), as an indicator of joint emergency exercise effectiveness. Prior research on emergency exercises indicates that exercises must be challenging, ie, result in high workload, to be effective. However, this is often problematic with some participants being underloaded and some overloaded. The NASA TLX was used to test for differences in workload between commanders and subordinates and among three different emergency response organizations during a joint emergency exercise...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Megan Peck, Tai Mendenhall, Louise Stenberg, Nancy Carlson, Debra K Olson
PURPOSE: To identify gaps in disaster behavioral health, the Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (PERL) at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health supported the development and implementation of a multistate disaster behavioral health preparedness assessment. Information was gathered regarding worker knowledge of current disaster behavioral health capacity at the state and local level, and perceived disaster behavioral health training needs and preferences...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Rebecca M Schwartz, Patricia Rothenberg, Samantha M Kerath, Bian Liu, Emanuela Taioli
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the mental health and substance use of residents of the Rockaways, which is a lower income, ethnically diverse region of NYC that was devastated by the hurricane. DESIGN: Prospective, cross sectional. SETTING: Rockaways, Queens, NYC community residents. PARTICIPANTS: From October 2013 to April 2015, 407 adult residents of the Rockaways completed self-report, validated measures of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms as well as indicators of substance use (alcohol, illicit substance, and tobacco use) and exposure to Hurricane Sandy...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Kelly L Brown, Gina Holguin, Tara Halbrook Scott
In the last several years, disasters-both manmade and natural-have taken their toll on college campuses. Extant research shows that college campuses have greatly increased their emergency management efforts. One area in which colleges and universities have made strides is emergency management communication. There has been some research examining emergency management communication across campuses, but there is still much to learn. This research fills a gap in this area by investigating the use of university Web sites to disseminate emergency management information to the university stakeholders...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Matthew R Peterson, Richard R Young, Gary A Gordon
Key elements of supply chain theory remain relevant to emergency management (EM) logistics activities. The Supply Chain Operations Reference model can also serve as a useful template for the planning, organizing, and execution of EM logistics. Through a series of case studies (developed through intensive survey of organizations and individuals responsible for EM), the authors identified the extent supply chain theory is being adopted and whether the theory was useful for emergency logistics managers. The authors found several drivers that influence the likelihood of an organization to implement elements of supply chain management: the frequency of events, organizational resources, population density, range of events, and severity of the disaster or emergency...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Ron Bowles, Gregory S Anderson, Colleen Vaughan
The Building Resilient Communities Workshop was hosted and organized by the Justice Institute of British Columbia, with the support of Emergency Management British Columbia and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada, Centre for Security Science. Thirty-four participants from multiple levels of government, senior practitioners, policy makers, academia, community members, and a variety of agencies disseminated knowledge and developed concrete strategies and priority actions areas for supporting ongoing and emerging initiatives in community and disaster resilience planning...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Paula M Morgan
First responders are exposed to various types of disasters throughout their career. Because of their roles, they are often regarded as stronger people than individuals from other occupations. A systematic review of literature was conducted to determine if distinct characteristics exist that make first responders more susceptible to psychological trauma. Five categories of traits were found to put first responders at risk for psychological problems: personal, predisposing, peridisposing, postdisposing, and protective...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Claire Connolly Knox, Alan S Harris
Experiential learning allows students to step outside the classroom and into a community setting to integrate theory with practice, while allowing the community partner to reach goals or address needs within their organization. Emergency Management and Homeland Security scholars recognize the importance, and support the increased implementation, of this pedagogical method in the higher education curriculum. Yet challenges to successful implementation exist including limited resources and time. This longitudinal study extends the literature by detailing the evolution of a partnership between a university and office of emergency management in which a functional exercise is strategically integrated into an undergraduate course...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Samantha Montano, Amanda Savitt
OBJECTIVE: To explore how the existing literature has discussed the vulnerability and needs of women in a disaster context. It will consider the literature's suggestions of how to minimize vulnerability and address the needs of women, including who involved in emergency management should be responsible for such efforts. DESIGN: Empirical journal articles and book chapters from disaster literature were collected that focused on "women" or "gender," and their results and recommendations were analyzed...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Lori R Hodges
This article examines the concept of community fragility in emergency management from a systems perspective. Using literature that addresses fragility in four areas of complex systems, including ecosystems, social systems, sociotechnical systems, and complex adaptive systems, a theoretical framework focused on the emergency management field is created. These findings illustrate how community fragility factors can be used in the emergency management field to not only improve overall outcomes after disaster but also build less fragile systems and communities in preparation for future disasters...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Naim Kapucu, Brittany Haupt, Murat Yuksel
With the vast number of fragmented, independent public safety wireless communication systems, the United States is encountering major challenges with enhancing interoperability and effectively managing costs while sharing limited availability of critical spectrum. The traditional hierarchical approach of emergency management does not always allow for needed flexibility and is not a mandate. A national system would reduce equipment needs, increase effectiveness, and enrich quality and coordination of response; however, it is dependent on integrating the commercial market...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Omid Kalatpour
OBJECTIVE: Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. DESIGN: The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program...
March 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Laura Siebeneck
OBJECTIVE: To develop a vulnerability model that captures the social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability of Texas counties. DESIGN: Guided by previous research and methodologies proposed in the hazards and emergency management literature, a principle components analysis is used to create a tornado vulnerability index. Data were gathered from open source information available through the US Census Bureau, American Community Surveys, and the Texas Natural Resources Information System...
March 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Jason David Rivera, Zachary David Wood
This exploratory study sought to observe the perceptions, usage, and planned management of spontaneous volunteers in disaster planning and response within various urban environments. The authors discuss the perceptions of spontaneous volunteerism in America, specifically the challenges of using spontaneous volunteers in disaster response activities. A content analysis of the 50 largest cities in the US Office of Emergency Management Web sites and a survey instrument administered to emergency managers in these 50 cities were used to explore various questions raised throughout the discussion of the literature...
March 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Ashley Siskey, Tanveer Islam
Social media platforms have become popular as means of communications in emergency management. Many people use social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter on a daily basis including during disaster events. Emergency management agencies (EMAs) need to recognize the value of not only having a presence on social media but also actively engaging stakeholders and the public on these sites. However, identifying best practices for the use of social media in emergency management is still in its infancy. The objective of this article is to begin to create or further define best practices for emergency managers to use social media sites particularly Facebook and Twitter in four key areas: 1) implementation, 2) education, 3) collaboration, and 4) communication...
March 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Jody H Cripps, Sheryl B Cooper, Elizabeth N Austin
The concept of the "whole community" involves including everyone in the community in preparing for emergencies, including members of often-overlooked groups. Deaf people who sign are one example of this type of group. An innovative model based on the whole community approach, Emergency Preparedness with People Who Sign (EPPS), is introduced in this article. This model focuses on members of the deaf community directly training first responders using a variety of techniques for effective communication and cultural understanding to achieve safety for all...
March 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Thomas E Drabek
Death and social disruption caused by disasters of varying forms will continue to increase in the future. So too will the impacts on tourism, now one of the fastest growing and largest sectors of the worldwide economy. Tourist business managers must implement evidence-based preparedness activities to enhance the survival potential and future profitability of their firms. Drawing upon recent research studies of the tourist industry during times of crisis and the broad social science knowledge base regarding human responses to disaster, seven key lessons are described...
March 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Brian L Risavi, Saad Mahmood, Kevin Andryc, John Libonati, Mark A Terrell
OBJECTIVE: Increased demand for emergency medical services (EMS), financial constraints, emergency department overcrowding, EMS crews kept in hospital, all result in ambulance unavailability. This study seeks to identify daily temporal patterns for unavailable-for-response episodes, impact of increasing staffing during peak periods, and evaluating the extent of reduction in unavailable-for-response episodes due to temporally precise increases in staffing during critical time periods and the resulting cost/benefit analysis...
January 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Stacey A Hall, Brandon L Allen, Dennis Phillips
College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments...
January 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Sarah J Bundy
While endeavors are underway within the emergency management discipline to develop a unique body of foundational knowledge, widespread acknowledgement and agreement within the emergency management scholarly community of the existence of theoretical foundations and the consistent incorporation of these elements into emergency management research and teaching are still lacking. This article offers an outline of a US-based undergraduate course in mitigation theory and practice that is based on a synthesis of the academic literature related to disaster mitigation as a means to advance the discourse on foundational knowledge and curriculum development...
January 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
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