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Kidney International Supplements

Stephen P McDonald
The ANZDATA Registry includes all patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) throughout Australia and New Zealand. Funding is predominantly from government sources, together with the non-government organization Kidney Health Australia. Registry operations are overseen by an Executive committee, and a Steering Committee with wide representation. Data is collected from renal units throughout Australia and New Zealand on a regular basis, and forwarded to the Registry. Areas covered include demographic details, primary renal disease, type of renal replacement therapy, process measures, and a variety of outcomes...
June 2015: Kidney International Supplements
Chi Bon Leung, Wai Lun Cheung, Philip Kam Tao Li
Renal Registry was started by the Hospital Authority (HA) in Hong Kong in 1995. It is an online system developed by HA. It collects all patients under care in HA, which is about 90-95 % of all requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Hong Kong. The total number of patients treated increased from 3312 in 1996 to 8510 in 2013. In 2013, there were 3501 renal transplant, 1192 hemodialysis (HD) and 3817 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In 2013, 1147 new patients joined the RRT program, 49.6% of them suffered from diabetic nephropathy...
June 2015: Kidney International Supplements
Takayuki Hamano, Naohiko Fujii, Terumasa Hayashi, Hiroyasu Yamamoto, Kunitoshi Iseki, Yoshiharu Tsubakihara
Reportedly, serum ferritin levels are much lower in Japanese hemodialysis (HD) patients than their Western counterparts. Therefore, the cutoff values of ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) for iron deficiency might differ from other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using the Japanese nationwide registry data. We enrolled 142,339 maintenance HD patients and assessed the association between these markers, hemoglobin (Hb), and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) resistance index (ERI) utilizing restricted cubic spline analyses...
June 2015: Kidney International Supplements
Norio Hanafusa, Shigeru Nakai, Kunitoshi Iseki, Yoshiharu Tsubakihara
The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) collects the clinical data from all the facilities to create a nation-wide registry system named JSDT Renal Data Registry (JRDR). This survey was begun in 1966 as a form of facility survey. Patient survey started in 1983. More than 95% of facilities respond to the survey on the basis of voluntary work of facility staffs. Therefore, JRDR has the longest history and the most comprehensive coverage. As for the prevalent patients, 304,856 patients are treated by dialysis therapy in Japan as of the year 2011...
June 2015: Kidney International Supplements
Kitty J Jager, Christoph Wanner
In 1964 the ERA-EDTA Registry was started as one of the first renal registries in the world. This meeting report describes how this European registry has developed over the 50 years of its existence. Where the first report presented patient numbers, nowadays the Registry acts as a platform for collaborative renal research in Europe. In addition, it provides training in epidemiology methods to nephrologists and other renal researchers.
June 2015: Kidney International Supplements
Dong-Chan Jin
The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registry was established in 1985 in which all KSN members are participating voluntarily: the 'Insan Prof. Byung-Suk Min Memorial ESRD Patient Registry'. The ESRD registry committee of KSN has collected the data through the internet online program that was opened in 2001 and revised in 2013. The registry internet program has collected data throughout the years, which includes dialysis center information, vascular access, dialysis doses, and laboratory data with dialysis adequacy and rehabilitation status...
June 2015: Kidney International Supplements
Allan J Collins, Robert N Foley, David T Gilbertson, Shu-Cheng Chen
The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) began in 1989 through US Congressional authorization under National Institutes of Health competitive contracting. Its history includes five contract periods, two of 5 years, two of 7.5 years, and the fifth, awarded in February 2014, of 5 years. Over these 25 years, USRDS reporting transitioned from basic incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), modalities, and overall survival, as well as focused special studies on dialysis, in the first two contract periods to a comprehensive assessment of aspects of care that affect morbidity and mortality in the second two periods...
June 2015: Kidney International Supplements
Kunitoshi Iseki, Allan J Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Kidney International Supplements
Wei Cao, Fan Fan Hou, Jing Nie
Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are the dityrosine-containing and crosslinking protein products formed during oxidative stress by reaction of plasma protein with chlorinated oxidants, and often carried by albumin in vivo. Accumulation of plasma and renal AOPPs is a common pathologic finding in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Moreover, AOPP accumulation is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events (CVDs) in CKD. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that AOPPs are involved in the structural changes of progressive nephropathies such as glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy via the redox-dependent pathway...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Ying Fan, Niansong Wang, Peter Chuang, John C He
Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) functions as either a co-repressor or a co-activator of transcriptional regulators. Dysregulation of HIPK2 is associated with cancer and neurological disease. Recently, we found that HIPK2 is also an important driver of kidney fibrosis in the HIV-1 transgenic murine model, Tg26. HIPK2 protein levels are upregulated in the tubular epithelial cells of Tg26 mice as well as in kidney biopsies of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, and IgA nephropathy...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Mariya T Sweetwyne, Jianling Tao, Katalin Susztak
Notch is a critical regulator of kidney development, but the pathway is mostly silenced once kidney maturation is achieved. Recent reports demonstrated increased expression of Notch receptors and ligands both in acute and chronic kidney injury. In vivo studies indicated that Notch activation might contribute to regeneration after acute kidney injury; on the other hand, sustained Notch expression is causally associated with interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the role of the Notch signaling with special focus on kidney fibrosis...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Lili Zhou, Youhua Liu
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is an evolutionarily conserved, highly complex, key developmental pathway that regulates cell fate, organ development, tissue homeostasis, as well as injury and repair. Although relatively silent in normal adult kidney, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is re-activated after renal injury in a wide variety of animal models and in human kidney disorders. Whereas some data point to a protective role of this signaling in healing and repair after acute kidney injury, increasing evidence suggests that sustained activation of Wnt/β-catenin is associated with the development and progression of renal fibrotic lesions...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Muh Geot Wong, Carol A Pollock
With the escalating cost of monitoring and follow-up required in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), biomarkers are increasingly being investigated for their utility in predicting patients most at risk of decline in renal function in order to rationalize and target care. Putative biomarkers have also emerged as treatment targets, with the potential to develop novel therapeutics. However, biomarker studies in CKD are largely derived from single-sample collections in observational or nested case-control studies that are suboptimal in study design, analyses, and end points relevant to confirm the utility of specific biomarkers...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Hai-Chun Yang, Agnes B Fogo
Glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis increase in the aging kidney, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases with increasing age. Decreases in stem cell number and function contribute to renal aging. High-dose angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) not only slows the progression of glomerular and vascular sclerosis in aging but can also induce regression of these processes independently of its hemodynamic actions. By using new interventions, such as peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, we can manipulate the process of renal aging by regulating stem cells and other mechanisms...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Shougang Zhuang, Na Liu
Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in regulation of multiple biological processes, including proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and survival. Owing to its aberrant expression in a variety of malignant tumors, EGFR has been recognized as a target in anticancer therapy. Increasingly, evidence from animal studies indicates that EGFR signaling is also implicated in the development and progression of renal fibrosis. The therapeutic value of EGFR inhibition has not yet been evaluated in human kidney disease...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Tammo Ostendorf, Peter Boor, Claudia R C van Roeyen, Jürgen Floege
Renal fibrosis is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease progression and is characterized by an exaggerated wound-healing process with the production of renal scar tissue. It comprises both the glomerular and the tubulointerstitial compartments. Among the factors that contribute to kidney fibrosis, the members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family are among the best characterized ones. They appear to be the key factors in driving renal fibrosis, independent of the underlying kidney disease. The PDGF family consists of four isoforms (PDGF-A, -B, -C, and -D) and two receptor chains (PDGFR-α and -β), which are constitutively or inducibly expressed in most renal cells...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Daniela Macconi, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ariela Benigni
Interstitial fibrosis represents the final common pathway of any form of progressive renal disease. The severity of tubular interstitial damage is highly correlated to the degree of decline of renal function, even better than the glomerular lesions do. Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector of the renin-angiotensin system, is a critical promoter of fibrogenesis. It represents a nexus among glomerular capillary hypertension, barrier dysfunction, and renal tubular injury caused by abnormally filtered proteins...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Panos Kavvadas, Jean-Claude Dussaule, Christos Chatziantoniou
Over the last decade, identification and characterization of novel markers of progression and targets for therapy of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been challenging for the research community. Several promising candidates have emerged, mainly from experimental models of CKD that are yet to be investigated in clinical studies. The authors identified two candidate genes: periostin, an extracellular matrix protein involved in bone and dental development, and the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen-binding membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
Barbara J Ballermann, Marya Obeidat
Chronic progressive renal fibrosis leads to end-stage renal failure many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Loss of the rich peritubular capillary network is a prominent feature, and seems independent of the specific underlying disease. The mechanisms that contribute to peritubular capillary regression include the loss of glomerular perfusion, as flow-dependent shear forces are required to provide the survival signal for endothelial cells. Also, reduced endothelial cell survival signals from sclerotic glomeruli and atrophic or injured tubule epithelial cells contribute to peritubular capillary regression...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
David J Nikolic-Paterson, Shuang Wang, Hui Yao Lan
There is a close spatial and temporal relationship between macrophage accumulation and active renal fibrosis in human and experimental kidney disease. Different subtypes of macrophages have been identified. Pro-inflammatory M1-type macrophages can cause acute tissue injury, whereas pro-fibrotic M2-type macrophages can drive the fibrotic response during ongoing tissue injury. Macrophages induce fibrosis through the recruitment, proliferation, and activation of fibroblasts. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that supports a direct fibrotic role for macrophages via transition into myofibroblasts in a process termed macrophage-myofibroblast transition (MMT)...
November 2014: Kidney International Supplements
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