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Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#1
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930601/a-role-of-line-1-in-telomere-regulation
#2
Catharina Mueller, Thomas Aschacher, Brigitte Wolf, Michael Bergmann
Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1) are well known as retrotransposons. A number of reports indicate that down-regulation of LINE-1 substantially affects growth of malignant cells and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which is difficult to be explained by its function as retrotransposon. More recent data indicate that LINE-1 is broadly involved in the regulation of telomere maintenance. This explains the essential role of LINE-1 for survival of malignant cells and further supports a global function of active LINE-1 elements in cell proliferation...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930600/line-1-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#3
Nadine Houede, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Philippe Pourquier
Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death by cancer in men. Surgery or hormone deprivation usually contains the progression of the local forms of the disease. In metastatic situations, chemotherapy or second generation hormone therapies are used with an overall survival that never exceeds 36 months when tumors become resistant to castration. In the search for new alternatives, clinical trials with various classes of anticancer drugs have been performed, including chemotherapies, targeted therapies with kinase inhibitors, radium-223, or immunotherapies with somehow limited efficacy...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930599/dissection-of-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Can Sheng, Yue Huang, Ying Han
Pathophysiological changes of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) begin decades before clinical symptoms become apparent, providing an important window for early diagnosis and intervention. Prodromal stage of AD, a great opportunity for effective treatment and postponing the disease onset, has drawn extensive attention. The application of different biomarkers including neuroimaging, biochemical substances and genes makes AD-related pathology detectable in vivo and exploring novel biomarkers with relatively non-invasive and low cost has intrigued a wide range of interests...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930598/enzymatically-modified-ldl-atherosclerosis-and-beyond-paving-the-way-to-acceptance
#5
Michael Torzewski
The eLDL (enzymatically modified LDL) hypothesis proposes that modification of LDL during atherogenesis occurs through the action of ubiquitous hydrolytic enzymes. eLDL is recognized by multiple macrophage receptors. Following cellular uptake, eLDL triggers atherosclerotic lesion initiation with reversion or progression depending on the balance between cholesterol insudation and depletion. The effects of eLDL on cellular constituents of the atherosclerotic lesion comprise both pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930597/the-store-operated-calcium-channels-in-cancer-metastasis-from-cell-migration-invasion-to-metastatic-colonization
#6
Pingli Mo, Shengyu Yang
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is the predominant calcium entry mechanism in most cancer cells. SOCE is mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor STIMs (STIM1 and 2) and plasma membrane channel forming unit Orais (Orai 1-3). In recent years there is increasing evidence indicating that SOCE in cancer cells is dysregulated to promote cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. The overexpression of STIM and Orai proteins has been reported to correlate with the metastatic progression of various cancers...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930596/modified-low-density-lipoproteins-as-biomarkers-in-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Sonia Benitez, Antonio Perez, Jose Luis Sanchez-Quesada
Cardiovascular disease of atherosclerotic origin is the main cause of death in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. One of the mechanisms involved in such increased risk is the high incidence of lipoprotein modification in these pathologies. Increased glycosylation, oxidative stress or high non-esterified fatty acid levels in blood, among other factors, promote the modification and subsequent alteration of the properties of lipoproteins. Since the modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the triggering factor in the development of atherosclerosis, considerable research has been focused on the quantification of modified LDLs in blood to be used as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930595/the-contribution-of-ovine-models-to-perinatal-respiratory-physiology
#8
Nathalie Samson, Etienne Fortin-Pellerin, Jean-Paul Praud
The dramatic transition to air breathing at birth represents a true challenge for the newborn infant mammal, a period in which neonatal respiratory diseases are common. Since the 1930s, fetal and newborn lambs have been the model of choice for whole-animal studies on neonatal respiration. The present review aims to illustrate the relevance of ovine models in studying the establishment of successful breathing at birth and its maintenance in the early postnatal period, as well as a number of abnormal conditions that can interfere with these processes...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930594/lipid-metabolism-and-transport-define-longevity-of-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Darya Mitrofanova, Pamela Dakik, Melissa McAuley, Younes Medkour, Karamat Mohammad, Vladimir I Titorenko
Emergent evidence indicates that certain aspects of lipid synthesis, degradation and interorganellar transport play essential roles in modulating the pace of cellular aging in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the vital roles of lipid metabolism and transport in defining yeast longevity have begun to emerge. The scope of this review is to critically analyze recent progress in understanding such mechanisms.
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930593/precision-medicine-of-frontotemporal-dementia-from-genotype-to-phenotype
#10
Xiang-Qian Che, Ning Song, Ying Gao, Ru-Jing Ren, Gang Wang
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common neurodegenerative  cause of early-onset dementia. FTD has an important genetic component contributing to its pathogenic mechanisms. Currently, extensive research on neuroimaging biomarkers and neurochemical biomarkers in FTD is being conducted to address the clinical need for a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker. Here, we review the advances in genetics, biomarkers and treatment of FTD and how this may represent a shift towards precision medicine...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930592/choline-the-brain-and-neurodegeneration-insights-from-epigenetics
#11
Rola A Bekdash
  Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem worldwide with huge socioeconomic effect. Recent evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is not only caused by genetic factors but also affected by environmental factors including nutrients. Environmental influences have been shown to cause epigenetic modifications in the brain with long-lasting effects on behavior if they occur in early life. It has been suggested that early nutritional intervention that includes choline, betaine, VitB6, VitB12 and/or folic acid could attenuate decline in cognitive functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930591/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-disease-current-state-and-future-directions-for-an-enigmatic-lipoprotein
#12
Anum Saeed, Salim S Virani
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a complex polymorphic lipoprotein. Although structurally similar to low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a) has a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), attached to the apolipoprotein B-100 component. Several unique properties of Lp(a) can be attributed to the presence of apo(a). Several decades of research has improved our understanding of the structure, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of Lp(a) associated diseases. Genetic, epidemiological, and translational data indicate that elevated Lp(a) levels are likely in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well as calcification of the aortic valves...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930590/chelation-protocols-for-the-elimination-and-prevention-of-iron-overload-in-thalassaemia
#13
Annita Kolnagou, George John Kontoghiorghes
Iron overload toxicity is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in thalassaemia patients. The complete elimination and prevention of iron overload is the main aim of chelation therapy, which can be achieved by chelation protocols that can effectively remove excess iron load and maintain body iron at normal levels. Deferiprone and selected combinations with deferoxamine can be designed, adjusted and used effectively for removing all excess stored iron and for maintaining normal iron stores (NIS) in different categories of thalassaemia patients...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930589/procoagulant-activity-during-viral-infections
#14
Saravanan Subramaniam, Inge Scharrer
The abundance of evidence suggest that inflammation of immune and non-immune cells may lead to an imbalance of the pro- and anti-coagulant state during viral infections. During systemic infections, the endothelium plays a critical role in regulating hemostasis, and severe imbalances of endothelial function and activation can contribute to organ failure. Viral infections may elevate plasma levels of procoagulant markers such as TAT and D-dimer TF-positive MPs as well as von Willebrand factor (vWF). Although multiple clinical studies are showing the association of viral infection and increased prothrombotic risk, the pathological mechanisms have not been fully identified for most viral infections...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930588/nanoparticles-in-wound-healing-from-hope-to-promise-from-promise-to-routine
#15
Naghmeh Naderi, Dimitrios Karponis, Afshin Mosahebi, Alexander M Seifalian
Chronic non-healing wounds represent a growing problem due to their high morbidity and cost. Despite recent advances in wound healing, several systemic and local factors can disrupt the weighed physiologic healing process. This paper critically reviews and discusses the role of nanotechnology in promoting the wound healing process. Nanotechnology-based materials have physicochemical, optical and biological properties unique from their bulk equivalent. These nanoparticles can be incorporated into scaffolds to create nanocomposite smart materials, which promote wound healing through their antimicrobial, as well as selective anti- and pro-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic properties...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930587/prenylcysteine-oxidase-1-a-pro-oxidant-enzyme-of-low-density-lipoproteins
#16
Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Jose M Lou-Bonafonte, Maria V Martinez-Gracia, Carmen Arnal, María A Navarro, Jesus Osada
Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic disease, and proteomic analyses have found that these lipoproteins are endowed with prenylcysteine lyase. This systematic review summarizes current understanding of this enzyme, now known as prenylcysteine oxidase 1 (PCYOX1), which hydrolyzes the thioether bond of prenylcysteines in the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins, releasing hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and the isoprenoid aldehyde. Despite the high variability of the PCYOX1 gene, no polymorphism has yet been associated with any disease...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930586/drug-repurposing-approaches-to-fight-dengue-virus-infection-and-related-diseases
#17
Lorenzo Botta, Mirko Rivara, Valentina Zuliani, Marco Radi
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically distinct serotypes of Dengue Virus (DENV), namely DENV1-4 and is currently considered the most important arthropod-born viral disease in the world. An effective antiviral therapy to treat Dengue Virus infection is still missing and a number of replicative cycle inhibitors are currently under study. Considering the rapid spreading of DENV and the common timeframe required for bringing a new drug on the market, the repurposing of approved drugs used for different diseases to identify novel inhibitors of this pathogen represents an attractive approach for a rapid therapeutic intervention...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930585/leishmaniasis-treatment-update-of-possibilities-for-drug-repurposing
#18
Valter Viana Andrade-Neto, Edezio Ferreira Cunha-Junior, Viviane Dos Santos Faioes, Thaís Martins Pereira, Raphaela Lopes Silva, Leonor Laura Leon, Eduardo Caio Torres-Santos
The leishmaniases represent a public health problem in under-developed countries and are considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). They are cuased by Leishmania  parasites with different clinical manifestations. Currently, there is no vaccine, and treatment is in-efficient and is associated with both serious side effects often leading to resistance to the parasites. Thus, it is essential to search for new treatment strategies, such as drug repurposing, i.e., the use of drugs that are already used for other diseases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930584/metal-and-metalloid-containing-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-trypanosomatid-diseases
#19
Gianni Colotti, Annarita Fiorillo, Andrea Ilari
The trypanosomatid-induced diseases are considered as neglected, because the countries where they kill people are not important markets for western big pharmaceutical companies. However, recently some effort has been made to translate the use of already known drugs to neglected infectious disease. Although many metals are essential to life, many disorders affecting metal homeostasis and bioavailability are responsible for several human diseases. Metals can be toxic even at very low concentrations and semimetals are classified as toxic and dangerous for the environment...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930583/ibuprofen-as-a-template-molecule-for-drug-design-against-ebola-virus
#20
Slobodan Paessler, Cheng Huang, Milan Sencanski, Nevena Veljkovic, Vladimir Perovic, Sanja Glisic, Veljjko Veljkovic
The Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa 2015 and Congo 2017, point out an urgent need for development of drugs against this important pathogen. Previously, by repurposing virtual screening of 6438 drugs from DrugBank, ibuprofen was selected as a possible inhibitor of the Ebola virus infection. The results of an additional docking analysis as well as experimental results showing measurable anti-Ebola effect of ibuprofen in cell culture suggest ibuprofen as a promising molecular template for the development of drugs for treatment of the infection by Ebola virus...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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