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Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199214/base-excision-repair-of-oxidative-dna-damage-from-mechanism-to-disease
#1
Amy M Whitaker, Matthew A Schaich, Mallory S Smith, Tony S Flynn, Bret D Freudenthal
Reactive oxygen species continuously assault the structure of DNA resulting in oxidation and fragmentation of the nucleobases. Both oxidative DNA damage itself and its repair mediate the progression of many prevalent human maladies. The major pathway tasked with removal of oxidative DNA damage, and hence maintaining genomic integrity, is base excision repair (BER). The aphorism that structure often dictates function has proven true, as numerous recent structural biology studies have aided in clarifying the molecular mechanisms used by key BER enzymes during the repair of damaged DNA...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199213/the-zinc-sensing-receptor-znr-gpr39-in-health-and-disease
#2
Laxmi Sunuwar, David Gilad, Michal Hershfinkel
While zinc has had a well-established structural role for many years, it is only during the last two decades that its role as a signaling molecule has been recognized. Ionic zinc, Zn(2+), that is endogenously released during physiological activity acts as a first messenger, triggering the activity of a distinct Zn(2+)-sensing-receptor, ZnR. The ZnR is a member of the Gq-coupled receptor family, and the molecular moiety mediating its activity is GPR39. In this review, we will discuss the role of the ZnR/GPR39 in mediating Zn(2+)-dependent signaling in epithelial tissues and in neurons, where Zn(2+) homeostasis plays physiological as well as pathological roles...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199212/transposon-mediated-directed-mutation-in-bacteria-and-eukaryotes
#3
Milton H Saier, Chika Kukita, Zhongge Zhang
Transposon-mediated "directed" mutations occur at higher frequencies when beneficial than when detrimental and relieve the stress that causes them. The first and best-studied example involves regulation of Insertion Sequence-5 (IS5) insertion into a specific activating site upstream of the glycerol utilization operon in Escherichia coli, glpFK. This event promotes high level expression of the glpFK operon, allowing glycerol utilization in wild type cells under inhibitory conditions. The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent, sugar transporting, phosphotransferase system (PTS) influences this process by regulating cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate and cyclic AMP concentrations...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199211/endocytosis-and-membrane-receptor-internalization-implication-of-f-bar-protein-carom
#4
Yanjie Xu, Jixiang Xia, Suxuan Liu, Sam Stein, Cueto Ramon, Hang Xi, Luqiao Wang, Xinyu Xiong, Lixiao Zhang, Dingwen He, William Yang, Xianxian Zhao, Xiaoshu Cheng, Xiaofeng Yang, Hong Wang
Endocytosis is a cellular process mostly responsible for membrane receptor internalization. Cell membrane receptors bind to their ligands and form a complex which can be internalized. We previously proposed that F-BAR protein initiates membrane curvature and mediates endocytosis via its binding partners. However, F-BAR protein partners involved in membrane receptor endocytosis and the regulatory mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we established database mining strategies to explore mechanisms underlying receptor-related endocytosis...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199210/trpm2-a-potential-drug-target-to-retard-oxidative-stress
#5
Jun Li, Yunling Gao, Xianying Bao, Fengna Li, Wei Yao, Zemeng Feng, Yulong Yin
The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a member of G protein coupled receptor superfamily and a novel dual-function protein that possesses both ion channel and Adenosine 5'-DiphosPhatase Ribose (ADPR) hydrolase function. TRPM2 is involved in Ca(2+) signaling in various cells as an endogenous redox sensor for oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, and contributes to cytokine production, insulin release, motility, Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+)-dependent cellular reactions such as endothelial hyper-permeability and apoptosis...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199209/photosystem-ii-and-terminal-respiratory-oxidases-molecular-machines-operating-in-opposite-directions
#6
Sergey A Siletsky, Vitaliy B Borisov, Mahir D Mamedov
In the thylakoid membrane of green plants, cyanobacteria and algae, photosystem II (PSII) uses light energy to split water and generate molecular oxygen. In the opposite process of the biochemical transformation of dioxygen, in heterotrophs, the terminal respiratory oxidases (TRO) are at the end of the respiratory chain in mitochondria and in plasma membrane of many aerobic bacteria reducing dioxygen back to water. Despite the different sources of free energy (light or oxidation of the substrates), energy conversion by these enzymes is based on the spatial organization of enzymatic reactions in which the conversion of water to dioxygen (and vice versa) involves the transfer of protons and electrons in opposite directions across the membrane, which is accompanied by generation of proton-motive force...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199208/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-sirna-inhibits-hepatic-metastases-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#7
Li-Hao Wu, Harry Hua-Xiang Xia, Wei-Qing Ma, Hao-Jie Zhong, Hui-Xian Xu, Ya-Min Wang, Rong-Jiao Yang, Li-Jing Wang, Yu Chen, Lan Li, Xing-Xiang He
The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-tumor effects of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) siRNA on colorectal cancer in a mouse xenograft model. MIF specific siRNA (MIF siRNA) or a nonspecific control siRNA was introduced to murine colorectal cancer CT-26 cells. Mouse xenograft models of colorectal cancer were established. MIF siRNA, control siRNA or water was injected twice a week intravenously for 4 weeks. MIF siRNA inhibited the proliferation and migration, while induced apoptosis of CT-26 cells in vitro...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199207/assessing-the-potential-function-of-adar1-in-virus-associated-sepsis
#8
Yugang Zhuang, Hu Peng, Yuanzhuo Chen, Shuqin Zhou, Yanqing Chen
Sepsis syndrome is a common and frequently fatal clinical condition. It is defined by the presence of both infection and an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response. It represents a major, although largely unappreciated, healthcare problem worldwide. It is especially problematic in infants and toddlers who show markedly increased susceptibility to severe infections caused by various pathogens, including viruses. Viruses are important causative agents of sepsis. Host adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) catalyzes adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing of RNA transcripts, thus changing viral RNAs and exerting antiviral and proviral effects...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199206/dynamic-monitoring-of-monocyte-hla-dr-expression-for-the-diagnosis-prognosis-and-prediction-of-sepsis
#9
Yugang Zhuang, Hu Peng, Yuanzhuo Chen, Shuqin Zhou, Yanqing Chen
Sepsis, an under-recognized health problem, is a major cause of death.  More than 750,000 individuals develop sepsis annually, of whom 215,000 die of the disease. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that patients with sepsis present with rapid impairment of immune function; biomarkers are therefore needed to enable early detection of this condition. Reduced monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression, which is measured by flow cytometry, is currently the most popular biomarker for sepsis detection...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199205/the-mucolipin-1-trpml1-ion-channel-transmembrane-163-tmem163-protein-and-lysosomal-zinc-handling
#10
Math P Cuajungco, Kirill Kiselyov
Lysosomes are emerging as important players in cellular zinc ion (Zn(2+)) homeostasis. The series of work on Zn2+ accumulation in the neuronal lysosomes and the mounting evidence on the role of lysosomal Zn(2+) in cell death during mammary gland involution set a biological precedent for the central role of the lysosomes in cellular Zn(2+) handling. Such a role appears to involve cytoprotection on the one hand, and cell death on the other. The recent series of work began to identify the molecular determinants of the lysosomal Zn(2+) handling...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199204/the-crossroads-between-cancer-immunity-and-autoimmunity-antibodies-to-self-antigens
#11
Monica Benvenuto, Rosanna Mattera, Laura Masuelli, Ilaria Tresoldi, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Giovanni Vanni Frajese, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
The production of autoantibodies to self antigens is dependent on the failure of immune tolerance. Cancer cells express antigens which elicit a spontaneous immune response in cancer patients. The repertoire of autoantibodies found in cancer patients partly covers that of patients with autoimmune diseases. Biological activities of autoantibodies to self antigens may induce paraneoplastic syndromes which reflect the attempt of cancer patients to counteract tumor growth. Autoantibodies with similar specificities may have different effects in cancer and autoimmune disease patients due to different immunological microenvironments...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#12
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199202/racial-disparity-in-metabolic-regulation-of-cancer
#13
Kuldeep S Attri, Divya Murthy, Pankaj K Singh
Genetic mutations and metabolic reprogramming are two key hallmarks of cancer, required for proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of the disease. While genetic mutations, whether inherited or acquired, are critical for the initiation of tumor development, metabolic reprogramming is an effector mechanism imperative for adaptational transition during the progression of cancer. Recent findings in the literature emphasize the significance of molecular cross-talk between these two cellular processes in regulating signaling and differentiation of cancer cells...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199201/a-critical-review-on-factors-influencing-fermentative-hydrogen-production
#14
Richa Kothari, Virendra Kumar, Vinayak V Pathak, Shamshad Ahmad, Ochieng Aoyi, V V Tyagi
Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of different waste materials is a promising approach to produce bio-energy in terms of renewable energy exploration. This communication has reviewed various influencing factors of dark fermentation process with detailed account of determinants in biohydrogen production. It has also focused on different factors such as improved bacterial strain, reactor design, metabolic engineering and two stage processes to enhance the bioenergy productivity from substrate. The study also suggest that complete utilization of substrates for biological hydrogen production requires the concentrated research and development for efficient functioning of microorganism with integrated application for energy production and bioremediation...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199200/mitochondrial-dna-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cardiac-manifestations
#15
Sung Ryul Lee, Nari Kim, Yeun Hee Noh, Zhelong Xu, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Mitochondria, are the powerhouses of cells, have their own DNA (mtDNA), regulate the transport of metabolites and ions, and impact cell physiology, survival, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including impaired oxidative phosphorylation, preferentially affects heart function due to an imbalance of energy supply and demand. Recently, mitochondrial mutations and associated mitochondrial dysfunction were suggested as a causal factor of cardiac manifestations. Oxidative stress largely influences mtDNA stability due to oxidative modifications of mtDNA...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199199/association-of-mamld1-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms%C3%A2-with-hypospadias-in-chinese-han-population
#16
Yidong Liu, Weijing Ye, Ming Wu, Yiran Huang
Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations among children. Both gene mutations and environmental factors are thought to be involved in the development of hypospadias. The mastermind-like domain-containing 1 gene (MAMLD1, formerly CXorf6) is a new candidate gene and its mutation has been shown in some cases of hypospadias. Here, by direct sequencing of PCR products, we assessed and found mutations that occur in 220 sporadic cases of hypospadias. The mutations p.N589S (c.1766A>G) was found at a significantly higher rate among patients with hypospadias...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199198/the-immunological-function-of-gabaergic-system
#17
Chenlu Wu, Xiaobin Qin, Huihui Du, Nengzhang Li, Wenkai Ren, Yuanyi Peng
As a well-known inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric acid also has critical roles in immune system. Immune cells (e.g., lymphocytes, macrophages) express the components of GABAergic system, including GABA receptors, GABA transporters, and GABA metabolic enzymes. The functions of immune cells are highly impacted on GABA signaling. GABAergic components negatively regulate the immune responses, particularly the T cell-mediated immunity, via their effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of signal pathways, like mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199197/childhood-cancers-and-systems-medicine
#18
William L Stone, Kathryn J Klopfenstein, M J Hajianpour, Marcela I Popescu, Cathleen M Cook, Koymangalath Krishnan
Despite major advances in treatment, pediatric cancers in the 5-16 age group remain the most common cause of disease death, and one out of eight children with cancer will not survive. Among children that do survive, some 60% suffer from late effects such as cancer recurrence and increased risk of obesity. This paper will provide a broad overview of pediatric oncology in the context of systems medicine. Systems medicine utilizes an integrative approach that relies on patient information gained from omics technology...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199196/danshen-extract-regulates-the-expression-of-aquaporin-3-in-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells
#19
Wenwen Zhang, Yiwen Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Huihui Cheng, Ying Hua, Xueqiong Zhu
Danshen extract has been used in the treatment of oligohydramnios, however, the mechanism of its action has not been elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that down-regulation of AQP3 in fetal membranes may contribute to the development of oligohydramnios. In this study, we investigated the effects of Danshen extract on AQP3 expression in human amniotic epithelial cells from term pregnancies with oligohydramnios or those with those with (those with) normovolemic amniotic fluid. Human amniotic epithelial cells from the oligohydramnios group expressed a lower level of AQP3 mRNA and protein than those with normovolemia...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199195/tissue-transglutaminase-tg2-and-mitochondrial-function-and-dysfunction
#20
Thung-S Lai, Cheng-Jui Lin, Yu-Ting Wu, Chih-Jen Wu
Mitochondria are the cell's power plant to satisfy the energy demands. However, dysfunctional mitochondria can cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and alteration of calcium homeostasis, which are the hallmarks of mitochondrial diseases. Under prolong oxidative stress, repeated cytosolic calcium elevations even only transiently, can lead to activation of some enzymes. One calcium-activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological important in mitochondrial disease is tissue transglutaminase (TG2)...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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