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Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410150/platelet-toll-like-receptors-in-thromboinflammation
#1
Lina Paola D' Atri, Mirta Schattner
Besides their undiscussed role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are also key effector cells capable of assisting and modulating inflammatory reactions and immune responses. Platelets play a sentinel role in immune surveillance by recognizing danger signals from pathogens and cell damage through the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) on its surface and internal compartments. Platelets express all 10 TLRs transcripts and its signalosome, including adaptor proteins and transcription factors. The activation of these receptors in platelets triggers hemostatic and inflammatory responses which participate in the host's response to bacterial and viral infections, linking thrombosis with infection and immunity...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410149/rerouting-the-traffic-from-a-virus-perspective
#2
Linda Cruz, Nicholas J Buchkovich
Viruses are important human and animal pathogens causing disease that affect global health and the economy. One outcome of many virus infections is the regulation of cellular trafficking machinery. Viral proteins recruit and interact with cellular trafficking proteins to divert the normal trafficking of key proteins or to induce the formation of novel membrane structures in the host cell. These alterations often increase replication efficiency by mislocalizing immune regulators or restriction factors ot by creating platforms for replication and assembly of new virus particles...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410148/remodeling-of-tick-cytoskeleton-in-response-to-infection-with-anaplasma-phagocytophilum
#3
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Pilar Alberdi, James J Valdes, Margarita Villar, Jose de la Fuente
The obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects vertebrate and tick hosts. In this study, a genome-wide search for cytoskeleton components was performed in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. The available transcriptomics and proteomics data was then used to characterize the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis cytoskeleton components in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The results showed that cytoskeleton components described in other model organisms were present in the I...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410147/the-roles-of-microglia-macrophages-in-tumor-progression-of-brain-cancer-and-metastatic-disease
#4
Shih-Ying Wu, Kounosuke Watabe
Malignant brain tumors and brain metastases are highly aggressive diseases that are often resistant to treatment. Consequently, the current prognosis of patients with brain tumors and metastases is dismal. Activated microglia and macrophages are often observed in close proximity to or within the malignant tumor masses, suggesting that microglia/macrophages play an important role in brain tumor progression. Microglia, being resident macrophages of the central nervous system, form a major component of the brain immune system...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410146/nok-mediates-glycolysis-and-nuclear-pdc-associated-histone-acetylation
#5
Wei-Ye Shi, Xiao Yang, Bo Huang, Wen H Shen, Li Liu
NOK is a potent oncogene that can transform normal cells to cancer cells. We hypothesized that NOK might impact cancer cell metabolism and histone acetylation. We show that NOK localizes in the mitochondria, and while it minimally impacts tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, it markedly inhibits the process of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation processes and dramatically enhances aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. NOK promotes the mitochondrial-nuclear translocation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), and enhances histone acetylation in the nucleus...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410145/a-review-of-computational-approaches-detecting-micrornas-involved-in-cancer
#6
Laura Cantini, Michele Caselle, Antoine Forget, Andrei Zinovyev, Emmanuel Barillot, Loredana Martignetti
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs playing an essential role in gene expression regulation. Multiple studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are dysregulated in cancer initiation and progression, pointing out their potential as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With the introduction of high-throughput technologies several computational approaches have been proposed to identify cancer-associated miRNAs. Here, we present a systematic and comprehensive overview of the current knowledge concerning the computational detection of miRNAs involved in tumor onset and subtyping, with possible theranostic employment...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410144/cardiotoxicity-in-oncology-and-coronary-microcirculation-future-challenges-in-theranostics
#7
Giovanni Peretto, Davide Lazzeroni, Carmem L Sartorio, Paolo G Camici
Many of the patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy for cancer are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Recent evidence suggests that cardiac dysfunction and subsequent heart failure are mainly due to vascular toxicity rather than only to due to myocyte toxicity. However, not all of the vascular toxicity of cancer therapies can be explained by epicardial coronary artery disease. In fact, in the last decades, it has been found that myocardial ischemia may occur as a consequence of structural or functional dysfunction of the complex network of vessels, which cannot be seen by a coronary angiography: the coronary microcirculation...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410143/targeted-radionuclide-therapy-frontiers-in-theranostics
#8
Francesca Gallivanone, Mauro Valente, Annarita Savi, Carla Canevari, Isabella Castiglioni
The concept of targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) relies on the use of injected nuclear medicine as treating agents, targeted at the cellular or molecular level. The growth of the interest in TRT was stimulated by the advances in radionuclide production and labeling as well as by the improvement in the knowledge of appropriate and specific molecular targets. In recent years, different studies on TRT were focused on the evaluation of radionuclide compounds able to combine imaging of the disease with TRT, in a theranostic approach...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410142/theranostic-biomarkers-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-insights-in-a-long-road-ahead
#9
Carmem L Sartorio, Davide Lazzeroni, Gloria Bertoli, Paolo G Camici
The study of biomarkers and their related signalling pathways has allowed the development of new therapeutic strategies in a range of disorders. However, in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is the most common hereditary cardiac disease, there are many potential biomarkers described, but their specificity and applicability for HCM remains an open field. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of molecules that could give some insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying HCM, especially to those with "theranostic" - a combination of diagnostics and therapy - potential...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410141/fdg-pet-ct-as-theranostic-imaging-in-diagnosis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Margarita Kirienko, Francesca Gallivanone, Martina Sollini, Giulia Veronesi, Emanuele Voulaz, Lidjia Antunovic, Lorenzo Leonardi, Giorgio Testanera, Isabella Castiglioni, Arturo Chiti
Objective of this work was to evaluate the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography features as theranostic imaging biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer. In a retrospective protocol, 31 stage I-III NSCLC patients were enrolled. Patients underwent FDG PET/CT for staging purposes before surgery and were followed for two years after surgery. PET images were quantitatively analyzed. For the primary lesion, metabolic tumour volume, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV), SUV corrected for partial volume effect, total lesion glycolysis, 14 histogram and four shape-and-size features were extracted as PET imaging features...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410140/pathway-based-classification-of-breast-cancer-subtypes
#11
Alex Graudenzi, Claudia Cava, Gloria Bertoli, Bastian Fromm, Kjersti Flatmark, Giancarlo Mauri, Isabella Castiglioni
Cancer heterogeneity represents a major hurdle in the development of effective theranostic strategies, as it prevents to devise unique and maximally efficient diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic procedures even for patients affected by the same tumor type. Computational techniques can nowadays leverage the huge and ever increasing amount of (epi)genomic data to tackle this problem, therefore providing new and valuable instruments for decision support to biologists and pathologists, in the broad sphere of precision medicine...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410139/exosomes-based-biomarker-discovery-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-prostate-cancer
#12
Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Gagan Deep
African American men in the United States have higher incidence and mortality rates due to prostate cancer (PCa) compared to other races. In 2016 alone, nearly 30,000 cases of PCa in African American men were diagnosed and 4,450 men died from PCa. The underlying reasons for this health disparity in PCa are complex and include social, economic, and biologic determinants. To reduce or eliminate this health disparity, we must better understand the biology of the disease in African Americans and then develop novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers useful for timely and effective treatment decisions...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410138/clinical-functional-behavioural-and-epigenomic-biomarkers-of-obesity
#13
Claudio L Lafortuna, Armando R Tovar, Fabio Rastelli, Sarah A Tabozzi, Martina Caramenti, Ximena Orozco-Ruiz, Miriam Aguilar-Lopez, Martha Guevara-Cruz, Azalia Avila-Nava, Nimbe Torres, Gloria Bertoli
Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent conditions worldwide, linked to an increased risk for death, disability and disease due to metabolic and biochemical abnormalities affecting the biological human system throughout different domains. Biomarkers, defined as indicators of biological processes in health and disease, relevant for body mass excess management have been identified according to different criteria, including anthropometric and molecular indexes, as well as physiological and behavioural aspects...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410137/flag-tagged-cd19-specific-car-t-cells-eliminate-cd19-bearing-solid-tumor-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Robert Berahovich, Shirley Xu, Hua Zhou, Hizkia Harto, Qumiao Xu, Andres Garcia, Fenyong Liu, Vita M Golubovskaya, Lijun Wu
Autologous T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) specific for CD19 have demonstrated remarkable efficacy as therapeutics for B cell malignancies. In the present study, we generated FLAG-tagged CD19-specific CAR-T cells (CD19-FLAG) and compared them to their non-tagged counterparts for their effects on solid and hematological cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. For solid tumors, we used HeLa cervical carcinoma cells engineered to overexpress CD19 (HeLa-CD19), and for hematological cancer we used Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells, which endogenously express CD19...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410136/directed-connectivity-of-brain-default-networks-in-resting-state-using-gca-and-motif
#15
Zhuqing Jiao, Huan Wang, Kai Ma, Ling Zou, Jianbo Xiang
Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between key brain regions. In this paper, Granger causality analysis (GCA) and motif structure are adopted to study directed connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs) in resting state. Firstly, the time series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in resting state were extracted, and the causal relationship values of the nodes representing related brain regions are analyzed in time domain to construct a default network...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410135/custom-built-tools-for-the-study-of-deer-antler-biology
#16
Wenhui Chu, Haiping Zhao, Junde Li, Chunyi Li
Deer antlers can be developed into multiple novel models to study growth and development of tissues for biomedical research. To facilitate this process, we have invented and further refined five custom-built tools through three decades of antler research. These are: 1. Pedicle growth detector to pinpoint the timing when pedicle growth is initiated, thus stimuli for pedicle and first antler formation can be investigated and identified. 2. Thin periosteum slice cutter to thinly slice (0.2mm or 0.7 mm thick) a whole piece of antlerogenic periosteum (AP) or pedicle periosteum (PP), which facilitates gene delivery into cells resident in these tissues, thus making transgenic antlers possible...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410134/pathogen-associated-regulatory-non-coding-rnas-and-oncogenesis
#17
Noriyuki Yoshida, Tominori Kimura
Among all new cancer cases in 2012, on average, 15.4% were caused by Helicobacter pylori or oncoviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C viruses, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic virus. These pathogens encode a variety of non-coding RNAs, which are important cofactors for oncogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the study of long and small non-protein-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, of oncogenic pathogens, and discuss their mechanisms of action in the multiple steps of oncogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410133/the-role-of-lipids-in-host-microbe-interactions
#18
Roland Lang, Jochen Mattner
Lipids are one of the major subcellular constituents and serve as signal molecules, energy sources, metabolic precursors and structural membrane components in various organisms. The function of lipids can be modified by multiple biochemical processes such as (de-)phosphorylation or (de-)glycosylation, and the organization of fatty acids into distinct cellular pools and subcellular compartments plays a pivotal role for the morphology and function of various cell populations. Thus, lipids regulate, for example, phagosome formation and maturation within host cells and thus, are critical for the elimination of microbial pathogens...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410132/tackling-intra-and-inter-tumor-heterogeneity-to-combat-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
Nikita Wright, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
Rampant inter-patient and intra-tumor heterogeneity present formidable challenges in the clinical management of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and mandate a "divide-and-conquer" approach wherein deep biomarker profiling drives patient segmentation and development of customized treatments. Genomic and proteomic studies have uncovered several TNBC subtypes each of which represents a distinct disease pathobiology and harbors unique actionable targets that may illuminate sensitivities to specific classes of therapeutics...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410131/substance-use-disorder-a-bio-directional-subset-of-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#20
Kenneth Blum, Mark Gold, Zsolt Demetrovics, Trevor Archer, Panayotis K Thanos, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This commentary is to inform clinicians challenged with an increase in people seeking treatment for Substance Use Disorder (SUD), that the ninety percent revolving door, is, in part, due to post-withdrawal, untreated neurotoxicity. This impairment attenuates neurotransmitter signaling and compromises resting state functional connectivity, leading to unwanted sequelae including depression, sleep disturbances, sensation seeking, lack of satisfaction and impulsivity. Neuroimaging studies indicate that neurobiological recovery can take years...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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