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Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)

Mi Wang, Nan Meng, Ying Chang, Wangxian Tang
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) includes endocannabinoids (eCBs), cannabinoid (CB) receptors and the enzymes that are responsible for endocannabinoid production and metabolism. The ECS has been reported to be present in both brain and peripheral tissues. Recent studies have indicated that eCBs and their receptors are involved in the development of various liver diseases. They were found to be altered in response to many danger factors. It is generally accepted that eCB may exert a protective action via CB2 receptors in different liver diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Rudiger Rudolf, Muzamil Majid Khan, Franziska Wild, Said Hashemolhosseini
Alterations of autophagy have been linked to several peripheral nervous system diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Modulation of autophagy by metabolic or pharmacological interventions has been increasingly recognized as a strategy to fight many of these disorders. Cellular processes that are aberrant in case of impaired autophagy and that might lead to these diseases belong to three different categories: (1) clearing of protein aggregates, (2) regulation of vesicle and cargo turnover, and (3) disposal of damaged mitochondria...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Fabrice Saez, Robert Sullivan
Prostasomes are known as extracellular organelles originating from the epithelial cells of the prostate and detected in its secretions where they are mixed with sperm cells after ejaculation. They were first described in men but are also present in the semen of all mammals studied. Since their characterization by Gunnar Ronquist in the late 1970's studies have focused on different aspects which primarily include their molecular composition and structure, and secondly their ability to interact or even fuse with cells, particularly spermatozoa...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Fan Fan, Ying Ge, Wenshan Lv, Matthew R Elliott, Yoshikazu Muroya, Takashi Hirata, George W Booz, Richard J Roman
Cytochrome P450s enzymes catalyze the metabolism of arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (HETEs). 20-HETE is a vasoconstrictor that depolarizes vascular smooth muscle cells by blocking K+ channels. EETs serve as endothelial derived hyperpolarizing factors. Inhibition of the formation of 20-HETE impairs the myogenic response and autoregulation of renal and cerebral blood flow. Changes in the formation of EETs and 20-HETE have been reported in hypertension and drugs that target these pathways alter blood pressure in animal models...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Sung Ryul Lee, Nari Kim, Yeonhee Noh, Zhelong Xu, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells, have their own DNA (mtDNA). They regulate the transport of metabolites and ions, which determine cell physiology, survival, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including impaired oxidative phosphorylation, preferentially affects heart function via imbalance of energy supply and demand. Recently, mitochondrial mutations and associated mitochondrial dysfunction were suggested as a causal factor of cardiac manifestations. Oxidative stress largely influences mtDNA stability due to oxidative modifications of mtDNA...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Joanna Jakobkiewicz-Banecka, Magdalena Gabig-Ciminska, Anna Kloska, Marcelina Malinowska, Ewa Piotrowska, Zyta Banecka-Majkutewicz, Bogdan Banecki, Alicja Wegrzyn, Grzegorz Wegrzyn
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease in which heparan sulfate is accumulated in lysosomes, as well as outside of cells, as the primary storage material. This disease is a complex of four conditions caused by dysfunctions of one of genes coding for lysosomal enzymes involved in degradation of heparan sulfate: SGSH (coding for heparan N-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIIA, NAGLU (coding for alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase) - causing MPS IIIB, HGSNAT (coding for acetyl CoA alpha-glucosaminide acetyltransferase) - causing MPS IIIC), and GNS (coding for N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIID...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Akihiro Onishi, Kalib St Ange, Jonathan S Dordick, Robert J Linhardt
Heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide, has been used as a clinical anticoagulant for over 90 years. Newer anticoagulants, introduced for certain specialized applications, have not significantly displaced heparin and newer heparin-based anticoagulants in most medical procedures. This chapter, while reviewing anticoagulation and these newer anticoagulants, focuses on heparin-based anticoagulants, including unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparins and ultra-low molecular weight heparins. Heparin's structures and its biological and therapeutic roles are discussed...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Ali Ladram, Pierre Nicolas
More than a thousand antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been reported in the last decades arising from the skin secretion of amphibian species. Generally, each frog species can express its own repertoire of AMPs (typically, 10-20 peptides) with differing sequences, sizes, and spectrum of action, which implies very rapid divergence, even between closely related species. Frog skin AMPs are highly potent against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, protozoa, yeasts, and fungi by permeating and destroying their plasma membrane and/or inactivating intracellular targets...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in several aspects of neuronal development, plasticity, and pathophysiology. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), consisting of core proteins with covalently attached chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, are essential components of the brain ECM. During late postnatal development, CSPGs condense around parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-cells) and form lattice-like ECM structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Enzymatic or genetic manipulation of PNNs reactivates neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, probably by resetting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural networks...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Giovanna Traina
A large body of evidence points to the positive effects of dietary supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). Its use has shown health benefits in neuroinflammation, which is a common denominator in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. ALC is the principal acetyl ester of L-Carnitine (LC), and it plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism, acting as a donor of acetyl groups and facilitating the transfer of fatty acids from cytosol to mitochondria during beta-oxidation. Dietary supplementation of ALC exerts neuroprotective, neurotrophic, antidepressive and analgesic effects in painful neuropathies...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Ningjun Li, Fan Zhang
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite generated by phosphorylation of sphingosine catalyzed by sphingosine kinase. S1P acts mainly through its high affinity G-protein-coupled receptors and participates in the regulation of multiple systems, including cardiovascular system. It has been shown that S1P signaling is involved in the regulation of cardiac chronotropy and inotropy and contributes to cardioprotection as well as cardiac remodeling; S1P signaling regulates vascular function, such as vascular tone and endothelial barrier, and possesses an anti-atherosclerotic effect; S1P signaling is also implicated in the regulation of blood pressure...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Wenxiao Jiang, Hui Luo, Zhaojun Shen, Wenwen Zhang, Aixue Chen, Xueqiong Zhu
We demonstrated that the expression of 14-3-3 gamma was lower in uterine leiomyomas compared to the adjacent normal myometrium. Here, we show that 14-3-3 gamma promoter is methylated more in leiomyomas than myometrium. The level of 14-3-3 gamma protein in leiomyomas did not change in respect to age, size, location, or the type of leiomyoma. ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PR proteins were also higher in leiomyomas and the level of these proteins negatively correlated with the level of 14-3-3 gamma protein. These results suggest that the hypermethylation of the 14-3-3 gene promoter accounts for the decreased 14-3-3 gamma in leiomyomas and that such a low level of expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of leiomyomas...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Amal A Al-Dossary, Patricia A Martin-Deleon
The oviductal epithelial membrane releases into the luminal environment extracellular vesicles (EVs) which are pleomorphic in nature and fall into two categories: exosomes and microvesicles. Both of these membrane vesicles are referred to as Oviductosomes (OVS), and to date have been identified in the murine and bovine species. Bovine EVs derived in vivo and from in vitro culture show differences in their protein cargo which includes CD9 and HSC70 biochemical markers and fertility-modulating proteins such as oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OVGP) and Plasma Membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 4 (PMCA4)...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Rafael S Aquino, Pyong Woo Park
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex linear polysaccharides expressed in intracellular compartments, at the cell surface, and in the extracellular environment where they interact with various molecules to regulate many cellular processes implicated in health and disease. Subversion of GAGs is a pathogenic strategy shared by a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Pathogens use GAGs at virtually every major portals of entry to promote their attachment and invasion of host cells, movement from one cell to another, and to protect themselves from immune attack...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Manuela A Ayee, Irena Levitan
Cell stiffness or deformability is a fundamental property that is expected to play a major role in multiple cellular functions. It is well known that cell stiffness is dominated by the intracellular cytoskeleton that, together with the plasma membrane, forms a membrane-cytoskeleton envelope. However, our understanding of how lipid composition of plasma membrane regulates physical properties of the underlying cytoskeleton is only starting to emerge. In this review, we first briefly describe the impact of cholesterol on the physical properties of lipid bilayers in model membranes and in living cells, with the dominant effect of increasing the order of membrane lipids and decreasing membrane fluidity...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Myung-Shik Lee
Mitochondria are the key players in apoptosis and necrosis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted r0 cells were resistant to diverse apoptosis inducers such as TNF-alpha, TNFSF10, staurosporine and p53. Apoptosis resistance was accompanied by the absence of mitochondrial potential loss or cytochrome c translocation. r0 cells were also resistant to necrosis induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) donors due to upregulation of antioxidant enzymes such as manganese superoxide dismutase. Mitochondria also has a close relationship with autophagy that plays a critical role in the turnover of senescent organelles or dysfunctional proteins and may be included in 'cell death' category...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Zhe Chen, Fuhua Yan, Yong Lu
Articular cartilage is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical loading, one of the most important external factors that regulates its development, integrity and long-term maintenance. Cartilage undergoes degradation by its misuse or overuse. In this review, we elaborate on this role and discuss the application of mechanical stress on chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells in order to foster chondrogenesis.
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Chieh Hsiao Chen, Yi-Jhen Wu, Jia-Jin Chen
The aim of this study was to enhance the effectiveness of photo thermal therapy (PTT) in the targeting of superficial bladder cancers using a green light laser in conjunction with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) conjugated to antibody fragments (anti-EGFR). GNPs conjugated with anti-EGFR-antibody fragments were used as probes in the targeting of tumor cells and then exposed to a green laser (532nm), resulting in the production of sufficient thermal energy to kill urothelial carcinomas both in vitro and in vivo. Nanoparticles conjugated with antibody fragments are capable of damaging cancer cells even at relatively very low energy levels, while non-conjugated nanoparticles would require an energy level of 3 times under the same conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Na Li, Yuan Yuan, Shuang Li, Cao Zeng, Wenjun Yu, Mingzhi Shen, Rongqing Zhang, Congye Li, Yingmei Zhang, Haichang Wang
Heart failure (HF) is one of the main causes for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to examine the effect of PDE-5 inhibition on cardiac geometry, function and apoptosis in post-infarct HF. Our data revealed that treatment of the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil, beginning 3 days after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, attenuated LV remodeling, cardiac dysfunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial anomalies including ATP production, mitochondrial respiratory defects, decline of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and compromised mitochondrial ultrastructure...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Xiu Juan Wang, XianFeng Li, Yuan Ren
Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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