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Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)

Xueqin Ding, Chien-An Andy Hu, Pengfei Huang, Yali Li, Shanping He, Huansheng Yang, Jianzhong Li, Huaping Xie, Yulong Yin
Enteroendocrine L cells are open-type enteroendocrine cells that play an important role in amino acid sensing. They detect amino acids by a number of membrane receptors such as calcium-sensing receptor and G protein coupled receptor family C group 6 subtype A. The receptors activate signaling pathways and trigger cellular electrical activities, inducing gut hormones secretion (glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2 and peptide YY). This review focuses on an array of findings on L cells as models, receptors and signaling pathways, electrical activities and hormones secretion in amino acid sensing...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Cancan Chen, Yulong Yin, Qiang Tu, Huansheng Yang
The main function of the porcine intestinal tract is nutrient digestion and absorption. This function is performed by the absorptive enterocytes, which are differentiated from the intestinal stem cells residing at the bottom of the crypt. Nutrients such as glucose and amino acids are transported, absorbed by various transporters embedded on the membranes of these enterocytes. Metabolism occurs in each cell along the crypt-villus axis (CVA). Because the intestinal epithelial cells are the most vigorous, self-renewing cells, regenerating from the crypt bottom to the villus tip in only three to five days, the CVA is an appealing organ for studying cell maturation...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Kurt Sartorius, Benn Sartorius, Cheryl Winkler, Anil Chuturgoon, Julia Makarova
The potential of exploitation of miRNA as diagnostic agents and therapeutic tools will likely only be realized when a complete knowledge of their biology is revealed. Despite more than a decade of research, the use of miRNA as diagnostic and therapeutic tools remains a 'work in progress'. The objective of this review is to explore more recent developments in the role of deregulated miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This includes emerging insights involving miRNA biogenesis, their deregulation by cancer and their role in deregulating the principal HCC cancer pathways...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Venerando Rapisarda, Edoardo Miozzi, Carla Loreto, Serena Matera, Concettina Fenga, Roberto Avola, Caterina Ledda
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal found in group 12 (IIB) of the periodic table of elements together with zinc, a metal with which it is often conjugated in nature. Occupational exposure to Cd occurs in many industrial settings, by cigarette smoking, diet and due to environmental pollution. International Agency for Research on Cancer and other epidemiological studies suggested that Cd can lead to prostate cancer and likely to kidney and lung cancers. Although epidemiological studies seem to point towards such an association, the in vitro studies have not been compelling...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Nemanja Rodic
LINE-1 retrotransposons are ubiquitous genetic elements interspersed within the primary nuclear genome of modern day humans. Although shorter LINE-1-derived sequences occupy nearly one-in-five nucleotides of our genome, we are just beginning to appreciate the link between these important genetic elements and cancer, perhaps the most well-studied major degenerative disorder affecting humanity today. Herein, I summarize empirical observations linking LINE-1 to tumorigenesis. The work is organized into three major parts...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Pan Chen, Julia Bornhorst, Michael Aschner
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient for intracellular activities; it functions as a cofactor for a variety of enzymes, including arginase, glutamine synthetase (GS), pyruvate carboxylase and Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). Through these metalloproteins, Mn plays critically important roles in development, digestion, reproduction, antioxidant defense, energy production, immune response and regulation of neuronal activities. Mn deficiency is rare. In contrast Mn poisoning may be encountered upon overexposure to this metal...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Vesna Gorenjak, Samina Akbar, Maria G Stathopoulou, Sophie Visvikis-Siest
Telomere length has been subject of studies for many decades, aiming to elucidate its role in physiological processes, in process of aging and in diverse pathologies. Yet today, there is still no "big title" discovery that would lead to a practical use of telomeres as a reliable biomarker or target for a new drug. However, therapies for chronic disease patients are being tested and companies are already offering commercial tests for telomere length measurement. The strong genetic heritability of telomeres is opening the place for pharmacogenomics researches that could promote the personalized treatment of diverse diseases...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Halszka Ponamarczuk, Marcin Popielarski, Marta Stasiak, Radoslaw Bednarek, Maciej Studzian, Lukasz Pulaski, Anna Babinska, Maria Swiatkowska
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an abundant reticulum endoplasmic protein but also acts as an important functional regulator of some extracellular surface proteins. Recent studies suggest that PDI plays a role in integrin activation and thrombus formation. The aim of this study was to examine whether activation of integrin is the first stage leading to release of PDI from the subcellular compartments of endothelial cells to extracellular space. Our results show that endothelial cells which adhere to fibronectin or fibrinogen release significantly more PDI than those which adhere to poly-L-lysine...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Vanja Kaliterna, Zvonimir Barisic
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can have clinical presentations from self-limited benign growth in the skin and mucosal epithelia to malignant growth. HPV infects basal epithelial cells (undifferentiated keratinocytes) of the squamous-columnar junction, especially of the cervix. Although today we understand HPV oncogenesis very well, we have very powerful methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HPV related precancerous lesions, however, more than 270,000 women annually die from cervical cancer worldwide...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Jason A Stewart, Yilin Wang, Stephanie M Ackerson, Percy Logan Schuck
The human CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex is a single-stranded DNA binding protein that shares homology with RPA and interacts with DNA polymerase alpha/primase. CST complexes are conserved from yeasts to humans and function in telomere maintenance. A common role of CST across species is in the regulation of telomere extension by telomerase and C-strand fill-in synthesis. However, recent studies also indicate that CST promotes telomere duplex replication as well the rescue of stalled DNA replication at non-telomeric sites...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Enrique J Garcia, Jason D Vevea, Liza A Pon
Lipid droplets (LDs) have well-established functions as sites for lipid storage and energy mobilization to meet the metabolic demands of cells. However, recent studies have expanded the roles of LDs to protein quality control. Lipophagy, or LD degradation by autophagy, plays a vital role not only in the mobilization of free fatty acids (FFAs) and lipid homeostasis at LDs, but also in the adaptation of cells to certain forms of stress including lipid imbalance. Recent studies have provided new mechanistic insights about the diverse types of lipophagy, in particular microlipophagy...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Consuelo Almazan, Gabriela Aguilar Tipacamu, Sergio Rodriguez, Juan Mosqueda, Adalberto Perez de Leon
The cattle industry is one of the most important agroeconomic activities in Mexico. The national herd is estimated to include approximately 33.5. million head of cattle. Ticks and tick-borne diseases are principal factors with a negative impact on cattle health and production. The most economically important tick species parasitizing cattle in Mexico are Rhipicephalus microplus, R. annulatus, and Amblyomma mixtum. Parasitism by ticks affects cattle health and production directly. Morbidity and mortality caused by tick-borne diseases augment the detrimental effect of tick infestation in cattle...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Tao Wu, Yang Lv, Xueni Li, Di Zhao, Dan Yi, Lei Wang, Peng Li, Hongbo Chen, Yongqing Hou, Joshua Gong, Guoyao Wu
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains induce human and animal intestinal dysfunction and injury, and cause diarrhea in weanling pigs. A recombinant E.coli strain LMG194-STa which expressed single toxin STa of ETEC was constructed by directly inserting the STa gene of ETEC into the expression vector pBAD202 and then transferring the recombinant plasmid pBAD-STa into the E.coli LMG19 host strain. Diarrhea and intestinal injury in piglets were induced by oral administration of recombinant strain LMG194-Sta...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Barbara Strasser, Martin Burtscher
Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is related to functional capacity and human performance and has been shown to be a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. The purpose of this review is to emphasize age-related physiological adaptations occurring with regular exercise training, with specific reference to the main organs (lung, heart, skeletal muscles) involved in oxygen delivery and utilization as well as the importance of exercise training for promoting life expectancy in clinically referred populations...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Giovanni Antonio Lutzu, Nurhan Turgut Dunford
The cultivation of microalgae for the production of biomass and associated valuable compounds has gained increasing interest not only within the scientific community but also at the industrial level. Microalgae cells are capable of producing high-value compounds that are widely used in food, feed, pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and aquaculture industries. For example, lipids produced by algae can be converted to biodiesel, other fuels and bio-products. Hence, high oil content algal biomass has been regarded as a potential alternative feedstock to replace terrestrial crops for sustainable production of bio-products...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Pavlos Rigas
Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder which affects information processing in the brain as the result of an abnormally developed cortex, brought about in ways that are poorly understood. The disorder is characterized by a very early onset, however, neurobiological studies at such young ages are often precluded in humans, thus, rendering respective research in appropriate animal models of the disease invaluable. The bulk of this research has focused mainly on how experimental models differ from normal rather than on when they begin to differ...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Omkaram Gangisetty, Miguel A Cabrera, Sengottuvelan Murugan
Epigenetics involves multiple processes such as DNA methylation, histone code modifications, and noncoding RNAs to regulate gene expression. In recent years the implications of epigenetic mechanisms have emerged in the field of neuroscience especially in brain development, memory, learning, and various cognition processes. Epigenetics also plays a pivotal role during the aging process of the brain which has led to various age-related neurodegenerative diseases. This manuscript portrays the findings of various epigenetic mechanisms that play a critical role and their implications in aging as well as age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Alexander N Orekhov, Igor A Sobenin
Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the search for novel therapies and diagnostic markers remain major problems of modern medicine. Currently available therapeutic approaches are often not sufficiently effective, probably due to the complexity of the disease mechanisms. This review focuses on the evaluation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) as risk factors of atherosclerosis. We summarize the current paradigm of LDL involvement in atherogenesis and HDL presumably protective properties...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Parisa Zarkeshian, Sourabh Kumar, Jack Tuszynski, Paul Barclay, Christoph Simon
Despite great progress in neuroscience, there are still fundamental unanswered questions about the brain, including the origin of subjective experience and consciousness. Some answers might rely on new physical mechanisms. Given that biophotons have been discovered in the brain, it is interesting to explore if neurons use photonic communication in addition to the well-studied electro-chemical signals. Such photonic communication in the brain would require waveguides. Here we review recent work (S. Kumar, K...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Vahid Salari, Shabir Barzanjeh, Michal Cifra, Christoph Simon, Felix Scholkmann, Zahra Alirezaei, Jack A Tuszynski
In this paper, we discuss biological effects of electromagnetic (EM) fields in the context of cancer biology. In particular, we review the nanomechanical properties of microtubules (MTs), the latter being one of the most successful targets for cancer therapy. We propose an investigation on the coupling of electromagnetic radiation to mechanical vibrations of MTs as an important basis for biological and medical applications. In our opinion, optomechanical methods can accurately monitor and control the mechanical properties of isolated MTs in a liquid environment...
March 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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