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ISRN Inflammation

Julio Gálvez
The gastrointestinal tract plays a central role in immune system, being able to mount efficient immune responses against pathogens, keeping the homeostasis of the human gut. However, conditions like Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), the main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), are related to an excessive and uncontrolled immune response against normal microbiota, through the activation of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells. Classically, IBD was thought to be primarily mediated by Th1 cells in CD or Th2 cells in UC, but it is now known that Th17 cells and their related cytokines are crucial mediators in both conditions...
2014: ISRN Inflammation
S Sreeja, Rajagopalan Geetha, Emayavaramban Priyadarshini, Krishnamoorthy Bhavani, Carani Venkatraman Anuradha
Fructose-rich diet is known to cause metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We aimed to compare the effects of two dietary proteins of animal and plant origins on fructose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in liver. Wistar rats were fed either starch or fructose (60%) diet with casein or soy protein (20%) as the protein source for 8 weeks. Glucose and insulin, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine, AOPP, and FRAP were determined in circulation. Intracellular ROS, oxidatively modified proteins (4-HNE and 3-NT adducts), adiponectin, TNF- α , IL-6 and PAI-1 mRNA expression, phosphorylation and activation of JNK and IKK β , and NF- κ B binding activity were assayed in liver...
2014: ISRN Inflammation
John J Taylor
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5-15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades...
2014: ISRN Inflammation
Ayman Abd Al-Maksoud Yousef, Ghada Abdulmomen Suliman, Maaly Mohamed Mabrouk
Background. The clinical management of sepsis is a highly complicated process. Disruption of the immune system explains in part the major variation in sepsis outcome. IL-8 is a proinflammatory cytokine, genetic polymorphism of this cytokine could explain the outcome of sepsis. The present study was conducted to determine the value of serum IL-8 monitoring and its (-251A/T) genetic polymorphism in critically ill patients. Patients and Methods. 180 critically ill patients were allocated into two groups, 90 septic patients (sepsis group) and 90 nonseptic patients (SIRS group)...
2014: ISRN Inflammation
Khan Mubashir, Khalid Ghazanfar, Bashir A Ganai, Seema Akbar, Akhtar H Malik, Akbar Masood
Gentiana kurroo Royle is a critically endangered medicinal plant species endemic to the northwestern Himalayas. This plant was studied for the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential. Carrageenan paw edema model was used to study the potential of the drug in inflammation in Wistar rats. SRBC specific haemagglutination titre and DTH assays were carried out in Balb/C mice for observing the effect of test drugs on immune system. The plant extracts were found to be active against inflammation. The methanolic fraction was observed to be the most effective in inhibition of paw edema with the inhibitory potential of 47...
2014: ISRN Inflammation
G I Anuja, P G Latha, V J Shine, S R Suja, P Shikha, K Satheesh Kumar, S Rajasekharan
Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissue cells to harmful stimuli including trauma, tissue necrosis, and infections which plays a key role in the pathophysiology of many deadly diseases. In ethnomedicine Drynaria quercifolia fronds are used to treat inflammation as poultice on swellings and as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, and antipyretic agent. Herein, we have evaluated the antioedematous, antiproliferative, and analgesic properties of the ethanolic extract of fertile fronds of D. quercifolia (FF) by standard procedures...
2014: ISRN Inflammation
Camila Bastos Ribeiro, Jéssica Cristina Dos Santos, Jacyelle Medeiros Silva, Pedro Henrique Silva de Godoi, Marta Regina Magalhães, Mônica Spadafora-Ferreira, Simone Gonçalves Fonseca, Irmtraut Araci Hoffman Pfrimer
Snake venom has been the subject of numerous studies in an attempt to find properties and biological effects that may be beneficial to man. In this study we evaluated in vitro the effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) and Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc) venom in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). At 24 h, a significant decrease of viable cells was observed in cells stimulated with the Cdc venom at 0.0005 mg/mL and 0.005 mg/mL compared to the negative control. At 48 h, a significant decrease of viable cells was observed only in cells stimulated with Cdc venom at 0...
2014: ISRN Inflammation
Varun Dhir, Amit Sandhu, Nidhi Gupta, Veena Dhawan, Shefali Sharma, Aman Sharma
Background. Although the benchmark in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis remains methotrexate, only 70% of patients respond. Thus, there is a need for predictive biomarkers. This study planned to evaluate serum levels of myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2)-as biomarkers. Methods. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) having high disease activity (DAS28-3v ≥ 5.1) were treated with oral methotrexate (MTX) for 12 weeks. Disease activity was measured by DAS28-3v (Modified Disease Activity Score 3 variables)...
December 24, 2013: ISRN Inflammation
Kassem Makki, Philippe Froguel, Isabelle Wolowczuk
Adipose tissue is a complex organ that comprises a wide range of cell types with diverse energy storage, metabolic regulation, and neuroendocrine and immune functions. Because it contains various immune cells, either adaptive (B and T lymphocytes; such as regulatory T cells) or innate (mostly macrophages and, more recently identified, myeloid-derived suppressor cells), the adipose tissue is now considered as a bona fide immune organ, at the cross-road between metabolism and immunity. Adipose tissue disorders, such as those encountered in obesity and lipodystrophy, cause alterations to adipose tissue distribution and function with broad effects on cytokine, chemokine, and hormone expression, on lipid storage, and on the composition of adipose-resident immune cell populations...
December 22, 2013: ISRN Inflammation
Max Petrov
Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis.
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Carl D Richards
Oncostatin M is a secreted cytokine involved in homeostasis and in diseases involving chronic inflammation. It is a member of the gp130 family of cytokines that have pleiotropic functions in differentiation, cell proliferation, and hematopoetic, immunologic, and inflammatory networks. However, Oncostatin M also has activities novel to mediators of this cytokine family and others and may have fundamental roles in mechanisms of inflammation in pathology. Studies have explored Oncostatin M functions in cancer, bone metabolism, liver regeneration, and conditions with chronic inflammation including rheumatoid arthritis, lung and skin inflammatory disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Courtney M Crawford, Okezie Igboeli
The white dot syndromes are a group of inflammatory chorioretinopathies of unknown etiology which have in common a unique and characteristic appearance of multiple yellow-white lesions affecting multiple layers of the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris, and the choroid. They also have overlapping clinical features. We discuss acute retinal pigment epitheliopathy, multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, birdshot chorioretinopathy, and serpiginous choroidopathy...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Rupak Chowdhury, Ramadevi Nimmanapalli, Thomas Graham, Gopal Reddy
To study the ameliorating effects of curcumin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cardiac hypertrophy, mice were assigned to 4 groups (3 males and 3 females in each group): (A) control, (B) curcumin: 100  μ g/kg of body weight by intraperitoneal route (IP), (C) LPS: 60 mg/kg (IP), and (D) LPS + curcumin: both at previously stated concentrations by IP route. All mice were sacrificed as 12 hr and 24 hrs groups accordingly after LPS injection. The hearts were collected, photographed for cardiomegaly, and weighed to compare heart weight/brain weight (HW/BW) in mg/mg...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Khan Mubashir, Bashir A Ganai, Khalid Ghazanfar, Seema Akbar, Akhtar H Malik, Akbar Masood
Artemisia amygdalina D. is a critically endangered endemic medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. In the current study anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of the plant was carried out. Carrageenan paw edema model was used to study the potential of the drug in inflammation in Wistar rats. SRBC-specific haemagglutination titre and DTH assays were carried out in Balb/C mice for observing the effect of test drugs on immune system. The plant extracts used as test drugs showed to have anti-inflammatory potential...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Terry W Du Clos
The pentraxins are an ancient family of proteins with a unique architecture found as far back in evolution as the Horseshoe crab. In humans the two members of this family are C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P. Pentraxins are defined by their sequence homology, their pentameric structure and their calcium-dependent binding to their ligands. Pentraxins function as soluble pattern recognition molecules and one of the earliest and most important roles for these proteins is host defense primarily against pathogenic bacteria...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Yafeng Song, Per S Stål, Jiguo Yu, Sture Forsgren
Muscle injury and inflammation (myositis) in a rabbit model of an unilateral muscle overuse were examined. It is unknown if the tachykinin system has a functional role in this situation. In this study, therefore, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) expression patterns were evaluated. White blood cells, nerve fascicles, fine nerve fibers, and blood vessel walls in myositis areas showed NK-1R immunoreaction. NK-1R mRNA reactions were observable for white blood cells and blood vessel walls of these areas. NK-1R immunoreaction and NK-1R mRNA reactions were also seen for muscle fibers showing degenerative and regenerative features...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
A S Golovkin, V G Matveeva, I V Kudryavtsev, M N Chernova, Y V Bayrakova, D L Shukevich, E V Grigoriev
Hypercytokinemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Monocytes are the main source of cytokines in the early inflammatory phase. Simultaneous stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) activating receptor on monocytes results in the amplification of the inflammatory signal and multiple increase in proinflammatory cytokine production. The dynamics of those receptors expression on monocyte surface of patients with uncomplicated SIRS course followed coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) was studied...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Hayato Maeda, Shuuichi Saito, Nozomi Nakamura, Takashi Maoka
Obesity is related to various diseases, such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Adipocytokine, which is released from adipocyte cells, affects insulin resistance and blood lipid level disorders. Further, adipocytokine is related to chronic inflammation in obesity condition adipocyte cells. Paprika pigments (PPs) contain large amounts of capsanthin and capsorubin. These carotenoids affect the liver and improve lipid disorders of the blood. However, how these carotenoids affect adipocyte cells remains unknown...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Gaurav Kaithwas, Dipak K Majumdar
The present investigation summarizes the effect of Linum usitatissimum fixed oil against different phases of acute inflammatory reaction, namely, protein exudation, peritoneal capillary permeability, and leukocyte migration. The fixed oil exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of protein exudation vascular permeability, comparable to standard aspirin. The oil also inhibited the leukocyte migration in pleural exudates in a dose-dependent manner. Production of less vasodilatory (PGE3) and chemotactic (LTB5) eicosanoids through EPA (derived from linolenic acid) metabolism could account for the above observations...
2013: ISRN Inflammation
Berna İmge Aydogan, Mustafa Sahin
Adipocytokines are important mediators of interorgan crosstalk in metabolic regulation. Thyroid diseases have effects on metabolism and inflammation. The mechanism of these effects is not clear. Recently, there are several reports suggesting this interrelation between adipocytokines and thyroid dysfunction. In this review, we summarize this relation according to the literature.
2013: ISRN Inflammation
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