Read by QxMD icon Read

Stem Cell Reports

Ke Huang, Jiao Gao, Juan Du, Ning Ma, Yanling Zhu, Pengfei Wu, Tian Zhang, Wenqian Wang, Yuhang Li, Qianyu Chen, Andrew Paul Hutchins, Zhongzhou Yang, Yi Zheng, Jian Zhang, Yongli Shan, Xuejia Li, Baojian Liao, Jiajun Liu, Jinyong Wang, Bing Liu, Guangjin Pan
The transition from hemogenic endothelial cells (HECs) to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HS/PCs), or endothelial to hematopoietic transition (EHT), is a critical step during hematopoiesis. However, little is known about the molecular determinants of HECs due to the challenge in defining HECs. We report here the generation of GATA2(w/eGFP) reporter in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to mark cells expressing GATA2, a critical gene for EHT. We show that during differentiation, functional HECs are almost exclusively GATA2/eGFP(+)...
October 12, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Xiaofeng Zheng, Pengyi Yang, Brad Lackford, Brian D Bennett, Li Wang, Hui Li, Yu Wang, Yiliang Miao, Julie F Foley, David C Fargo, Ying Jin, Carmen J Williams, Raja Jothi, Guang Hu
Poly(A) tail length and mRNA deadenylation play important roles in gene regulation. However, how they regulate embryonic development and pluripotent cell fate is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that CNOT3-dependent mRNA deadenylation governs the pluripotent state. We show that CNOT3, a component of the Ccr4-Not deadenylase complex, is required for mouse epiblast maintenance. It is highly expressed in blastocysts and its deletion leads to peri-implantation lethality. The epiblast cells in Cnot3 deletion embryos are quickly lost during diapause and fail to outgrow in culture...
October 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Alana M Chin, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Stacy R Finkbeiner, Melinda S Nagy, Emily M Walker, Nicole J Ethen, Bart O Williams, Michele A Battle, Jason R Spence
Much of our understanding about how intestinal stem and progenitor cells are regulated comes from studying the late fetal stages of development and the adult intestine. In this light, little is known about intestine development prior to the formation of stereotypical villus structures with columnar epithelium, a stage when the epithelium is pseudostratified and appears to be a relatively uniform population of progenitor cells with high proliferative capacity. Here, we investigated a role for WNT/β-CATENIN signaling during the pseudostratified stages of development (E13...
October 6, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Young Me Yoon, Kelsie J Storm, Ashley N Kamimae-Lanning, Natalya A Goloviznina, Peter Kurre
Our mechanistic understanding of Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway function in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) owes much to their role in experimentally induced DNA crosslink lesion repair. In bone marrow HSPCs, unresolved stress confers p53-dependent apoptosis and progressive cell attrition. The role of FA proteins during hematopoietic development, in the face of physiological replicative demand, remains elusive. Here, we reveal a fetal HSPC pool in Fancd2(-/-) mice with compromised clonogenicity and repopulation...
October 6, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Jennifer J VanOudenhove, Ricardo Medina, Prachi N Ghule, Jane B Lian, Janet L Stein, Sayyed K Zaidi, Gary S Stein
The transition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from pluripotency to lineage commitment is not fully understood, and a role for phenotypic transcription factors in the initial stages of hESC differentiation remains to be explored. From a screen of candidate factors, we found that RUNX1 is selectively and transiently upregulated early in hESC differentiation to mesendodermal lineages. Transcriptome profiling and functional analyses upon RUNX1 depletion established a role for RUNX1 in promoting cell motility...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Bin Mao, Shu Huang, Xulin Lu, Wencui Sun, Ya Zhou, Xu Pan, Jinfeng Yu, Mowen Lai, Bo Chen, Qiongxiu Zhou, Song Mao, Guohui Bian, Jiaxi Zhou, Tatsutoshi Nakahata, Feng Ma
The development of human erythroid cells has been mostly examined in models of adult hematopoiesis, while their early derivation during embryonic and fetal stages is largely unknown. We observed the development and maturation of erythroblasts derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) by an efficient co-culture system. These hPSC-derived early erythroblasts initially showed definitive characteristics with a glycophorin A(+) (GPA(+)) CD34(low)CD36(-) phenotype and were distinct from adult CD34(+) cell-derived ones...
October 4, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Liankai Chi, Beibei Fan, Kunshan Zhang, Yanhua Du, Zhongliang Liu, Yujiang Fang, Zhenyu Chen, Xudong Ren, Xiangjie Xu, Cizhong Jiang, Siguang Li, Lin Ma, Liang Gao, Ling Liu, Xiaoqing Zhang
Embryoid body (EB) formation and adherent culture (AD) paradigms are equivalently thought to be applicable for neural specification of human pluripotent stem cells. Here, we report that sonic hedgehog-induced ventral neuroprogenitors under EB conditions are fated to medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), while the AD cells mostly adopt a floor-plate (FP) fate. The EB-MGE later on differentiates into GABA and cholinergic neurons, while the AD-FP favors dopaminergic neuron specification. Distinct developmental, metabolic, and adhesion traits in AD and EB cells may potentially account for their differential patterning potency...
September 27, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Tina Zimmermann, Floortje Remmers, Beat Lutz, Julia Leschik
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by fatal motoric failures induced by loss of striatal medium spiny neurons. Neuronal cell death has been linked to impaired expression and axonal transport of the neurotrophin BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor). By transplanting embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors overexpressing BDNF, we combined cell replacement and BDNF supply as a potential HD therapy approach. Transplantation of purified neural progenitors was analyzed in a quinolinic acid (QA) chemical and two genetic HD mouse models (R6/2 and N171-82Q) on the basis of distinct behavioral parameters, including CatWalk gait analysis...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Sharad K Mittal, Masahiro Omoto, Afsaneh Amouzegar, Anuradha Sahu, Alexandra Rezazadeh, Kishore R Katikireddy, Dhvanit I Shah, Srikant K Sahu, Sunil K Chauhan
Transparency of the cornea is indispensable for optimal vision. Ocular trauma is a leading cause of corneal opacity, leading to 25 million cases of blindness annually. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained prominence due to their inflammation-suppressing and tissue repair functions. Here, we investigate the potential of MSCs to restore corneal transparency following ocular injury. Using an in vivo mouse model of ocular injury, we report that MSCs have the capacity to restore corneal transparency by secreting high levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Hongyu Pan, Dongpi Wang, Xiaoqin Zhang, Dongming Zhou, Heng Zhang, Qi Qian, Xiao He, Zhaoling Liu, Yunjin Liu, Tingting Zheng, Ling Zhang, Mingkai Wang, Binggui Sun
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in several Alzheimer's disease models overexpressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). However, the effects of wild-type hAPP on adult neurogenesis and whether the impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis was caused by amyloid β (Aβ) or APP remained unclear. Here, we found that neurogenesis was impaired in the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult mice overexpressing wild-type hAPP (hAPP-I5) compared with controls. However, the adult hippocampal neurogenesis was more severely impaired in hAPP-I5 than that in hAPP-J20 mice, which express similar levels of hAPP mRNA but much higher levels of Aβ...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Mien T X Nguyen, Elena Okina, Xiaoran Chai, Kok Hian Tan, Outi Hovatta, Sujoy Ghosh, Karl Tryggvason
A major hurdle for in vitro culturing of primary endothelial cells (ECs) is that they readily dedifferentiate, hampering their use for therapeutic applications. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may provide an unlimited cell source; however, most current protocols deriving endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from hESCs use direct differentiation approaches albeit on undefined matrices, yet final yields are insufficient. We developed a method to culture monolayer hESCs on stem cell niche laminin (LN) LN511 or LN521 matrix...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Mathieu Daynac, Linda Tirou, Hélène Faure, Marc-André Mouthon, Laurent R Gauthier, Heidi Hahn, François D Boussin, Martial Ruat
Identifying the mechanisms controlling quiescence and activation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is crucial for understanding brain repair. Here, we demonstrate that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling actively regulates different pools of quiescent and proliferative NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), one of the main brain neurogenic niches. Specific deletion of the Hh receptor Patched in NSCs during adulthood upregulated Hh signaling in quiescent NSCs, progressively leading to a large accumulation of these cells in the V-SVZ...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Alvaro Muñoz-López, Damià Romero-Moya, Cristina Prieto, Verónica Ramos-Mejía, Antonio Agraz-Doblas, Ignacio Varela, Marcus Buschbeck, Anna Palau, Xonia Carvajal-Vergara, Alessandra Giorgetti, Anthony Ford, Majlinda Lako, Isabel Granada, Neus Ruiz-Xivillé, Sandra Rodríguez-Perales, Raul Torres-Ruíz, Ronald W Stam, Jose Luis Fuster, Mario F Fraga, Mahito Nakanishi, Gianni Cazzaniga, Michela Bardini, Isabel Cobo, Gustavo F Bayon, Agustin F Fernandez, Clara Bueno, Pablo Menendez
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a powerful tool for disease modeling. They are routinely generated from healthy donors and patients from multiple cell types at different developmental stages. However, reprogramming leukemias is an extremely inefficient process. Few studies generated iPSCs from primary chronic myeloid leukemias, but iPSC generation from acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemias (ALL) has not been achieved. We attempted to generate iPSCs from different subtypes of B-ALL to address the developmental impact of leukemic fusion genes...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Du Fang, Yu Qing, Shijun Yan, Doris Chen, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Mitochondria are critical to neurogenesis, but the mechanisms of mitochondria in neurogenesis have not been well explored. We fully characterized mitochondrial alterations and function in relation to the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Following directed differentiation of hiPSCs to DA neurons, mitochondria in these neurons exhibit pronounced changes during differentiation, including mature neurophysiology characterization and functional synaptic network formation...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Toshiki Okubo, Akio Iwanami, Jun Kohyama, Go Itakura, Soya Kawabata, Yuichiro Nishiyama, Keiko Sugai, Masahiro Ozaki, Tsuyoshi Iida, Kohei Matsubayashi, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are considered to be a promising cell source for cell-based interventions that target CNS disorders. We previously reported that transplanting certain hiPSC-NS/PCs in the spinal cord results in tumor-like overgrowth of hiPSC-NS/PCs and subsequent deterioration of motor function. Remnant immature cells should be removed or induced into more mature cell types to avoid adverse effects of hiPSC-NS/PC transplantation...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Yuelin Zhang, Zhendong Yu, Dan Jiang, Xiaoting Liang, Songyan Liao, Zhao Zhang, Wensheng Yue, Xiang Li, Sin-Ming Chiu, Yuet-Hung Chai, Yingmin Liang, Yenyen Chow, Shuo Han, Aimin Xu, Hung-Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can donate mitochondria and rescue anthracycline-induced cardiomyocyte (CM) damage, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We determined that the superior efficiency of mitochondrial transfer by human induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) is due to high expression of intrinsic Rho GTPase 1 (MIRO1). Further, due to a higher level of TNFαIP2 expression, iPSC-MSCs are more responsive to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation for mitochondrial transfer to CMs, which is regulated via the TNF-α/NF-κB/TNFαIP2 signaling pathway...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Sunao Sugita, Yuko Iwasaki, Kenichi Makabe, Hiroyuki Kamao, Michiko Mandai, Takashi Shiina, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Yasuhiko Hirami, Yasuo Kurimoto, Masayo Takahashi
There is an ongoing controversy as to whether major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching is a solution for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we established retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in MHC homozygote donors. We observed no rejection signs in iPSC-derived RPE allografts of MHC-matched animal models without immunosuppression, whereas there were immune attacks around the graft and retinal tissue damage in MHC-mismatched models...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Silvia Mazzotta, Carlos Neves, Rory J Bonner, Andreia S Bernardo, Kevin Docherty, Stefan Hoppler
Wnt signaling is a key regulator of vertebrate heart development; however, specific roles for human cardiomyocyte development remain uncertain. Here we use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to analyze systematically in human cardiomyocyte development the expression of endogenous Wnt signaling components, monitor pathway activity, and dissect stage-specific requirements for canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling mechanisms using small-molecule inhibitors. Our analysis suggests that WNT3 and WNT8A, via FZD7 and canonical signaling, regulate BRACHYURY expression and mesoderm induction; that WNT5A/5B, via ROR2 and noncanonical signaling, regulate MESP1 expression and cardiovascular development; and that later in development WNT2, WNT5A/5B, and WNT11, via FZD4 and FZD6, regulate functional cardiomyocyte differentiation via noncanonical Wnt signaling...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Sun Young Chung, Sarah Kishinevsky, Joseph R Mazzulli, John Graziotto, Ana Mrejeru, Eugene V Mosharov, Lesly Puspita, Parvin Valiulahi, David Sulzer, Teresa A Milner, Tony Taldone, Dimitri Krainc, Lorenz Studer, Jae-Won Shim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra; however, the mechanism of neurodegeneration in PD remains unclear. A subset of familial PD is linked to mutations in PARK2 and PINK1, which lead to dysfunctional mitochondria-related proteins Parkin and PINK1, suggesting that pathways implicated in these monogenic forms could play a more general role in PD. We demonstrate that the identification of disease-related phenotypes in PD-patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons depends on the type of differentiation protocol utilized...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Sunao Sugita, Yuko Iwasaki, Kenichi Makabe, Takafumi Kimura, Takaomi Futagami, Shinji Suegami, Masayo Takahashi
Allografts of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells have been considered for the treatment of ocular diseases. We recently started the transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE cells for patients with age-related macular degeneration (autogenic grafts). However, there are at least two problems with this approach: (1) high cost, and (2) uselessness for acute patients. To resolve these issues, we established RPE cells from induced iPSCs in HLA homozygote donors. In vitro, human T cells directly recognized allogeneic iPSC-derived RPE cells that expressed HLA class I/II antigens...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"