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Stem Cell Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337119/sox10-single-transcription-factor-based-fast-and-efficient-generation-of%C3%A2-oligodendrocytes-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Juan Antonio García-León, Manoj Kumar, Ruben Boon, David Chau, Jennifer One, Esther Wolfs, Kristel Eggermont, Pieter Berckmans, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Femke de Vrij, Bas Lendemeijer, Benjamin Pavie, Nikky Corthout, Steven A Kushner, José Carlos Dávila, Ivo Lambrichts, Wei-Shou Hu, Catherine M Verfaillie
Scarce access to primary samples and lack of efficient protocols to generate oligodendrocytes (OLs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are hampering our understanding of OL biology and the development of novel therapies. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of the transcription factor SOX10 is sufficient to generate surface antigen O4-positive (O4+) and myelin basic protein-positive OLs from hPSCs in only 22 days, including from patients with multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The SOX10-induced O4+ population resembles primary human OLs at the transcriptome level and can myelinate neurons in vivo...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337118/recapitulation-of-extracellular-laminin-environment-maintains-stemness-of-satellite-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#2
Kana Ishii, Hidetoshi Sakurai, Nobuharu Suzuki, Yo Mabuchi, Ichiro Sekiya, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, Chihiro Akazawa
Satellite cells function as precursor cells in mature skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. In healthy tissue, these cells are maintained in a state of quiescence by a microenvironment formed by myofibers and basement membrane in which LAMININs (LMs) form a major component. In the present study, we evaluated the satellite cell microenvironment in vivo and found that these cells are encapsulated by LMα2-5. We sought to recapitulate this satellite cell niche in vitro by culturing satellite cells in the presence of recombinant LM-E8 fragments...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337117/xist-derepression-in-active-x-chromosome-hinders-pig-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#3
Degong Ruan, Jiangyun Peng, Xiaoshan Wang, Zhen Ouyang, Qingjian Zou, Yi Yang, Fangbing Chen, Weikai Ge, Han Wu, Zhaoming Liu, Yu Zhao, Bentian Zhao, Quanjun Zhang, Chengdan Lai, Nana Fan, Zhiwei Zhou, Qishuai Liu, Nan Li, Qin Jin, Hui Shi, Jingke Xie, Hong Song, Xiaoyu Yang, Jiekai Chen, Kepin Wang, Xiaoping Li, Liangxue Lai
Pig cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) remains extremely inefficient, and many cloned embryos undergo abnormal development. Here, by profiling transcriptome expression, we observed dysregulated chromosome-wide gene expression in every chromosome and identified a considerable number of genes that are aberrantly expressed in the abnormal cloned embryos. In particular, XIST, a long non-coding RNA gene, showed high ectopic expression in abnormal embryos. We also proved that nullification of the XIST gene in donor cells can normalize aberrant gene expression in cloned embryos and enhance long-term development capacity of the embryos...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337120/deriving-dorsal-spinal-sensory-interneurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#4
Sandeep Gupta, Daniel Sivalingam, Samantha Hain, Christian Makkar, Enrique Sosa, Amander Clark, Samantha J Butler
Cellular replacement therapies for neurological conditions use human embryonic stem cell (hESC)- or induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons to replace damaged or diseased populations of neurons. For the spinal cord, significant progress has been made generating the in-vitro-derived motor neurons required to restore coordinated movement. However, there is as yet no protocol to generate in-vitro-derived sensory interneurons (INs), which permit perception of the environment. Here, we report on the development of a directed differentiation protocol to derive sensory INs for both hESCs and hiPSCs...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337116/impact-of-swiprosin-1-efhd2-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#5
Martin Regensburger, Iryna Prots, Dorothea Reimer, Sebastian Brachs, Sandra Loskarn, Dieter Chichung Lie, Dirk Mielenz, Beate Winner
Swiprosin-1/Efhd2 (Efhd2) is highly expressed in the CNS during development and in the adult. EFHD2 is regulated by Ca2+ binding, stabilizes F-actin, and promotes neurite extension. Previous studies indicated a dysregulation of EFHD2 in human Alzheimer's disease brains. We hypothesized a detrimental effect of genetic ablation of Efhd2 on hippocampal integrity and specifically investigated adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Efhd2 was expressed throughout adult neuronal development and in mature neurons. We observed a severe reduction of the survival of adult newborn neurons in Efhd2 knockouts, starting at the early neuroblast stage...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337115/purification-of-gfr%C3%AE-1-and-gfr%C3%AE-1-spermatogonial-stem-cells-reveals-a%C3%A2-niche-dependent-mechanism-for-fate-determination
#6
Alina Garbuzov, Matthew F Pech, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Meena Sukhwani, Ruixuan J Zhang, Kyle E Orwig, Steven E Artandi
Undifferentiated spermatogonia comprise a pool of stem cells and progenitor cells that show heterogeneous expression of markers, including the cell surface receptor GFRα1. Technical challenges in isolation of GFRα1+ versus GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia have precluded the comparative molecular characterization of these subpopulations and their functional evaluation as stem cells. Here, we develop a method to purify these subpopulations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and show that GFRα1+ and GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia both demonstrate elevated transplantation activity, while differing principally in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell cycle...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307580/transplanted-donor-or-stem-cell-derived-cone-photoreceptors-can-both-integrate-and-undergo-material-transfer-in-an-environment-dependent-manner
#7
Paul V Waldron, Fabiana Di Marco, Kamil Kruczek, Joana Ribeiro, Anna B Graca, Claire Hippert, Nozie D Aghaizu, Aikaterini A Kalargyrou, Amanda C Barber, Guilia Grimaldi, Yanai Duran, Samuel J I Blackford, Magdalena Kloc, Debbie Goh, Eduardo Zabala Aldunate, Robert D Sampson, James W B Bainbridge, Alexander J Smith, Anai Gonzalez-Cordero, Jane C Sowden, Robin R Ali, Rachael A Pearson
Human vision relies heavily upon cone photoreceptors, and their loss results in permanent visual impairment. Transplantation of healthy photoreceptors can restore visual function in models of inherited blindness, a process previously understood to arise by donor cell integration within the host retina. However, we and others recently demonstrated that donor rod photoreceptors engage in material transfer with host photoreceptors, leading to the host cells acquiring proteins otherwise expressed only by donor cells...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307583/transcriptionally-and-functionally-distinct-mesenchymal-subpopulations-are-generated-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Chee Jia Chin, Suwen Li, Mirko Corselli, David Casero, Yuhua Zhu, Chong Bin He, Reef Hardy, Bruno Péault, Gay M Crooks
Various mesenchymal cell types have been identified as critical components of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche. Although several groups have described the generation of mesenchyme from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), the capacity of such cells to support hematopoiesis has not been reported. Here, we demonstrate that distinct mesenchymal subpopulations co-emerge from mesoderm during hPSC differentiation. Despite co-expression of common mesenchymal markers (CD73, CD105, CD90, and PDGFRβ), a subset of cells defined as CD146hiCD73hi expressed genes associated with the HSPC niche and supported the maintenance of functional HSPCs ex vivo, while CD146loCD73lo cells supported differentiation...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307582/igf-1r-promotes-symmetric-self-renewal-and-migration-of-alkaline-phosphatase-germ-stem-cells-through-hif-2%C3%AE-oct4-cxcr4-loop-under%C3%A2-hypoxia
#9
Yung-Che Kuo, Heng-Kien Au, Jue-Liang Hsu, Hsiao-Feng Wang, Chiung-Ju Lee, Syue-Wei Peng, Ssu-Chuan Lai, Yu-Chih Wu, Hong-Nerng Ho, Yen-Hua Huang
Hypoxia cooperates with endocrine signaling to maintain the symmetric self-renewal proliferation and migration of embryonic germline stem cells (GSCs). However, the lack of an appropriate in vitro cell model has dramatically hindered the understanding of the mechanism underlying this cooperation. Here, using a serum-free system, we demonstrated that hypoxia significantly induced the GSC mesenchymal transition, increased the expression levels of the pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 and migration-associated proteins (SDF-1, CXCR4, IGF-1, and IGF-1R), and activated the cellular expression and translocalization of the CXCR4-downstream proteins ARP3/pFAK...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307581/real-time-monitoring-of-glutathione-in-living-cells-reveals-that-high-glutathione-levels-are-required-to-maintain-stem-cell-function
#10
Eui Man Jeong, Ji-Hye Yoon, Jisun Lim, Ji-Woong Shin, A Young Cho, Jinbeom Heo, Ki Baek Lee, Jin-Haeng Lee, Won Jong Lee, Hyo-Jun Kim, Young Hoon Son, Seok-Jin Lee, Sung-Yup Cho, Dong-Myung Shin, Kihang Choi, In-Gyu Kim
The core functions of stem cells (SCs) are critically regulated by their cellular redox status. Glutathione is the most abundant non-protein thiol functioning as an antioxidant and a redox regulator. However, an investigation into the relationship between glutathione-mediated redox capacity and SC activities is hindered by lack of probe. Here, we demonstrate that cyanoacrylamide-based coumarin derivatives are ratiometric probes suitable for the real-time monitoring of glutathione levels in living SCs. These probes revealed that glutathione levels are heterogeneous among subcellular organelles and among individual cells and show dynamic changes and heterogeneity in repopulating SCs depending on oxidative stress or culture conditions...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307579/scarless-genome-editing-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-via-transient-puromycin-selection
#11
Benjamin Steyer, Qian Bu, Evan Cory, Keer Jiang, Stella Duong, Divya Sinha, Stephanie Steltzer, David Gamm, Qiang Chang, Krishanu Saha
Genome-edited human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have broad applications in disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine. We present and characterize a robust method for rapid, scarless introduction or correction of disease-associated variants in hPSCs using CRISPR/Cas9. Utilizing non-integrated plasmid vectors that express a puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (PAC) gene, whose expression and translation is linked to that of Cas9, we transiently select for cells based on their early levels of Cas9 protein...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307578/cell-cycle-specific-function-of-p53-in-fanconi-anemia-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-proliferation
#12
Xiaoli Li, Andrew F Wilson, Wei Du, Qishen Pang
Overactive p53 has been proposed as an important pathophysiological factor for bone marrow failure syndromes, including Fanconi anemia (FA). Here, we report a p53-dependent effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation in mice deficient for the FA gene Fanca. Deletion of p53 in Fanca-/- mice leads to replicative exhaustion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) in transplant recipients. Using Fanca-/- HSCs expressing the separation-of-function mutant p53515C transgene, which selectively impairs the p53 function in apoptosis but keeps its cell-cycle checkpoint activities intact, we show that the p53 cell-cycle function is specifically required for the regulation of Fanca-/- HSC proliferation...
December 29, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337114/pathological-endogenous-%C3%AE-synuclein-accumulation-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-potentially-induces-inclusions-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#13
Seiji Kaji, Takakuni Maki, Hisanori Kinoshita, Norihito Uemura, Takashi Ayaki, Yasuhiro Kawamoto, Takahiro Furuta, Makoto Urushitani, Masato Hasegawa, Yusuke Kinoshita, Yuichi Ono, Xiaobo Mao, Tran H Quach, Kazuhiro Iwai, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Ryosuke Takahashi
Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), commonly observed as α-synuclein (α-syn)-positive aggregates within oligodendrocytes, are the pathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy. The origin of α-syn in GCIs is uncertain; there is little evidence of endogenous α-syn expression in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Here, based on in vitro analysis using primary rat cell cultures, we elucidated that preformed fibrils (PFFs) generated from recombinant human α-syn trigger multimerization and an upsurge of endogenous α-syn in OPCs, which is attributable to insufficient autophagic proteolysis...
December 27, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290627/trim28-regulated-transposon-repression-is-required-for-human-germline-competency-and-not-primed-or-naive-human-pluripotency
#14
Yu Tao, Ming-Ren Yen, Tsotne Chitiashvili, Haruko Nakano, Rachel Kim, Linzi Hosohama, Yao Chang Tan, Atsushi Nakano, Pao-Yang Chen, Amander T Clark
Transition from primed to naive pluripotency is associated with dynamic changes in transposable element (TE) expression and demethylation of imprinting control regions (ICRs). In mouse, ICR methylation and TE expression are each regulated by TRIM28; however, the role of TRIM28 in humans is less clear. Here, we show that a null mutation in TRIM28 causes significant alterations in TE expression in both the naive and primed states of human pluripotency, and phenotypically this has limited effects on self-renewal, instead causing a loss of germline competency...
December 26, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290625/regulation-of-mammary-luminal-cell-fate-and-tumorigenesis-by-p38%C3%AE
#15
Ivan Del Barco Barrantes, Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini, Konstantin Slobodnyuk, Ana Igea, Sara Gregorio, Sylwia Gawrzak, Roger R Gomis, Angel R Nebreda
Mammary stem and progenitor cells are essential for mammary gland homeostasis and are also candidates for cells of origin of mammary tumors. Here, we have investigated the function of the protein kinase p38α in the mammary gland using mice that delete this protein in the luminal epithelial cells. We show that p38α regulates the fate of luminal progenitor cells through modulation of the transcription factor RUNX1, an important controller of the estrogen receptor-positive cell lineage. We also provide evidence that the regulation of RUNX1 by p38α probably involves the kinase MSK1, which phosphorylates histone H3 at the RUNX1 promoter...
December 21, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276153/histone-2b-gfp-label-retaining-prostate-luminal-cells-possess-progenitor-cell-properties-and-are-intrinsically-resistant-to-castration
#16
Dingxiao Zhang, Collene Jeter, Shuai Gong, Amanda Tracz, Yue Lu, Jianjun Shen, Dean G Tang
The existence of slow-cycling luminal cells in the prostate has been suggested, but their identity and functional properties remain unknown. Using a bigenic mouse model to earmark, isolate, and characterize the quiescent stem-like cells, we identify a label-retaining cell (LRC) population in the luminal cell layer as luminal progenitors. Molecular and biological characterizations show that these luminal LRCs are significantly enriched in the mouse proximal prostate, exhibit relative dormancy, display bipotency in both in vitro and in vivo assays, and express a stem/progenitor gene signature with resemblance to aggressive prostate cancer...
December 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276155/jak-stat-1-signaling-is-required-for-reserve-intestinal-stem-cell-activation-during-intestinal-regeneration-following-acute-inflammation
#17
Camilla A Richmond, Hannah Rickner, Manasvi S Shah, Tracy Ediger, Luke Deary, Fanny Zhou, Alessio Tovaglieri, Diana L Carlone, David T Breault
The intestinal epithelium serves as an essential barrier to the outside world and is maintained by functionally distinct populations of rapidly cycling intestinal stem cells (CBC ISCs) and slowly cycling, reserve ISCs (r-ISCs). Because disruptions in the epithelial barrier can result from pathological activation of the immune system, we sought to investigate the impact of inflammation on ISC behavior during the regenerative response. In a murine model of αCD3 antibody-induced small-intestinal inflammation, r-ISCs proved highly resistant to injury, while CBC ISCs underwent apoptosis...
December 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276156/a-phyllopod-mediated-feedback-loop-promotes-intestinal-stem-cell-enteroendocrine-commitment-in-drosophila
#18
Chang Yin, Rongwen Xi
The intestinal epithelium in the Drosophila midgut is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which are capable of generating both enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells (EEs) via alternative cell fate specification. Activation of Delta-Notch signaling directs ISCs for enterocyte generation, but how EEs are generated from ISCs remains poorly understood. Here, we identified Phyllopod (Phyl) as a key regulator that drives EE generation from ISCs. Phyl, which is normally suppressed by Notch, functions as an adaptor protein that bridges Tramtrack 69 (Ttk69) and E3 ubiquitin ligase Sina for degradation...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276154/modeling-the-pathogenesis-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-1a-using-patient-specific-ipscs
#19
Lei Shi, Lihua Huang, Ruojie He, Weijun Huang, Huiyan Wang, Xingqiang Lai, Zhengwei Zou, Jiaqi Sun, Qiong Ke, Minying Zheng, Xilin Lu, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Andy Peng Xiang, Weiqiang Li, Xiaoli Yao
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), one of the most frequent inherited peripheral neuropathies, is associated with PMP22 gene duplication. Previous studies of CMT1A mainly relied on rodent models, and it is not yet clear how PMP22 overexpression leads to the phenotype in patients. Here, we generated the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines from two CMT1A patients as an in vitro cell model. We found that, unlike the normal control cells, CMT1A hiPSCs rarely generated Schwann cells through neural crest stem cells (NCSCs)...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276152/in%C3%A2-vitro-differentiation-of-gata2-and-ly6a-reporter-embryonic-stem-cells-corresponds-to-in%C3%A2-vivo-waves-of-hematopoietic-cell-generation
#20
Mari-Liis Kauts, Carmen Rodriguez-Seoane, Polynikis Kaimakis, Sandra C Mendes, Xabier Cortés-Lavaud, Undine Hill, Elaine Dzierzak
In vivo hematopoietic generation occurs in waves of primitive and definitive cell emergence. Differentiation cultures of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) offer an accessible source of hematopoietic cells for blood-related research and therapeutic strategies. However, despite many approaches, it remains a goal to robustly generate hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells (HP/SCs) in vitro from ESCs. This is partly due to the inability to efficiently promote, enrich, and/or molecularly direct hematopoietic emergence...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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