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Journal of Extracellular Vesicles

Tania Martins-Marques, Maria Joao Pinho, Monica Zuzarte, Carla Oliveira, Paulo Pereira, Joost P G Sluijter, Celia Gomes, Henrique Girao
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are major conveyors of biological information, mediating local and systemic cell-to-cell communication under physiological and pathological conditions. These endogenous vesicles have been recognized as prominent drug delivery vehicles of several therapeutic cargoes, including doxorubicin (dox), presenting major advantages over the classical approaches. Although dox is one of the most effective anti-tumour agents in the clinical practice, its use is very often hindered by its consequent dramatic cardiotoxicity...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Brian Meehan, Janusz Rak, Dolores Di Vizio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Robert Vogel, Frank A W Coumans, Raluca G Maltesen, Anita N Böing, Katherine E Bonnington, Marike L Broekman, Murray F Broom, Edit I Buzás, Gunna Christiansen, Najat Hajji, Søren R Kristensen, Meta J Kuehn, Sigrid M Lund, Sybren L N Maas, Rienk Nieuwland, Xabier Osteikoetxea, Rosalie Schnoor, Benjamin J Scicluna, Mitch Shambrook, Jeroen de Vrij, Stephen I Mann, Andrew F Hill, Shona Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Understanding the pathogenic role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in disease and their potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility is extremely reliant on in-depth quantification, measurement and identification of EV sub-populations. Quantification of EVs has presented several challenges, predominantly due to the small size of vesicles such as exosomes and the availability of various technologies to measure nanosized particles, each technology having its own limitations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A standardized methodology to measure the concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been developed and tested...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Andreea Milasan, Nicolas Tessandier, Sisareuth Tan, Alain Brisson, Eric Boilard, Catherine Martel
The lymphatic system works in close collaboration with the cardiovascular system to preserve fluid balance throughout the body and is essential for the trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes to lymphoid organs. Recent findings have associated lymphatic dysfunction with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, inflammation and obesity. Whether lymphatic dysfunction is a cause or a consequence of these diseases, as well as how, is under intensive investigation...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Marie Stampe Ostenfeld, Steffen Grann Jensen, Dennis Kjølhede Jeppesen, Lise-Lotte Christensen, Stine Buch Thorsen, Jan Stenvang, Michael Lykke Hvam, Anni Thomsen, Peter Mouritzen, Mads Heilskov Rasmussen, Hans Jørgen Nielsen, Torben Falck Ørntoft, Claus Lindbjerg Andersen
Cancer cells secrete small membranous extracellular vesicles (EVs) into their microenvironment and circulation. These contain biomolecules, including proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). Both circulating EVs and miRNAs have received much attention as biomarker candidates for non-invasive diagnostics. Here we describe a sensitive analytical method for isolation and subsequent miRNA profiling of epithelial-derived EVs from blood samples of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The epithelial-derived EVs were isolated by immunoaffinity-capture using the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as marker...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Myriam Oliveira-Rodríguez, Sheila López-Cobo, Hugh T Reyburn, Agustín Costa-García, Soraya López-Martín, María Yáñez-Mó, Eva Cernuda-Morollón, Annette Paschen, Mar Valés-Gómez, Maria Carmen Blanco-López
Exosomes are cell-secreted nanovesicles (40-200 nm) that represent a rich source of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of these vesicles as biomarkers, their detection has been limited due in part to current technical challenges in the rapid isolation and analysis of exosomes. The complexity of the development of analytical platforms relies on the heterogeneous composition of the exosome membrane. One of the most attractive tests is the inmunochromatographic strips, which allow rapid detection by unskilled operators...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Janneke Boere, Chris H A van de Lest, Sten F W M Libregts, Ger J A Arkesteijn, Willie J C Geerts, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen, Jos Malda, P René van Weeren, Marca H M Wauben
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in synovial fluid (SF) are gaining increased recognition as important factors in joint homeostasis, joint regeneration, and as biomarkers of joint disease. A limited number of studies have investigated EVs in SF samples of patients with joint disease, but knowledge on the role of EVs in healthy joints is lacking. In addition, no standardized protocol is available for isolation of EVs from SF. Based on the high viscosity of SF caused by high concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) - a prominent extracellular matrix component - it was hypothesized that EV recovery could be optimized by pretreatment with hyaluronidase (HYase)...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Arron Thind, Clive Wilson
Intercommunication between cancer cells and with their surrounding and distant environments is key to the survival, progression and metastasis of the tumour. Exosomes play a role in this communication process. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is frequently dysregulated in tumour cells and can be reflected by distinct exosomal miRNA (ex-miRNA) profiles isolated from the bodily fluids of cancer patients. Here, the potential of ex-miRNA as a cancer biomarker and therapeutic target is critically analysed. Exosomes are a stable source of miRNA in bodily fluids but, despite a number of methods for exosome extraction and miRNA quantification, their suitability for diagnostics in a clinical setting is questionable...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Stephanie N Hurwitz, Meghan M Conlon, Mark A Rider, Naomi C Brownstein, David G Meckes
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication in healthy and pathological environments. Because EVs are present in a variety of biological fluids and contain molecular signatures of their cell or tissue of origin, they have great diagnostic and prognostic value. The ability of EVs to deliver biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids to cells has generated interest in developing novel therapeutics. Despite their potential medical use, many of the mechanisms underlying EV biogenesis and secretion remain unknown...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Fabio Simbari, Jana McCaskill, Gillian Coakley, Marissa Millar, Rick M Maizels, Gemma Fabriás, Josefina Casas, Amy H Buck
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Joanne Louise Welton, Paul Brennan, Mark Gurney, Jason Paul Webber, Lisa Kate Spary, David Gil Carton, Juan Manuel Falcón-Pérez, Sean Peter Walton, Malcolm David Mason, Zsuzsanna Tabi, Aled Clayton
Proteomics analysis of biofluid-derived vesicles holds enormous potential for discovering non-invasive disease markers. Obtaining vesicles of sufficient quality and quantity for profiling studies has, however, been a major problem, as samples are often replete with co-isolated material that can interfere with the identification of genuine low abundance, vesicle components. Here, we used a combination of ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography to isolate and analyse vesicles of plasma or urine origin...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Dorota Tataruch-Weinert, Luca Musante, Oliver Kretz, Harry Holthofer
BACKGROUND: Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) represent an ideal platform for biomarker discovery. They carry different types of RNA species, and reported profile discrepancies related to the presence/absence of 18s and 28s rRNA remain controversial. Moreover, sufficient urinary RNA yields and respective quality RNA profiles are still to be fully established. METHODS: UEVs were enriched by hydrostatic filtration dialysis, and RNA content was extracted using 7 different commercially available techniques...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
James N Higginbotham, Qin Zhang, Dennis K Jeppesen, Andrew M Scott, H Charles Manning, Josiah Ochieng, Jeffrey L Franklin, Robert J Coffey
Exosomes are small, 40-130 nm secreted extracellular vesicles that recently have become the subject of intense focus as agents of intercellular communication, disease biomarkers and potential vehicles for drug delivery. It is currently unknown whether a cell produces different populations of exosomes with distinct cargo and separable functions. To address this question, high-resolution methods are needed. Using a commercial flow cytometer and directly labelled fluorescent antibodies, we show the feasibility of using fluorescence-activated vesicle sorting (FAVS) to analyse and sort individual exosomes isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation from the conditioned medium of DiFi cells, a human colorectal cancer cell line...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Zoraida Andreu, Eva Rivas, Aitana Sanguino-Pascual, Amalia Lamana, Mónica Marazuela, Isidoro González-Alvaro, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Hortensia de la Fuente, María Yáñez-Mó
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as potent non-invasive biomarkers. However, current methodologies are time consuming and difficult to translate to clinical practice. To analyse EV-encapsulated circulating miRNA, we searched for a quick, easy and economic method to enrich frozen human serum samples for EV. We compared the efficiency of several protocols and commercial kits to isolate EVs. Different methods based on precipitation, columns or filter systems were tested and compared with ultracentrifugation, which is the most classical protocol to isolate EVs...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Kazuya Iwai, Tamiko Minamisawa, Kanako Suga, Yasutomo Yajima, Kiyotaka Shiba
Diagnostic methods that focus on the extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in saliva have been attracting great attention because of their non-invasiveness. EVs contain biomolecules such as proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), which originate from cells that release EVs, making them an ideal source for liquid biopsy. Although there have been many reports on density-based fractionation of EVs from blood and urine, the number of reports on EVs from saliva has been limited, most probably because of the difficulties in separating EVs from viscous saliva using density gradient centrifugation...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Michelle E Hung, Joshua N Leonard
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general biophysical properties impact loading and delivery of RNA by EVs, we developed a platform for actively loading engineered cargo RNAs into EVs...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Tseday Z Tegegn, Silvia H De Paoli, Martina Orecna, Oumsalama K Elhelu, Samuel A Woodle, Ivan D Tarandovskiy, Mikhail V Ovanesov, Jan Simak
BACKGROUND: Freezing is promising for extended platelet (PLT) storage for transfusion. 6% DMSO cryopreserved PLTs (CPPs) are currently in clinical development. CPPs contain significant amount of platelet membrane vesicles (PMVs). PLT-membrane changes and PMV release in CPP are poorly understood, and haemostatic effects of CPP PMVs are not fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate PLT-membrane alterations in CPPs and provide comprehensive characterization of CPP PMVs, and their contribution to procoagulant activity (PCA) of CPPs...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Larissa Belov, Kieran J Matic, Susannah Hallal, O Giles Best, Stephen P Mulligan, Richard I Christopherson
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membranous particles (30-1,000 nm in diameter) secreted by cells. Important biological functions have been attributed to 2 subsets of EV, the exosomes (bud from endosomal membranes) and the microvesicles (MV; bud from plasma membranes). Since both types of particles contain surface proteins derived from their cell of origin, their detection in blood may enable diagnosis and prognosis of disease. We have used an antibody microarray (DotScan) to compare the surface protein profiles of live cancer cells with those of their EV, based on their binding patterns to immobilized antibodies...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Chang-Sook Hong, Sonja Funk, Laurent Muller, Michael Boyiadzis, Theresa L Whiteside
OBJECTIVE: Isolation from human plasma of exosomes that retain functional and morphological integrity for probing their protein, lipid and nucleic acid content is a priority for the future use of exosomes as biomarkers. A method that meets these criteria and can be scaled up for patient monitoring is thus desirable. METHODS: Plasma specimens (1 mL) of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were differentially centrifuged, ultrafiltered and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography in small disposable columns (mini-SEC)...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
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