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Journal of Extracellular Vesicles

Charles Williams, Felix Royo, Oier Aizpurua-Olaizola, Raquel Pazos, Geert-Jan Boons, Niels-Christian Reichardt, Juan M Falcon-Perez
It is now acknowledged that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important effectors in a vast number of biological processes through intercellular transfer of biomolecules. Increasing research efforts in the EV field have yielded an appreciation for the potential role of glycans in EV function. Indeed, recent reports show that the presence of glycoconjugates is involved in EV biogenesis, in cellular recognition and in the efficient uptake of EVs by recipient cells. It is clear that a full understanding of EV biology will require researchers to focus also on EV glycosylation through glycomics approaches...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Dionysios C Watson, Bryant C Yung, Cristina Bergamaschi, Bhabadeb Chowdhury, Jenifer Bear, Dimitris Stellas, Aizea Morales-Kastresana, Jennifer C Jones, Barbara K Felber, Xiaoyuan Chen, George N Pavlakis
The development of extracellular vesicles (EV) for therapeutic applications is contingent upon the establishment of reproducible, scalable, and high-throughput methods for the production and purification of clinical grade EV. Methods including ultracentrifugation (U/C), ultrafiltration, immunoprecipitation, and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been employed to isolate EV, each facing limitations such as efficiency, particle purity, lengthy processing time, and/or sample volume. We developed a cGMP-compatible method for the scalable production, concentration, and isolation of EV through a strategy involving bioreactor culture, tangential flow filtration (TFF), and preparative SEC...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Yoosoo Yang, Yeonsun Hong, Eunji Cho, Gi Beom Kim, In-San Kim
Membrane proteins are of great research interest, particularly because they are rich in targets for therapeutic application. The suitability of various membrane proteins as targets for therapeutic formulations, such as drugs or antibodies, has been studied in preclinical and clinical studies. For therapeutic application, however, a protein must be expressed and purified in as close to its native conformation as possible. This has proven difficult for membrane proteins, as their native conformation requires the association with an appropriate cellular membrane...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Masaharu Somiya, Yusuke Yoshioka, Takahiro Ochiya
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) deliver biologically active cargos from donor cells to recipient cells for intercellular communication. Since the existence of RNA cargo was discovered, EVs have been considered to be useful drug-delivery systems. Specifically, EVs from bovine milk (mEV) are one of the most promising platforms, since bovine milk is a scalable source of EVs for mass production. However, it is still difficult to isolate pure EVs from bovine milk owing to the complexity of raw materials. Furthermore, the biocompatibility and immunotoxicity of mEVs are still unclear...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Andrew P Joy, D Craig Ayre, Ian C Chute, Annie-Pier Beauregard, Gabriel Wajnberg, Anirban Ghosh, Stephen M Lewis, Rodney J Ouellette, David A Barnett
Sample amount is often a limiting factor for multi-parametric analyses that encompass at least three areas of '-omics' research: genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Limited sample amounts are also an important consideration when these multi-parametric analyses are performed on extracellular vesicles (EVs), as the amount of EVs (and EV cargo) that can be isolated is often very low. It is well understood that a monophasic solution of phenol and guanidine isothiocyanate (i.e. TRIzol©) can simultaneously isolate DNA, RNA and proteins from biological samples; however, it is most commonly used for the extraction of RNA...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Sabrina Roy, Fred H Hochberg, Pamela S Jones
This article aims to document the growth in extracellular vesicle (EV) research. Here, we report the growth in EV-related studies, patents, and grants as well as emerging companies with major intent on exosomes. Four different databases were utilized for electronic searches of published literature: two general databases - Scopus/Elsevier and Web of Science (WoS), as well as two specialized US government databases - the USA Patent and Trademark Office and National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the Department of Health and Human Services...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Priyanka Sharma, Sonja Ludwig, Laurent Muller, Chang Sook Hong, John M Kirkwood, Soldano Ferrone, Theresa L Whiteside
Tumour-derived exosomes (TEX) are a subset of extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in body fluids of patients with cancer. The role of this exosome subset in melanoma progression has been of interest ever since ex vivo studies of exosomes produced by melanoma cell lines were shown to suppress anti-melanoma immune responses. To study the impact of melanoma-derived exosomes (MTEX) present in patients' plasma on melanoma progression, isolation of MTEX from total plasma exosomes is necessary. We have developed an immunoaffinity-based method for MTEX capture from plasma of melanoma patients...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Mercedes N Munkonda, Shareef Akbari, Chloe Landry, Suzy Sun, Fengxia Xiao, Maddison Turner, Chet E Holterman, Rania Nasrallah, Richard L Hébert, Christopher R J Kennedy, Dylan Burger
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a hallmark of advanced diabetic kidney disease that is linked to a decline in renal function, however the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Microparticles (MPs) are 100-1000 nm vesicles shed from injured cells that are implicated in intercellular signalling. Our lab recently observed the formation of MPs from podocytes and their release into urine of animal models of type 1 and 2 diabetes and in humans with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of podocyte MPs in tubular epithelial cell fibrotic responses...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Ramon M Eichenberger, Md Hasanuzzaman Talukder, Matthew A Field, Phurpa Wangchuk, Paul Giacomin, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Whipworms are parasitic nematodes that live in the gut of more than 500 million people worldwide. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining parasite material, the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris has been extensively used as a model to study human whipworm infections. These nematodes secrete a multitude of compounds that interact with host tissues where they orchestrate a parasitic existence. Herein we provide the first comprehensive characterization of the excretory/secretory products of T. muris. We identify 148 proteins secreted by T...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Mirja Krause, Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska, Florence Naillat, Ulla Saarela, Christina Schmidt, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Geneviève Bart, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo J Vainio
The subfraction of extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, transfers biological molecular information not only between cells but also between tissues and organs as nanolevel signals. Owing to their unique properties such that they contain several RNA species and proteins implicated in kidney development, exosomes are putative candidates to serve as developmental programming units in embryonic induction and tissue interactions. We used the mammalian metanephric kidney and its nephron-forming mesenchyme containing the nephron progenitor/stem cells as a model to investigate if secreted exosomes could serve as a novel type of inductive signal in a process defined as embryonic induction that controls organogenesis...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Roman Kornilov, Maija Puhka, Bettina Mannerström, Hanna Hiidenmaa, Hilkka Peltoniemi, Pia Siljander, Riitta Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Sippy Kaur
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most commonly used supplement in studies involving cell-culture experiments. However, FBS contains large numbers of bovine extracellular vesicles (EVs), which hamper the analyses of secreted EVs from the cell type of preference and, thus, also the downstream analyses. Therefore, a prior elimination of EVs from FBS is crucial. However, the current methods of EV depletion by ultracentrifugation are cumbersome and the commercial alternatives expensive. In this study, our aim was to develop a protocol to completely deplete EVs from FBS, which may have wide applicability in cell-culture applications...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Pablo García-Manrique, María Matos, Gemma Gutiérrez, Carmen Pazos, María Carmen Blanco-López
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as novel theranostic tools. Limitations related to clinical uses are leading to a new research area on design and manufacture of artificial EVs. Several strategies have been reported in order to produce artificial EVs, but there has not yet been a clear criterion by which to differentiate these novel biomaterials. In this paper, we suggest for the first time a systematic classification of the terms used to build up the artificial EV landscape, based on the preparation method...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Christian Preußer, Lee-Hsueh Hung, Tim Schneider, Silke Schreiner, Martin Hardt, Anna Moebus, Sentot Santoso, Albrecht Bindereif
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of noncoding RNAs present in all eukaryotic cells investigated so far and generated by a special mode of alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Thereby, single exons, or multiple adjacent and spliced exons, are released in a circular form. CircRNAs are cell-type specifically expressed, are unusually stable, and can be found in various body fluids such as blood and saliva. Here we analysed circRNAs and the corresponding linear splice isoforms from human platelets, where circRNAs are particularly abundant, compared with other hematopoietic cell types...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Sebastian Borosch, Eva Dahmen, Christian Beckers, Christian Stoppe, Eva Miriam Buhl, Bernd Denecke, Andreas Goetzenich, Sandra Kraemer
Preconditioning is a promising technique to protect the heart from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. In this context, the crosstalk between different cardiac cell types and especially the exchange of cardioprotective mediators has come into the focus of current research. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs), nano-sized structures, emerged as possible communication mediators. They are taken up by recipient cells and can alter gene expression or activate intracellular signal cascades. It has been shown that all cardiac cell types are able to secrete EVs, but so far the influence of an in vitro preconditioning stimulus on EV concentration and composition has not been investigated...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Kok Hian Tan, Soon Sim Tan, Mor Jack Ng, Wan Shi Tey, Wei Kian Sim, John Carson Allen, Sai Kiang Lim
Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as cholera toxin B chain (CTB)- or annexin V (AV)-binding EVs were previously shown to be rich sources of biomarkers. Here we test if previously identified pre-eclampsia (PE) candidate biomarkers, TIMP-1 in CTB-EVs (CTB-TIMP) and PAI-1 in AV-EVs (AV-PAI) complement plasma PlGF in predicting PE in a low-risk obstetric population. Eight hundred and forty-three prospectively banked plasma samples collected at 28 + 0 to 32 + 0 gestation weeks in the Neonatal and Obstetrics Risk Assessment (NORA) cohort study were assayed by sandwich ELISAs for plasma PlGF, CTB-TIMP1 and AV-PAI1...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Chuan Wen, Robert C Seeger, Muller Fabbri, Larry Wang, Alan S Wayne, Ambrose Y Jong
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) deliver bioactive macromolecules (i.e. proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) for intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types including immune cells. Immune cell-derived EVs modulate diverse aspects of the immune system to either enhance or suppress immune activities. The extensive effects of immune cell-derived EVs have become the focus of great interest for various nano-biomedical applications, ranging from the medical use of nanoplatform-based diagnostic agents to the development of therapeutic interventions as well as vaccine applications, and thus may be ideal for 'immune-theranostic'...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Kenneth W Witwer, Carolina Soekmadji, Andrew F Hill, Marca H Wauben, Edit I Buzás, Dolores Di Vizio, Juan M Falcon-Perez, Chris Gardiner, Fred Hochberg, Igor V Kurochkin, Jan Lötvall, Suresh Mathivanan, Rienk Nieuwland, Susmita Sahoo, Hidetoshi Tahara, Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Alissa M Weaver, Hang Yin, Lei Zheng, Yong Song Gho, Peter Quesenberry, Clotilde Théry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Kaloyan Takov, Derek M Yellon, Sean M Davidson
Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) such as exosomes are nanocarriers of proteins, RNAs and DNAs. Isolation of pure sEV populations remains challenging, with reports of protein and lipoprotein contaminants in the isolates. Cellular uptake - a cornerstone for understanding exosome and sEV function - is frequently examined using lipophilic dyes such as PKH67 or CellMask to label the vesicles. In this study, we investigated whether contaminants can confound the outcomes from sEV and exosomes uptake experiments...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Jan Van Deun, An Hendrix
The EV-TRACK knowledgebase is developed to cope with the need for transparency and rigour to increase reproducibility and facilitate standardization of extracellular vesicle (EV) research. The knowledgebase includes a checklist for authors and editors intended to improve the transparency of methodological aspects of EV experiments, allows queries and meta-analysis of EV experiments and keeps track of the current state of the art. Widespread implementation by the EV research community is key to its success.
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
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