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GMS Hygiene and Infection Control

Mina Yekani, Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi, Fatemeh Yeganeh Sefidan, Robab Azargun, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Reza Ghotaslou
Aim: Antibiotic susceptibility patterns help to select appropriate empirical treatments of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from UTIs in Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: This study was carried out during 2016 in hospitals located in Tabriz, Urmia, and Khoy. Midstream urine specimens were cultured and identified by the standard methods. Susceptibility testing was carried out using the disk diffusion agar method for cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, cefepime, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, aztreonam, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin and the agar dilution method for MIC determination of aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Angelika Hausemann, Miriam Grünewald, Ulla Otto, Ursel Heudorf
The cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals is becoming increasingly important in the multi-barrier approach for preventing infection, in addition to hand hygiene and proper reprocessing of medical devices. Therefore, in 2014, the quality of structure, process and outcome of surface preparation was checked in all hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Because of great need for improvements, this monitoring was repeated in 2016. The data are presented in comparison to those in 2014. Methods: All 16 hospitals provided information on the quality of structure...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Madeleine Dulon, Dana Wendeler, Albert Nienhaus
Objective: After a needlestick injury (NSI) with contaminated blood, there is a risk of seroconversion. Statutory accident insurance (SAI) claims data were used to determine the numbers of seroconversions for hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) and for HIV. Materials and methods: Cases of HBV, HCV or HIV infection recognised as occupational diseases between 2006 and 2015 were selected from the BGW (Berufsgenossenschaft für Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege) database. Cases where an NSI was reported to the accident insurer before the diagnosis of the infectious disease was made were included in the analysis...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Janine Zweigner, Elisabeth Meyer, Petra Gastmeier, Frank Schwab
Aim: The consequences of antibiotic overuse are substantial. We combined and analyzed the infection diagnoses and antibiotic prescribing practices of physicians in outpatient settings. Recommendations for targeting policy efforts to focused areas are given. Methods: Antibiotic prescriptions and infections diagnosed were provided by a German statutory health insurance provider over a 12-month period. Antibiotic use was expressed as prescriptions per 100 patients. Results: 2,594,000 patient-physician contacts within twelve months were analyzed...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Anja Schablon, Olaf Kleinmüller, Albert Nienhaus, Claudia Peters
Introduction: Patient transport employees frequently come into contact with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and therefore are at a greater risk of infection than the general population. These pathogens pose a significant challenge for employees of patient transport services since they can spread over long distances through patient transfers. To date, little is known about the occupational risk of MRSA infection in patient transport settings. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in patient transport personnel, including taxi drivers, as well as the potential risk factors for MRSA colonization...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Sajjad Omidi, Masoumeh Douraghi, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi, Arash Okazi
Introduction: Shigella spp. is a growing global health concern due to increasing multiple drug resistance, commonly resulting in therapeutic failure. Integrons are gene expression systems run by integrase genes. The aims of this study were detection of class I, II and III integrons and assessment of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea patients. Materials and methods: From January to December 2015, 16 Shigella spp. were isolated from 310 non-duplicative diarrheal stool samples in Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Elnaze Zare Mirzaei, Elahe Lashani, Abolfazl Davoodabadi
Background: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are normal flora of the mouth, intestines and the female genital tract. They are also frequently found in meat, vegetables, and dairy products. Most of probiotic bacteria belong to the LAB group. Some probiotic LAB are useful in prevention and treatment of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of LAB isolated from traditional yogurt and milk against Shigella strains. Materials and methods: Forty LAB strains were isolated from traditional yogurt and milk...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Ursel Heudorf, Stefanie Gasteyer, Maria Müller, Nicole Serra, Tim Westphal, Claudia Reinheimer, Volkhard Kempf
Background: In accordance with the German Infection Protection Act, the treatment and handling of laundry was checked by the Public Health Department in 2016 in all Frankfurt nursing homes with special focus on the staff's clothing. Methods: On-site visits and surveys were conducted in all 44 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, and random microbiological examinations of 58 reprocessed and 58 already worn protective gowns were performed to determine the numbers of the colony forming units (cfu) and microbiological differentiation of the pathogen species...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Stefan Monecke, Antje Ruppelt-Lorz, Elke Müller, Annett Reissig, Alexander Thürmer, Anna C Shore, David C Coleman, Ralf Ehricht, Lutz Jatzwauk
Mupirocin is used for eradicating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in nasal colonization. A plasmid-borne gene, mupA , is associated with high-level mupirocin resistance. Despite the fact that, among all MRSA from a tertiary care center in the German state of Saxony, the prevalence of mupA , encoding high-level mupirocin resistance, was approximately 1% over a 15-year period from 2000-2015, a sharp increase to nearly 20% was observed in 2016/2017. DNA microarray profiling revealed that this was due to the dissemination of a variant of CC22-MRSA-IV ("Barnim Epidemic Strain" or "UK-EMRSA-15"), which, in addition to mecA , harbors mupA , aacA-aphD , qacA , and - in most isolates - erm (C)...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Mina Aghamali, Hossein Samadi Kafil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Hossein Ghorbani, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Fatemeh Yeganeh Sefidan, Mina Yekani, Reza Ghotaslou
Aim: The combination of different antimicrobial agents and subsequent synergetic effects may be beneficial in treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. The aim of the present study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and the effect of different antibiotic combinations against the multidrug-resistant (MDR), biofilm-producing bacterium P. aeruginosa . Methods: Thirty-six P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were evaluated. The disk diffusion method was performed to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Kolsoom Shirzadi Karamolah, Fatemeh Mousavi, Hassan Mahmoudi
Background: Plants are a source of potential anti-infective agents. Daphne mucronata is a shrub in the family Thymelaeaceae, which has therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extracts of the leaves and stem of Daphne mucronata on the growth of oral bacteria. Materials and methods: Leaves and stem of Daphne mucronata were collected from the Zagros Mountains, Lorestan, Iran. They were air dried in the shade. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extracts of Daphne mucronata were made by using classic techniques for solvent extraction of plant material...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
M M Soltan Dallal, S Zamaniahari, A Davoodabadi, M Hosseini, Z Rajabi
Background: The pickle, a traditional fermented product, is popular among Iranians. Much research has been conducted worldwide on this food group. Due to a lack of related data in Iran, this study was conducted to isolate and identify dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in pickles and salted pickles. Materials and methods: Seventy samples were collected from different regions of Iran. The isolated bacteria were identified as LAB by Gram staining and catalase by using MRS agar. Then, those strains were identified at the species level by physiological tests (e...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Nikos Ulrich, Petra Gastmeier
Some infection control recommendations distinguish epidemic and endemic levels for infection control. However, it is often difficult to separate long lasting outbreaks from high endemic levels and it remains open, if this distinction is really useful. Aim: To compare infection control measures in endemic and epidemic outbreaks. Methods: The example of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium outbreaks in haematology or oncology departments was used to analyse differences in infection control measures between outbreaks and high endemic levels...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Reza Ghotaslou, Naser Alizadeh, Mina Yekani, Samad Beheshtirouy, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Tahereh Pirzadeh, Mohammad Yousef Memar
Background:Bacteroides fragilis is the most common anaerobic pathogen isolated from surgical site infections (SSIs). Metronidazole resistance is increasing and the mechanisms of resistance are not clear in some isolates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the metronidazole susceptibility prevalence, and detect nim genes in B. fragilis isolates from SSIs. Methods: This study included 100 surgery patients with signs and symptoms indicative of SSIs. Syringe aspiration of the infected site was used to collect specimens...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Mahmood Saffari, Hadis Alizadeh Jolandimi, Mojtaba Sehat, Nastarn Vali Nejad, Mehrdad Hedayati, Mahbobeh Zamani, Amir Ghasemi
Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative) test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Fabienne Ibert, Monika Eckstein, Frank Günther, Nico T Mutters
Background: Spatial isolation is a common infection control measure, but negative psychological effects are often neglected. We investigated which factors influence the perception of single room isolated patients. Methods: In the present correlative cross-sectional study, 32 isolated patients have been interviewed within three departments of the Heidelberg University Hospital, one of Germany's largest hospitals. The following questionnaires were used: 10-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a self-developed questionnaire to evaluate the individual experience of isolation...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Denis Gümbel, Georg Daeschlein, Axel Ekkernkamp, Axel Kramer, Matthias B Stope
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a highly reactive ionized physical state thereby provoking divers biological effects. In medical applications, CAP treatment promotes wound healing, provokes immunostimulation, and is antiseptically active. Moreover, CAP interacts with antiproliferative mechanisms suggesting CAP treatment as a promising anticancer strategy. Here we review the current state of science concerning the so far investigated CAP effects on different cancer entities in orthopaedic and urologic oncology...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Mahmood Robati Anaraki, Shiva Mahboubi, Tahereh Pirzadeh, Farzaneh Lotfipour, Naimeh Torkamanzad
Objective: The disinfection of dental stone casts using microwave radiation has been shown, but doubts remain regarding its efficacy under various conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of microwave disinfection on wet and dry dental stone casts contaminated by a resistant microorganism. Material and methods: In this in vitro study, 34 stone half-casts were prepared, contaminated with Bacillus subtilis and divided into two groups. After drying the specimens of one group for 15 minutes using 450 W microwave energy, all the wet and dry specimens were exposed to 900 W microwave energy for 5 minutes...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Sally F Bloomfield, Philip C Carling, Martin Exner
Hygiene procedures for hands, surfaces and fabrics are central to preventing spread of infection in settings including healthcare, food production, catering, agriculture, public settings, and home and everyday life. They are used in situations including hand hygiene, clinical procedures, decontamination of environmental surfaces, respiratory hygiene, food handling, laundry hygiene, toilet hygiene and so on. Although the principles are common to all, approaches currently used in different settings are inconsistent...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
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