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Infectious Diseases of Poverty

Ru-Bo Wang, Jia-Qiang Dong, Zhi-Gui Xia, Tao Cai, Qing-Feng Zhang, Yao Zhang, Yang-Hui Tian, Xiao-Ying Sun, Guang-Yun Zhang, Qing-Pu Li, Xiao-Yu Xu, Jia-Yin Li, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: For many countries where malaria is endemic, the burden of malaria is high in border regions. In ethnic minority areas along the Myanmar-China border, residents have poor access to medical care for diagnosis and treatment, and there have been many malaria outbreaks in such areas. Since 2007, with the support of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), a malaria control project was introduced to reduce the malaria burden in several ethnic minority regions...
October 6, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Zachary S Brown, Randall A Kramer, David Ocan, Christine Oryema
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-based tools remain critical for controlling vector-borne diseases in Uganda. Securing public support from targeted populations for such tools is an important component in sustaining their long-run effectiveness. Yet little quantitative evidence is available on the perceived benefits and costs of vector control programmes among targeted households. METHODS: A survey was administered to a clustered random sample of 612 households in Gulu and Oyam districts of northern Uganda during a period of very high malaria transmission and following a pilot indoor residual spray (IRS) programme...
October 6, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Guangyu Lu, Yaobao Liu, Claudia Beiersmann, Yu Feng, Jun Cao, Olaf Müller
BACKGROUND: China has made great progress in malaria control over the last century and now aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. In 2012, the country launched its 1-3-7 surveillance and response strategy for malaria elimination. The strategy involves to case reporting within 1 day, case investigation within 3 days, and focus investigation and public health actions within 7 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the challenges in and lessons learned during the implementation of the 1-3-7 strategy in China so far...
October 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Sunuraj Sivarajan, Siddharudha Shivalli, Debomallya Bhuyan, Michael Mawlong, Rittwick Barman
BACKGROUND: India is an integral component of "tsutsugamushi triangle" which depicts a part of the globe endemic to scrub typhus. Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. The present study aimed to study the clinical and paraclinical profile, complications and predictors of outcome among 90 cases of scrub typhus diagnosed in a hospital of north-eastern India from Sept 2011 to Aug 2012...
October 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Yang-Mu Huang, Qi-Peng Zhao, Qiao-Meng Ren, Dan-Lu Peng, Yan Guo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease globally. Adequate and proper use of anti-TB drugs is essential for TB control. This study aims to study China's production capacity and sales situation of anti-TB drugs, and to further discuss the potential for China to contribute to global TB control. METHODS: The production data of anti-TB drugs in China from 2011 to 2013 and the sales data from 2010 to 2014 were extracted from Ministry of Industry and Information Technology database of China and IMS Health database, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Xu-Can Zeng, Xiao-Dong Sun, Jian-Xiong Li, Meng-Ni Chen, Dao-Wei Deng, Cang-Lin Zhang, Zu-Rui Lin, Zi-You Zhou, Yao-Wu Zhou, Ya-Ming Yang, Sheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: This paper seeks to assess the function of malaria control consultation and service posts (MCCSPs) that are located on the border areas of Yunnan province, P.R. China, as a strategy for eliminating malaria among the mobile and migrant population in these areas. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive analytical study was conducted. Blood smear examinations conducted at all MCCSPs in Yunnan from 2008 to 2014 were analysed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 to understand how the MCCSPs function and to elucidate the quality of the blood smear examinations that they conduct...
October 4, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Freda Osei Akoto
BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that not only do anti-filarials significantly reduce larval forms, but that host immune responses also contribute to the clearance of filarial parasites; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. MAIN TEXT: Filarial infections caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia species (lymphatic filariasis) and Onchocerca volvulus (onchocerciasis) affect almost 200 million individuals worldwide and pose major public health challenges in endemic regions...
October 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Pranab Chatterjee, Manish Kakkar, Sanjay Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Globally, the threat of infectious diseases, particularly emerging infectious diseases, originating at the human-animal-environment interface, has caught health systems off guard. With forecasts that future pathogen emergence will be centred in hotspots in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the need to prepare policy frameworks that can combat this threat is urgent. DISCUSSION: Emergence of diseases such as avian influenza and Ebola virus disease, which threatened social disruption, have established the need for intersectoral coordination/collaboration...
October 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jean Joel R Bigna, Claudia S Plottel, Sinata Koulla-Shiro
INTRODUCTION: Recently published large randomized controlled trials, START, TEMPRANO and HPTN 052 show the clinical benefit of early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-infected persons and in reducing HIV transmission. The trials influenced the World Health Organization (WHO) decision to issue updated recommendations to prescribe ART to all individuals living with HIV, irrespective of age and CD4 cell count. DISCUSSION: It is clear that the new 2015 WHO recommendations if followed, will change the face of the HIV epidemic and probably curb its burden over time...
September 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Xun Lei, Ke Huang, Qin Liu, Yong-Feng Jie, Sheng-Lan Tang
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients face numerous difficulties adhering to the long-term, rigorous TB treatment regimen. Findings on TB patients' treatment adherence vary across existing literature and official reports. The present study attempted to determine the actual treatment adherence of new TB patients and to identify factors leading to non-adherence. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 481 newly confirmed TB patients from three counties in western China were enrolled during June to December 2012 and was followed until June 2013...
May 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Subash Chandra Sonkar, Kirti Wasnik, Anita Kumar, Pratima Mittal, Daman Saluja
BACKGROUND: Trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in both men and women. Screening of trichomoniasis is problematic in resource challenged settings as currently available, inexpensive diagnostic methods are of low sensitivity and/or specificity. In India, National AIDS Control organization (NACO) recommended syndromic case management (SCM) for treatment. The objective of the present study was to compare the utility of the NACO-NACP III Algorithms for STI/RTI treatment used by clinicians with PCR based diagnosis...
May 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jian-Peng Xiao, Jian-Feng He, Ai-Ping Deng, Hua-Liang Lin, Tie Song, Zhi-Qiang Peng, Xiao-Cheng Wu, Tao Liu, Zhi-Hao Li, Shannon Rutherford, Wei-Lin Zeng, Xing Li, Wen-Jun Ma, Yong-Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Dengue cases have been reported each year for the past 25 years in Guangdong Province, China with a recorded historical peak in 2014. This study aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics of this large outbreak in order to better understand its epidemic factors and to inform control strategies. METHODS: Data for clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases in 2014 were extracted from the China Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System...
May 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Xi Sun, Li-Fu Wang, Ying Feng, Hui Xie, Xiao-Ying Zheng, Ai He, Md Robiul Karim, Zhi-Yue Lv, Zhong-Dao Wu
BACKGROUND: Canthariasis is a disease of humans caused by the infestation of beetle larvae. It is the second important insectal disease after myiasis. Several species of beetles are reported to cause the disease in gastrointestinal tract, urogenital system, nasal sinuses, ears and faces of mammals. The cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne is a widespread and destructive pest that usually feeds on tobacco, tea, beans, cereal grains, and animal and plant specimen. While there was no previous evidence of human infestation by this worm, we report the first case of L...
May 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Cao Chen, Yan Lv, Qi Shi, Wei Zhou, Kang Xiao, Jing Sun, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xiao-Ping Dong
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the state of activity and levels of complement in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with various prion diseases (PrDs). FINDINGS: The proteomic data emphasized the levels of 20 known complement components found in the CSF of the sCJD panel that were lower than those found in the non-PrD panel. 50 % of the complement hemolytic activity (CH50) assays revealed significantly lower activity of complement in the CSF of the sCJD panel...
May 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Huiying Chen, Kaili Li, Xiaohua Wang, Xinyan Yang, Yi Lin, Fang Cai, Wenbin Zhong, Chunyan Lin, Zhongling Lin, Yajun Ma
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is distributed widely in China, as a primary vector of Dengue fever and Chikungunya fever in south of China. Chemical insecticide control is one of the integrated programmes to prevent mosquito-borne diseases. Long-term applications of pyrethroids have resulted in the development of resistance in Ae. albopictus populations in China. However, the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to pyrethroids in Hainan Island was unclear. Knockdown resistance (kdr), caused by point mutations in the VGSC gene, is one of the mechanisms that confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroids...
May 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Manas Kotepui, Kwuntida Uthaisar, Bhukdee PhunPhuech, Nuoil Phiwklam
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and alteration of hematological parameters in malaria patients with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, in the western region of Thailand, an endemic region for malaria. METHODS: Data about patients with malaria hospitalized between 2013 and 2015 were collected. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics such as age and gender, diagnosis on admission, and parasitological results were mined from medical records of the laboratory unit of the Phop Phra Hospital in Tak Province, Thailand...
April 25, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Hui Liu, Jian-Wei Xu, Heng-Lin Yang, Mei Li, Cheng-De Sun, Yi-Jie Yin, Zhi-Liang Zheng, Guang-Yun Zhang, Ai-Shui Yu, Yong-Hui Yang, Chun-Hui Li, Shui Ai
BACKGROUND: From 2007 to 2013, intensive control measures reduced malaria burden by 90 % along the China-Myanmar border. However, despite these measures a P. falciparum malaria outbreak was reported in the Shan Special Region II of Myanmar in June of 2014. METHODS: Epidemiological, parasitological and entomological investigations were performed. Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine (DAPQ) was immediately administered to treat parasite positive individuals. Long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides and behavior change communication (BCC) were also provided for outbreak control...
April 25, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Kingsley N Ukwaja, Anthony O Meka, Alphonsus Chukwuka, Kingsley B Asiedu, Kristina L Huber, Miriam Eddyani, Joseph N Chukwu, Moses C Anyim, Charles C Nwafor, Daniel C Oshi, Nelson O Madichie, Ngozi Ekeke, Martin Njoku, Kentigern Ntana
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU), also known as Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, is the third most common mycobacterial disease worldwide. Although BU disease has been diagnosed among Nigerians in neighbouring West African countries, data on the burden of the disease in Nigeria itself are scanty. This study aimed to assess the magnitude and epidemiology of BU in the South South region of Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in the Ogoja territory (comprising 31 communities)...
April 22, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Narayan Gyawali, Richard S Bradbury, Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
BACKGROUND: Zika virus, an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil. DISCUSSION: Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015-2016, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth of A...
April 19, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Huiying Chen, Kaili Li, Hua Shi, Yong Zhang, Yu Ha, Yan Wang, Jinjin Jiang, Yubin Wang, Zhenzhou Yang, Jiannong Xu, Yajun Ma
BACKGROUND: Sand fly Phlebotomus chinensis is a principle vector for the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in China with a wide geographic distribution. Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan is a mountain type endemic area of VL in China. Long term effective control efforts in the region have successfully reduced VL transmission. To assess the current status of the sand flies and their ecological aspects in the region, a survey was conducted in the summer of 2014 and 2015. METHODS: Sand fly specimens were collected by light traps in a village and blood sources were identified by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene...
April 13, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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