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Infectious Diseases of Poverty

Mengistu Damitie, Zeleke Mekonnen, Tadesse Getahun, Dante Santiago, Luc Leyns
BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a species complex consisting of multiple genetically distinct assemblages. The species imposes a major public health crisis on developing countries. However, the molecular diversity, transmission dynamics and risk factors of the species in these countries are indeterminate. This study was conducted to determine the molecular epidemiology of G. duodenalis infection in asymptomatic individuals in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: From March to June 2014, fresh stool samples were collected from 590 randomly selected individuals...
March 5, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Ernest Kenu, Vincent Ganu, Charles Lwanga Noora, Richard Adanu, Margaret Lartey
BACKGROUND: Dog bites are common in developing countries including Ghana, with the victims often being children. Although some breeds of dogs have been identified as being more aggressive than others, all dog bites carry a risk of infection. Immediate and initial assessment of the risk for tetanus and rabies infection with appropriate interventions such as wound management and subsequent selection of prophylactic antibiotics are essential in the management of dog bites. This study examined the management of patients with dog bites by frontline service providers at primary healthcare facilities in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana...
February 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Sally-Ann Ohene, Frank Bonsu, Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey, Adelaide Sackey, Samuel Danso, Felix Afutu, Paul Klatser, Mirjam Bakker
BACKGROUND: The End TB Strategy calls for systematic screening of selected high-risk groups including contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases to facilitate early TB case detection. Contact investigation is not usually routinely practiced in low TB burden countries, such as Ghana, with consequent paucity of data on the yield of TB case detection from such interventions. This study's objective was to document the outcomes and feasibility of implementing contact investigation activities under programmatic conditions in Ghana...
February 27, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Seble Worku, Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen, Fantahun Biadglegne
BACKGROUND: Data regarding tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes, proportion of TB/HIV co-infection and associated factors have been released at different TB treatment facilities in Ethiopia and elsewhere in the world as part of the auditing and surveillance service. However, these data are missing for the TB clinic offering directly observed treatment short-course (DOTs) at Debre Tabor General Hospital (DTGH). METHODS: The authors analysed the records of 985 TB patients registered at the DTGH from September 2008 to December 2016...
February 26, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Virak Khieu, Vandine Or, Chhakda Tep, Peter Odermatt, Reiko Tsuyuoka, Meng Chuor Char, Molly A Brady, Joshua Sidwell, Aya Yajima, Rekol Huy, Kapa D Ramaiah, Sinuon Muth
BACKGROUND: Endemicity of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Cambodia was proven in 1956 when microfilariae were detected in mosquitos in the Kratié province. In 2001, an extensive study confirmed the presence of both Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. In 2003, the Ministry of Health established a national task force to develop policies and strategies for controlling and eliminating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), with the goal of eliminating LF by 2015. This article summarizes the work accomplished to eliminate LF as a public health problem in Cambodia...
February 20, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Alexandre Blake, Veronique Sarr Keita, Delphine Sauvageot, Mamadou Saliou, Berthe Marie Njanpop, Fode Sory, Bertrand Sudre, Koivogui Lamine, Martin Mengel, Bradford D Gessner, Keita Sakoba
BACKGROUND: Cholera is endemic in Guinea, having suffered consecutive outbreaks from 2004 to 2008 followed by a lull until the 2012 epidemic. Here we describe the temporal-spatial and behavioural characteristics of cholera cases in Conakry during a three-year period, including the large-scale 2012 epidemic. METHODS: We used the national and African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) surveillance data collected from every cholera treatment centre in Conakry city from August 2011 to December 2013...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Hans-Christian Stahl, Faridullah Ahmadi, Sami Mohammad Nahzat, Heng-Jin Dong, Kurt-Wilhelm Stahl, Rainer Sauerborn
BACKGROUND: The present health economic evaluation in Afghanistan aims to support public health decision makers and health care managers to allocate resources efficiently to appropriate treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) elicited by Leishmania tropica or Leishmania major. METHODS: A decision tree was used to analyse the cost and the effectiveness of two wound care regimens versus intra-lesional antimony in CL patients in Afghanistan. Costs were collected from a societal perspective...
February 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Asad Zia, Muhammad Ali, Hafsa Aziz, Muhammad Zia, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Abida Raza
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10 million people in Pakistan are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Most patients develop chronic hepatitis, with rare cases of spontaneous clearance. However, little is known about multidrug resistant viral variants in Pakistan. FINDINGS: This case study describes a 47-year-old male diagnosed with chronic HCV genotype 3a infection in 2003. After an initial diagnosis of viral infection, the patient remained treatment naïve for 5 years...
February 11, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Cho Naing, Maxine A Whittaker
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread species among human malaria parasites. Immunopathological studies have shown that platelets are an important component of the host innate immune response against malaria infections. The objectives of this study were to quantify thrombocytopaenia in P. vivax malaria patients and to determine the associated risks of severe thrombocytopaenia in patients with vivax malaria compared to patients with P. falciparum malaria. MAIN BODY: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature on thrombocytopaenia in P...
February 9, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Shu-Hua Xiao, Jun Sun, Ming-Gang Chen
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy for schistosomiasis has been around for 100 years. During the past century, great efforts have been made to develop new antischistosomal drugs from antimonials to nonantimonials, and some of these have been used extensively in clinical treatment. With the exception of a few drugs, such as oxamniquine and metrifonate, most of the antischistosomals developed in the pre-praziquantel period have variable limitations with respect to safety and efficacy. Although oxamniquine and metrifonate have been used for schistosomiasis control, they are only effective against Schistosoma mansoni and S...
February 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Pei He, Catherine A Gordon, Gail M Williams, Yuesheng Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Junjian Hu, Darren J Gray, Allen G Ross, Donald Harn, Donald P McManus
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China (PRC) can be traced back to antiquity. In the past 60 years, the Chinese government has made great efforts to control this persistent disease with elimination slated by 2020 through the implementation of a comprehensive control strategy. This strategy aims to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of infection as a pre-requisite for elimination through transmission interruption. The goal of elimination will be achievable only by the implementation of a sustainable surveillance and control system, with sensitive diagnosis a key feature so that the true disease burden is not underestimated...
January 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Hongchao Qi, Yue Chen, Dongli Xu, Hualin Su, Longwen Zhan, Zhiyin Xu, Ying Huang, Qianshan He, Yi Hu, Henry Lynn, Zhijie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an emerging infectious disease in China in the last decade. There has been evidence that meteorological factors can influence the HFMD incidence, and understanding the mechanisms can help prevent and control HFMD. METHODS: HFMD incidence data and meteorological data in Minhang District, Shanghai were obtained for the period between 2009 and 2015. Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) were utilized to investigate the impact of meteorological factors on HFMD incidence after adjusting for potential confounders of long time trend, weekdays and holidays...
January 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie J Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
After publication of this article [1] it came to our attention that the name of the author Sadie Ryan was incorrectly shown. Her correct name is Sadie J. Ryan.
January 30, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Noé Patrick M'bondoukwé, Eric Kendjo, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Jeanne Vanessa Koumba Lengongo, Christelle Offouga Mbouoronde, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Fousseyni Touré, Marielle Karine Bouyou-Akotet
BACKGROUND: Malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are common and frequently overlap in developing countries. The prevalence and predictors of these infections were investigated in three different settlements (rural, semi-urban, and urban) of Gabon. METHODS: During cross-sectional surveys performed from September 2013 to June 2014, 451 individuals were interviewed. In addition, blood and stool samples were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium, filarial roundworm, intestinal protozoan, and helminth infections...
January 30, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Aisha Khan, Kashf Naz, Haroon Ahmed, Sami Simsek, Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Waseem Haider, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Sumaira Farrakh, Wu Weiping, Guan Yayi
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. It is considered a neglected zoonotic disease caused by the larval form (hydatid cyst) of Echinococcus spp. tapeworm. There are limited studies on echinococcosis in Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to find out recent knowledge, attitudes and practices on the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis in butchers and dog owners in both urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi/Islamabad regions, Pakistan...
January 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Gabriel O Dida, Douglas N Anyona, Paul O Abuom, Daniel Akoko, Samson O Adoka, Ally-Said Matano, Philip O Owuor, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases are increasingly becoming a major health problem among communities living along the major rivers of Africa. Although larger water bodies such as lakes and dams have been extensively researched, rivers and their tributaries have largely been ignored. This study sought to establish the spatial distribution of mosquito species during the dry season and further characterize their habitats along the Mara River and its tributaries. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, mosquito larvae were sampled along the Mara River, its two perennial tributaries (Amala and Nyangores), drying streams, and adjacent aquatic habitats (e...
January 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Amreeta Dhanoa, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Nowrozy Kamar Jahan, Daniel D Reidpath, Quek Kia Fatt, Mohtar Pungut Ahmad, Cheong Yuet Meng, Lau Wee Ming, Anuar Zaini Zain, Maude Elvira Phipps, Iekhsan Othman, Aman Bin Rabu, Rowther Sirajudeen, Ahmad Abdul Basitz Ahmad Fatan, Faidzal Adlee Ghafar, Hamdan Bin Ahmad, Pascale Allotey
BACKGROUND: The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics continue to increase exponentially in Malaysia, with a shift in the age range predominance toward adults and an expansion to rural areas. Despite this, information pertaining to the extent of transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the rural community is lacking. This community-based pilot study was conducted to establish DENV seroprevalence amongst healthy adults in a rural district in Southern Malaysia, and to identify influencing factors...
January 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Ahmad Fuady, Tanja A J Houweling, Muchtaruddin Mansyur, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: As well as imposing an economic burden on affected households, the high costs related to tuberculosis (TB) can create access and adherence barriers. This highlights the particular urgency of achieving one of the End TB Strategy's targets: that no TB-affected households have to face catastrophic costs by 2020. In Indonesia, as elsewhere, there is also an emerging need to provide social protection by implementing universal health coverage (UHC). We therefore assessed the incidence of catastrophic total costs due to TB, and their determinants since the implementation of UHC...
January 12, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Joses Muthuri Kirigia, Gitonga N Mburugu
BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are an important cause of death and disability in Africa. This study estimates the monetary value of human lives lost due to NTDs in the continent in 2015. METHODS: The lost output or human capital approach was used to evaluate the years of life lost due to premature deaths from NTDs among 10 high/upper-middle-income (Group 1), 17 middle-income (Group 2) and 27 low-income (Group 3) countries in Africa. The future losses were discounted to their present values at a 3% discount rate...
December 18, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Habteyes Hailu Tola, Mehrdad Karimi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
BACKGROUND: Patients' beliefs are a major factor affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. However, there has been little use of Health Belief Model (HBM) in determining the pathway effect of patients' sociodemographic characteristics and beliefs on TB treatment adherence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and patients' health beliefs on TB treatment adherence based on the HBM concept in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia among TB patients undertaking treatment...
December 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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