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Infectious Diseases of Poverty

Xiu-Min Han, Qi-Gang Cai, Wei Wang, Hu Wang, Qiang Zhang, Yong-Shun Wang
BACKGROUND: As part of an ongoing program that aims to use early detection and timely treatment to improve the control of echinococcosis, especially in younger age groups, we undertook a series of active surveys among Qinghai-Tibetan children in the Qinghai Province of Northwestern China in 2011 and 2012. The significant outcomes that resulted from this study emphasize the need to draw attention to echinococcosis, both alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE), so that policy development is promoted and suitable avenues for control are identified in the highly endemic areas on the Tibetan Plateau...
July 12, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Amoin Jeanne d'Arc Koffi, Mohamed Doumbia, Gilbert Fokou, Moussa Keita, Brama Koné, N'doumy Noel Abé
BACKGROUND: Among parasitic infections, schistosomiasis ranks second after malaria in terms of worldwide morbidity. Despite efforts to contain transmission, more than 230 million people are infected, of which 85% live in Sub-Saharan Africa. While the epidemiologic characteristics of schistosomiasis have been extensively studied across endemic settings, social factors have been paid less attention. The current study assesses community knowledge of schistosomiasis causes, transmission, signs, symptoms and prevention, as well as healthcare-seeking behaviours in two West African settings, with the aim of strengthening schistosomiasis control interventions...
July 10, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Solomon Ngutor Karshima
BACKGROUND: Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections still remain a notable health problem in resource-limited countries due to difficulties in the implementation of control measures. In Nigeria for instance, despite several community-based and provincial reports, national data on prevalence, burdens and risk zones (RZs) for STH infections are lacking. METHODS: The present study employed the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to determine the prevalence, distribution and RZs for STH infections among Nigerian children through a meta-analysis of data published between 1980 and 2015...
July 9, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Damaris K Kinyoki, Grainne M Moloney, Olalekan A Uthman, Elijah O Odundo, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Abdisalan M Noor, Robert W Snow, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and malaria are both significant causes of morbidity and mortality in African children. However, the extent of their spatial comorbidity remains unexplored and an understanding of their spatial correlation structure would inform improvement of integrated interventions. We aimed to determine the spatial correlation between both wasting and low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and falciparum malaria among Somalian children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: Data were from 49 227 children living in 888 villages between 2007 to 2010...
July 6, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Muhubiri Kabuyaya, Moses John Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a serious public health burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Praziquantel is the only drug recommended by the World Health Organization to treat both urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. The reliance on a single drug to treat a disease with such a huge burden has raised concerns of possible drug resistance mainly in endemic areas. This systematic review was conducted to identify gaps and recent progress on the efficacy of different regimens of praziquantel in treating schistosomiasis among children in sub-Saharan Africa where Schistosoma mansoni and S...
July 5, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Paul Bizimana, Katja Polman, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Frédéric Nsabiyumva, Céline Ngenzebuhoro, Elvis Muhimpundu, Giuseppina Ortu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are endemic diseases in Burundi. STH control is integrated into health facilities (HF) across the country, but schistosomiasis control is not. The present study aimed to assess the capacity of HF for integrating intestinal schistosomiasis case management into their routine activities. In addition, the current capacity for HF-based STH case management was evaluated. METHODS: A random cluster survey was carried out in July 2014, in 65 HF located in Schistosoma mansoni and STH endemic areas...
July 4, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Yankum Dadzie, Uche V Amazigo, Boakye A Boatin, Azodoga Sékétéli
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is found predominantly in Africa where large scale vector control started in 1974. Registration and donation of ivermectin by Merck & Co in 1987 enabled mass treatment with ivermectin in all endemic countries in Africa and the Americas. Although elimination of onchocerciasis with ivermectin was considered feasible only in the Americas, recently it has been shown possible in Africa too, necessitating fundamental changes in technical and operational approaches and procedures...
July 3, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Xin-Yao Wang, Jing Xu, Song Zhao, Wei Li, Jian-Feng Zhang, Jian He, Ashley M Swing, Kun Yang
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica has decreased significantly, and the responses changing from control to elimination in Jiangsu Province, P.R. China. How to estimate the change in prevalence of schistosomiasis using only serological data will be important and useful. METHODS: We collected serum samples from 2011 to 2015 to build a serum bank from Dantu County of Jiangsu, China. Serum samples were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the positive rate and optical density (OD) value were obtained...
July 2, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Bruno P Mmbando, Patrick Suykerbuyk, Mohamed Mnacho, Advocatus Kakorozya, William Matuja, Adam Hendy, Helena Greter, Williams H Makunde, Robert Colebunders
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with a multitude of underlying causes, which may include infection with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes human onchocerciasis. A survey carried out in 1989 revealed a high prevalence of epilepsy (1.02% overall, ranging from 0.51 to 3.71% in ten villages) in the Mahenge area of Ulanga district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in south eastern Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy following 20 years of onchocerciasis control through annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI)...
June 20, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Xiao-Xiao Wang, Wei Cheng, Zhao Yu, She-Lan Liu, Hai-Yan Mao, En-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: Human infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) remains a great concern. Although live poultry markets are believed to be associated with human infections, ever more infections have been reported in rural areas with backyard poultry, especially in the fifth epidemic of H7N9. However, limited information is available on backyard poultry infection and surrounding environmental contamination. METHODS: Two surveillance systems and a field survey were used to collect data and samples in Zhejiang Province...
June 19, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Hong-Bo Weng, Hai-Xia Chen, Ming-Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are closely related to poverty and affect over a billion people in developing countries. The unmet treatment needs cause high mortality and disability thereby imposing a huge burden with severe social and economic consequences. Although coordinated by the World Health Organization, various philanthropic organizations, national governments and the pharmaceutical industry have been making efforts in improving the situation, the control of NTDs is still inadequate and extremely difficult today...
June 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Chao Shi, Zhi-Chun Jing, De-Gang Yang, Jian-Yu Zhu
BACKGROUND: Type 1 leprosy reaction, also known as "reversal reaction", is related to cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens. The risk factors that trigger type 1 leprosy reactions are poorly understood. Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available reports of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced type 1 leprosy reactions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old Chinese Han female presented to our hospital with symptoms of erythematous plaques and pain over her left upper limb for 2 days and foreign object sensation in her throat for 3 days...
June 17, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Valentina Marchese, Anna Beltrame, Andrea Angheben, Geraldo Badona Monteiro, Giovanni Giorli, Francesca Perandin, Dora Buonfrate, Zeno Bisoffi
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases. If unrecognised and untreated, the chronic infection can lead to irreversible complications. METHODS: Retrospective observational study aimed at describing clinical history, laboratory findings and imaging presentation of imported schistosomiasis diagnosed at the Centre for Tropical Diseases, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital of Negrar, Verona, Italy from 2010 to 2014. The aim of our study was to assess differences in demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory data and ultrasound findings between immigrants/visiting friends and relatives (VFR) from endemic countries (endemic group) and expatriates/travellers (non-endemic group)...
June 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Nana Mireku-Gyimah, Paschal Awingura Apanga, John Koku Awoonor-Williams
BACKGROUND: Ranked among the world's dirtiest countries, Ghana has poor environmental sanitation and hygiene, and a lack of potable water, all of which combined have been largely blamed as the underscoring reasons for cholera outbreaks. The country has concomitantly suffered seasonal cholera outbreaks that have impacted negatively on the population's health, as well as on the nation's economy. To prevent cyclical cholera outbreaks in Ghana, this commentary discusses the associated problems and makes recommendations to solve them...
June 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Adil El Hamouchi, Sofia El Kacem, Rajaa Ejghal, Meryem Lemrani
BACKGROUND: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and sporadic human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Mediterranean region. The genetic variation of the Leishmania parasites may result in different phenotypes that can be associated with the geographical distribution and diversity of the clinical manifestations. The main objective of this study was to explore the genetic polymorphism in L. infantum isolates from human and animal hosts in different regions of Morocco...
June 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jia Chen, Quan Liu, Guo-Hua Liu, Wen-Bin Zheng, Sung-Jong Hong, Hiromu Sugiyama, Xing-Quan Zhu, Hany M Elsheikha
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that afflicts millions of the pediatric and adolescent populations worldwide, especially in impoverished communities. This disease is caused by infection with the larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati, the most ubiquitous intestinal nematode parasite in dogs and cats, respectively. In this article, recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and pharmacotherapies that have been used in the treatment of toxocariasis are reviewed...
June 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Zhuang-Zhi Zhang, Gang Guo, Jun Li, Bao-Xin Shi, Li Zhao, Bao-Ping Guo, Xu Zhang, Jun-Wei Wang, Xue-Ting Zheng, Wen-Jing Qi, Li He, Wen-Bao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Dogs play a pivotal role in the transmission of cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonosis caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. We showed previously that dogs vaccinated with two E. granulosus adult-worm specific proteins, EgM9 and EgM123, emulsified with Freund's adjuvants induced significant protective efficacy in terms of reduction in worm burden and egg production after 45 days post-infection. It was not known whether this protection can be sustained using adjuvants suitable for use in dogs...
June 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Qing Yu, Hui Liu, Ning Xiao
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become useful tools to extend human abilities and capacities. Currently UAVs are being used for the surveillance of environmental factors related to the transmission of infectious diseases. They have also been used for delivering therapeutic drugs and life-saving supplies to patients or isolated persons in extreme conditions. There have been very few applications of UAVs for disease surveillance, control and prevention to date. However, we foresee many uses for these machines in the fight against zoonotic disease...
June 11, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Mina Sadeq, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in Morocco. This study aims at examining trends in TB in Morocco and identifying TB spatial clusters and TB-associated predictors. METHOD: Country-level surveillance data was exploited. Kendall's correlation test was used to examine trends and an exploratory spatial data analysis was conducted to assess the global and local patterns of spatial autocorrelation in TB rates (Moran's I and local indicator of spatial association [LISA]) at the prefecture/province level...
June 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Francois Kiemde, Marc Christian Tahita, Palpouguini Lompo, Toussaint Rouamba, Athanase M Some, Halidou Tinto, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Michael Boele van Hensbroek
BACKGROUND: Fever remains a major public health problem. In Burkina Faso, more than half of febrile children are considered not to be infected by malaria. This study prospectively assessed probable (treatable) causes of fever in Burkinabe children. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among febrile children (≥37.5 °C) under 5 years of age presenting at four health facilities and one referral hospital in rural Burkina Faso. From each participant, blood was collected for malaria microscopy and culture, urine for dipstick testing and culturing if tested positive for leucocytes and nitrite, stool for rotavirus/adenovirus testing, culture and parasitology, and a nasopharyngeal swab for culture...
May 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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