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Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296258/the-pattern-of-educator-voice-in-clinical-counseling-in-an-educational-hospital-in-shiraz-iran-a-conversation-analysis
#1
Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
Doctor-patient interaction (DPI) includes different voices, of which the educator voice is of considerable importance. Physicians employ this voice to educate patients and their caregivers by providing them with information in order to change the patients' behavior and improve their health status. The subject has not yet been fully understood, and therefore the present study was conducted to explore the pattern of educator voice. For this purpose, conversation analysis (CA) of 33 recorded clinical consultations was performed in outpatient educational clinics in Shiraz, Iran between April 2014 and September 2014...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296257/compassion-as-the-reunion-of-feminine-and-masculine-virtues-in-medicine
#2
Kiarash Aramesh
The central role of the virtue of compassion in the shaping of the professional character of healthcare providers is a well-emphasized fact. On the other hand, the utmost obligation of physicians is to alleviate or eliminate human suffering. Traditionally, according to the Aristotelian understanding of virtues and virtue ethics, human virtues have been associated with masculinity. In recent decades, the founders of the ethics of care have introduced a set of virtues with feminine nature. This paper analyzes the notion of compassion as a common virtue between the traditional/masculine and care/feminine sets of virtues and shows that compassion is a reunion and merging point of both sets of human virtues...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296256/physicians-attitude-toward-their-ethical-responsibility-regarding-air-pollution-a-qualitative-research
#3
Saeedeh Saeeditehrani, Alireza Parsapour, Saharnaz Nedjat, Maliheh Kadivar, Bagher Larijani
Air pollution is among the environmental problems that adversely affect people's health. There is a close relationship between medicine and environment, and as a consequence, there are ethical considerations surrounding the problem of air pollution. The present research aimed to determine physicians' attitude toward their ethical responsibility regarding air pollution, and their role in reducing it. This was a qualitative research using content analysis, conducted in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The focus group included 21 physicians with specialties and subspecialties in pediatrics, infectious diseases, pulmonology, gynecology, and midwifery selected through predetermined sampling along with 13 personal in-depth interviews...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291039/an-evaluation-of-adherence-to-ethical-codes-among-nurses-and-nursing-students
#4
Mostafa Bijani, Fariba Ghodsbin, Sorur Javanmardi Fard, Fateme Shirazi, Farkhonde Sharif, Banafsheh Tehranineshat
Ethical codes are instructions that shape ethical behavior and determine which values and beliefs should be accepted. These codes act as a practical guideline in the nursing profession. The present study aimed to compare adherence to ethical codes between the nursing students and working nurses of Valiasr Hospital, affiliated with Fasa University of Medical Sciences in Fars Province, Iran. In this descriptive-analytical study, the data collection tool was nurses' self-reporting questionnaire on adherence to ethical codes devised by Mahdavi Lenji and Ghaedi Heidari, who have also confirmed its validity and reliability...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291038/the-relationship-between-human-dignity-and-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#5
Seyedeh Somayeh Amininasab, Hamideh Azimi Lolaty, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Vida Shafipour
Medication adherence is a behavior that is influenced by several factors, and maintaining patients' dignity is an important issue that needs to be considered in the course of treatment. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between human dignity and medication adherence in patients with heart failure. This was a cross-sectional study. A total number of 300 patients with heart failure admitted to the Mazandaran Heart Center, Iran, participated in this study by census. Samples were selected based on inclusion criteria such as an HF diagnosis by a cardiologist for a minimum of 6 months, and taking at least one cardiac medication...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291037/analyzing-the-politico-moral-foundations-of-the-iran-s-health-system-based-on-theories-of-justice
#6
Forouzan Akrami, Mahmoud Abbasi, Abbas Karimi, Akbar Shahrivari, Reza Majdzadeh, Alireza Zali
Public health ethics is a field that covers both factual and ethical issues in health policy and science, and has positive obligations to improve the well-being of populations and reduce social inequalities. It is obvious that various philosophies and moral theories can differently shape the framework of public health ethics. For this reason, the present study reviewed theories of justice in order to analyze and criticize Iran's general health policies document, served in 14 Articles in 2014. Furthermore, it explored egalitarianism as the dominant theory in the political philosophy of the country's health care system...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282423/establishment-of-medical-education-upon-internalization-of-virtue-ethics-bridging-the-gap-between-theory-and-practice
#7
Mansoureh Madani, Bagher Larijani, Ensieh Madani, Nazafarin Ghasemzadeh
During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians' practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523117/evaluation-of-pediatric-residents-attitudes-toward-ethical-conflict-a-cross-sectional-study-in-tehran-iran
#8
Maliheh Kadivar, Marjan Mardani-Hamooleh, Shiva Shayestefar
Ethical conflicts are recognized as critical aspects in assessing competence in clinical communication. Moreover, pediatrics residents may face more problems, compared to other disciplines; due to the specific characteristics of the age group receiving services as well as the presence of their families. This study has been conducted with the aim of determining the attitude and perspective of pediatric residents toward ethical conflicts in the field of pediatrics. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on all residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (90 residents), selected through census method, in 2014...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523116/obstacles-and-problems-of-ethical-leadership-from-the-perspective-of-nursing-leaders-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#9
Maasoumeh Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Tahereh Ashktorab, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh
In the nursing profession, leadership plays a significant role in creating motivation and thus enabling nurses to provide high quality care. Ethics is an essential component of leadership qualifications and the ethical leader can help create an ethical atmosphere, offer ethical guidance, and ensure the occupational satisfaction of personnel through prioritizing moralities. However, some issues prevent the implementation of this type of leadership by nursing leaders. The aim of this study was to identify and describe some problems and obstacles in ethical leadership faced by nursing leaders, and to help them achieve more accurate information and broader perspective in this field...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523121/history-of-attitudes-toward-death-a-comparative-study-between-persian-and-western-cultures
#10
Kiarash Aramesh
In his seminal book on the historical periods of Western attitudes toward death, Philippe Aries describes four consecutive periods through which these attitudes evolved and transformed. According to him, the historical attitudes of Western cultures have passed through four major parts described above: "Tamed Death," One's Own Death," "Thy Death," and "Forbidden Death." This paper, after exploring this concept through the lens of Persian Poetic Wisdom, concludes that he historical attitudes of Persian-speaking people toward death have generally passed through two major periods...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523120/moral-sensitivity-and-its-dimensions-in-iranian-nursing-students
#11
Fariba Borhani, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Javad Hoseinabadi-Farahani
As future providers of health services, nursing students should learn about ethical concepts over the course of their education. These concepts are currently taught in nursing schools, yet the degree of moral sensitivity in nursing students before entering clinical settings is a topic of controversy. This was a cross-sectional study on the nursing students studying for a bachelor's degree in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences selected through census sampling (n = 205). Data were collected by Lutzen's Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire and analyzed through statistical tests using SPSS 16...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523119/from-good-to-great-physician-a-critical-ethnography-based-on-patients-views
#12
Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Mohammad Taghi Iman, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Najmeh Ebrahimzadeh
The doctor-patient interaction (DPI) plays an important role in the way patients view physicians. Thus, response to the question of ''Who is a great physician?'' is related to DPI experiences of patients. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore patients' views regarding this subject. Based on critical ethnography in one educational hospital in Shiraz, Iran, the study was performed based on 156 clinical consultations, 920 hours of participant observations, and 6 focus groups with patients and their relatives...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523118/hospital-clinical-ethics-committees-notion-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Fatemeh Hajibabaee, Soodabeh Joolaee, Mohammad Ali Cheraghi, Pooneh Salari, Patricia Rodney
Hospital ethics committees (HECs) help clinicians deal with the ethical challenges which have been raised during clinical practice. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to provide a historical background of the development of HECs internationally and describe their functions and practical challenges of their day to day work. This is the first part of a comprehensive literature review conducted between February 2014 and August 2016 by searching through scientific databases. The keyword ethics committee, combined with hospital, clinic, and institution, was used without a time limitation...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050246/does-medical-education-erode-medical-trainees-ethical-attitude-and-behavior
#14
REVIEW
Neda Yavari
In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050245/the-right-to-information-and-their-exceptions-in-medical-practices-in-the-iranian-legal-system
#15
REVIEW
Maysam Sheykh-Talimi, Sadegh Shariati-Nasab, Mohammad Kazem Zare, Reza Omani-Samani
The right to information Act was implemented in the Iranian legal system through accession of the Merida Convention ensuring the right to information as a fundamental right for the public. One significant aspects of this subject is the ratification of the "Disclosure and Access to Information Act" by which it is recognized as a right of all Persian individuals and citizens to access state-held information in Iran administration. The Iranian legislature, with regard to the role of access to information and its significance, clarified the scope, permitted subjects of access, and exceptions of the right to state-held information...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050244/a-conceptual-model-of-physician-patient-relationships-a-qualitative-study
#16
Mohammad Reza Razzaghi, Leila Afshar
In any clinical encounter, an effective physician-patient relationship is necessary for achieving the desired outcome. This outcome is successful treatment, and therefore, the relationship should be a healing one. In addition, in the Islamic view, the physician is a manifestation of God's healing attribute, which is usually undermined in everyday therapeutic communications. Yet there are few empirical data about this experience and how it occurs in the clinical context. This study was conducted to develop a model of physician-patient relationship, with the healing process at its core...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050243/sociopolitical-development-of-the-nursing-profession-in-iran-a-historical-review
#17
Afsaneh Raiesifar, Mohammadreza Firouzkouhi, Marjaneh Fooladi, Soroor Parvizy
Significant sociopolitical changes in recent decades have not only influenced the nursing profession, but also the entire Iranian healthcare system. This study describes the historical evolution of the nursing profession within a sociopolitical context. This historical review of unpublished and published literature endorsed personal accounts of historic events by 14 of the oldest nurses in Iran chosen through purposive sampling method, as they shared their nursing experiences. Individual recollections were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and later analyzed through oral history analysis method...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050242/insurance-companies-point-of-view-toward-moral-hazard-incentives
#18
Elahe Khorasani, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Manal Etemadi, Somayeh Asadi, Mahan Mohammadi, Maryam Barati
Moral hazards are the result of an expansive range of factors mostly originating in the patients' roles. The objective of the present study was to investigate patient incentives for moral hazards using the experiences of experts of basic Iranian insurance organizations. This was a qualitative research. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The study population included all experts of basic healthcare insurance agencies in the City of Isfahan, Iran, who were familiar with the topic of moral hazards...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050241/medical-futility-and-its-challenges-a-review-study
#19
REVIEW
Maryam Aghabarary, Nahid Dehghan Nayeri
Concerns over limited medical equipment and resources, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), have raised the issue of medical futility. Medical futility draws a contrast between physician's authority and patients' autonomy and it is one of the major issues of end-of-life ethical decision-making. The aim of this study was to review medical futility and its challenges. In this systematized review study, a comprehensive search of the existing literature was performed using an internet search with broad keywords to access related articles in both Persian and English databases...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974966/human-dignity-of-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-admitted-to-hospitals-of-kerman-iran-in-2015
#20
Roghayeh Mehdipour-Rabori, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Fariba Borhani
The human dignity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important issue, because of patients' dependence upon caregivers, and because it impacts all aspects of their quality of life (QOL). Therefore, understanding and improving the status of dignity among these patients is of great importance. This study aimed to determine the status of dignity in patients with CVD admitted to cardiac intensive care units (CICUs) in Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in 2015 on 200 patients admitted to the CICUs of hospitals affiliated to Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
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