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Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine

Neda Yavari
In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Maysam Sheykh-Talimi, Sadegh Shariati-Nasab, Mohammad Kazem Zare, Reza Omani-Samani
The right to information Act was implemented in the Iranian legal system through accession of the Merida Convention ensuring the right to information as a fundamental right for the public. One significant aspects of this subject is the ratification of the "Disclosure and Access to Information Act" by which it is recognized as a right of all Persian individuals and citizens to access state-held information in Iran administration. The Iranian legislature, with regard to the role of access to information and its significance, clarified the scope, permitted subjects of access, and exceptions of the right to state-held information...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Mohammad Reza Razzaghi, Leila Afshar
In any clinical encounter, an effective physician-patient relationship is necessary for achieving the desired outcome. This outcome is successful treatment, and therefore, the relationship should be a healing one. In addition, in the Islamic view, the physician is a manifestation of God's healing attribute, which is usually undermined in everyday therapeutic communications. Yet there are few empirical data about this experience and how it occurs in the clinical context. This study was conducted to develop a model of physician-patient relationship, with the healing process at its core...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Afsaneh Raiesifar, Mohammadreza Firouzkouhi, Marjaneh Fooladi, Soroor Parvizy
Significant sociopolitical changes in recent decades have not only influenced the nursing profession, but also the entire Iranian healthcare system. This study describes the historical evolution of the nursing profession within a sociopolitical context. This historical review of unpublished and published literature endorsed personal accounts of historic events by 14 of the oldest nurses in Iran chosen through purposive sampling method, as they shared their nursing experiences. Individual recollections were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and later analyzed through oral history analysis method...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Elahe Khorasani, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Manal Etemadi, Somayeh Asadi, Mahan Mohammadi, Maryam Barati
Moral hazards are the result of an expansive range of factors mostly originating in the patients' roles. The objective of the present study was to investigate patient incentives for moral hazards using the experiences of experts of basic Iranian insurance organizations. This was a qualitative research. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The study population included all experts of basic healthcare insurance agencies in the City of Isfahan, Iran, who were familiar with the topic of moral hazards...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Maryam Aghabarary, Nahid Dehghan Nayeri
Concerns over limited medical equipment and resources, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), have raised the issue of medical futility. Medical futility draws a contrast between physician's authority and patients' autonomy and it is one of the major issues of end-of-life ethical decision-making. The aim of this study was to review medical futility and its challenges. In this systematized review study, a comprehensive search of the existing literature was performed using an internet search with broad keywords to access related articles in both Persian and English databases...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Roghayeh Mehdipour-Rabori, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Fariba Borhani
The human dignity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important issue, because of patients' dependence upon caregivers, and because it impacts all aspects of their quality of life (QOL). Therefore, understanding and improving the status of dignity among these patients is of great importance. This study aimed to determine the status of dignity in patients with CVD admitted to cardiac intensive care units (CICUs) in Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in 2015 on 200 patients admitted to the CICUs of hospitals affiliated to Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Hamidreza Namazi, Kiarash Aramesh, Bagher Larijani
The nature of the doctor-patient relationship as a keystone of care necessitates philosophical, psychological and sociological considerations. The present study investigates concepts related to these three critical views considered especially important. From the philosophical viewpoint, the three concepts of "the demands of ethics "," ethical phenomenology and "the philosophy of the relationship" are of particular importance. From a psychological point of view, the five concepts of "communication behavior patterns" (including submissiveness, dominance, aggression, and assertiveness), "psychic distance", "emotional quotient", "conflict between pain relief and truth-telling", and "body language" have received specific emphasis...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Mohammadali Cheraghi, Fatemeh Bahramnezhad, Neda Mehrdad
One of the major advances in medicine has been the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure since the 1960s in order to save human lives. This procedure has so far saved thousands of lives. Although CPR has helped to save lives, in some cases, it prolongs the process of dying, suffering, and pain in patients. This study was conducted to explain the experience of Iranian physicians regarding do not resuscitate order (DNR). This study was a directed qualitative content analysis which analyzed the perspective of 8 physicians on different aspects of DNR guidelines...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Aniseh Samadi, Fariba Asghari
Obtaining informed consents is one of the most fundamental principles in conducting a clinical trial. In order for the consent to be informed, the patient must receive and comprehend the information appropriately. Complexity of the consent form is a common problem that has been shown to be a major barrier to comprehension for many patients. The objective of this study was to assess the readability of different templates of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in clinical trials in the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL), Tehran, Iran...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Jalil Makarem, Bagher Larijani, Kobra Joodaki, Sahar Ghaderi, Fatemeh Nayeri, Masoud Mohammadpoor
Implementation of patient feedback is considered as a critical part of effective and efficient management in developed countries. The main objectives of this study were to assess patient satisfaction with the services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, identify areas of patient dissatisfaction, and find ways to improve patient satisfaction with hospital services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 phases. After 2 initial preparation phases, the valid instrument was applied through telephone interviews with 21476 participants from 26 hospitals during August, 2011 to February, 2013...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Shirmohammad Davoodvand, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Fazlollah Ahmadi
One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Mohammad Javad Fathi
Crime is a human behavior that has captivated the thoughts of scholars of various disciplines throughout history. Philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and others have investigated and analyzed the concept of crime from different aspects. Crime is the main topic of criminal law, and in its legal meaning is a well-known term with a certain conceptual load that should not be confused with similar concepts such as guilt, civil crime (quasi tort), and particularly, the disciplinary transgression. Although crime has common points with all the above, it is an independent concept with unique effects, features, and descriptions that distinguish it from similar acts...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Maani Beigy, Ghasem Pishgahi, Fateme Moghaddas, Nastaran Maghbouli, Kamran Shirbache, Fariba Asghari, Navid Abolfat-H Zadeh
It has long been a common goal for both medical educators and ethicists to develop effective methods or programs for medical ethics education. The current lecture-based courses of medical ethics programs in medical schools are demonstrated as insufficient models for training "good doctors''. In this study, we introduce an innovative program for medical ethics education in an extra-curricular student-based design named Students' Medical Ethics Rounds (SMER). In SMER, a combination of educational methods, including theater-based case presentation, large group discussion, expert opinions, role playing and role modeling were employed...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Seyed Ziauddin Tabei, Najme Ebrahimzade, Mohsen Zohri, Hossein Argasi, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
The doctor-patient relationship (DPR) is one of the most important subjects in medical sociology and health policy. Due to mutual understanding, undistorted DPRs not only result in satisfaction of both doctors and patients, but also help to reduce financial burdens for patients and the health care system. The purpose of this research was to identify a DPR based on the qualitative paradigm model which is called the grounded theory (GT) methodology. The data were collected from 3 focus groups, the participants of which consisted of 21 faculty members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Mohsen Rezaei Aderyani, Mohsen Javadi, Saeid Nazari Tavakkoli, Mehrzad Kiani, Mahmood Abbasi
A major debate in medical ethics is the request for futile treatment. The topic of medical futility requires discrete assessment in Iran for at least two reasons. First, the common principles and foundations of medical ethics have taken shape in the context of Western culture and secularism. Accordingly, the implementation of the same guidelines and codes of medical ethics as Western societies in Muslim communities does not seem rational. Second, the challenges arising in health service settings are divergent across different countries...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Sanaz Aazami, Mosayeb Mozafari
The patients' rights status is one of the essential elements in defining norms related to the concept of clinical governance system. In addition, the patients' rights status is an important index for quality of care offered in the health care system. However, the lack of a coherent instrument makes it difficult to evaluate patients' rights status in hospitals and clinics. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument for the evaluation of patients' rights prerequisites at educational hospitals in Iran...
2015: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Omid Asemani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Ghazaleh Ahmadi Jazi, Mehrdad Eftekhar, Pezhman Mobasher, Saeedeh Saeedi Tehrani, Khosro Ahmadi, Maria Rastgouy Fahim
Physicians' knowledge of therapy and counseling stands among the most important issues in the viewpoints of clients who refer to psychiatric centers. Transsexual patients are very important in this regard. The goal of this research is to study their attitude toward doctors' empathy. A group of transsexual patients who referred to the Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, Iran, answered the Jefferson Scale of Empathy. The relationship of the patients' age, gender, education level, and lifestyle with their attitude was measured...
2015: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Minoo Kalantari, Mohammad Kamali, Soodabeh Joolaee, Mehdi Rassafiani, Narges Shafarodi
Ethics are related to the structure and culture of the society. In addition to specialized ethics for every profession, individuals also hold their own personal beliefs and values. This study aimed to investigate Iranian occupational therapists' perception of ethical practice when working with children. For this purpose, qualitative content analysis was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten occupational therapists in their convenient place and time. Each interview was transcribed and double-checked by the research team...
2015: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
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