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Infectious Diseases

Sanjeev Sinha, Kartik Gupta, Nawaid Hussain Khan, Dibyakanti Mandal, Mikashmi Kohli, B K Das, R M Pandey
Background: Emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance mutations prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy is a serious problem in clinical management of HIV/AIDS. Risk factors for appearance of drug resistance mutations are not known. We hypothesize that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may contribute to rapid emergence of such mutations in antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients. Methods: A total of 115 patients were recruited in this study of which 75 were HIV+TB+ coinfected (group 1) and 40 were HIV+TB- (group 2)...
2018: Infectious Diseases
Ponnu Padiyara, Hajime Inoue, Marc Sprenger
Since their discovery, antibiotics, and more broadly, antimicrobials, have been a cornerstone of modern medicine. But the overuse and misuse of these drugs have led to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, which occurs when bacteria adapt in ways that render antibiotics ineffective. A world without effective antibiotics can have drastic impacts on population health, global development, and the global economy. As a global common good, antibiotic effectiveness is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons, where a shared limited resource is overused by a community when each individual exploits the finite resource for their own benefit...
2018: Infectious Diseases
Isobel Ramsay, Nicholas M Brown, David A Enoch
Recurrence occurs in approximately 25% of all cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and poses a unique clinical challenge. Traditionally, treatment options of CDI have been limited to regimes of established antibiotics (eg, pulsed/tapered vancomycin) but faecal transplantation is emerging as a useful alternative. In recent years, promising new strategies have emerged for effective prevention of recurrent CDI (rCDI) including new antimicrobials (eg, fidaxomicin) and monoclonal antibodies (eg, bezlotoxumab)...
2018: Infectious Diseases
Luminita Ene
Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early, where it can persist, evolve, and become compartmentalized. Central nervous system (CNS) disease can be attributed to HIV alone or to the complex interplay between the virus and other neurotropic pathogens. Aim: The current review aims to describe the direct impact of HIV on the brain as well as its relationship with other pathogens from a practitioner's perspective, to provide a general clinical overview, brief workup, and, whenever possible, treatment guidance...
2018: Infectious Diseases
Jérôme Bigoni, Rosa Catarino, Caroline Benski, Manuela Viviano, Maria Munoz, Honoré Tilahizandry, Patrick Petignat, Pierre Vassilakos
Background: In Madagascar, human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, as well as syphilis share common risk factors but seem to differ in their prevalence. We measured and compared their prevalence in the country. Methods: The data used in this study came from the Saint Damien Health Centre in Ambanja, Madagascar. The tests used for disease detection were the Alere Determine, Virucheck, rapid plasma reagin, and S-DRY self-HPV samples for HIV infection, HBV infection, syphilis, and HPV infection, respectively...
2018: Infectious Diseases
Erica E Short, Cyril Caminade, Bolaji N Thomas
The connection between our environment and parasitic diseases may not always be straightforward, but it exists nonetheless. This article highlights how climate as a component of our environment, or more specifically climate change, has the capability to drive parasitic disease incidence and prevalence worldwide. There are both direct and indirect implications of climate change on the scope and distribution of parasitic organisms and their associated vectors and host species. We aim to encompass a large body of literature to demonstrate how a changing climate will perpetuate, or perhaps exacerbate, public health issues and economic stagnation due to parasitic diseases...
2017: Infectious Diseases
Anthony R Mawson, Williams H Makunde, Alan D Penman, Veronica de Los Angeles Hernandez Morales, Akili K Kalinga, Filbert Francis, Semyon Rubinchik, Addow Kibweja
Based on the observation that the parasite Onchocerca volvulus selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host, and the known toxicity of vitamin A in higher concentration, it was hypothesized that dying microfilariae (mf) release their stores of vitamin A (retinoids) into the host circulation in toxic concentrations, inducing the signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis. We conducted a pilot study to test the hypothesis in Songea communities in Southern Tanzania, where mass drug administration with ivermectin had not been implemented by the time of the survey...
2017: Infectious Diseases
Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Iduda Ojeamiren, Hafeez Aderinsayo Adekola
There has been tremendous breakthrough in the development of technologies and protocols for counselling, testing, and surveillance of resistant human immunodeficiency virus strains for efficient prognosis and clinical management aimed at improving the quality of life of infected persons. However, we have not arrived at a point where services rendered using these technologies can be made affordable and accessible to resource-limited settings. There are several technologies for monitoring antiretroviral resistance, each with unique merits and demerits...
2017: Infectious Diseases
Abhishek Mandal, Abhishek Sengupta, Ajay Kumar, Utpal K Singh, Anil K Jaiswal, Pradeep Das, Sushmita Das
Background: Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in India, but the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli among children with diarrhea in Bihar remains elusive. In this study, we determine and characterize ESBL-producing E coli pathotypes among hospitalized diarrheal preschool children living in low socioeconomic level communities in Bihar, India. Materials and methods: The stool samples were collected everyday throughout the year for 2 consecutive years...
2017: Infectious Diseases
Olusola Ojurongbe, Roland I Funwei, Tara J Snyder, Najihah Aziz, Yi Li, Catherine O Falade, Bolaji N Thomas
CD14 is a multifunctional receptor expressed on many cell types and has been shown to mediate immune response resulting in the activation of an inflammatory cascade, with polymorphism of its promoter (rs2569190) found to be associated with susceptibility to several diseases. In malaria infection, the CD14 gene demonstrated a pathogenic profile in regulating experimental cerebral malaria, with reports of elevated levels of soluble CD14 in serum of patients but no definitive conclusion. We present a detailed analysis of genetic diversity of CD14 promoter gene (snp -159 C/T; rs2519190) polymorphism between a malaria-infected group and uninfected controls and its association with clinical parameters of disease...
2017: Infectious Diseases
Prakash Narayana Reddy, Krupanidhi Srirama, Vijaya R Dirisala
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases ranging from mild skin and soft tissue infections, food poisoning to highly serious diseases such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. Proper diagnosis of pathogen and virulence factors is important for providing timely intervention in the therapy. Owing to the invasive nature of infections and the limited treatment options due to rampant spread of antibiotic-resistant strains, the trend for development of vaccines and antibody therapy is increasing at rapid rate than development of new antibiotics...
2017: Infectious Diseases
Emily Graham, Krishna Rao, Sandro Cinti
BACKGROUND: Few studies exist to guide the treatment approach to intra-abdominal abscesses in Crohn disease, which can include antimicrobials alone or in conjunction with percutaneous drainage or surgery. The primary aim of this study is to review outcomes from different treatment approaches to intra-abdominal abscess in Crohn disease. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for patients admitted to the University of Michigan health care system with Crohn disease and intra-abdominal abscess over a 4-year period...
2017: Infectious Diseases
Glenn S Tillotson
Antibiotic resistance has been emerged as a major global health problem. In particular, gram-negative species pose a significant clinical challenge as bacteria develop or acquire more resistance mechanisms. Often, these bacteria possess multiple resistance mechanisms, thus nullifying most of the major classes of drugs. Novel approaches to this issue are urgently required. However, the challenges of developing new agents are immense. Introducing novel agents is fraught with hurdles, thus adapting known antibiotic classes by altering their chemical structure could be a way forward...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Travis E Wright, K Keely Boyle, Thomas R Duquin, John K Crane
BACKGROUND: Many studies have noted an increase in the number of recognized cases of invasive infections due to Propionibacterium acnes, especially after shoulder replacement surgery. The increase in the number of recognized cases of P. acnes, a nonspore-forming, anaerobic, Gram-positive organism, appears due to both an increase in the number of shoulder operations being performed and more specimens being sent for anaerobic cultures. Nevertheless, the optimal surgical and antibiotic management of P...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Adel Alothman, Abdullah Algwizani, Mohammed Alsulaiman, Abdullah Alalwan, Salih Binsalih, Mohammad Bosaeed
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics are essential and abundantly prescribed in hospitals because of their effectiveness and lifesaving benefits. However, the unnecessary use of antibiotics has been observed in earlier studies, and it has persisted through recent years as a major issue since it is one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The increase in antibiotic resistance nowadays is one of the most critical concerns in global public health around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions related to antibiotic prescription among physicians at our medical centers...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Oluwaseun Ogunwuyi, Namita Kumari, Kahli A Smith, Oleg Bolshakov, Simeon Adesina, Ayele Gugssa, Winston A Anderson, Sergei Nekhai, Emmanuel O Akala
Highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) for chronic suppression of HIV replication has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS. HAART is no panacea; treatments must be maintained for life. Although great progress has been made in ARV therapy, HIV continues to replicate in anatomical and intracellular sites where ARV drugs have restricted access. Nanotechnology has been considered a platform to circumvent some of the challenges in HIV/AIDS treatment. Dispersion polymerization was used to fabricate two types (PMM and ECA) of polymeric nanoparticles, and each was successfully loaded with four ARV drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and raltegravir), followed by physicochemical characterization: scanning electron microscope, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and in vitro availability...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Balaram Das, Debasis Mandal, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Satyajit Tripathy, Durga Pada Dolai, Sankar Kumar Dey, Somenath Roy
Due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, resistance to antibiotics has increased remarkably in Staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin is the final drug to treat the S. aureus infection, but nowadays, resistance to this antibiotic is also increasing. So, the investigation of antibiotic resistance pattern is important. As there is already resistance to vancomycin, there is an urgent need to develop a new kind of antimicrobial to treat S. aureus infection. Eugenol may be the new drug of choice. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of eugenol against vancomycin-resistant S...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Sayli S Modak, Cheryl A Barber, Eran Geva, William R Abrams, Daniel Malamud, Yhombi Serge Yvon Ongagna
Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and results in significant mortality. Isothermal amplification (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) is used to detect malarial DNA at levels of ~1 parasite/µL blood in ≤30 minutes without the isolation of parasite nucleic acid from subject's blood or saliva. The technique targets the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene and is capable of distinguishing Plasmodium falciparum from Plasmodium vivax. Malarial diagnosis by the gold standard microscopic examination of blood smears is generally carried out only after moderate-to-severe symptoms appear...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Bal Kishan Gupta, Anjli Gupta, Hardev Ram Nehra, Heera Ram Balotia, Shyam Lal Meena, Surendra Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Severe malaria remains a major cause of death and morbidity among adults in the Asiatic tropics. This study was planned to evaluate clinical profile and prognostic indicators of severe malaria in adults so as to improve insight into this highly prevalent disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted on 60 confirmed cases of malaria. Cases were divided into two groups: (a) study group: suffering from severe malaria and (b) control group: no severe manifestations...
2015: Infectious Diseases
Kai-Lit Phua
Even if an effective vaccine against Ebola virus disease (EVD) becomes available, the challenges posed by this disease are complex. Certain socioeconomic and cultural factors have been linked to recent outbreaks of EVD in West Africa. The outbreaks revealed widespread ignorance by laypersons of EVD etiology, mode of transmission, and personal protective measures that can be taken. Lack of trust in the authorities, virus infection during the preparation of "bushmeat" for human consumption, traditional funerary practices, and relatively free flow of goods and people between regions and across international borders may have facilitated the spread of EVD and hindered outbreak control efforts...
2015: Infectious Diseases
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