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Endocrine Connections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619884/effect-of-an-obesogenic-diet-on-circadian-activity-and-serum-hormones-in-old-monkeys
#1
Henryk F Urbanski, Kevin Mueller, Cynthia Bethea
Like women, old female rhesus macaques undergo menopause and show many of the same age-associated changes, including perturbed activity/rest cycles and altered circulating levels of many hormones. Previous studies showed that administration of an estrogen agonist increased activity in female monkeys, that hormone therapy (HT) increased activity in postmenopausal women, and that obesity decreased activity in women. The present study sought to determine if postmenopausal activity and circulating hormone levels also respond to HT when monkeys are fed a high-fat, high-sugar Western-style diet (WSD)...
June 15, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615186/subclinical-hypothyroidism-in-paediatric-population-treated-with-levothyroxine-a-real-world-study-on-2001-2014-italian
#2
Nella Augusta Greggio, Elisa Rossi, Silvia Calabria, Alice Meneghin, Joaquin Gutierrez de Rubalcava, Carlo Piccinni, Antonella Pedrini
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SH) among children, by using levothyroxine low dosage as disease proxy, and to describe prescription pattern. DESIGN: An historical cohort study was performed through administrative databases of 12 Italian Local Health Units covering 3,079,141 inhabitants. A cohort of children (0-13 years old) was selected in the period 2001-2014. A subgroup of new users (0-9 years old) was identified and followed-up for 5 years...
June 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615185/hormone-replacement-treatment-choices-in-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-an-audit-of-an-adult-clinic
#3
Jennifer K Y Ko, Thomas F J King, Louise Williams, Sarah M Creighton, Gerard S Conway
OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment choices of women with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) at a single tertiary centre. DESIGN: Retrospective review Patients: Women with CAIS identified from our database. RESULTS: The study group comprised 141 women with CAIS. Eleven percent of women had gonads in situ, 3 of which were under workup for gonadectomy. The age of gonadectomy in the remainder was 17 (0.1-53) years old. The most common form of HRT was oral oestrogen or transdermal oestrogen in 80%...
June 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611058/gnrhr-biallelic-and-digenic-mutations-in-patients-with-normosmic-congenital-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#4
Catarina Inês Gonçalves, José Maria Aragüés, Margarida Bastos, Luísa Barros, Nuno Vicente, Davide Carvalho, Manuel C Lemos
Objective: Normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH) is a rare disorder characterized by lack of pubertal development and infertility, due to deficient production, secretion or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and, unlike Kallmann syndrome, is associated with a normal sense of smell. Mutations in the GNRHR gene cause autosomal recessive nCHH. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GNRHR mutations in a group of 40 patients with nCHH. Design: Cross sectional study of 40 unrelated patients with nCHH...
June 13, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592511/androgenic-potential-of-human-fetal-adrenals-at-the-end-of-the-first-trimester
#5
Iuliia Savchuk, Marie-Line Morvan, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Bruno LeBizec, Olle Soder, Konstantin Svechnikov
The onset of steroidogenesis in human fetal adrenal glands (HFA) during the first trimester is poorly investigated. An unresolved question is the capacity of the HFA to produce potent androgen DHT via conventional and/or the backdoor pathway(s) at the end of first trimester, when androgen-responsive organs are developed. Our aim was to explore steroidogenesis and the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and transcription factors in HFA at gestational weeks (GW) 9-12 with focus on their androgenic potential. Steroids in the HFA were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
June 7, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592510/methodological-utility-of-chemerin-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-immunity-and-metabolism
#6
Fabian Eichelmann, Cornelia Weikert, Romina di Giuseppe, Ronald Biemann, Berend Isermann, M B Schulze, Heiner Boeing, Krasimira Aleksandrova
Chemerin is a recently discovered adipokine with inflammatory and metabolic actions relevant for chronic disease development. However, evidence from human research on the role of chemerin in chronic disease risk is still lacking. We assessed reliability of plasma chemerin concentrations measured on two occasions over a 4-month period in 207 apparently healthy participants. In addition, we explored cross-sectional associations between chemerin and inflammatory biomarkers using Spearman partial correlation and multivariable linear regression analyses...
June 7, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584168/palmitate-and-oleate-exert-differential-effects-on-insulin-signalling-and-glucose-uptake-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#7
Selina Mäkinen, Hoang Yen Nguyen, Paulina Skrobuk, Heikki A Koistinen
Saturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of insulin resistance, whereas unsaturated fatty acids may have a protective effect on metabolism. We tested in primary human myotubes if insulin resistance induced by saturated fatty acid palmitate can be ameliorated by concomitant exposure to unsaturated fatty acid oleate. Primary human myotubes were pre-treated with palmitate, oleate, or their combination for 12 h. Glucose uptake was determined by intracellular accumulation of [3H]-2-Deoxy-D-glucose, insulin signalling and activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by western blotting, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by fluorescent dye MitoSOX™...
June 5, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584167/severe-cushing-s-syndrome-due-to-small-cell-prostate-carcinoma-a-case-and-review-of-literature
#8
Marianne Elston, Veronica Crawford, Michael Swarbrick, Michael Dray, Michelle Head, John V Conaglen
Cushings syndrome (CS) due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is associated with a variety of tumours most of which arise in the thorax or abdomen. Prostate carcinoma is a rare but important cause of rapidly progressive CS. To report a case of severe CS due to ACTH production from prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma and summarise previous published cases. A 71 year old man presented with profound hypokalaemia, oedema and new onset hypertension. He reported two weeks of weight gain, muscle weakness, labile mood and insomnia...
June 5, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566493/urinary-amine-sampling-for-tumour-detection-revisiting-the-recommendations
#9
Jean-Benoit Corcuff, Laurence Chardon, Ines El Hajji Ridah, Julie Brossaud
Context Biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid (5HIAA), the main metabolite of serotonin or metanephrines, catecholamines metabolites, are used as biomarkers of neuroendocrine tumours Objective To re-evaluate the recommendations for urinary sampling (preservatives, diet, drugs, …) as many of the reported analytical interferences supporting these recommendations are related to obsolete assays. Methods Bibliographic analysis of old and modern amine assays concerning preservation, extraction, assay and interferences...
May 31, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515052/exercise-training-improves-free-testosterone-in-lifelong-sedentary-aging-men
#10
Lawrence Hayes, Peter Herbert, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Fergal Grace
As the impact of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T), and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six weeks' training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B), and post-HIIT (phase C)...
May 17, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515051/views-of-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-qualitative-study-in-an-ethnically-diverse-sample
#11
Michelle Hadjiconstantinou, Hamidreza Mani, Naina Patel, Miles Levy, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Margaret Stone
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a lifelong condition. Its symptoms have been linked with psychological consequences, but less attention has been given to the daily implications of living with PCOS. We aimed to explore women's experiences living with PCOS, and the potential acceptability of group education sessions for this target group. METHODS: Women with PCOS were recruited from an ethnically diverse UK community. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted...
May 17, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490439/skeletal-muscle-metabolism-during-prolonged-exercise-in-pompe-disease
#12
Nicolai Preisler, Pascal Laforet, Karen Lindhardt Madsen, Edith Husu, Christoffer Vissing, Gitte Hedermann, Henrik Galbo, Christopher Lindberg, John Vissing
OBJECTIVE: Pompe disease (glycogenosis type II) is caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency, which leads to a block in intra-lysosomal glycogen breakdown. In spite of enzyme replacement therapy, Pompe disease continues to be a progressive metabolic myopathy. Considering the health benefits of exercise, it is important in Pompe disease to acquire more information about muscle substrate use during exercise. METHODS: Seven adults with Pompe disease were matched to a healthy control group (1:1)...
May 10, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483784/thyroid-states-regulate-subcellular-glucose-phosphorylation-activity-in-male-mice
#13
Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha, Reinaldo Sousa Dos Santos, Wagner Seixas da-Silva
The thyroid hormones (THs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are very important in organism metabolism and regulate glucose utilization. Hexokinase (HK) is responsible for the first step of glycolysis, catalyzing the conversion of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate. HK has been found in different cellular compartments, and new functions have been attributed to this enzyme. The effects of hyperthyroidism on subcellular glucose phosphorylation in mouse tissues were examined. Tissues were removed, subcellular fractions isolated from eu- and hyperthyroid (T3, 0...
May 8, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465400/the-significance-of-beige-and-brown-fat-in-humans
#14
Florian W Kiefer
Promotion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity or browning of white adipose tissue has shown great potential as anti-obesity strategy in numerous preclinical models. The discovery of active BAT in humans and the recent advances in the understanding of human BAT biology and function have significantly propelled this field of research. Pharmacological stimulation of energy expenditure to counteract obesity has always been an intriguing therapeutic concept; with the identification of the specific molecular pathways of brown fat function this idea has now become as realistic as ever...
May 2, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450423/comparative-pharmacology-of-a-new-recombinant-fsh-expressed-by-a-human-cell-line
#15
Wolfgang Koechling, Daniel Plaksin, Glenn Croston, Janni Vikkelsoe Jeppesen, Kirsten Tryde Macklon, Claus Yding Andersen
Recombinant FSH proteins are important therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility, including follitropin alfa expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and, more recently, follitropin delta expressed in the human cell line PER.C6. These recombinant FSH proteins have distinct glycosylation, and have distinct pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles in women. Comparative experiments demonstrated that follitropin delta and follitropin alfa displayed the same in vitro potency at the human FSH receptor, but varied in their pharmacokinetics in mouse and rat...
April 27, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446514/autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1-in-an-indian-cohort-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Ghazala Zaidi, Vijayalakshmi Bhatia, Saroj Sahoo, Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Niharika Bharti, Li Zhang, Liping Yu, Daniel Eriksson, Sophie Bensing, Olle Kämpe, Nisha Bhavani, Surender K Yachha, Anil Bhansali, Alok Sachan, Vandana Jain, Nalini Shah, Rakesh Aggarwal, Amita Aggarwal, Muthuswany Srinivasan, Sarita Agarwal, Eesh Bhatia
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS 1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive organ-specific autoimmunity. There is scant information on APS1 in ethnic groups other than European Caucasians. We studied clinical aspects and autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene mutations in a cohort of Indian APS1 patients. DESIGN: Twenty-three patients (19 families) from six referral centres in India, diagnosed between 1996-2016, were followed for [median (range)] 4 (0...
April 26, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432081/glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-responsiveness-in-gitelman-syndrome-patients
#17
Tao Yuan, Lanping Jiang, Chen Chen, Xiaoyan Peng, Min Nie, Xuemei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Xuewang Li, Limeng Chen
Objective Impaired glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity have been reported in patients with Gitelman syndrome (GS), but insulin secretion and the related mechanisms are not well understood. Design and Methods The serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in patients with GS (n=28), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and healthy individuals (n=20 in both groups) using an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum and urine sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after an oral glucose load was administered...
April 21, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420717/heart-lipids-and-hormones
#18
Peter Wolf, Yvonne Winhofer, Martin Krssak, Michael Krebs
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well known risk factors like hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that also hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases impact cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420716/a-men1-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumour-mouse-model-under-temporal-control
#19
Kate E Lines, Roeland P Vas Nunes, Morten Frost, Christopher J Yates, Mark Stevenson, Rajesh Thakker
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, and neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the pancreatic islets and anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, encoding menin, is a tumour suppressor, but its precise role in initiating in vivo tumourigenesis remains to be elucidated. The availability of a temporally controlled conditional MEN1 mouse model would greatly facilitate the study of such early tumourigenic events, and overcome the limitations of other MEN1 knockout models, in which menin is lost from conception, or tumour development occurs asynchronously...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381564/the-relationship-between-weight-gain-during-pregnancy-and-allopregnanolone-levels-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Anette Lundqvist, Herbert Sandström, Torbjörn Bäckström
OBJECTIVE: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy poses a risk for negative complications for mother and fetus. Hunger and satiety are regulated in the hypothalamus, where the gamma-amino-butyric acid system (GABA) plays an important role. Allopregnanolone, a progesterone metabolite, increases during pregnancy and is a potent GABA-A receptor modulating steroid. Allopregnanolone has been shown to induce overeating in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between weight gain and allopregnanolone concentrations during pregnancy in humans...
April 5, 2017: Endocrine Connections
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