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Endocrine Connections

Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecka, Martin Vodicka, Karla Vagnerova, Ivan Miksik, Jiri Pacha
Stress is an important risk factors for human diseases. It activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increases plasma glucocorticoids, which are powerful regulators of immune system. The response of the target cells to glucocorticoids depends not only on the plasma concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone but also on their local metabolism. This metabolism is catalysed by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and 2, which interconvert glucocorticoid hormones cortisol and corticosterone and their 11-oxo metabolites cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Dario de Biase, Federica Torricelli, Moira Ragazzi, Benedetta Donati, Elisabetta Khun, Michela Visani, Giorgia Acquaviva, Annalisa Pession, Giovanni Tallini, Simonetta Piana, Alessia Ciarrocchi
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but highly aggressive form of thyroid cancer. By contrast, differentiated Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC) only rarely behave aggressively and develop distant metastasis. Whether distantly metastatic PTC (DM-PTC) and ATC share a common genetic background is still to be defined. We used a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to explore the genetic background of a cohort of ATC and DM-PTC and a group of well-differentiated PTC that did not developed distant metastasis as control (ctrl-PTC)...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Manjeetkaur Amrik Singh Sehemby, Prachi Ashok Kumar Bansal, Vijaya Sarathi, Ashvini Kolhe, Kanchan Kothari, Swati Jadhav, Anurag Ranjan Lila, Tushar Ramkrishna Bandgar, Nalini Shah
AIMS: Literature on virilising ovarian tumors (VOT) is limited to case reports and series reporting single pathological type. We have analyzed the clinical, hormonal, radiological, histological, management and outcome data of VOT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary health care center from Western India. Consecutive patients with VOT presenting to our endocrine center between 2002 and 2017 were included. RESULTS: Our study included 13 patients of VOT, two of whom were postmenopausal...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Deborah Cosentini, Salvatore Grisanti, Alberto Dalla Volta, Marta Laganà, Chiara Fiorentini, Paola Perotti, Sandra Sigala, Alfredo Berruti
Excerpt: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine neoplasia, characterized by an overall dismal prognosis and its clinical manifestations are the consequence of either steroid excess or tumor mass progression. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. For patients with locally advanced or metastatic ACC, not amenable to surgery, Mitotane and cytotoxic chemotherapy (with etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin - EDP scheme) are the systemic treatments currently in use.
November 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Bingbing Wang, Mayra Cruz Ithier, Nataliya Parobchak, Stacy M Yadava, Jay Schulkin, Todd Rosen
Maternal vitamin D-deficiency is linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes including spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been proposed to be part of a clock that governs the length of gestation in humans, with elevated maternal serum levels predicting early delivery. In this study we test the hypothesis that vitamin D could contribute to the prevention of preterm labor by inhibiting CRH and other pro-labor mediators. The biological activity of vitamin D occurs via two pathways: non-genomic and genomic responses, both of which involve binding of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite of vitamin D binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Eva O Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander, Magnus Hillman
OBJECTIVE: Depression has been associated with diabetic retinopathy and increased plasma levels of galectin-3, a lectin expressed in activated macrophages. Increased levels of sCD163, the soluble form of a macrophage expressed scavenger receptor involved in several inflammatory processes, have been demonstrated in the vitreous of the eye in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with severe diabetic retinopathy. The aim was to explore whether circulating sCD163 was associated with diabetic retinopathy, depression, and/or galectin-3 in T1D patients, controlling for gender, metabolic factors, other diabetes complications, life style, and medication...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Laura van Iersel, Sarah C Clement, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Annemieke Boot, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Bernd Granzen, K Sen Han, Geert O Janssens, Erna M Michiels, Paul van Trotsenburg, Peter Vandertop, Dannis G van Vuurden, Huib Caron, Leontien C Kremer, Hanneke Margo van Santen
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of cranial radiotherapy (cRT)-induced central hypothyroidism (TSHD) in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) is reported to be low. However, TSHD may be more frequent than currently suspected, as its diagnosis is challenging due broad reference ranges for free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations. TSHD is more likely to be present when FT4 levels progressively decline over time. Therefore, we determined the incidence and latency time of TSHD, and changes of FT4 levels over time in irradiated CBTS...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Toral P Parikh, Brian R Stolze, Yesim Ozarda Ilcol, Jacqueline Jonklaas, Kerry Welsh, Likhona Siphe Masika, Micah J Hill, Alan H DeCherney, Steven John Soldin
OBJECTIVE: Accurate measurement of steroid hormones remains challenging. Mass spectrometry affords a reliable means for quantitating steroid profiles accurately. Our objective was to establish and define 1. the extent of diurnal fluctuations in steroid concentrations that potentially necessitate strict adherence to time of sample acquisition and 2. time dependent steroid reference intervals. DESIGN: Nine steroid markers were examined in couplets in males and females...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Erika Urbano Lima, Ileana G S Rubio, Joaquim Custódio Silva, Ana Luiza Galrão, Danielle Pereira Pêssoa, Taise Lima Cerqueira Oliveira, Fabiane Carrijo, Igor Campos Silva, Luciano Espinheira Fonseca, Luiz Jose Lobão Sampaio, Claudio Rogerio Alves Lima, Janete Maria Cerutti, Helton Ramos
BACKGROUND: The inactivation of the tumor-suppressor homeodomain-only protein X (HOPX) usually involves promoter methylation in several cancer types. This study aimed to investigate the HOPX-β mRNA expression and promoter methylation and their clinical relevance in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinicopathological data and paraffin-embedded thyroid tumor tissues from 21 patients with DTC and 6 with benign tumors (T) and their nontumor parenchyma (NT) were investigated...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Linfei Yang, Xiao Yu, Yangchao Yang
BACKGROUND: Although the upregulation of autotaxin (ATX) is associated with many solid tumours, its role in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN) has not been well elucidated. METHODS: The expression of ATX in pNEN tissues and pNEN cell line BON1 was analysed by Western blot, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry upon exposure to interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, pNEN cell line BON1 was transfected with small interfering RNAs against ATX or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and assessed by in vitro invasion assays...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Zi-Di Xu, Wei Zhang, Min Liu, Huan-Min Wang, Pei-Pei Hui, Xue-Jun Liang, Jie Yan, Yu-Jun Wu, Yan-Mei Sang, Cheng Zhu, Gui-Chen Ni
This study aims to summarize and analyze the clinical manifestations, genetic characteristics, treatment modalities and long-term prognosis of congenital hyperinsulinemia (CHI) in Chinese children. Sixty children with CHI, who were treated at Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2014 to August 2017, and their families, were selected as subjects. The CHI-related causative genes in children were sequenced and analyzed using second-generation sequencing technology. Furthermore, the genetic pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of Chinese children with CHI were explored...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Legh Wilkinson, Nicolette J D Verhoog, Ann Louw
The development of resistance to glucocorticoids (GCs) in therapeutic regimes poses a major threat. Generally, GC resistance is congenital or acquired over time as a result of disease progression, prolonged GC treatment or, in some cases, both. Essentially, disruptions in the function and/or pool of the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) underlie this resistance. Many studies have detailed how alterations in GRα function lead to diminished GC sensitivity, however, the current review highlights the wealth of data concerning reductions in the GRα pool, mediated by disease-associated and treatment-associated effects, which contribute to a significant decrease in GC sensitivity...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Myrtille Fouché, Yves Bouffard, Mary-Charlotte Legoff, Johanne Prothet, François Malavieille, Pierre Sagnard, Françoise Christin, Davy Hayi-Slayman, Arnaud Pasquer, Gilles Poncet, Thomas Walter, Thomas Rimmelé
Only few descriptions of Intraoperative carcinoid syndrome (ioCS) have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to describe ioCS. A second aim was to identify risk factors of ioCS. We retrospectively analyzed patients operated for small-bowel neuroendocrine tumour in our institution between 2007 and 2015, and receiving our preventive local regimen of octreotide continuous administration. ioCS was defined as highly-probable in case of rapid (<5min) arterial blood pressure changes ≥ 40%, not explained by surgical/anaesthetic management and regressive ≥ 20% after octreotide bolus injection...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Emmanuelle Motte-Signoret, Anya Rothenbuhler, Stephan Gaillard, Najiba Lahlou, Cécile Teinturier, Regis Coutant, Agnès Linglart
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether low-dose mitotane (up to 2 g/day) could be a temporary therapeutic alternative to transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in pediatric Cushing's disease (CD). METHODS: 28 patients with CD aged 12.2 years [± 2.2] were referred to our center. We compared 9 patients treated with mitotane alone for at least 6 months to 13 patients cured after surgery. Primary outcomes were changes in growth velocity, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal development...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Karin Amrein, Alja Papinutti, Erwin Mathew, Greisa Vila, Dhruv Parekh
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in intensive care units ranges typically between 40 and 70 %. There are many reasons for being or becoming deficient in the ICU. Hepatic, parathyroid and renal dysfunction aditionally increase the risk for developing vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, therapeutic interventions like fluid resuscitation, dialysis, surgery, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiopulmonary bypass and plasma exchange may significantly reduce vitamin D levels. Many observational studies have consistently shown an association between low vitamin D levels and poor clinical outcomes in critically ill adults and children, including excess mortality and morbidity such as acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, duration of mechanical ventilation and sepsis...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Marieke Velema, Evie Linssen, Ad Hermus, Hans Groenewoud, Gert-Jan van der Wilt, Antonius Eduard van Herwaarden, Jacques Lenders, Henri J L M Timmers, Jaap Deinum
OBJECTIVE: To develop a prediction model to confirm or exclude primary aldosteronism (PA) in patients with an inconclusive salt loading test (SLT). CONTEXT: Diagnosis in patients with a suspicion of PA can be confirmed using an SLT. In case of inconclusive test results the decision about how to manage the patient is usually based on contextual clinical data. DESIGN: We included a retrospective cohort of 276 patients in the final analysis. METHODS: All patients underwent an SLT between 2005 and 2016 in our university medical center...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Søs Dragsbæk Larsen, Christine Dalgård, Mathilde Egelund Christensen, Sine Lykkedegn, Louise Bjørkholt Andersen, Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg, Henrik Thybo Christesen
BACKGROUND: Low foetal vitamin D status may be associated with higher blood pressure (BP) in later life. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (s-25OHD) in cord and pregnancy associates with systolic and diastolic BP (SBP; DBP) in children up to three years of age. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study. METHODS: We included 1594 singletons from the Odense Child Cohort with available cord s-25OHD and BP data at median age 3...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Changwei Liu, Jingwen Wang, Yuanyuan Wan, Xiaona Xia, Jian Pan, Wei Gu, Mei Li
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) level among children and in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to comparison of serum 25OHD levels between cases and control. This study recruited 296 T1DM children (106 newly diagnosed T1DM patients and 190 established T1DM patients), and 295 age -and gender matched healthy subjects as controls. RESULTS: The mean serum 25OHD in T1DM children was 48...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Devis Pascut, Sofia Tamini, Silvia Bresolin, Pablo Giraudi, Giuseppe Basso, Alessandro Minocci, Claudio Tiribelli, Graziano Grugni, Alessandro Sartorio
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) represents the most common genetic-derived obesity disorder caused by the loss of expression of genes located on the paternal chromosome 15q11.2-q13. The PWS phenotype shows peculiar physical, endocrine, and metabolic characteristics compared to those observed in non-syndromic essential obesity. Since miRNAs have now a well-established role in many molecular pathways, including regulatory networks related to obesity, this pilot study was aimed to characterize the expression of circulating miRNAs in PWS compared to essential obesity...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Natalie Rogowski-Lehmann, Aikaterini Geroula, Aleksander Prejbisz, Henri J L M Timmers, Felix Megerle, Mercedes Robledo, Martin Fassnacht, Stephanie Fliedner, Martin Reincke, Anthony Stell, Andrzej Januszewicz, Jacques Lenders, Graeme Eisenhofer, Felix Beuschlein
CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare but potentially harmful tumors that can vary in their clinical presentation. Tumors may be found due to signs and symptoms, as part of a hereditary syndrome or following an imaging procedure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential differences in clinical presentation between PPGLs discovered by imaging (iPPGLs), symptomatic cases (sPPGLs) and those diagnosed during follow-up because of earlier disease/known hereditary mutations (fPPGL)...
September 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
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