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Endocrine Connections

Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Uwe Schwahn
The measurement of circulating hormones by immunoassay remains a cornerstone in preclinical endocrine research. For scientists conducting and interpreting immunoassay measurements of rodent samples, the paramount aim usually is to obtain reliable and meaningful measurement data in order to draw conclusions on biological processes. However, the biological variability between samples is not the only variable affecting the readout of an immunoassay measurement and a considerable amount of unwanted or unintended variability can be quickly introduced during the pre-analytical and analytical phase...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Efstratios Kardalas, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Gerasimos Siasos, Andromachi Vryonidou
Hypokalaemia is a common electrolyte disturbance, especially in hospitalized patients. It can have various causes, including endocrine ones. Sometimes, hypokalaemia requires urgent medical attention. The aim of this review is to present updated information regarding: 1) the definition and prevalence of hypokalaemia, 2) the physiology of potassium homeostasis, 3) the various causes leading to hypokalaemia, 4) the diagnostic steps for the assessment of hypokalaemia and 5) the appropriate treatment of hypokalaemia depending on the cause...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Marloes Langelaan, Jérôme Kisters, Mirjam Oosterwerff-Suiker, Arjen-Kars Boer
Saliva as a diagnostic tool is patient friendly and offers analytical advantages. Hormonal analysis of saliva is not influenced by changes in concentrations of binding globulins as the free concentration of the hormones is measured. Analysis of salivary cortisol is common practice in the diagnostic work-up of hypercortisolism. We investigated the potential role of measuring salivary cortisol when adrenal insufficiency (AI) is suspected, to reduce the numbers of ACTH stimulation tests. Over a period of 6 years, patients undergoing an ACTH stimulation test (tetracosactide, 250 μg) in our hospital were included...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Mirjana Kocova, Vesna Janevska, Violeta Anastasovska
BACKGROUND: Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are found in 30-94% of adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We sought to explore TART appearance through yearly ultrasound examination of testes in young boys with CAH, and its association with metabolic control and genetic mutations. METHODS: Twenty-five boys with 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the age group 4-18 years diagnosed during the period 2001-2016 were included in the study. ACTH, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone were measured at 4-month intervals...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Lauren Bell, Ann Louise Hunter, Angelos Kyriacou, Annice Mukherjee, Akheel A Syed
BACKGROUND: TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the autoimmunity of Graves' disease (GD), which is commonly diagnosed clinically. AIM: To evaluate the true positive (sensitivity) and true negative (specificity) rates of clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism compared to the TRAb test. SETTING: University teaching hospital in North West England Participants: Patients in the Endocrinology service who had a TRAb measurement between December 2009 and October 2015 Methods: Electronic patient records were studied retrospectively for a pre-TRAb clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Andreas Gleiss, Katharina Schubert, Caroline Culen, Peer Hauck, Johannes Ott, Alois Gessl, Gabriele Haeusler
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that only a minority of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have adequate medical care after transfer to adult care. AIM OF THIS STUDY: To assess the status of medical care and quality of life (QoL) in adult women diagnosed with TS and followed-up until transfer. To compare the subjective and objective view of the medical care quality and initiate improvements based on patients' experiences and current recommendations. METHODS: 39 adult women with TS out of 64 patients contacted were seen for a clinical and laboratory check, cardiac ultrasound, standardized and structured questionnaires (SF-36v2 and Beck depression inventory)...
March 7, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Jeonghoon Ha, Jeongmin Lee, Kwanhoon Jo, Dong Jun Lim, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Min Hee Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in Korean adults and identify the risk factors for the occurrence of SCH by sex. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study used data from KNHANES VI, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, which comprises a health interview survey, a health examination survey, and a nutrition survey. To examine SCH, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) reference range was defined using both the range provided by the test kit manufacturer (SCH-M) and a population-based range (SCH-P)...
March 7, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Mikkel Andreassen, Anders Juul, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Niels Joergensen
Gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)) are released from the pituitary gland and stimulate Leydig cells to produce testosterone and initiates spermatogenesis. Little is known about how and when the deterioration of semen quality occurs in patients with adult onset gonadotropin insufficiency Design and methods: A retrospective study comprising 20 testosterone deficient men (median age 29 years) with acquired pituitary disease, who delivered semen for cryopreservation before initiation of testosterone therapy...
March 7, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Henrik Falhammar, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Nicole Reisch, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Anna Nordenstrom, Robert Roehle, Claire Bouvattier, Baudewijntje P Kreukels, Birgit Koehler
OBJECTIVE: The knowledge about health status in adults with disorder of sex development (DSD) is scarce. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study in 14 European tertiary centers recruited 1040 participants (717 females, 311 males, 12 others) with DSD. Mean age was 32.4±13.6 year (range 16-75). The cohort was divided into: Turner (n=301), Klinefelter (n=224), XY-DSD (n=222), XX-DSD (excluding congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and 46,XX males)(n=21), 46,XX-CAH (n=226), and 45,X/46,XY (n=45)...
February 28, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Darling Macarena Rojas-Canales, Michaela Waibel, Aurelien Forget, Daniella Penko, Jodie Nitschke, Fran Harding, Bahman Delalat, Anton Blencowe, Thomas Loudovaris, Shane T Grey, Helen Thomas, Tom Kay, Chris Drogemuller, Nicolas Voelcker, P T H Coates
Islet transplantation is currently the only minimally-invasive therapy available for patients with type 1 diabetes that can lead to insulin-independence, however it is limited to only a small number of patients. Although clinical procedures have improved in the isolation and culture of islets, a large number of islets are still lost in the pre-transplant period, limiting the success of this treatment. Moreover, current practice includes islets being prepared at specialised centers, which are sometimes remote to the transplant location...
February 26, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Gudmundur Johannsson, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly Biller, Margaret Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Catherine S Choong, Peter E Clayton, David Clemmons, Mehul Dattani, Jan Frystyk, Ken K Y Ho, Andrew Hoffman, Reiko Horikawa, Anders Juul, John Kopchick, Xiaoping Luo, Sebastian Neggers, Irène Netchine, Daniel S Olsson, Sally Radovick, Ron G Rosenfeld, Richard J Ross, Katharina Schilbach, Paulo Ferrez Collett-Solberg, Christian J Strasburger, Peter J Trainer, Kerstin Wickstrom, Kevin Cj Yuen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened a Workshop in 2017 to evaluate clinical endpoints, surrogate endpoints and biomarkers during GH treatment of children and adults, and in patients with acromegaly. PARTICIPANTS: GRS invited 34 international experts including clinicians, basic scientists, a regulatory scientist and physicians from the pharmaceutical industry. EVIDENCE: Current literature was reviewed and expert opinion was utilized to establish the state of the art, and identify current gaps and unmet needs...
February 26, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Dorte Glintborg, Magda Lambaa Altinok, Pernille Ravn, Kurt B Stage, Kurt Højlund, Marianne Andersen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status, and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo. METHODS: Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-weeks SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n=21) or placebo (n=21). Patients underwent clinical examination, fasting blood samples, adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH) test, 3 hours oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and filled in questionnaires regarding mental health and health related quality of life (HRQoL): WHO Well Being Index (WHO-5), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS questionnaire...
February 22, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Annette Korsholm Mouritsen, Alexander Siegfried Busch, Lise Aksglaede, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Anders Juul
OBJECTIVE: Only a few genetic loci are known to be associated with male pubertal events. The ability of excreting testosterone (T) and other steroids in the urine depends on sulfation and glucuronidation. One of several essential glucuronidases is encoded by the UGT2B17 gene. In a preliminary report, we found that homozygous deletion of UGT2B17 in boys was associated with lower urinary excretion of T. We hypothesized that boys with a lower glucuronidation capacity may have altered androgen action and excretion affecting pubarche, as this represents a T dependent event...
February 21, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Farzaneh Rohani, Mohammad Reza Alai, Sedighe Moradi, Davood Amir Kashani
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to find out whether boys with Constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP) could attain their target height and predicted adult height (PAH) in adulthood or not. METHODS: After measuring the height, weight, pubertal stage, parental height and bone age data of the patients at their first presentation were extracted from the files and their height and weight were measured at the end of the study, wrist X-Ray was performed in order to determine the bone age...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Chanyang Kim, Seungjoon Park
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a well-known anti-apoptotic pro-survival factor and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is linked to cell survival induced by IGF-1. It is also reported that Akt signaling is modulated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). In the current study, we investigated whether the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-1 in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is associated with the activity of PI3K/PDK1/Akt pathway. Treatment of cells with IGF-1 inhibited MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Christian Trummer, Stefan Pilz, Verena Schwetz, Barbara R Obermayer-Pietsch, Elisabeth Lerchbaum
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that vitamin D is involved in many functions of the reproductive system in both genders. AIM: The aim of this review was to provide an overview on the effects of vitamin D on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women and androgen metabolism in men. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed for relevant English language publications published from January 2012 until July 2017...
February 15, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Ling-Jun Li, Izzuddin M Aris, Lin Lin Su, Yap Seng Chong, Tien Yin Wong, Kok Hian Tan, Jie Jin Wang
AIMS: The cumulative effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases is equivocal. We aimed to assess the associations of GDM and HDP's individual and synergic contribution to risks of postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases (metabolic syndrome (MetS), abnormal glucose metabolism and hypertension (HTN)). METHODS: Of participants from a Singapore birth cohort, 276 mothers attending the 5-year postpartum visit were included in this study...
February 14, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Kush Dev Singh Jarial, Anil Bhansali, Vivek Gupta, Paramjeet Singh, Kanchan K Mukherjee, Akhilesh Sharma, Rakesh Vasishta, Suja P Sukumar, Naresh Sachdeva, Rama Walia
CONTEXT: Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) using hCRH is currently considered the 'gold standard' test for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS). Vasopressin is more potent than CRH to stimulate ACTH secretion as shown in animal studies, however; no comparative data of its use is available during BIPSS. OBJECTIVE: To study the diagnostic accuracy and comparison of hCRH and lysine vasopressin (LVP) stimulation during BIPSS...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Marianne Aardal Grytaas, Kjersti Sellevåg, Hrafnkell Baldur Thordarson, Eystein Sverre Husebye, Kristian Løvås, Terje Hjalmar Larsen
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, presumably due to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, the degree of fibrosis has not been extensively studied. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) contrast enhancement and novel sensitive T1 mapping to estimate increased extracellular volume (ECV) are available to measure the extent of fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess LV mass and fibrosis before and after treatment of PA using CMR with contrast enhancement and T1 mapping...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Justyna Płusajska, Wojciech Horzelski, Ewa Bieniek, Andrzej Lewinski
Backgroud: Though insulin resistance (IR) is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is no agreement as to what surrogate method of assessment of IR is most reliable. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 478 women with PCOS we compared methods based on fasting insulin and either fasting glucose (HOMA-IR and QUICKI), or triglycerides (McAuley Index) with IR indices derived from glucose and insulin during OGTT (Belfiore, Matsuda and Stumvoll indices). RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between IR indices derived from fasting values HOMA-IR/QUICKI, r=-0...
February 7, 2018: Endocrine Connections
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