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Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition

Wei Cai, Lalit Bharadia, Mohammad Juffrie, Fook Choe Cheah, Seng Hock Quak, Vitaya Titapant, Ruurd van Elburg, Thomas Ludwig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Charu Tiwari, Ashish Zadpe, Pravin Rathi, Hemanshi Shah
Colorectal carcinoma is a well-known malignancy in adults. However, it is rare in children. Besides, it also has different behaviour in paediatric age-group and usually presents with non-specific symptoms like abdominal pain, weight loss, and anaemia. This usually leads to delay in diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma in children has unfavourable tumour histology (mucinous subtype) and advanced disease stage at presentation which lead to poorer prognosis in children. Family history, genetic typing and sibling screening are essential components of management as this malignancy is frequently seen associated with hereditary syndromes...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Racha Khalaf, Carmen Cuffari
Androgen therapy has proven efficacy in treating patients with bone marrow failure who are not candidates for bone marrow transplantation. Herein, we report on a case of colonic angioectasia secondary to oxymetholone use in an adolescent patient with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS). A 13-year-old Caucasian male with HHS characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, microcephaly, esophageal strictures and myelodysplasia presented with severe hematochezia from colonic angioectasia secondary to long-term oxymetholone therapy...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida, Elza Daniel de Mello
Purpose: to compare cut off points corrected for age and gender (COOP) with fixed cut off points (FCOP) for fasting plasma insulin and Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of IR in obese children and adolescents and their correlation with dyslipidemia. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study including 383 subjects aged 7 to 18 years, evaluating fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and lipid profile. Subjects with high insulin levels and/or HOMA-IR were considered as having IR, based on two defining criteria: FCOP or CCOP...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Chun Woo Song, Joon Won Kang, Jae Young Kim
Purpose: To clarify the clinical features of appendicitis in preschool children and to explore clinical appendicitis scoring systems in this age group. Methods: We retrospectively collected data on 142 children, aged 10 years or younger, with confirmed diagnosis of appendicitis based on surgical and pathologic findings. Enrolled subjects were divided into two groups: Group 1 (preschool children aged ≤5 years, n=41) and Group 2 (school children aged >5 to ≤10 years, n=101)...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Do Hyun Kim, Jin Min Cho, Hye Ran Yang
Purpose: Clostridium difficile colonization and infection are commonly associated with poor outcomes in patients with pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. difficile colonization and infection at the time of diagnosis and to evaluate risk factors associated with the development of C. difficile infection during the course of PIBD treatment. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 59 children who were newly diagnosed with PIBD at the tertiary medical center...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Kwang Yeon Kim, Eun Joo Lee, Ju Whi Kim, Jin Soo Moon, Ju Young Jang, Hye Ran Yang, Jae Sung Ko
Purpose: Monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients do not respond to conventional therapy and are associated with a higher morbidity. We summarized the clinical characteristics of monogenic IBD patients and compared their clinical outcomes to that of non-monogenic IBD patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all children <18 years old who were diagnosed with IBD between 2005 and 2016. A total of 230 children were enrolled. Monogenic IBD was defined as a presentation age less than 6 years old with confirmation of a genetic disorder...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Ioannis Xinias, Antonis Analitis, Antigoni Mavroudi, Ioannis Roilides, Maria Lykogeorgou, Varvara Delivoria, Vasilis Milingos, Mayra Mylonopoulou, Yvan Vandenplas
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of synbiotic formula with partial whey hydrolysate and high magnesium content in infants presenting with functional constipation. Methods: Sixty-five infants with functional constipation were included. Forty infants were treated during one month with parental reassurance and the intervention formula and were compared to a control group of 25 infants treated with parental reassurance only. Parents completed a quality of life (QoL) questionnaire at baseline and during the last week of the study...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Kyung In Lim, Sung Bo Shim, Hann Tchah, Eell Ryoo
Purpose: Minimal change esophagitis (MCE) is a reflux disease without mucosal breaks, known to be partially associated with abnormal gastric motor function. Electrogastrography (EGG) is commonly applied to assess gastric motor function in a noninvasive fashion. We aimed to determine the relationship between MCE and gastric myoelectrical activity (GME) recorded on EGG in children. Methods: We retrospectively assessed the records of 157 children without underlying disease who underwent both EGG and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Gachon University Gil Medical Center between January 2010 and June 2015...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Dae Yong Yi
Pediatric patients require specialized attention and have diverse demands for proper growth and development, and thus need a different approach and interest in nutritional assessment and supply. Enteral nutrition is the most basic and important method of nutritional intervention, and its indications should be identified. Also, the sites, modes, types, and timing of nutritional intervention according to the patient's condition should be determined. In addition, various complications associated with enteral nutrition supply should be identified, and prevention and treatment are required...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Ben Kang, Yon Ho Choe
The emergence of mucosal healing as a treatment goal that could modify the natural course of Crohn's disease and the accumulating evidence showing that biologics are most effective in achieving mucosal healing, along with the success of early treatment regimens for rheumatoid arthritis, have led to the identification of early Crohn's disease and development of the concept of catching the therapeutic window during the early disease course. Thus, an increasing number of pediatric gastroenterologists are adopting an early biologic treatment strategy with or without an immunomodulator...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Jae Woong Yoon, Du Young Choi, Yeon Kyun Oh, Seung Hyun Lee, Dong Baek Gang, Seung Taek Yu
Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal lesions occurring during childhood, which were first described in 1507. Cases of mesenteric cysts have been continuously reported, but these cases were very small in number. They are often asymptomatic and incidentally found while patients are undergoing work-up or receiving treatment for other conditions such as appendicitis, small-bowel obstruction, or diverticulitis; however, patients may still have lower abdominal pain and symptoms that are frequently associated with other abdominal conditions...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Kwang Yeon Kim, Ju Whi Kim, Kyung Jae Lee, Eunhyang Park, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Young Hun Choi, Woo Sun Kim, Jung Min Ko, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko
Patients with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency and glycogen storage disease (GSD) demonstrated hepatomegaly and dyslipidemia. In our case, a 6-year-old boy presented with hepatosplenomegaly. At 3 years of age, GSD had been diagnosed by liver biopsy at another hospital. He showed elevated serum liver enzymes and dyslipidemia. Liver biopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular fatty changes in hepatocytes, septal fibrosis and foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated numerous lysosomes that contained lipid material and intracytoplasmic cholesterol clefts...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Sowon Park, Hoon-Chul Kang, Jin-Sung Lee, Young Nyun Park, Seung Kim, Hong Koh
Mitochondria play essential role in eukaryotic cells including in the oxidative phosphorylation and generation of adenosine triphosphate via the electron-transport chain. Therefore, defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can result in mitochondrial dysfunction which leads to various mitochondrial disorders that may present with various neurologic and non-neurologic manifestations. Mutations in the nuclear gene polymerase gamma ( POLG ) are associated with mtDNA depletions, and Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome is one of the most severe manifestations of POLG mutation characterized by the clinical triad of intractable seizures, psychomotor regression, and liver failure...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Ravi Kumar Garg, Jai Kumar Mahajan
Purpose: Blunt trauma of pancreas in children is uncommon and its management varies from observational to early operative intervention. We analysed the feasibility and outcome of non-operative management in all grades of paediatric pancreatic injuries. Methods: A total of 15 patients of pancreatic trauma seen in a Paediatric Surgery Unit were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 3-11 years (mean, 7.7 years). The mode of injury was local trauma in 9 children...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Taeyeon Yoo, Sun Hwan Bae
Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined oral and enema therapy using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 with electrolyte solution for disimpaction in hospitalized children. Methods: We retrospectively studied 28 children having functional constipation who received inpatient treatment between 2008 and 2016. The amount of oral PEG 3350 electrolyte solution administered was 50-70 mL/kg/d (PEG 3350, 3-4.1 g/kg/d), and an enema solution was administered 1-2 times a day as a single dose of 15-25 mL/kg (PEG 3350, 0...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Dai Jung, Sunghee Lee, Insook Jeong, Seak Hee Oh, Kyung Mo Kim
Purpose: Studies on the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) in a large population of pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are limited, and prognostic factors are not well-known. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of IFX in pediatric patients with CD and to identify factors associated with poor prognosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical data of 594 pediatric patients with CD between 1987 and 2013 in a tertiary center. Of these, 156 children treated with IFX were enrolled and were followed up for at least a year with intact data...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Ji Hyoung Park, Hye Na Nam, Ji-Hyuk Lee, Jeana Hong, Dae Yong Yi, Eell Ryoo, In Sang Jeon, Hann Tchah
Purpose: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Eyad Altamimi
Purpose: Celiac disease, an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by exposure to gluten, is not uncommon in South Jordan. However, its prevalence is underestimated due to lack of physician awareness of the diversity of disease presentation. The clinical spectrum includes classic gastrointestinal manifestations, as well as rickets, iron-deficiency anemia, short stature, elevated liver enzymes, and edema. Our goal was to evaluate celiac disease presentation in clinically diagnosed children. Methods: Retrospective study included all children diagnosed with celiac disease between September 2009 and September 2015...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Ilva Daugule, Daiga Karklina, Silvija Remberga, Ingrida Rumba-Rozenfelde
Purpose: To analyze presence of Helicobacter pylori infection and environmental risk factors among children with and without allergy. Methods: Parents of children at primary health care centres/kindergartens and allergologist consultation were asked to answer a questionnaire and to bring a faecal sample. H. pylori infection was detected by monoclonal stool antigen test. Prevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors were compared between individuals with and without allergy using χ2 test, ANOVA test and parameters and logistic regression...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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