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CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology

Dimitris E Messinis, Ioannis N Melas, Junguk Hur, Navya Varshney, Leonidas G Alexopoulos, Jane P F Bai
Drug-induced cardiomyopathy contributes to drug attrition. We compared two pipelines of predictive modeling: (1) applying elastic net (EN) to differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of drugs; (2) applying integer linear programming (ILP) to construct each drug's signaling pathway starting from its targets to downstream proteins, to transcription factors, and to its DEGs in human cardiomyocytes, and then subjecting the genes/proteins in the drugs' signaling networks to EN regression. We classified 31 drugs with availability of DEGs into 13 toxic and 18 nontoxic drugs based on a clinical cardiomyopathy incidence cutoff of 0...
January 17, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Ying Zhang, Michael A Tortorici, Dipti Pawaskar, Ingo Pragst, Thomas Machnig, Matthew Hutmacher, Bruce Zuraw, Marco Cicardi, Timothy Craig, Hilary Longhurst, Jagdev Sidhu
Subcutaneous C1-inhibitor (HAEGARDA, CSL Behring), is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, highly concentrated formulation of a plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), which, in the phase III Clinical Studies for Optimal Management in Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT) trial, reduced the incidence of hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks when given prophylactically. Data from the COMPACT trial were used to develop a repeated time-to-event model to characterize the timing and frequency of HAE attacks as a function of C1-INH activity, and then develop an exposure-response model to assess the relationship between C1-INH functional activity levels (C1-INH(f)) and the risk of an attack...
January 9, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Ramon Hendrickx, Eva Lamm Bergström, David L I Janzén, Markus Fridén, Ulf Eriksson, Ken Grime, Douglas Ferguson
Translational pharmacokinetic (PK) models are needed to describe and predict drug concentration-time profiles in lung tissue at the site of action to enable animal-to-man translation and prediction of efficacy in humans for inhaled medicines. Current pulmonary PK models are generally descriptive rather than predictive, drug/compound specific, and fail to show successful cross-species translation. The objective of this work was to develop a robust compartmental modeling approach that captures key features of lung and systemic PK after pulmonary administration of a set of 12 soluble drugs containing single basic, dibasic, or cationic functional groups...
December 27, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Anuradha Ramamoorthy, Brian M Sadler, J G Coen van Hasselt, Jeroen Elassaiss-Schaap, Sreeneeranj Kasichayanula, Alena Y Edwards, Piet H van der Graaf, Lei Zhang, John A Wagner
The consumption of asparagus is associated with the production of malodorous urine with considerable interindividual variability (IIV). To characterize the urinary odor kinetics after consumption of asparagus spears, we conducted a study with consenting attendees from two American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) meetings. Subjects were randomized to eat a specific number of asparagus spears, and then asked to report their urinary odor perception. Eighty-seven subjects were included in the final analysis...
December 14, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Sara K Quinney, Rakesh Gullapelli, David M Haas
Pregnancy involves rapid physiological adaptation and complex interplay between mother and fetus. New analytic technologies provide large amounts of genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics data. The integration of these data through bioinformatics, statistical, and systems pharmacology techniques can improve our understanding of the mechanisms of normal maternal physiologic changes and fetal development. New insights into the mechanisms of pregnancy-related disorders, such as preterm birth (PTB), may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions and novel biomarkers...
December 14, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Tim Cardilin, Joachim Almquist, Mats Jirstrand, Astrid Zimmermann, Samer El Bawab, Johan Gabrielsson
Radiation therapy is one of the major therapy form in oncology, and combination therapies involving radiation and chemical compounds can yield highly effective tumor eradication. In this paper, we develop a tumor growth inhibition model for combination therapy with radiation and radiosensitizing agents. Moreover, we extend previous analyses of drug combinations by introducing the Tumor Static Exposure (TSE) curve. The TSE curve for radiation and radiosensitizer visualizes exposure combinations sufficient for tumor regression...
December 8, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Diane-Charlotte Imbs, Raouf El Cheikh, Arnaud Boyer, Joseph Ciccolini, Céline Mascaux, Bruno Lacarelle, Fabrice Barlesi, Dominique Barbolosi, Sébastien Benzekry
Concomitant administration of bevacizumab and pemetrexed-cisplatin is a common treatment for advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Vascular normalization following bevacizumab administration may transiently enhance drug delivery, suggesting improved efficacy with sequential administration. To investigate optimal scheduling, we conducted a study in NSCLC-bearing mice. First, experiments demonstrated improved efficacy when using sequential vs. concomitant scheduling of bevacizumab and chemotherapy...
December 7, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Pengyue Zhang, Heng-Yi Wu, Chien-Wei Chiang, Lei Wang, Samar Binkheder, Xueying Wang, Donglin Zeng, Sara K Quinney, Lang Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Lindsay E Clegg, Vijay C Ganta, Brian H Annex, Feilim Mac Gabhann
We built a whole-body computational model to study the role of the poorly understood vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165b splice isoform in peripheral artery disease (PAD). This model was built and validated using published and new experimental data from cells, mice, and humans, and explicitly accounts for known properties of VEGF165b : lack of extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding and weak phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) in vitro. The resulting model captures all known information about VEGF165b distribution and signaling in human PAD, and provides novel, nonintuitive insight into VEGF165b mechanism of action in vivo...
November 28, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Pascal Schulthess, Teun M Post, James Yates, Piet H van der Graaf
Drug dosing regimen can significantly impact drug effect and, thus, the success of treatments. Nevertheless, trial and error is still the most commonly used method by conventional pharmacometric approaches to optimize dosing regimen. In this tutorial, we utilize four distinct classes of quantitative systems pharmacology models to introduce frequency-domain response analysis, a method widely used in electrical and control engineering that allows the analytical optimization of drug treatment regimen from the dynamics of the model...
November 28, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E Jergens, Inaki F Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P Mochel
There is growing concern about the limitations of rodent models with regard to recapitulation of human disease pathogenesis. Computational modeling of data from humans and animals sharing similar diseases provides an opportunity for parallel drug development in human and veterinary medicine. This "reverse translational" approach needs to be supported by continuing efforts to refine the in silico tools that allow extrapolation of results between species.
November 27, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Mengyao Li, Ping Zhao, Yuzhuo Pan, Christian Wagner
A comprehensive search in literature and published US Food and Drug Administration reviews was conducted to assess whether physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling could be prospectively used to predict clinical food effect on oral drug absorption. Among the 48 resulted food effect predictions, ∼50% were predicted within 1.25-fold of observed, and 75% within 2-fold. Dissolution rate and precipitation time were commonly optimized parameters when PBPK modeling was not able to capture the food effect...
November 23, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Brinda K Tammara, Lutz O Harnisch
This modeling and simulation exercise aimed to provide dosing recommendations for rivipansel phase 3 studies in children aged 6 to 11 years with sickle cell disease (SCD). Pharmacokinetic data from 109 patients aged 12 to 51 years who received rivipansel (2-40 mg/kg) in previous studies (3 phase 1, one phase 2) were integrated to build a 3-compartmental simulation model. Renal clearance simulations across the age range accounted for renal function development and postulated hyperfiltration in SCD. Simulated demographic distributions for the pediatric SCD population were used to predict concentration-time profiles from 3 dosing regimens, which were then compared against efficacious average steady-state concentrations observed in phase 2...
November 8, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Sara N Salerno, Andrea Edginton, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Christoph P Hornik, Kevin M Watt, Brian D Jamieson, Daniel Gonzalez
Solithromycin is a fluoroketolide antibiotic under investigation for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). We developed a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for solithromycin in adults using PK-Sim and MoBi version 6.2, which incorporated time-dependent CYP3A4 auto-inhibition. The model was developed and evaluated using plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentration data from 100 healthy subjects and 22 patients with CABP (1,966 plasma, 30 ELF samples). We performed population simulations and calculated the number of observations falling outside the 90% prediction interval...
October 25, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Sam Salman, Timothy M E Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Miné de Kock, Joel Tarning, Karen I Barnes, Paolo Denti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Charvi Nanavati, Donna Ruszaj, Donald E Mager
Multiple myeloma is a fatal hematological malignancy with high rates of drug resistance and relapse. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has shown promise in enhancing efficacy when combined with current myeloma therapies. In this study, temporal changes of critical proteins and cell proliferation were measured in myeloma cells exposed to vorinostat. A model linking biomarker dynamics to cell proliferation was developed that captured vorinostat effects on signal transduction and cell viability. The model structure and parameters were fixed to describe tumor dynamics in vivo, and tumor-specific growth and death rate parameters were estimated...
October 17, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
T Aoyama, Y Ishida, M Kaneko, A Miyamoto, Y Saito, M Tohkin, S Kawai, Y Matsumoto
We aimed to reanalyze the differences in the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of meloxicam in East Asian populations based on a population approach using previously published data and to investigate the factors found in population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis that affect the pharmacodynamics (PDs) of meloxicam. Population PK analysis was performed in 119 healthy male subjects (30 Japanese, 30 Chinese, 29 Korean, and 30 Caucasian) under strictly controlled trial conditions with regulated meals and a single lot of the drug...
October 12, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Cong Xu, Timothy K Goggin, Xiang-Yao Su, Pietro Taverna, Aram Oganesian, James N Lowder, Mohammad Azab, Hagop Kantarjian
Guadecitabine (SGI-110) is a novel next-generation hypomethylating agent (HMA) administered as s.c. injection with extended decitabine exposure. Dose/exposure-response analyses of longitudinal measures of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) methylation and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) pooled from 79 and 369 patients in 2 phase I/II trials, respectively, were performed to assist, through modeling and simulation, the selection of dosing regimens for phase III. Simulation of ANC predicted a decrease after a 5-day regimen of 60 mg/m(2) with partial recovery before the next cycle, whereas the nadir of 90 mg/m(2) on the same schedule was below 100/µl...
October 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
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