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African Journal of Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480452/the-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-in-cattle-and-their-handlers-in-north-tongu-volta-region-ghana
#1
Esther A Amemor, S O Sackey, Nathaniel Yebuah, Raphael Deladem Folitse, Benjamin O Emikpe, E Afari, F Wurapa, C Ohuabunwo, K Addo, David Mensah, E Gaglo, Mark-Hansen, S Johnson, William Tasiame, D Amedzovor, D Nkunafa, Frank Bonsu
BACKGROUND: The need to understand the contribution of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) to the general tuberculosis burden in a poor resource setting is paramount. The aim of this study is to determine the burden of BTB among herdsmen and cattle in the North Tongu district of Volta Region in Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross- sectional study was conducted in the North Tongu District of the Volta Region between the period of October 2011- March 2012. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information and possible risk factor information on cattle from participants...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337492/flock-based-surveillance-for-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-commercial-breeders-and-layers-southwest-nigeria
#2
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Ayoyimika Omolanwa, Adebowale Idris Adebiyi, Oluladun Comfort Aiki-Raji
BACKGROUND: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the epidemiological characteristics of AI needed for the development of prevention and control strategies in such countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of routine AI monitoring in southwest Nigeria, a competitive ELISA was used for detecting influenza A virus antibodies in the sera of 461 commercial breeder and layer birds obtained from different flocks in Oyo State, Nigeria while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H5N2, H7N7 and H9N2 subtype-specific antigens...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337491/meeting-report-unesco-merck-africa-research-summit-2015-accelerating-access-and-sustaining-innovation-from-africa-for-africa
#3
R W Omange, A O Ocholla, A O Kwallah, S N Kageha, J Mwangi, R K Cherutich, Odeny T A, T Nzomo, S Angwenyi, P Yonga, F Kariuki, M Kyalo, P C Mutai, F Nindo, E M Songok
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease outbreak of 2014 was the largest, longest and most devastating in the history of the disease. It demonstrated the social and economic impact an emerging infectious disease can have in a globalized world. Health systems in affected countries were stretched to the point of near collapse, while social relations and traditional practices were negatively impacted. Heads of African research institutions, African government representatives, leaders of global pharmaceutical companies, global infectious disease experts and close to 100 young African researchers from 25 countries; Assembled in Geneva on 19 and 20th October 2015, for the inaugural UNESCO-Merck Africa Summit sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Science and Culture Organization and Merck KGA...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337490/effect-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-on-feacal-carriage-rates-of-resistant-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-in-hiv-infected-adult-patients-in-lagos
#4
C C Egwuatu, F T Ogunsola, A A Iwuafor, C N Akujobi, T O Egwuatu, A U Nnachi, O O Oduyebo
BACKGROUND: The daily use of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis reduces morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but its impact on increasing antimicrobial resistance rates has been of public health concern, globally. This study investigated the effect of daily TMP-SMX prophylaxis on feacal carriage rates of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli in HIV-infected adult patients in Lagos. METHODS: A total of 550 HIV-infected patients with CD4-cell counts of less than 350 cells/mm(3) who were eligible for TMP-SMX prophylaxis and attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, were recruited for this study...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337489/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-microbiota-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-ibadan-south-west-nigeria
#5
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun, Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
BACKGROUND: Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease transmission. This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of bacteria from nasal swabs of apparently healthy dogs. The zoonotic risk was also considered...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480451/effect-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-on-faecal-carriage-rates-of-resistant-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-in-hiv-infected-adult-patients-in-lagos
#6
C C Egwuatu, A A Iwuafor, T O Egwuatu, C N Akujobi, A U Nnachi, I N Aghanya, F T Ogunsola, O O Oduyebo
BACKGROUND: The daily use of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis reduces morbidity and mortality among patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) but its impact on increasing antimicrobial resistance rates has been of public concern globally. This study investigated the effect of daily TMP-SMX prophylaxis on faecal carriage rates of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli in HIV-infected adult patients in Lagos. METHODS: A total of 550 HIV-infected patients with CD4-cell count of less than 350 cell/mm(3) and were eligible for TMP-SMX prophylaxis attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, were recruited...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480450/pig-slaughtering-in-southwestern-nigeria-peculiarities-animal-welfare-concerns-and-public-health-implications
#7
Oladipo Olufemi Omotosho, Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe, Olalekan Taiwo Lasisi, Olalere Vincent Oladunjoye
BACKGROUND: Pig slaughtering methods influence the quality of pig products and also serves as a critical point for the control of zoonosis and other food-borne infections. This study aimed at assessing the peculiarities, the animal welfare concerns and the public health implications of pig slaughtering activities was conducted on three major abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering and carcass processing were obtained by observation over a continuous 2-week period of normal abattoir activities in each abattoir by the authors...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480449/the-evaluation-of-domestic-ducks-as-potential-reservoir-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-post-hpai-h5n1-outbreak-area-sunyani-municipality-brong-ahafo-region-of-ghana
#8
Vitus Burimuah, W K Ampofo, B Awumbila, N Yebuah, B O Emikpe, W Tasiame, R D Folitse
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza (AI) is an important zoonotic disease responsible for significant losses in most sub-Saharan countries. However, the role of poultry other than chicken in the epidemiology of the disease, especially after the first AI outbreak in Ghana, has not been fully elucidated. The obiective of this study is to determine whether the AI virus infection that was reported in the area in May 2007 was circulating silently in ducks in nine randomly selected farms in the Sunyani Municipality, Ghana...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480448/consumers-preference-and-associated-pathology-observed-in-cattle-and-goat-offals-in-kumasi-ghana
#9
Ayroe Felix, Emikpe B O, Asiamah E, Dankwa K O
BACKGROUND: The global population demands high quality meat and the preference for offal continue to be on the increase. This investigation evaluates consumers' preference and associated pathological conditions observed in cattle and goat offal in Kumasi, Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross sectional survey and structured questionnaires involving 200 adult respondents were adopted. 105 samples of cattle and goat offal from selected retailers or vendors were also evaluated for associated pathological conditions...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480447/surveillance-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-a-tertiary-institution-in-south-western-nigeria
#10
Agantem Emmanuel Ekuma, Oyin O Oduyebo, Akinwale Michael Efunshile, Brigitte Konig
BACKGROUND: Enterococci are responsible for up to 12% of cases of healthcare associated infections worldwide and cause life threatening infections among critically ill patients. They show intrinsic and acquired resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents. Glycopeptide resistance is due to vanA, vanB, vanC, vanD, vanE, vanG and vanL genes. OBJECTIVES: To determine the carriage rate of VRE among patients on prolonged hospitalization in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, assess the antimicrobial resistance pattern of VRE, identify factors associated with VRE colonization and describe the genetic determinants of enterococcal resistance to Vancomycin...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480446/hiv-aids-knowledge-and-prior-testing-at-africa-goal-outreach-events-in-east-and-southern-africa
#11
Hannah B Jones, Robert Gross
BACKGROUND: A quality improvement initiative was created during the 2014 Africa Goal campaign, which uses live screenings of FIFA World Cup football matches as a platform for local organizations to provide HIV outreach and services in East and Southern Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Survey data assessed attendees' baseline knowledge of HIV and prevalence of prior testing. RESULTS: The data showed a high level of knowledge and prior testing among both men and women, with no statistical differences based on gender...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480445/the-prevalence-of-brucellosis-in-cattle-and-their-handlers-in-north-tongu-district-of-volta-region-ghana
#12
W Tasiame, B O Emikpe, R D Folitse, C O Fofie, V Burimuah, S Johnson, J A Awuni, E Afari, N Yebuah, F Wurapa
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic pathogen responsible for great economic losses in most sub-Saharan nations. Although Ghana has successfully implemented the "One Health" initiative for the control of some emerging infectious zoonotic diseases with pandemic potential like Avian Influenza, there is very limited data available on brucellosis especially human brucellosis prevalence. He objective of his study is to determine the seroprevalence of human and bovine brucellosis as well as the predisposing factors at the community level in the North Tongu District of Ghana...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480444/childhood-respiratory-morbidity-and-cooking-practices-among-households-in-a-predominantly-rural-area-of-ghana
#13
Kwaku Poku Asante, Patrick Kinney, Charles Zandoh, Eleanne Van Vliet, Ernest Nettey, Livesy Abokyi, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Darby Jack
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution is a leading risk factor for respiratory morbidity and mortality in developing countries where biomass fuel is mainly used for cooking. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A household cross-sectional survey was conducted in a predominantly rural area of Ghana in 2007 to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their associated risk factors. Household cooking practices were also assessed as part of the survey. RESULTS: Household heads of twelve thousand, three hundred and thirty-three households were interviewed...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480443/prevalence-of-bacterial-vaginosis-among-sexually-active-women-attending-the-cdc-central-clinic-tiko-south-west-region-cameroon
#14
Akomoneh Elvis Achondou, Foche Francis Fumoloh, Aseneck Christian Aseneck, Abong Ralph Awah, Ajonina Marcelus Utokoro
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial, superficial vaginal infection involving a reduction in the amount of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria. Common symptoms include increased fishy smelling vaginal discharge which is usually white or gray in color. Burning with urination may occur and itching is uncommon. Risk factors include douching, new or multiple sex partners, antibiotics, and use of intrauterine device among others...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480442/high-prevalence-of-multi-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-western-kenya
#15
Ogalo Edith Apondi, Owuor Chrispine Oduor, Boor Kipyego Gye, Mutai Kennedy Kipkoech
INTRODUCTION: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram negative enterobacteriaciae commonly associated with nosocomial infections. Multidrug resistant strains are increasingly being reported with corresponding increase in morbidity and mortality. The study outlines the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of K. pneumonia over a 10 year period in Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya. METHODOLOGY AND STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of all the blood culture results for K...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480441/the-strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-and-threats-swots-analyses-of-the-ebola-virus-paper-retracted
#16
Michael Oluyemi Babalola
BACKGROUND: Owing to the extreme virulence and case fatality rate of ebola virus disease (EVD), there had been so much furore, panic and public health emergency about the possible pandemic from the recent West African outbreak of the disease, with attendant handful research, both in the past and most recently. The magnitude of the epidemic of ebola virus disease has prompted global interest and urgency in the discovery of measures to mitigate the impact of the disease. Researchers in the academia and the industry were pressured to only focus on the development of effective and safe ebola virus vaccines, without consideration of the other aspects to this virus, which may influence the success or otherwise of a potential vaccine...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331915/the-prevalence-liver-function-and-immunologic-status-of-children-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-virus-coinfection-in-enugu-nigeria
#17
Uleanya Nwachinemere Davidson, Nwokoye Ikenna Chidiebele, Emodi Ifeoma Josephine, Obidike Egbuna Olakunle, Ikefuna Anthony Nnaemeka, Eze Jude Chijioke, Ndu Ikenna Kingsley
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) co-infection is prevalent among HIV infected individuals because of shared routes and mechanisms of transmission. The multidimensional immunosuppression from HIV infection causes impaired spontaneous recovery from an acute HBV infection, predisposing to chronic infection which is worsened by younger age at infection. Co-infection increases the risk of HBV replication, hepatotoxicity and liver related deaths from Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)...
2016: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25722846/hbv-infection-among-hiv-infected-cohort-and-hiv-negative-hospital-attendees-in-south-western-nigeria
#18
Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi, Emmanuel Donbraye, Waidi Folorunso Sule, Olaniran Olarinde
BACKGROUND: Prevalence, association and probable mode of acquisition of HBV and HIV dual infections have not been fully explored. Thus, HBV intervention plan and services are sometimes exclusively targeted towards HIV-infected population. We investigated HBV infection among HIV-infected cohort in comparison with HIV-negative hospital attendees to ascertain dual infectivity pattern; thereby encouraging appropriate allotment of intervention services. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 349 (M=141; F=208; Mean=33...
2015: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25722845/malaria-parasitaemia-among-blood-donors-in-ilorin-nigeria
#19
Hannah O Olawumi, Abayomi Fadeyi, Shola K Babatunde, Aliu A Akanbi, Abiola S Babatunde, Musa A Sani, Sunday A Aderibigbe
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin has not been documented. In this study, we determined the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, as well as, the sociodemographic and other factors associated with it. METHOD: This was a hospital-based cross sectional study involving 308 consenting blood donors. The sociodemographic characteristics of participants as well as blood donation history were obtained using structured questionnaires specifically designed for this purpose...
2015: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25722844/a-controlled-crossover-study-of-a-persistent-antiseptic-to-reduce-hospital-acquired-infection
#20
Patrick Kampiatu, Jesse Cozean
BACKGROUND: Alcohol sanitizers have not been demonstrated to reduce hospital-acquired infections over handwashing alone in controlled, well-designed clinical studies. A major reason for this may be the failure of traditional alcohol sanitizers to provide any residual, or persistent, activity. Any lapse in hand hygiene protocol then leaves patients and staff open to transmitting pathogens. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a persistent sanitizer would reduce hospital-acquired infection in a hospital setting as compared to handwashing alone...
2015: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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