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African Journal of Infectious Diseases

Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi, Emmanuel Donbraye, Waidi Folorunso Sule, Olaniran Olarinde
BACKGROUND: Prevalence, association and probable mode of acquisition of HBV and HIV dual infections have not been fully explored. Thus, HBV intervention plan and services are sometimes exclusively targeted towards HIV-infected population. We investigated HBV infection among HIV-infected cohort in comparison with HIV-negative hospital attendees to ascertain dual infectivity pattern; thereby encouraging appropriate allotment of intervention services. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 349 (M=141; F=208; Mean=33...
2015: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hannah O Olawumi, Abayomi Fadeyi, Shola K Babatunde, Aliu A Akanbi, Abiola S Babatunde, Musa A Sani, Sunday A Aderibigbe
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin has not been documented. In this study, we determined the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, as well as, the sociodemographic and other factors associated with it. METHOD: This was a hospital-based cross sectional study involving 308 consenting blood donors. The sociodemographic characteristics of participants as well as blood donation history were obtained using structured questionnaires specifically designed for this purpose...
2015: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Patrick Kampiatu, Jesse Cozean
BACKGROUND: Alcohol sanitizers have not been demonstrated to reduce hospital-acquired infections over handwashing alone in controlled, well-designed clinical studies. A major reason for this may be the failure of traditional alcohol sanitizers to provide any residual, or persistent, activity. Any lapse in hand hygiene protocol then leaves patients and staff open to transmitting pathogens. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a persistent sanitizer would reduce hospital-acquired infection in a hospital setting as compared to handwashing alone...
2015: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Johnson Adekunle Adeniji, Folakemi Abiodun Osundare, Olubusuyi Moses Adewumi, Anyebe Bernard Onoja, Ademola Hezekiah Fagbami
BACKGROUND: Poliovirus outbreaks are still reported in Nigeria despite renewed efforts to improve vaccine coverage, thus suggesting the existence of susceptible hosts. Also, there is anecdotal evidence of variation in vaccine coverage by region and specifically between urban and rural communities. Consequently, this study assessed neutralizing antibodies to poliovirus serotypes among children in selected urban and rural communities in south western Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: Two hundred and forty-four {(M=119, F=125); Urban: 142 (M=63, F=79); Rural: 102 (M=56, F=46)} children of consenting parent/guardian aged one week to 15 years were enrolled for the study...
2015: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dimie Ogoina, Kemebradikumo Pondei, Babatunde Adetunji, George Chima, Christian Isichei, Sanusi Gidado
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections among health workers commonly follow occupational exposures to pathogens infecting blood or body fluids of patients. We evaluated the prevalence and determinants of occupational exposures to blood/body fluids among health workers in two tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. METHODS: In a cross section study undertaken in two tertiary hospitals in North-central and South-south Nigeria in 2011, a structured self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data and occupational exposures to blood/body fluids in the previous year from doctors, nurses and laboratory scientists...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
B A Olusola, J A Adeniji
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), African region accounts for 36% of deaths caused by measles worldwide. Nigeria has, over the years, recorded the highest average annual measles incidence per 100,000 populations in Africa. Measles epidemics have consistently been reported in northern Nigeria, but not in the South; reports of reduced protective haemagglutination inhibition antibody titers among children in Ibadan, southern Nigeria was made. Investigation of the viral agent responsible for the disease outbreak among children presenting with rash in two semi urban areas in southern Nigeria was carried out to confirm the etiology of the disease...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Abiodun Christopher Jemilohun, Bolaji Oyetunde Oyelade, Sebastine Oseghae Oiwoh
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), among a healthy university undergraduate population in south-western Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant medical information of students who underwent the post-admission screening exercise for the year 2012, at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Health Center, Ogbomoso were extracted from the laboratory log book. All tests were done using rapid anti-HCV test kit by Health - Chem diagnostics, USA...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Adedayo Faneye, Babatunde O Motayo, Adeyinka Adesanmi, Bernard Onoja
BACKGROUND: Childhood mortality and morbidity due to RSV is increasing. Our current study was aimed at determining the sero-prevalence rate of RSV IgG antibodies and investigates certain known risk factors for RSV disease severity in infants and pre-school children presenting with various forms of respiratory tract infections in Ilorin, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: About 280, children and 30, aged matched controls were enrolled into the study at the specialist hospital Ilorin...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Euloge Ekaza, Hervé Adjé Kadjo, Daouda Coulibaly, Guy Georges Mayet Koutouan, Grossmann Marie-David Coulibaly-N'golo, Bertin Kouakou, Ndahwouh Talla Nzussouo, Sonja Julia Olsen, Daniel Kouadio Ekra, Chantal Gnankon Akoua-Koffi, Elia Aka Gilbernair, Mireille Carmen Bretin-Dosso
BACKGROUND: This study aim was to investigate an outbreak of human cases of unexplained influenza-like illness and fatal acute respiratory infection (ARI), with simultaneous poultry illness and high mortality raising concerns of possible influenza A (H5N1), virus in Cote d'Ivoire in February and March 2007. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the outbreak, we conducted active surveillance in the community and reviewed health registries. Persons meeting the case definition were asked to provide nasopharyngeal specimens...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
I D Ebuenyi, D Ogoina, P O Ikuabe, T C Harry, O Inatimi, O U Chukwueke
BACKGROUND: In order to advance the extent of self-disclosure of HIV sero-status in Nigeria, we evaluated the prevalence, pattern and determinants of disclosure of HIV status amongst adult patients in a hospital in the Niger Delta. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a three month cross sectional study undertaken in March 2012, the demographic and clinical data as well as HIV sero-status disclosure frequency and pattern were obtained using a pre-tested questionnaire from consenting HIV infected adults attending the Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic in the Niger Delta...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ei Bigwan, Mc Ohaeri, Elijah David, Florence D Wakjissa, Z Sheyin
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a very serious public health problem due to its high tendency of person to person transmission, morbidity, and mortality. This study aimed at determining some risk factors associated with the prevalence of acid-alcohol-fast-bacilli (AAFB) within the study area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sputum samples were collected from three hundred and three (303) patients with suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Jos. The samples were examined using Ziehl Neelson method...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Victor Ugochukwu Nwadike, Chiedozie Kingsley Ojide, Eziyi Iche Kalu
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii, a non-glucose fermenting Gram negative bacillus, has emerged in the last three decades as a major etiological agent of hospital-associated infections giving rise to significant morbidity and mortality particularly in immunocompromised patients. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB) is fast becoming a global threat, having developed resistance to major classes of antibiotics and carbapenem-resistant isolates have increasingly been reported worldwide as a cause of nosocomial outbreaks...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
T H I Spencer, P O Umeh, E Irokanulo, M M Baba, B B Spencer, A I Umar, S A Ardzard, S Oderinde, O Onoja
BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease refers to any infection in the female lower reproductive tract that spreads to the upper reproductive tract. The disease comprises a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the upper female genital tract, including any combination of endometritis, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess and pelvic peritonitis. PID is not a notifiable disease in most countries, so accurate statistics are not available. This situation is not in any way different here in Nigeria and more so in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja where this research was conducted, there had never been any published report so far on PID...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jude Chijioke Eze, Ngozi S Ibeziako, Anthony N Ikefuna, Ikenna C Nwokoye, Nwachinaemere D Uleanya, Gideon C Ilechukwu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are major public health challenges in the developing world especially sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection among children infected with HIV. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Paediatric HIV Clinic, UNTH, Enugu between July and December 2009. Antibodies to HCV were analyzed by newer generation rapid chromatographic immunoassay method using the Chromatest one step HCV test kit...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
K Diba, Mh Rahimirad, Kh Makhdoomi, Nf Eslamloo
BACKGROUND: It is important to find reliable and accessible methods for the diagnosis and identification of fungal species causing hospital acquired infections. Our main objective was using a rapid and accessible molecular method for the monitoring of Aspergillus infections and identification of causing agents in the level of species. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study subjects were primarily clinical specimens collected from suspected HAI patients with clinical symptoms after hospitalization...
2014: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Oludiran Kehinde Aderemi, Hannah Dada-Adegbola
Inadequate case detection has been identified as one of the reasons for high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the world especially in poor resourced countries of Africa and Asia. This retrospective laboratory study involving the review of specimens processed at the TB laboratory of the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was carried out over a period of five years (January 2006-December 2010) to access the epidemiology of smear-negative TB. Of the 3468 specimens processed, 2,175 (62...
2013: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
B Adeola Animasahun, Olugbenga H Gbelee, Adaobi Solarin, Ajibike Oa Ikuerowo, Adeola M Raji, Peter Ubuane, Eo Kingsley, Fidelis O Njokanma
Eosinophilic meningitis is rare, commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system by helminthes. The present case is that of a 10-year-old boy who presented with history of generalized pruritus not associated with skin eruptions, followed by pain and weakness of the extremities and loss of consciousness. Patient did not receive BCG vaccination. Initial clinical evaluation was suggestive of tuberculous meningitis but cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed eosinophilic meningitis. Patient made remarkable improvement with treatment with no sequel...
2013: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Musa A Garbati, Areedj I Al Godhair
Carbapenemases are being increasingly reported in Enterobacteriaceae including Klebsiella pneumoniae causing considerable increases in morbidity and mortality with limited therapeutic options. Issues related to difficulties associated with pathogen identification and infection control have been identified as major obstacles to the control of these multi-drug resistant organisms. Identification of this enzyme in organisms not previously found to harbor them has added to the already existing challenge in the control of this growing problem...
2013: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Felix Oluwasola Olorunmola, Deboye Oriade Kolawole, Adebayo Lamikanra
This study determined E. coli resistance to commonly used antibiotics together with their virulence properties in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A total of 137 E. coli isolates from cases of urinary tract infection were tested for their sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics and possession of virulence factors using standard methods. Their ability to transfer resistance was also determined. The isolates demonstrated a high and widespread resistance (51.1 % to 94.3 %) to all the antibiotics used except Nitrofurantoin (7...
2013: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Michael O Iroezindu, Emmanuel I Agaba, Comfort A Daniyam, Edith N Okeke, Oche O Agbaji, Patricia A Agaba, Godwin E Imade, John A Idoko
Despite the growing body of evidence on the interaction between HIV and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a dearth of data on clinical malaria in HIV-infected patients in Nigeria. We determined the burden of clinical malaria in HIV-infected adult Nigerians and further investigated the association between their immunological status and the rates of clinical malaria. Ninety seven antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-infected adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional study from August to December, 2009. The participants had a complete clinical evaluation, thick and thin blood films for malaria parasites and CD4 cell count quantification...
2012: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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