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Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR

Matthew M Griffith, Munehisa Fukusumi, Yusuke Kobayashi, Yusuke Matsui, Shingo Nishiki, Reiko Shimbashi, Saeko Morino, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Keiko Tanaka-Taya, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
Introduction: In 2019 and 2020, Japan will host two international sporting events estimated to draw a combined 22 million visitors. Mass gatherings like these ones increase the risk of spread of infectious disease outbreaks and international transmission. Pre-travel advice reduces that risk. Methods: To assist ministries of health and related organizations in developing pre-travel advice, we summarized national surveillance data in Japan (2000-2016, to the extent available) for rubella, invasive pneumococcal disease, measles, non-A and non-E viral hepatitis, hepatitis A, invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease, tetanus, typhoid fever, invasive meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, influenza, varicella, mumps and pertussis by calculating descriptive statistics of reported cases and reviewing trends...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Cassia Lindsay, James Flint, Kim Lilly, Kirsty Hope, Qinning Wang, Peter Howard, Vitali Sintchenko, David N Durrheim
Introduction: Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka is an infrequent cause of salmonellosis in New South Wales (NSW) with an average of 17 cases reported annually. This study examined the added value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for investigating a non-point source outbreak of Salmonella ser. Mbandaka with limited geographical spread. Methods: In February 2016, an increase in Salmonella ser. Mbandaka was noted in New South Wales, and an investigation was initiated...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Paul Aia, Lungten Wangchuk, Fukushi Morishita, Jacob Kisomb, Robin Yasi, Margaret Kal, Tauhid Islam
Papua New Guinea has strengthened its surveillance system for tuberculosis (TB) under the National TB Program. This paper provides an overview of TB surveillance data at the national and subnational levels from 2008 to 2016. TB case notification has consistently increased since 2008 with 6184 cases (93 per 100 000 population) in 2008 to 28 598 (359 per 100 000 population) in 2014 and has stabilized since 2014 with 28 244 cases (333 per 100 000 population) in 2016. The population-screening rate for TB rose from 0...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Julie Collins, Viema Biaukula, Daniel Faktaufon, James Flint, Sam Fullman, Katri Jalava, Jimaima Kailawadoko, Angela Merianos, Eric Nilles, Katrina Roper, Meru Sheel, Mike Kama
Introduction: Influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) are a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. In response to a cluster of SARI cases and deaths in pregnant women, with two deceased cases testing positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, an investigation was initiated to determine whether there was an increase of paediatric SARI cases admitted to divisional hospital intensive care units in Fiji in may 2016 compared to May 2013-2015. Methods: Retrospective case finding was conducted at the paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Fiji's three divisional hospitals...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Dong T Nguyen, Hung T Do, Huy X Le, Nghia T Le, Mai Q Vien, Trieu B Nguyen, Lan T Phan, Thuong V Nguyen, Quang C Luong, Hung C Phan, Hai T Diep, Quang D Pham, Thinh V Nguyen, Loan Kt Huynh, Dung Ct Nguyen, Hang Tt Pham, Khanh Kh Ly, Huong Nlt Tran, Phu D Tran, Tan Q Dang, Hung Pham, Long N Vu, Anthony Mounts, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Leisha D Nolen
The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official positions of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Tebuka Toatu, Paul White, Damian Hoy, Dennie Iniakwala, Onofre Edwin A Merrilles, Sameer Vali Gopalani
Objective: To assess the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women who board foreign fishing vessels for sex work in Kiribati. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect data on behavioural risk factors for STIs and knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV and STIs during 2007. Urine and blood samples were collected to test for HIV and select STIs. Descriptive statistics were performed for sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics, and χ2 tests were used to assess associations between potential key determinants and the presence of genital Chlamydia infection...
January 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Paul White, Salanieta Saketa, Eliaser Johnson, Sameer V Gopalani, Eliashib Edward, Charles Loney, Alize Mercier, Tebuka Toatu, Richard Wojcik, Sheri Lewis, Damian Hoy
Pohnpei State's Division of Primary Health Care implemented enhanced surveillance for early warning and detection of disease to support the 8th Micronesian Games (the Games) in July 2014. The surveillance comprised 11 point-of-care sentinel sites around Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, collecting data daily for eight syndromes using standard case definitions. Each sentinel site reported total acute care encounters, total syndrome cases and the total for each syndrome. A public health response, including epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing, followed when syndrome counts reached predetermined threshold levels...
January 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Jugderjav Badrakh, Setsen Zayasaikhan, Davaalkham Jagdagsuren, Erdenetungalag Enkhbat, Narantuya Jadambaa, Sergelen Munkhbaatar, Melanie Taylor, Jane Rowley, Guy Mahiané, Eline Korenromp
Objective: To estimate Mongolia's prevalence and incidence trends of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women and men 15-49 years old to inform control of STIs and HIV, a national health sector priority. Methods: We applied the Spectrum-STI estimation model, fitting data from two national population surveys (2001 and 2008) and from routine gonorrhoea screening of pregnant women in antenatal care (1997 to 2016) adjusted for diagnostic test performance, male/female differences and missing high-risk populations...
October 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Lisa Kawatsu, Kazuhiro Uchimura, Akihiro Ohkado, Seiya Kato
Foreign-born persons are considered one of the high-risk populations for tuberculosis (TB), and numerous studies have discussed the potential role of pre-entry TB screening for immigrants. However, rates of TB disease among immigrants can remain high several years after entry. In Japan, approximately 50% of TB among foreign-born persons occurs among those who have entered Japan more than five years before being diagnosed, i.e. non-recent immigrants. However, little attention has been paid so far to the issue of TB control among the non-recent immigrants...
October 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Susan Thomas, Kristy Crooks, Fakhrul Islam, Peter D Massey
Objective: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) can cause bacterial skin infections that are common problems for Aboriginal children in New South Wales (NSW). MRSA is not notifiable in NSW and surveillance data describing incidence and prevalence are not routinely collected. The study aims to describe the epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Aboriginal children in the Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD). Methods: We linked data from Pathology North Laboratory Management System (AUSLAB) and the HNELHD patient administration system from 33 hospital emergency departments...
October 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Joseph Woodring, Naoko Ishikawa, Mari Nagai, Maya Malarski, Yoshihiro Takashima, Howard Sobel, Ying-Ru Lo
Every year, an estimated 180 000 babies in the Western Pacific Region are infected by hepatitis B, 13 000 by syphilis and 1400 by HIV through mother-to-child transmission. ( 1 ) These infections can be largely prevented by antenatal screening, treatment and timely vaccination for newborns. Despite challenges in controlling each disease, major achievements have been made. National immunization programmes have reduced the regional hepatitis B prevalence from over 8% in 1990 to 0.93% among children born in 2012...
October 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Mohammad Yazid Abdad, Raynal C Squires, Sebastien Cognat, Christopher John Oxenford, Frank Konings
Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA) programme for arbovirus diagnostics. By 2016, it had grown into a global programme with participation of 96 laboratories worldwide, including 25 laboratories from 19 countries, territories and areas in the Region...
July 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Damian Hoy, A Mark Durand, Thane Hancock, Haley L Cash, Kate Hardie, Beverley Paterson, Yvette Paulino, Paul White, Tony Merritt, Dawn Fitzgibbons, Sameer Vali Gopalani, James Flint, Onofre Edwin A Merilles, Mina Kashiwabara, Viema Biaukula, Christelle Lepers, Yvan Souares, Eric Nilles, Anaseini Batikawai, Sevil Huseynova, Mahomed Patel, Salanieta T Saketa, David Durrheim, Alden Henderson, Adam Roth
PROBLEM: The Pacific region has widely dispersed populations, limited financial and human resources and a high burden of disease. There is an urgent need to improve the availability, reliability and timeliness of useable health data. CONTEXT: The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme that was designed to respond to these Pacific health challenges. The pilot programme built on and further developed an existing field epidemiology training programme for Pacific health staff...
July 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
David J Muscatello, Kendall J Bein, Michael M Dinh
INTRODUCTION: Influenza's impact on health and health care is underestimated by influenza diagnoses recorded in health-care databases. We aimed to estimate total and non-admitted influenza-attributable hospital Emergency Department (ED) demand in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: We used generalized additive time series models to estimate the association between weekly counts of laboratory-confirmed influenza infections and weekly rates of total and non-admitted respiratory, infection, cardiovascular and all-cause ED visits in NSW, Australia for the period 2010 through 2014...
July 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Jocelyn Chan, Tuya Mungun, Narangerel Dorj, Baigal Volody, Uranjargal Chuluundorj, Enkhtuya Munkhbat, Gerelmaa Danzan, Cattram D Nguyen, Sophie La Vincente, Fiona Russell
INTRODUCTION: Monitoring of vaccination coverage is vital for the prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. Electronic immunization registers have been increasingly adopted to assist with the monitoring of vaccine coverage; however, there is limited literature about the use of electronic registers in low- and middle-income countries such as Mongolia. We aimed to determine the accuracy and completeness of the newly introduced electronic immunization register for calculating vaccination coverage and determining vaccine effectiveness within two districts in Mongolia in comparison to written health provider records...
July 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Sarah Hamid, Leila Bell, Erica L Dueger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Anna Lena Lopez, Peter Francis Raguindin, Jose Jonas Del Rosario, Ramon V Najarro, Eleanor Du, Josephine Aldaba, Aida M Salonga, Andrea Kristina Monzon-Pajarillo, Alvina Pauline Santiago, Alan C Ou, Maria Joyce Ducusin
Introduction: In line with the regional aim of eliminating rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), phased introduction of rubella-containing vaccines (RCV) in the Philippines' routine immunization programme began in 2010. We estimated the burden of CRS in the country before widespread nationwide programmatic RCV use. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review in four tertiary hospitals. Children born between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014 and identified as possible CRS cases based on the presence of one or more potential manifestations of CRS documented in hospital or clinic charts were reviewed...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Meena Chandra, Heidi Lord, Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Kate Alexander, Nilva Egana, Stephen Conaty
INTRODUCTION: In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. METHODS: The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Mizue Kanai, Hajime Kamiya, Alison Smith-Palmer, Hideyuki Takahashi, Yushi Hachisu, Munehisa Fukusumi, Takehito Saitoh, Makoto Ohnishi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
PROBLEM: Six invasive meningococcal disease cases occurred among Scottish and Swedish nationals associated with the World Scout Jamboree (WSJ), an international mass gathering, held in Japan. The index case developed symptoms while returning home. The strains from all six cases were identical and seldom seen in Japan. CONTEXT: Over 33 000 participants from 155 countries attended WSJ. At the Jamboree site, participants of the North of Scotland's and Sweden's units camped within the same subcamp and kept the same schedule of events...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Shaun P Coutts, Kaye Sturge, Karin Lalor, John A Marshall, Leesa D Bruggink, Nela Subasinghe, Marion Easton
INTRODUCTION: In May 2014 an outbreak of norovirus occurred among patrons of a restaurant in Melbourne, Australia. Investigations were conducted to identify the infectious agent, mode of transmission and source of illness, and to implement controls to prevent further transmission. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that food served at the restaurant between 9 and 15 May 2014 was the vehicle for infection. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic, illness and food exposure data from study participants...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
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