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Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628799/clinical-and-immunological-correlates-of-long-term-survival-in-glioblastoma
#1
REVIEW
Bartosz Czapski, Szymon Baluszek, Christel Herold-Mende, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in adults. It represents 54% of all gliomas and 16% of all brain tumours (Ostrom et al. 2016). Despite surgery and treatment with radiotherapy plus an oral alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), tumours invariably recur, and the patient survival is an average of ~14-16 months. In this review we summarise the current understanding of multiple factors that may affect survival of patients with GBMs. In particular, we discuss recent advancements in surgery and detection of genomic-based markers with prognostic values, such as IDH1/2 mutations, MGMT gene promoter methylation, and TERT gene promoter alterations...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628798/versatile-car-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Fuliang Chu, Jingjing Cao, Sattva S Neelalpu
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been clinically proven to efficiently combat haematological malignancies. However, continuous efforts are required to increase the specificity of CAR T-cells against tumour versus normal tissues, and are essential to improve their antitumour activity in solid tumours. This review summarises the structure of major CAR designs, and strategies to overcome immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, and reduce toxicities. Along with reviewing currently available techniques that allow the elimination of CAR T-cells after they fulfil their desired functions, using suicide genes, drug elimination strategies are also introduced...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628797/braf-and-mek-inhibitors-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy-in-melanoma-patients
#3
REVIEW
Jacek Mackiewicz, Andrzej Mackiewicz
The treatment landscape in advanced melanoma is changing dramatically with the approval of new drugs. Vemurafenib was the first approved targeted agent for the treatment of BRAF -mutant advanced melanoma. However, treatment with a BRAF inhibitor is linked with acquired resistance occurring in half of the patients after approximately six months. Combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitor therapy results in extension of the time to resistance, translating into longer overall survival of treated patients. Similar clinical benefits are observed with therapy using antibodies against immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the same patient population...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628796/immunotherapy-of-melanoma
#4
Iwona Lugowska, Pawel Teterycz, Piotr Rutkowski
The immunotherapy is currently changing the landscape of oncology. Nowadays the standard of care in metastatic or unresectable melanoma patients include immunomodulating modalities such as anti-PD-1 drugs (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab. The improvements of progression free survival and overall survival connected with those treatments were unprecedented and have been confirmed in stage III trials. The efficacy of immunotherapy in metastatic setting can be further upgraded in some groups of patients by combining both types of antibodies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628795/the-revival-of-cpg-oligonucleotide-based-cancer-immunotherapies
#5
REVIEW
Tomasz Adamus, Marcin Kortylewski
The promising results of clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors revived interests in cancer immunotherapy. However, it also became apparent that efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade can benefit from combining it with immunostimulatory strategies. Here, we review prior and re-emerging approaches using Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), focused on the generation of antitumor immune responses in cancer patients. While numerous early clinical trials using TLR9 ligands in monotherapies provided evidence of CpG ODNs tolerability and safety, they failed to demonstrate sufficient antitumor efficacy...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628794/surface-markers-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-of-ovarian-cancer-and-their-clinical-relevance
#6
REVIEW
Aleksandra Klemba, J Karolina Purzycka-Olewiecka, Gabriel Wcisło, Anna M Czarnecka, Sławomir Lewicki, Bogdan Lesyng, Cezary Szczylik, Claudine Kieda
Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are defined as cancer cells with stem cell characteristics. Although CSLCs constitute no more than a few percent of the tumor mass, they play important roles in cancer chemo-resistance, metastasis and disease recurrence. Ovarian cancer (OC) is considered the most aggressive gynecological malignancy in which the role of CSLCs is of major significance, although it remains to be specified. The studies describing ovarian CSLC phenotype vary in the definition of the molecular pattern of expression of the main markers such as CD133, CD44, CD117, and CD24...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628793/challenging-tumour-immunological-techniques-that-help-to-track-cancer-stem-cells-in-malignant-melanomas-and-other-solid-tumours
#7
Beatrix Kotlan, Vanda Plotar, Klara Eles, Szabolcs Horvath, Timea Balatoni, Orsolya Csuka, Mihaly Újhelyi, Ákos Sávolt, Andras Szollar, Istvan Vamosi-Nagy, Laszlo Toth, Emil Farkas, Jozsef Toth, Miklos Kasler, Gabriella Liszkay
Aim of the study: The arsenal of questions and answers about the minor cancer initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) population put responsible for cancer invasiveness and metastases, has left with an unsolved puzzle. Specific aims of a complex project were partly focused on revealing new biomarkers of cancer. We designed and set up novel techniques to facilitate the detection of cancerous cells. Materials and methods: As a novel approach, we investigated B cells infiltrating breast carcinomas and melanomas (TIL-B) in terms of their tumour antigen binding potential...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628792/the-emerging-role-of-plasma-exosomes-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapies-of-patients-with-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Exosomes, small (30-150nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin, are present in all body fluids of cancer patients. Tumor-derived exosomes, TEX, emerge as potentially promising non-invasive biomarkers of tumor progression and of immune cell dysfunction in cancer. Exosomes isolated from plasma by size exclusion chromatography can be fractionated into TEX and non-TEX by immune capture on beads. Profiling of molecular and genetic contents of TEX shows that levels if immunosuppressive proteins, such as PD-L1, carried by TEX associate with disease progression...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628791/gastric-cancer-increases-transmigratory-potential-of-peripheral-blood-monocytes-by-upregulation-of-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-integrins
#9
Andrzej Eljaszewicz, Michal Jankowski, Malgorzata Wiese-Szadkowska, Lidia Gackowska, Jacek Michalkiewicz, Wojciech Zegarski, Marcin Moniuszko
Introduction: Immune responses within the tumor depend on the ability of leukocytes to migrate from peripheral circulation into the local microenvironment. This process is controlled by mechanisms that guide leukocytes to the side of inflammation, allowing them to cross vascular endothelial barrier. Monocytes/macrophages are the predominant population of leukocyte infiltrate of many tumors, including, gastric cancer. However, to date mechanisms that control monocyte trafficking to the side of tumor growth are not fully elucidated...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628790/heme-oxygenase-inhibition-in-cancers-possible-tools-and-targets
#10
REVIEW
Paulina Podkalicka, Olga Mucha, Alicja Józkowicz, Józef Dulak, Agnieszka Łoboda
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1 ) through degradation of pro-oxidant heme into carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions (Fe2+ ) and biliverdin, exhibits cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. All of these potentially beneficial functions of HO-1 may play an important role in tumors' development and progression. Moreover, HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumors in comparison to healthy tissues, and its expression is further induced upon chemo-, radio- and photodynamic therapy, what results in decreased effectiveness of the treatment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628789/immune-consequences-of-anti-angiogenic-therapyin-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Klaudia K Brodaczewska, Cezary Szczylik, Claudine Kieda
Current therapies of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a highly vascularised tumour, mostly rely on anti-angiogenic treatment options. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. Although these strategies aim at restraining vascularisation to control tumour growth, the effects of such therapies are much wider, as affecting the vessel structure deeply modifies the microenvironment of the tumour mass. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the global effects of anti-angiogenic treatment, mostly TKIs, on the shaping of the immune component of the RCC microenvironment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628788/the-role-of-hypoxia-in-shaping-the-recruitment-of-proangiogenic-and-immunosuppressive-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Salem Chouaib, Viktor Umansky, Claudine Kieda
Hypoxia characterizes growing tumors and contributes significantly to their aggressiveness. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs 1 and 2) are stabilized and act differentially as transcription factors on tumor growth and are responsible for important cancer hallmarks such as pathologic angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and genetic instability as well as affecting tumor metabolism, tumor immune responses, invasion and metastasis. Taking into account the tumor tissue as a whole and considering the interplay of the various partners which react with hypoxia in the tumor site lead to reconsideration of the treatment strategies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628787/molecular-profiling-of-tumours-for-precision-oncology-high-hopes-versus-reality
#13
REVIEW
Sergiusz Nawrocki
Treatment based on molecular profiling of tumor is advertised however there are very limited clinical data supporting this approach so far. Only one, relatively small, randomized clinical trial (SHIVA) have not met its primary endpoint - prolongation of PFS. Some other unpublished series were reported during ASCO 2017 and are discussed in this review. There are many issues to be resolved before the tumor profiling will enter the clinical practice with significant benefit for patients, eg. spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumor cells in individual patient, wide access to targeted therapies, toxicity of combined targeted therapies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628786/personalized-medicine-in-oncology-new-perspectives-in-management-of-gliomas
#14
REVIEW
Justyna Gil, Izabela Laczmanska, Karolina A Pesz, Maria M Sasiadek
Studies on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis have led to the discovery of crucial genetic events for many of particular malignancies. This was followed by invention of new therapeutic approaches based on molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression that bears the name of personalised medicine. In the case of gliomas, ascertainment of genetic/epigenetic markers was the basis for re-classification of tumours that until now depended on histopathological analysis. This article reviews recent advances in personalised medicine and the new World Health Organisation classification of gliomas...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416439/pure-hepatocellular-carcinoma-originates-from-an-ectopic-liver-nodule-located-in-the-pancreas
#15
Marcin Braun, Wojciech Kuncman, Leszek Teresiński, Piotr Kupnicki, Dorota Jesionek-Kupnicka, Radzislaw Kordek
Ectopic liver (EL) is a rare congenital abnormality, which is localised most commonly in the wall of the gallbladder. Histoarchitectural abnormalities, which lead to impaired transfer of blood and bile, as well as well demarcation, are characteristic features of ectopic liver nodules. Both features may explain the discrepancies between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases originating from ectopic liver in comparison to HCC cases originating from orthotopic liver: the strong propensity of ectopic liver to the development of HCC...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416438/solitary-breast-cancer-metastasis-to-pelvic-bone-treated-with-a-unique-method-of-surgery-combined-with-local-doxorubicin-administration
#16
Andrzej Bohatyrewicz, Maciej Karaczun, Daniel Kotrych, Paweł Ziętek, Łukasz Kołodziej, Alina Jurewicz
Treatment of bone metastasis is a major challenge for current and future orthopedic and oncology specialists. For the treatment of single metastases, there is a continuing search for effective local treatments that do not affect the whole patient. The current report describes the case of single breast cancer metastasis to the pelvic bone in a 50-year-old woman treated surgically by bone osteotomy combined with local doxorubicin application. The presence of cancer cells was confirmed by histopathological examination...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416437/efficacy-of-palifermin-on-oral-mucositis-and-acute-gvhd-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-hsct-in-hematology-malignancy-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-trials
#17
Hamid Reza Mozaffari, Mehrdad Payandeh, Mazaher Ramezani, Masoud Sadeghi, Mohammad Mahmoudiahmadabadi, Roohollah Sharifi
Aim of the study: Herein, this meta-analysis study evaluated the efficacy of palifermin after HSCT on the incidence and severity of OM or aGVHD in hematologic malignancy patients in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Materials and methods: To compare the efficacy of palifermin on adverse events, OM and aGVHD compared with placebo, we searched databases of PubMed/Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs based on a number of criteria. Results: There was no difference observed in the incidence of OM and aGVHD between two groups...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416436/analysis-of-information-received-during-treatment-and-adherence-to-tamoxifen-in-breast-cancer-patients
#18
Aline Cruz, Aline Rodrigues, Amanda Ferracini, Rebeca Stahlschmidt, Nice Silva, Priscila Mazzola
This study examines whether women with breast cancer, who are adherent and non-adherent to tamoxifen, differ in their perceptions of information received during treatment. This cross-sectional study included women receiving tamoxifen as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer recruited from a teaching hospital specialised in women's health in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). Women were interviewed and their records were reviewed for socio demographic data and clinical characteristics. We assessed tamoxifen adherence using the Morisky-Green Test, and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire - Information module (EORTC QLQ-INFO25) was used to evaluate the information received by the women...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416435/a-specific-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-cos-protocol-for-fertility-preservation-in-women-with-breast-cancer-undergoing-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#19
Felipe Cavagna, Anagloria Pontes, Mario Cavagna, Artur Dzik, Nilka F Donadio, Rafael Portela, Michelle T Nagai, Luiz H Gebrim
Aim of the study: The authors present a novel and specific controlled ovarian stimulation protocol for fertility preservation in women with estrogen-positive receptor breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The protocol foresees random start ovarian stimulation and the use of letrozole associated to tamoxifen. Material and methods: Forty breast cancer patients were included in the study. COS was performed either with recombinant FSH or hMG. Concomitantly with COS, letrozole in a dose of 5 mg and tamoxifen in a dose of 20 mg were given orally on a daily basis...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416434/the-analysis-of-the-long-term-outcomes-of-sorafenib-therapy-in-routine-practice-in-imatinib-and-sunitinib-resistant-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-gist
#20
Piotr Rutkowski, Beata Jagielska, Jolanta Andrzejuk, Elzbieta Bylina, Iwona Lugowska, Tomasz Switaj, Hanna Kosela-Paterczyk, Katarzyna Kozak, Slawomir Falkowski, Anna Klimczak
Aim of the study: was to analyze the outcome of treatment and factors predicting results of sorafenib therapy in inoperable/metastatic CD117-positive GIST patients after failure on imatinib and sunitinib. Material and methods: We identified 60 consecutive patients (40 men, 20 women) with advanced inoperable/metastatic GIST after failure on at least imatinib and sunitinib treated in one sarcoma center with sorafenib at initial dose 2 × 400 mg daily in 2007-2015 (in 56 cases it was 3rd line therapy)...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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