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Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628799/clinical-and-immunological-correlates-of-long-term-survival-in-glioblastoma
#1
REVIEW
Bartosz Czapski, Szymon Baluszek, Christel Herold-Mende, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in adults. It represents 54% of all gliomas and 16% of all brain tumours (Ostrom et al. 2016). Despite surgery and treatment with radiotherapy plus an oral alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), tumours invariably recur, and the patient survival is an average of ~14-16 months. In this review we summarise the current understanding of multiple factors that may affect survival of patients with GBMs. In particular, we discuss recent advancements in surgery and detection of genomic-based markers with prognostic values, such as IDH1/2 mutations, MGMT gene promoter methylation, and TERT gene promoter alterations...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628798/versatile-car-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Fuliang Chu, Jingjing Cao, Sattva S Neelalpu
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been clinically proven to efficiently combat haematological malignancies. However, continuous efforts are required to increase the specificity of CAR T-cells against tumour versus normal tissues, and are essential to improve their antitumour activity in solid tumours. This review summarises the structure of major CAR designs, and strategies to overcome immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, and reduce toxicities. Along with reviewing currently available techniques that allow the elimination of CAR T-cells after they fulfil their desired functions, using suicide genes, drug elimination strategies are also introduced...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628797/braf-and-mek-inhibitors-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy-in-melanoma-patients
#3
REVIEW
Jacek Mackiewicz, Andrzej Mackiewicz
The treatment landscape in advanced melanoma is changing dramatically with the approval of new drugs. Vemurafenib was the first approved targeted agent for the treatment of BRAF -mutant advanced melanoma. However, treatment with a BRAF inhibitor is linked with acquired resistance occurring in half of the patients after approximately six months. Combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitor therapy results in extension of the time to resistance, translating into longer overall survival of treated patients. Similar clinical benefits are observed with therapy using antibodies against immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the same patient population...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628796/immunotherapy-of-melanoma
#4
Iwona Lugowska, Pawel Teterycz, Piotr Rutkowski
The immunotherapy is currently changing the landscape of oncology. Nowadays the standard of care in metastatic or unresectable melanoma patients include immunomodulating modalities such as anti-PD-1 drugs (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab. The improvements of progression free survival and overall survival connected with those treatments were unprecedented and have been confirmed in stage III trials. The efficacy of immunotherapy in metastatic setting can be further upgraded in some groups of patients by combining both types of antibodies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628795/the-revival-of-cpg-oligonucleotide-based-cancer-immunotherapies
#5
REVIEW
Tomasz Adamus, Marcin Kortylewski
The promising results of clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors revived interests in cancer immunotherapy. However, it also became apparent that efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade can benefit from combining it with immunostimulatory strategies. Here, we review prior and re-emerging approaches using Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), focused on the generation of antitumor immune responses in cancer patients. While numerous early clinical trials using TLR9 ligands in monotherapies provided evidence of CpG ODNs tolerability and safety, they failed to demonstrate sufficient antitumor efficacy...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628794/surface-markers-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-of-ovarian-cancer-and-their-clinical-relevance
#6
REVIEW
Aleksandra Klemba, J Karolina Purzycka-Olewiecka, Gabriel Wcisło, Anna M Czarnecka, Sławomir Lewicki, Bogdan Lesyng, Cezary Szczylik, Claudine Kieda
Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are defined as cancer cells with stem cell characteristics. Although CSLCs constitute no more than a few percent of the tumor mass, they play important roles in cancer chemo-resistance, metastasis and disease recurrence. Ovarian cancer (OC) is considered the most aggressive gynecological malignancy in which the role of CSLCs is of major significance, although it remains to be specified. The studies describing ovarian CSLC phenotype vary in the definition of the molecular pattern of expression of the main markers such as CD133, CD44, CD117, and CD24...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628793/challenging-tumour-immunological-techniques-that-help-to-track-cancer-stem-cells-in-malignant-melanomas-and-other-solid-tumours
#7
Beatrix Kotlan, Vanda Plotar, Klara Eles, Szabolcs Horvath, Timea Balatoni, Orsolya Csuka, Mihaly Újhelyi, Ákos Sávolt, Andras Szollar, Istvan Vamosi-Nagy, Laszlo Toth, Emil Farkas, Jozsef Toth, Miklos Kasler, Gabriella Liszkay
Aim of the study: The arsenal of questions and answers about the minor cancer initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) population put responsible for cancer invasiveness and metastases, has left with an unsolved puzzle. Specific aims of a complex project were partly focused on revealing new biomarkers of cancer. We designed and set up novel techniques to facilitate the detection of cancerous cells. Materials and methods: As a novel approach, we investigated B cells infiltrating breast carcinomas and melanomas (TIL-B) in terms of their tumour antigen binding potential...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628792/the-emerging-role-of-plasma-exosomes-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapies-of-patients-with-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Exosomes, small (30-150nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin, are present in all body fluids of cancer patients. Tumor-derived exosomes, TEX, emerge as potentially promising non-invasive biomarkers of tumor progression and of immune cell dysfunction in cancer. Exosomes isolated from plasma by size exclusion chromatography can be fractionated into TEX and non-TEX by immune capture on beads. Profiling of molecular and genetic contents of TEX shows that levels if immunosuppressive proteins, such as PD-L1, carried by TEX associate with disease progression...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628791/gastric-cancer-increases-transmigratory-potential-of-peripheral-blood-monocytes-by-upregulation-of-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-integrins
#9
Andrzej Eljaszewicz, Michal Jankowski, Malgorzata Wiese-Szadkowska, Lidia Gackowska, Jacek Michalkiewicz, Wojciech Zegarski, Marcin Moniuszko
Introduction: Immune responses within the tumor depend on the ability of leukocytes to migrate from peripheral circulation into the local microenvironment. This process is controlled by mechanisms that guide leukocytes to the side of inflammation, allowing them to cross vascular endothelial barrier. Monocytes/macrophages are the predominant population of leukocyte infiltrate of many tumors, including, gastric cancer. However, to date mechanisms that control monocyte trafficking to the side of tumor growth are not fully elucidated...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628790/heme-oxygenase-inhibition-in-cancers-possible-tools-and-targets
#10
REVIEW
Paulina Podkalicka, Olga Mucha, Alicja Józkowicz, Józef Dulak, Agnieszka Łoboda
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1 ) through degradation of pro-oxidant heme into carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions (Fe2+ ) and biliverdin, exhibits cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. All of these potentially beneficial functions of HO-1 may play an important role in tumors' development and progression. Moreover, HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumors in comparison to healthy tissues, and its expression is further induced upon chemo-, radio- and photodynamic therapy, what results in decreased effectiveness of the treatment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628789/immune-consequences-of-anti-angiogenic-therapyin-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Klaudia K Brodaczewska, Cezary Szczylik, Claudine Kieda
Current therapies of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a highly vascularised tumour, mostly rely on anti-angiogenic treatment options. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. Although these strategies aim at restraining vascularisation to control tumour growth, the effects of such therapies are much wider, as affecting the vessel structure deeply modifies the microenvironment of the tumour mass. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the global effects of anti-angiogenic treatment, mostly TKIs, on the shaping of the immune component of the RCC microenvironment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628788/the-role-of-hypoxia-in-shaping-the-recruitment-of-proangiogenic-and-immunosuppressive-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Salem Chouaib, Viktor Umansky, Claudine Kieda
Hypoxia characterizes growing tumors and contributes significantly to their aggressiveness. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs 1 and 2) are stabilized and act differentially as transcription factors on tumor growth and are responsible for important cancer hallmarks such as pathologic angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and genetic instability as well as affecting tumor metabolism, tumor immune responses, invasion and metastasis. Taking into account the tumor tissue as a whole and considering the interplay of the various partners which react with hypoxia in the tumor site lead to reconsideration of the treatment strategies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628787/molecular-profiling-of-tumours-for-precision-oncology-high-hopes-versus-reality
#13
REVIEW
Sergiusz Nawrocki
Treatment based on molecular profiling of tumor is advertised however there are very limited clinical data supporting this approach so far. Only one, relatively small, randomized clinical trial (SHIVA) have not met its primary endpoint - prolongation of PFS. Some other unpublished series were reported during ASCO 2017 and are discussed in this review. There are many issues to be resolved before the tumor profiling will enter the clinical practice with significant benefit for patients, eg. spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumor cells in individual patient, wide access to targeted therapies, toxicity of combined targeted therapies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628786/personalized-medicine-in-oncology-new-perspectives-in-management-of-gliomas
#14
REVIEW
Justyna Gil, Izabela Laczmanska, Karolina A Pesz, Maria M Sasiadek
Studies on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis have led to the discovery of crucial genetic events for many of particular malignancies. This was followed by invention of new therapeutic approaches based on molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression that bears the name of personalised medicine. In the case of gliomas, ascertainment of genetic/epigenetic markers was the basis for re-classification of tumours that until now depended on histopathological analysis. This article reviews recent advances in personalised medicine and the new World Health Organisation classification of gliomas...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692666/recanalization-and-remodeling-of-the-great-saphenous-vein-caused-by-the-large-melanoma-s-cutaneous-metastasis
#15
Przemysław Stefaniak, Przemysław Kwiatkowski, Zygmunt Kozielec, Janusz Godlewski
Aim of the study: Large melanoma tumour caused arterial remodelling of the distal part of the great saphenous vein. The metastasis occurred at the site where inguinal lymphadenectomy was previously performed and the proximal part of the great saphenous vein was resected.The aim of this study is the presentation of such a rare observation and literature overview concerning melanoma metastasis and possible stimuli causing remodelling of veins. Material and methods: Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the large blood vessel that supplies melanoma were made...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692665/ameloblastic-fibro-odontoma-with-chondroid-tissue-formation
#16
Noura Aly, Hatem Amer, Omar El Khatib
Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is an uncommon, benign, mixed odontogenic tumour occurring predominantly in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to report an unusual case of AFO in the mandible of a five-year-old male patient showing evidence of chondroid tissue formation. Clinical, radiographic, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were presented. Intraoral examination revealed a swelling extending from the right deciduous lateral incisor to the left second molar area. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large, well-demarcated multilocular radiolucency with radiopaque deposits...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692664/our-experiences-and-suggestions-with-peek-marker-use-in-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#17
Cenk Ahmet Sen
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK), a material commonly used in industry, has recently been introduced in medicine. The use of PEEK in place of gold in gold marker implantation for prostate radiotherapy has been suggested to be advantageous because it is associated with a lower level of artefacts. In this study, we present a disadvantage of this newly introduced method, which has not yet been defined in the literature, and offer a solution for this problem to shed light on this issue, which has not yet been completely understood...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692663/uncommon-reasons-of-the-digestive-tract-related-paraneoplastic-syndromes-in-children-with-neuroblastic-tumors-three-case-reports
#18
Elżbieta Czkwianianc, Beata Zalewska-Szewczyk, Józef Kobos, Anna Socha-Banasiak, Szymon Janczar, Sylwia Prymus-Kasińska, Joanna Kazanek-Zasada, Wojciech Młynarski
Aim of the study: presentation of the uncommon paraneoplastic syndromes related to the gastrointestinal tract that may occur in children with neuroblastic tumors and their impact on the disease course. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of three cases of patients mainly with digestive tract-related symptoms, who were originally admitted to the gastroenterology department from 2013 to 2016 and were finally diagnosed with neuroblastic tumors. Results: The clinical data analysis showed that the symptoms from gastrointestinal tract were dominant in analyzed subjects...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692662/changes-in-the-chemical-composition-of-mineralised-teeth-in-children-after-antineoplastic-treatment
#19
Ewa Krasuska-Sławińska, Bożenna Dembowska-Bagińska, Agnieszka Brożyna, Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk, Elżbieta Czarnowska, Agnieszka Sowińska
Introduction: Chemotherapy, neoplasms, and their complications linked to malabsorption, malnutrition, and metabolic disorders may lead to improper tooth development and frequent severe caries in patients during/after antineoplastic treatment and to a more frequent improper tooth development in patients undergoing chemotherapy during odontogenesis. However, the causes of these abnormalities remain unknown; there are no studies on the impact of antineoplastic treatment and its complications on the chemical composition of mineralised teeth...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692661/the-comparison-between-caprini-and-padua-vte-risk-assessment-models-for-hospitalised-cancer-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-at-the-tertiary-oncology-department-in-poland-is-pharmacological-thromboprophylaxis-overused
#20
Robert F Łukaszuk, Justyna Dolna-Michno, Krzysztof Plens, Grzegorz Czyżewicz, Anetta Undas
Aim of the study: Thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients during hospitalization reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Material and methods: To assess the underuse and the overuse of thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients at a tertiary oncology department, we retrospectively analyzed 1983 consecutive hospitalizations of 498 cancer patients who received chemotherapy from October 2016 to May 2017. The Padua prediction score (≥ 4 points) and Caprini risk assessment (≥ 5 points) were used to identify patients at high risk of VTE...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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