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Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628799/clinical-and-immunological-correlates-of-long-term-survival-in-glioblastoma
#1
REVIEW
Bartosz Czapski, Szymon Baluszek, Christel Herold-Mende, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in adults. It represents 54% of all gliomas and 16% of all brain tumours (Ostrom et al. 2016). Despite surgery and treatment with radiotherapy plus an oral alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), tumours invariably recur, and the patient survival is an average of ~14-16 months. In this review we summarise the current understanding of multiple factors that may affect survival of patients with GBMs. In particular, we discuss recent advancements in surgery and detection of genomic-based markers with prognostic values, such as IDH1/2 mutations, MGMT gene promoter methylation, and TERT gene promoter alterations...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628798/versatile-car-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Fuliang Chu, Jingjing Cao, Sattva S Neelalpu
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been clinically proven to efficiently combat haematological malignancies. However, continuous efforts are required to increase the specificity of CAR T-cells against tumour versus normal tissues, and are essential to improve their antitumour activity in solid tumours. This review summarises the structure of major CAR designs, and strategies to overcome immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, and reduce toxicities. Along with reviewing currently available techniques that allow the elimination of CAR T-cells after they fulfil their desired functions, using suicide genes, drug elimination strategies are also introduced...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628797/braf-and-mek-inhibitors-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy-in-melanoma-patients
#3
REVIEW
Jacek Mackiewicz, Andrzej Mackiewicz
The treatment landscape in advanced melanoma is changing dramatically with the approval of new drugs. Vemurafenib was the first approved targeted agent for the treatment of BRAF -mutant advanced melanoma. However, treatment with a BRAF inhibitor is linked with acquired resistance occurring in half of the patients after approximately six months. Combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitor therapy results in extension of the time to resistance, translating into longer overall survival of treated patients. Similar clinical benefits are observed with therapy using antibodies against immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the same patient population...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628796/immunotherapy-of-melanoma
#4
Iwona Lugowska, Pawel Teterycz, Piotr Rutkowski
The immunotherapy is currently changing the landscape of oncology. Nowadays the standard of care in metastatic or unresectable melanoma patients include immunomodulating modalities such as anti-PD-1 drugs (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab. The improvements of progression free survival and overall survival connected with those treatments were unprecedented and have been confirmed in stage III trials. The efficacy of immunotherapy in metastatic setting can be further upgraded in some groups of patients by combining both types of antibodies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628795/the-revival-of-cpg-oligonucleotide-based-cancer-immunotherapies
#5
REVIEW
Tomasz Adamus, Marcin Kortylewski
The promising results of clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors revived interests in cancer immunotherapy. However, it also became apparent that efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade can benefit from combining it with immunostimulatory strategies. Here, we review prior and re-emerging approaches using Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), focused on the generation of antitumor immune responses in cancer patients. While numerous early clinical trials using TLR9 ligands in monotherapies provided evidence of CpG ODNs tolerability and safety, they failed to demonstrate sufficient antitumor efficacy...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628794/surface-markers-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-of-ovarian-cancer-and-their-clinical-relevance
#6
REVIEW
Aleksandra Klemba, J Karolina Purzycka-Olewiecka, Gabriel Wcisło, Anna M Czarnecka, Sławomir Lewicki, Bogdan Lesyng, Cezary Szczylik, Claudine Kieda
Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are defined as cancer cells with stem cell characteristics. Although CSLCs constitute no more than a few percent of the tumor mass, they play important roles in cancer chemo-resistance, metastasis and disease recurrence. Ovarian cancer (OC) is considered the most aggressive gynecological malignancy in which the role of CSLCs is of major significance, although it remains to be specified. The studies describing ovarian CSLC phenotype vary in the definition of the molecular pattern of expression of the main markers such as CD133, CD44, CD117, and CD24...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628793/challenging-tumour-immunological-techniques-that-help-to-track-cancer-stem-cells-in-malignant-melanomas-and-other-solid-tumours
#7
Beatrix Kotlan, Vanda Plotar, Klara Eles, Szabolcs Horvath, Timea Balatoni, Orsolya Csuka, Mihaly Újhelyi, Ákos Sávolt, Andras Szollar, Istvan Vamosi-Nagy, Laszlo Toth, Emil Farkas, Jozsef Toth, Miklos Kasler, Gabriella Liszkay
Aim of the study: The arsenal of questions and answers about the minor cancer initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) population put responsible for cancer invasiveness and metastases, has left with an unsolved puzzle. Specific aims of a complex project were partly focused on revealing new biomarkers of cancer. We designed and set up novel techniques to facilitate the detection of cancerous cells. Materials and methods: As a novel approach, we investigated B cells infiltrating breast carcinomas and melanomas (TIL-B) in terms of their tumour antigen binding potential...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628792/the-emerging-role-of-plasma-exosomes-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapies-of-patients-with-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Exosomes, small (30-150nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin, are present in all body fluids of cancer patients. Tumor-derived exosomes, TEX, emerge as potentially promising non-invasive biomarkers of tumor progression and of immune cell dysfunction in cancer. Exosomes isolated from plasma by size exclusion chromatography can be fractionated into TEX and non-TEX by immune capture on beads. Profiling of molecular and genetic contents of TEX shows that levels if immunosuppressive proteins, such as PD-L1, carried by TEX associate with disease progression...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628791/gastric-cancer-increases-transmigratory-potential-of-peripheral-blood-monocytes-by-upregulation-of-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-integrins
#9
Andrzej Eljaszewicz, Michal Jankowski, Malgorzata Wiese-Szadkowska, Lidia Gackowska, Jacek Michalkiewicz, Wojciech Zegarski, Marcin Moniuszko
Introduction: Immune responses within the tumor depend on the ability of leukocytes to migrate from peripheral circulation into the local microenvironment. This process is controlled by mechanisms that guide leukocytes to the side of inflammation, allowing them to cross vascular endothelial barrier. Monocytes/macrophages are the predominant population of leukocyte infiltrate of many tumors, including, gastric cancer. However, to date mechanisms that control monocyte trafficking to the side of tumor growth are not fully elucidated...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628790/heme-oxygenase-inhibition-in-cancers-possible-tools-and-targets
#10
REVIEW
Paulina Podkalicka, Olga Mucha, Alicja Józkowicz, Józef Dulak, Agnieszka Łoboda
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1 ) through degradation of pro-oxidant heme into carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions (Fe2+ ) and biliverdin, exhibits cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. All of these potentially beneficial functions of HO-1 may play an important role in tumors' development and progression. Moreover, HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumors in comparison to healthy tissues, and its expression is further induced upon chemo-, radio- and photodynamic therapy, what results in decreased effectiveness of the treatment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628789/immune-consequences-of-anti-angiogenic-therapyin-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Klaudia K Brodaczewska, Cezary Szczylik, Claudine Kieda
Current therapies of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a highly vascularised tumour, mostly rely on anti-angiogenic treatment options. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. Although these strategies aim at restraining vascularisation to control tumour growth, the effects of such therapies are much wider, as affecting the vessel structure deeply modifies the microenvironment of the tumour mass. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the global effects of anti-angiogenic treatment, mostly TKIs, on the shaping of the immune component of the RCC microenvironment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628788/the-role-of-hypoxia-in-shaping-the-recruitment-of-proangiogenic-and-immunosuppressive-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Salem Chouaib, Viktor Umansky, Claudine Kieda
Hypoxia characterizes growing tumors and contributes significantly to their aggressiveness. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs 1 and 2) are stabilized and act differentially as transcription factors on tumor growth and are responsible for important cancer hallmarks such as pathologic angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and genetic instability as well as affecting tumor metabolism, tumor immune responses, invasion and metastasis. Taking into account the tumor tissue as a whole and considering the interplay of the various partners which react with hypoxia in the tumor site lead to reconsideration of the treatment strategies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628787/molecular-profiling-of-tumours-for-precision-oncology-high-hopes-versus-reality
#13
REVIEW
Sergiusz Nawrocki
Treatment based on molecular profiling of tumor is advertised however there are very limited clinical data supporting this approach so far. Only one, relatively small, randomized clinical trial (SHIVA) have not met its primary endpoint - prolongation of PFS. Some other unpublished series were reported during ASCO 2017 and are discussed in this review. There are many issues to be resolved before the tumor profiling will enter the clinical practice with significant benefit for patients, eg. spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumor cells in individual patient, wide access to targeted therapies, toxicity of combined targeted therapies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628786/personalized-medicine-in-oncology-new-perspectives-in-management-of-gliomas
#14
REVIEW
Justyna Gil, Izabela Laczmanska, Karolina A Pesz, Maria M Sasiadek
Studies on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis have led to the discovery of crucial genetic events for many of particular malignancies. This was followed by invention of new therapeutic approaches based on molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression that bears the name of personalised medicine. In the case of gliomas, ascertainment of genetic/epigenetic markers was the basis for re-classification of tumours that until now depended on histopathological analysis. This article reviews recent advances in personalised medicine and the new World Health Organisation classification of gliomas...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455594/a-malignant-astrocytoma-with-uncommon-angiocentric-features-and-dot-like-ema-expression
#15
Wojciech Kuncman, Marcin Braun, Łukasz Kuncman, Piotr Kupnicki, Michał Piotrowski, Dorota Jesionek-Kupnicka, Radzisław Kordek
Angiocentric features are uncommon in high-grade World Health Organisation (WHO) brain tumours, whilst they are typical for WHO grade I tumours, e.g. angiocentric gliomas. We present an unusual glial tumour that occurred in a 59-year-old man. The tumour had equivocal radiologic and histopathologic features, especially a characteristic angiocentric pattern, low-to-moderate Ki67, and dot-like epithelial membrane antigen expression. The tumour did not show features characteristic for glioblastoma; however, it recurred as glioblastoma four months later...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455593/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-complications-of-irradiation-in-laryngeal-cancer
#16
Gonca Hanedan Uslu, Gamze Çebi, Bengü Çobanoğlu
One of the standard treatments in laryngeal cancer is radiotherapy (RT). Many short- and long-term complications can occur in the region that has received radiotherapy. Definitive treatment of the emerging complications is still debatable, and treatment is challenging for radiation oncologists and ear nose throat specialists. Recently, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has become a promising alternative for the treatment of these complications. The aim of this report is to discuss the effectiveness of HBOT in the treatment of late-term RT-related potential complications in a patient with laryngeal cancer...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455592/salivary-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-reactivity-a-comparison-to-cortisol-and-%C3%AE-amylase-patterns-in-the-same-breast-cancer-survivors
#17
Maude Lambert, Marie-Ève Couture-Lalande, Kelly Brennan, Aldin Basic, Sophie Lebel, Catherine Bielajew
Introduction: One way to examine the extent to which the stress associated with a breast cancer experience (BC) impacts stress-related physiological mechanisms is to study the secretion patterns of associated biomarkers. Unlike cortisol and α-amylase (sAA), biomarkers of immune functioning such as secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) have rarely been examined in BC survivors. Aim of the study: This study had two principal aims: the first was to evaluate the basal secretion profiles of SIgA as well as its response to an acute stressor as a marker of immune health in BC survivors and women with no history of BC, and the second was to determine how SIgA stress-related patterns compare to published cortisol and sAA patterns in the same women...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455591/the-utility-of-the-subcuticular-suture-in-hepatic-resection
#18
Yoshihiro Inoue, Kensuke Fujii, Masatsugu Ishii, Syuji Kagota, Hiroki Hamamoto, Wataru Osumi, Yusuke Tsuchimoto, Shinsuke Masubuchi, Masashi Yamamoto, Akira Asai, Koji Komeda, Shinya Fukunishi, Fumitoshi Hirokawa, Kazuhide Higuchi, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
Aim of the study: Despite recent technical progress and advances in the perioperative management of liver surgery, postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) is still one of the most common complications that extends hospital stays and increases medical expenses following hepatic surgery. Material and methods: From 2001 to 2017 a total of 1180 patients who underwent hepatic resection for liver tumours were retrospectively analysed with respect to the predictive factor of superficial incisional SSI, using a propensity score matching by procedure (subcuticular or mattress suture)...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455590/computed-tomography-imaging-of-acute-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease-after-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children
#19
Taner Arpaci
Aim of the study: To evaluate computed tomography (CT) findings of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GI-GVHD) occurring in children after haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Material and methods: From February 2013 to May 2018, 225 paediatric patients underwent HSCT. Sixty-eight patients (30%) presented with clinical diagnosis of acute GI-GVHD in the first 100 days after HSCT. Thirty-five (18 girls, 17 boys; age range, 2-18 years; mean age, 10...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455589/assessment-of-the-relation-between-religiosity-mental-health-and-psychological-resilience-in-breast-cancer-patients
#20
Evangelos C Fradelos, Dimitra Latsou, Dimitroula Mitsi, Konstantinos Tsaras, Dimitra Lekka, Maria Lavdaniti, Foteini Tzavella, Ioanna V Papathanasiou
Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between religiosity, mental health, and psychological resilience in breast cancer patients. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an oncology department of a hospital in northern Greece during February and March 2017. The sample consisted of 152 breast cancer patients. Data were collected with the following instruments: Patient Health Questionnaire two-item scale, Generalised Anxiety Disorder two-item scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25, and Centrality of Religiosity Scale...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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