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Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628799/clinical-and-immunological-correlates-of-long-term-survival-in-glioblastoma
#1
REVIEW
Bartosz Czapski, Szymon Baluszek, Christel Herold-Mende, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in adults. It represents 54% of all gliomas and 16% of all brain tumours (Ostrom et al. 2016). Despite surgery and treatment with radiotherapy plus an oral alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), tumours invariably recur, and the patient survival is an average of ~14-16 months. In this review we summarise the current understanding of multiple factors that may affect survival of patients with GBMs. In particular, we discuss recent advancements in surgery and detection of genomic-based markers with prognostic values, such as IDH1/2 mutations, MGMT gene promoter methylation, and TERT gene promoter alterations...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628798/versatile-car-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Fuliang Chu, Jingjing Cao, Sattva S Neelalpu
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been clinically proven to efficiently combat haematological malignancies. However, continuous efforts are required to increase the specificity of CAR T-cells against tumour versus normal tissues, and are essential to improve their antitumour activity in solid tumours. This review summarises the structure of major CAR designs, and strategies to overcome immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, and reduce toxicities. Along with reviewing currently available techniques that allow the elimination of CAR T-cells after they fulfil their desired functions, using suicide genes, drug elimination strategies are also introduced...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628797/braf-and-mek-inhibitors-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy-in-melanoma-patients
#3
REVIEW
Jacek Mackiewicz, Andrzej Mackiewicz
The treatment landscape in advanced melanoma is changing dramatically with the approval of new drugs. Vemurafenib was the first approved targeted agent for the treatment of BRAF -mutant advanced melanoma. However, treatment with a BRAF inhibitor is linked with acquired resistance occurring in half of the patients after approximately six months. Combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitor therapy results in extension of the time to resistance, translating into longer overall survival of treated patients. Similar clinical benefits are observed with therapy using antibodies against immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the same patient population...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628796/immunotherapy-of-melanoma
#4
Iwona Lugowska, Pawel Teterycz, Piotr Rutkowski
The immunotherapy is currently changing the landscape of oncology. Nowadays the standard of care in metastatic or unresectable melanoma patients include immunomodulating modalities such as anti-PD-1 drugs (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab. The improvements of progression free survival and overall survival connected with those treatments were unprecedented and have been confirmed in stage III trials. The efficacy of immunotherapy in metastatic setting can be further upgraded in some groups of patients by combining both types of antibodies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628795/the-revival-of-cpg-oligonucleotide-based-cancer-immunotherapies
#5
REVIEW
Tomasz Adamus, Marcin Kortylewski
The promising results of clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors revived interests in cancer immunotherapy. However, it also became apparent that efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade can benefit from combining it with immunostimulatory strategies. Here, we review prior and re-emerging approaches using Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), focused on the generation of antitumor immune responses in cancer patients. While numerous early clinical trials using TLR9 ligands in monotherapies provided evidence of CpG ODNs tolerability and safety, they failed to demonstrate sufficient antitumor efficacy...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628794/surface-markers-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-of-ovarian-cancer-and-their-clinical-relevance
#6
REVIEW
Aleksandra Klemba, J Karolina Purzycka-Olewiecka, Gabriel Wcisło, Anna M Czarnecka, Sławomir Lewicki, Bogdan Lesyng, Cezary Szczylik, Claudine Kieda
Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are defined as cancer cells with stem cell characteristics. Although CSLCs constitute no more than a few percent of the tumor mass, they play important roles in cancer chemo-resistance, metastasis and disease recurrence. Ovarian cancer (OC) is considered the most aggressive gynecological malignancy in which the role of CSLCs is of major significance, although it remains to be specified. The studies describing ovarian CSLC phenotype vary in the definition of the molecular pattern of expression of the main markers such as CD133, CD44, CD117, and CD24...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628793/challenging-tumour-immunological-techniques-that-help-to-track-cancer-stem-cells-in-malignant-melanomas-and-other-solid-tumours
#7
Beatrix Kotlan, Vanda Plotar, Klara Eles, Szabolcs Horvath, Timea Balatoni, Orsolya Csuka, Mihaly Újhelyi, Ákos Sávolt, Andras Szollar, Istvan Vamosi-Nagy, Laszlo Toth, Emil Farkas, Jozsef Toth, Miklos Kasler, Gabriella Liszkay
Aim of the study: The arsenal of questions and answers about the minor cancer initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) population put responsible for cancer invasiveness and metastases, has left with an unsolved puzzle. Specific aims of a complex project were partly focused on revealing new biomarkers of cancer. We designed and set up novel techniques to facilitate the detection of cancerous cells. Materials and methods: As a novel approach, we investigated B cells infiltrating breast carcinomas and melanomas (TIL-B) in terms of their tumour antigen binding potential...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628792/the-emerging-role-of-plasma-exosomes-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapies-of-patients-with-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Exosomes, small (30-150nm) extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin, are present in all body fluids of cancer patients. Tumor-derived exosomes, TEX, emerge as potentially promising non-invasive biomarkers of tumor progression and of immune cell dysfunction in cancer. Exosomes isolated from plasma by size exclusion chromatography can be fractionated into TEX and non-TEX by immune capture on beads. Profiling of molecular and genetic contents of TEX shows that levels if immunosuppressive proteins, such as PD-L1, carried by TEX associate with disease progression...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628791/gastric-cancer-increases-transmigratory-potential-of-peripheral-blood-monocytes-by-upregulation-of-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-integrins
#9
Andrzej Eljaszewicz, Michal Jankowski, Malgorzata Wiese-Szadkowska, Lidia Gackowska, Jacek Michalkiewicz, Wojciech Zegarski, Marcin Moniuszko
Introduction: Immune responses within the tumor depend on the ability of leukocytes to migrate from peripheral circulation into the local microenvironment. This process is controlled by mechanisms that guide leukocytes to the side of inflammation, allowing them to cross vascular endothelial barrier. Monocytes/macrophages are the predominant population of leukocyte infiltrate of many tumors, including, gastric cancer. However, to date mechanisms that control monocyte trafficking to the side of tumor growth are not fully elucidated...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628790/heme-oxygenase-inhibition-in-cancers-possible-tools-and-targets
#10
REVIEW
Paulina Podkalicka, Olga Mucha, Alicja Józkowicz, Józef Dulak, Agnieszka Łoboda
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1 ) through degradation of pro-oxidant heme into carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions (Fe2+ ) and biliverdin, exhibits cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. All of these potentially beneficial functions of HO-1 may play an important role in tumors' development and progression. Moreover, HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumors in comparison to healthy tissues, and its expression is further induced upon chemo-, radio- and photodynamic therapy, what results in decreased effectiveness of the treatment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628789/immune-consequences-of-anti-angiogenic-therapyin-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Klaudia K Brodaczewska, Cezary Szczylik, Claudine Kieda
Current therapies of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a highly vascularised tumour, mostly rely on anti-angiogenic treatment options. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. Although these strategies aim at restraining vascularisation to control tumour growth, the effects of such therapies are much wider, as affecting the vessel structure deeply modifies the microenvironment of the tumour mass. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the global effects of anti-angiogenic treatment, mostly TKIs, on the shaping of the immune component of the RCC microenvironment...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628788/the-role-of-hypoxia-in-shaping-the-recruitment-of-proangiogenic-and-immunosuppressive-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Salem Chouaib, Viktor Umansky, Claudine Kieda
Hypoxia characterizes growing tumors and contributes significantly to their aggressiveness. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs 1 and 2) are stabilized and act differentially as transcription factors on tumor growth and are responsible for important cancer hallmarks such as pathologic angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and genetic instability as well as affecting tumor metabolism, tumor immune responses, invasion and metastasis. Taking into account the tumor tissue as a whole and considering the interplay of the various partners which react with hypoxia in the tumor site lead to reconsideration of the treatment strategies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628787/molecular-profiling-of-tumours-for-precision-oncology-high-hopes-versus-reality
#13
REVIEW
Sergiusz Nawrocki
Treatment based on molecular profiling of tumor is advertised however there are very limited clinical data supporting this approach so far. Only one, relatively small, randomized clinical trial (SHIVA) have not met its primary endpoint - prolongation of PFS. Some other unpublished series were reported during ASCO 2017 and are discussed in this review. There are many issues to be resolved before the tumor profiling will enter the clinical practice with significant benefit for patients, eg. spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumor cells in individual patient, wide access to targeted therapies, toxicity of combined targeted therapies...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628786/personalized-medicine-in-oncology-new-perspectives-in-management-of-gliomas
#14
REVIEW
Justyna Gil, Izabela Laczmanska, Karolina A Pesz, Maria M Sasiadek
Studies on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis have led to the discovery of crucial genetic events for many of particular malignancies. This was followed by invention of new therapeutic approaches based on molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression that bears the name of personalised medicine. In the case of gliomas, ascertainment of genetic/epigenetic markers was the basis for re-classification of tumours that until now depended on histopathological analysis. This article reviews recent advances in personalised medicine and the new World Health Organisation classification of gliomas...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150892/identification-of-catheter-misplacement-in-early-port-cvc-dysfunction
#15
Davide Mauri, Georgia Zafeiri, Lampriani Tsali, Anastasia Chalkidou, Georgios Zarkavelis, Alexandra Papadaki, Panagiotis Filis, George Pentheroudakis
The use of port central venous catheters (CVCs) for chemotherapeutical use has seen exponential growth over the last decades. However, port CVC misplacement may lead to catheter malfunction (such as partial or total catheter blockade), which might be complicated by thrombosis and catheter superinfections, and these in turn may lead to pulmonary embolism and bloodstream infections. The overall occurrence of port CVC misplacement is up to 6%; nonetheless, port CVC misplacement may occur in up to 67% of patients with early CVC dysfunction (occurring within three months of catheter insertion)...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150891/liver-metastasis-of-a-neuroendocrine-neoplasm-of-unknown-primary-origin-in-a-female-patient-with-a-history-of-breast-cancer
#16
Małgorzata Struk-Panfil, Krzysztof Błaut, Rafał Pęksa, Piotr Kmieć, Krzysztof Sworczak
We report on and discuss a case of a female patient diagnosed with breast cancer in 1996, which was histopathologically assessed as an invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient was admitted to our Department in 2017 with a liver metastasis of a neuroendocrine tumour. On admission she had no symptoms of an endo-crinopathy and was in a good general condition. Due to unknown primary site of the metastasis and given the patient's history of breast cancer, it was suspected that the breast cancer was in fact a neuroendocrine tumour...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150890/giant-cranionasal-epithelioid-haemangioendothelioma-with-invasive-growth-pattern-mimicking-a-skull-base-chondrosarcoma
#17
Kelvin Piña Batista, Gonzalo Lepe Gómez, Eduardo Murias Quintana, Aurora Astudillo, Ivan Fernandez-Vega, Belen Alvarez Fernandez, Ana Cuellar-Martínez, José Llorente-Pendás, Veronica Rovira-Pereira, Kenia Alvarez-Reyes
Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare low-grade vascular neoplasm that is composed of mostly epithelioid cells. EHE may arise as a solitary tumour or in the form of multiple body lesions, and commonly occurs in soft tissues, liver, pleura, lung, peritoneum, lymph nodes, breast, and many other sites. EHE in the cranionasal region is extremely rare. There are very few reports of cases of skull-base EHE. We discuss an extremely rare presentation of an aggressive EHE that originated from the sellar region...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150889/comparable-safety-profile-of-beeam-bendamustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan-and-beam-carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan-as-conditioning-before-autologous-haematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#18
Andrzej Frankiewicz, Maria Saduś-Wojciechowska, Jacek Najda, Tomasz Czerw, Włodzimierz Mendrek, Małgorzata Sobczyk-Kruszelnicka, Katarzyna Soska, Małgorzata Ociepa, Jerzy Hołowiecki, Sebastian Giebel
Introduction: BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) is the most frequently used high-dose chemotherapy regimen for patients with lymphoma referred for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (autoHCT). Recently, a novel conditioning protocol containing bendamustine instead of carmustine (BeEAM) has been proposed to potentially increase the efficacy. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the safety profile of BEAM and BeEAM based on single-centre experience...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150888/the-comparison-of-anthracycline-based-and-non-anthracycline-based-regimens-in-adjuvant-chemotherapy-of-her2-positive-non-metastatic-breast-cancers
#19
Safa Najafi, Masoud Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza Shajari, Fatemeh Abasvandi, Kamran Mohebi
Aim of the study: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of anthracycline-based (AB) and non-anthracycline-based (nAB) adjuvant therapies in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive non-metastatic BC (nMBC) patients. Material and methods: This retrospective study included women with HER2-positive BCs (stage I-III) treated with trastuzumab from 2008 to 2017. The patients were divided into two groups, including 196 patients in group AB and 67 in group nAB...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150887/non-typhoidal-salmonella-bacteraemia-in-paediatric-leukaemia-patients
#20
Yöntem Yaman, İlker Devrim, Gulcihan Ozek, Bengü Demirağ, Yeşim Oymak, Gamze Gülfidan, Canan Vergin
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, bacteraemia, and focal infections. Herein, we present our experience with bloodstream infections caused by Salmonella in paediatric leukaemia patients, which has been reported for the first time in both Europe and the US. According to our research, NTS might be a cause of serious infections in paediatric haematology-oncology patients. Following a low bacterial diet and increasing the hygiene of both the children and their surroundings would be beneficial in preventing these infections...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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