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Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases

Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Maira Souza Oliveira, Karen Larissa Pereira de Castro, Leticia Lopes-de-Sousa, Aline Lara, Enéas Ricardo de Morais Gomes, Cesar Bonilla, Sílvia Guatimosim, Marília Martins Melo, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui
BACKGROUND: Hadruroides lunatus is the most abundant scorpion species in the Peruvian central coast, where most of the accidents involving humans are registered. In spite of its prevalence, there are only very few studies on H. lunatus envenomation. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cardiorespiratory alterations caused by H. lunatus envenomation in rodents. METHODS: Wistar rats injected with H. lunatus scorpion venom were submitted to electrocardiography...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Alejandro García-Arredondo, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, César Ibarra-Alvarado, Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Judith Sánchez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea, three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Zengzhen Fu, Yingzi Lin, Qiang Wu, Qianfeng Xia
BACKGROUND: Suppurative parotitis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei has been rarely found outside endemic areas. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report the recovery of Burkholderia pseudomallei from the pus of a suppurative parotitis observed in a 12-year-old boy who lived in Hainan province, China. Specimens of necrotic tissue were collected and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Pus sample was also collected for bacteriological examination. The suppurative inflammation was observed in the necrotic tissue section and Burkholderia pseudomallei were detected in the sample...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Eline K M Lebbe, Jan Tytgat
During evolution, nature has embraced different strategies for species to survive. One strategy, applied by predators as diverse as snakes, scorpions, sea anemones and cone snails, is using venom to immobilize or kill a prey. This venom offers a unique and extensive source of chemical diversity as it is driven by the evolutionary pressure to improve prey capture and/or to protect their species. Cone snail venom is an example of the remarkable diversity in pharmacologically active small peptides that venoms can consist of...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Louisa Béchohra, Fatima Laraba-Djebari, Djelila Hammoudi-Triki
BACKGROUND: Several studies have showed that animal venoms are a source of bioactive compounds that may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, which makes them useful agents for therapeutic applications. Recently, it was established that venom toxins from scorpions induced cytotoxic, antiproliferative and apoptogenic effects on cancer cells. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the cytotoxic activity of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion venom and its toxic fractions (FtoxG-50 and F3) on NCI-H358 human lung cancer cells...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Prapenpuksiri Rungsa, Paroonkorn Incamnoi, Sophida Sukprasert, Nunthawun Uawonggul, Sompong Klaynongsruang, Jureerut Daduang, Rina Patramanon, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Sakda Daduang
BACKGROUND: Wasp venom is a complex mixture containing proteins, enzymes and small molecules, including some of the most dangerous allergens. The greater banded wasp (Vespa tropica) is well-known for its lethal venom, whose one of the major components is a hyaluronidase (HAase). It is believed that the high protein proportion and activity of this enzyme is responsible for the venom potency. METHODS: In the present study, cDNA cloning, sequencing and 3D-structure of Vespa tropica venom HAase were described...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Leila Sabrina Ullmann, Ramiro das Neves Dias-Neto, Didier Quevedo Cagnini, Ricardo Seiti Yamatogi, Jose Paes Oliveira-Filho, Viviane Nemer, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello Teixeira, Alexander Welker Biondo, João Pessoa Araújo
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium is an important zoonotic agent with companion, livestock and wildlife animals reportedly playing a role as reservoirs. Although its association with reptiles has been described, the disease cycle remains to be fully established, particularly in snakes. Accordingly, this study aimed to report the occurrence of mycobacteriosis with clinical pneumonia in one exotic python snake (Python molurus) and one native green snake (Philodryas olfersii) from the Sorocaba Zoo, São Paulo state, Brazil...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Guilherme Honda de Oliveira, Felipe Augusto Cerni, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Eliane Candiani Arantes, Manuela Berto Pucca
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, accidents with venomous animals are considered a public health problem. Tityus serrulatus (Ts), popularly known as the yellow scorpion, is most frequently responsible for the severe accidents in the country. Ts envenoming can cause several signs and symptoms classified according to their clinical manifestations as mild, moderate or severe. Furthermore, the victims usually present biochemical alterations, including hyperglycemia. Nevertheless, Ts envenoming and its induced hyperglycemia were never studied or documented in a patient with diabetes mellitus (DM)...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Herlinda Clement, Vianey Flores, Guillermo De la Rosa, Fernando Zamudio, Alejandro Alagon, Gerardo Corzo
BACKGROUND: The cysteine-rich neurotoxins from elapid venoms are primarily responsible for human and animal envenomation; however, their low concentration in the venom may hamper the production of efficient elapid antivenoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce fully active elapid neurotoxic immunogens for elapid antivenom production. METHOD: Cysteine-rich neurotoxins showed recombinant expression in two strains of E. coli, and were purified using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC (rpHPLC)...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Johne Souza Coelho, Edna Aoba Yassui Ishikawa, Paulo Roberto Silva Garcez Dos Santos, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira Pardal
BACKGROUND: Scorpionism is a serious public health problem in Brazil. Although cases of envenomation by scorpions are frequent in Brazil, Tityus silvestris - found throughout the Amazon region - is considered of minor medical significance and with only a few descriptions in the literature. This article aims to describe for the first time the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of scorpion stings by T. silvestris that occurred in eastern Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: A prospective and observational study was carried out on 13 confirmed cases of T...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Hai-Long Duan, Qi-Yi He, Bin Zhou, Wen-Wen Wang, Bo Li, Ying-Zheng Zhang, Qiu-Ping Deng, Ying-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Dong Yu
BACKGROUND: Snakebite incidence in southwestern China is mainly attributed to one of the several venomous snakes found in the country, the white-lipped green pit viper Trimeresurus albolabris. Since antivenom produced from horses may cause numerous clinical side effects, the present study was conducted aiming to develop an alternative antivenom antibody (immunoglobulin Y - IgY) from leghorn chickens. METHODS: IgY in egg yolk from white leghorn chicken previously injected with T...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Jessica Noronha Guimarães, Guilherme Carneiro Reckziegel, Bidiah Mariano da Costa Neves, Keline Medeiros de Araújo-Vilges, Lidsy Ximenes Fonseca, Fernanda Voietta Pinna, Simone Valéria Costa Pereira, Eduardo Pacheco de Caldas, Gilberto Salles Gazeta, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Spotted fever is a tick-borne rickettsial disease. In Brazil, its notification to the Ministry of Health is compulsory. Since 2007, cases of spotted fever have been integrated to the Notifiable Diseases Information System, and epidemiological analyzes are part of the routines on surveillance programs. METHODS: This descriptive study updates epidemiological information on cases of spotted fever registered in Brazil between 2007 and 2015. RESULTS: In Brazil, 17,117 suspected cases of the disease were reported and 1,245 were confirmed in 12 states, mainly in São Paulo (550, 44...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Wilson R Lourenço
The aim of this contribution is to bring general information on the classification and in particular on the specific identification of scorpion species dangerous to humans. Several generic groups are taken into consideration, but the Neotropical genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 is used as a major example. The content of this paper is mostly addressed to non-specialists whose research embraces scorpions in several fields such as venom toxins and public health. Although efforts have been made in the last 20 years to create better links between 'true scorpion experts' and non-specialists who use scorpions in their research, such exchanges had never led to a consensus among those different branches of biological and medical research...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Rosany Bochner
The current study presents a descriptive chronological survey of the articles published by Césaire Auguste Phisalix and Albert Calmette on snake poison, with the aim of shedding a light on the areas of research and reasoning followed by these scientists, leading up to their simultaneous discovery of antivenom serotherapy in 1894. The path taken by Phisalix is revealed in 15 articles that demonstrate the motivation of a naturalist and the way he confronted the puzzle of immunity against snake venom. In the case of Calmette, two articles preceded the discovery; microbiology was his theoretical base and the Pasteurian spirit of solving health problems his driving force...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Deb Prasad Pandey, Sanjib Kumar Sharma, Emilie Alirol, François Chappuis, Ulrich Kuch
BACKGROUND: Neurotoxic envenomation following bites by kraits (Bungarus species) is a leading cause of snakebite mortality in South Asia. Over a long time, this had been attributed only to one species, the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus). However, recent research has provided increasing evidence of the involvement of several krait species. Here, we report a fatal case of neurotoxic envenomation following the bite of a greater black krait (Bungarus niger) in Nepal. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old man was bitten in the outdoor corridor of his home in the eastern hills of Ilam district while handling a snake he thought to be non-venomous...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Felipe Diehl, Patricia Baptista Ramos, Juliane Marques Dos Santos, Daniela Martí Barros, João Sarkis Yunes
BACKGROUND: Blooms of the saxitoxin-producing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii have been contaminating drinking water reservoirs in Brazil for many years. Although acute effects of saxitoxin intoxication are well known, chronic deleterious outcomes caused by repeated saxitoxin exposure still require further investigation. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of consumption of drinking water contaminated with C. raciborskii for 30 days on learning and memory processes in rats...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Juliana Mozer Sciani, Andrews Krupinski Emerenciano, José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Sea urchins can be found throughout the Brazilian coast and are reported to be one of the major causes of marine accidents on the shoreline. Although not lethal, these accidents are reported to be extremely painful. In order to understand the toxinology of the Brazilian urchins, a peptidomic approach was performed aiming to characterize the naturally occurring peptides in both the coelomic fluid and the spine. METHODS: Animals were collected without gender distinction and samples of the coelomic fluid and spines extracted were analyzed by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry for peptide de novo sequencing...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Leonardo Lima Fuscaldi, Daniel Moreira Dos Santos, Natália Gabriela Silva Pinheiro, Raquel Silva Araújo, André Luís Branco de Barros, Jarbas Magalhães Resende, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Maria Elena de Lima, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic methods and imaging techniques are not able to differentiate septic and aseptic inflammation. Thus, reliable methods are sought to provide this distinction and scintigraphic imaging is an interesting option, since it is based on physiological changes. In this context, radiolabeled antimicrobial peptides have been investigated as they accumulate in infectious sites instead of aseptic inflammation. The peptide LyeTx I, from the venom of Lycosa erythrognatha, has potent antimicrobial activity...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Flávio Gonçalves Brito, Helio Langoni, Rodrigo Costa da Silva, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano, Marcia Almeida de Melo, Giselle Souza da Paz
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis that affects dogs and other mammals, including humans. Contact with dogs is a major risk factor for humans. This disease is endemic in several regions of Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs and to correlate it with possible risk factors. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 391 dogs of different ages, breeds, and both genders, coming from Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Zhen-Yu Qu, Guo-Wei Li, Qiao-Ge Chen, Peng Jiang, Chang Liu, Alfred Lam
BACKGROUND: Rabies is very common in People's Republic of China. Each year thousands of people die because of this disease, but rabies diagnosed in pregnancy is very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we report the case of a pregnant woman who was infected with the rabies virus after a dog bite. The symptoms of rabies appeared in labor and she died after pregnancy. Her baby and husband did not develop the disease. CONCLUSION: The phenomenon that the newborn infant was healthy may be related to the protective role of placenta in resisting the invasion of the rabies virus or the absence of systemic viremia...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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