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Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases

Erika G Pinto, Andre G Tempone
Background: Considering the high toxicity and limited therapies available for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the drug repositioning approach represents a faster way to deliver new therapies to the market. Methods: In this study, we described for the first time the activity of a potent antiarrhythmic, amiodarone (AMD), against L. ( L. ) infantum and its in vitro and in vivo activity. Results: The evaluation against promastigotes has shown that amiodarone presents leishmanicidal effect against the extracellular form, with an IC50 value of 10 μM...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Isadora Sousa de Oliveira, Rafaella Varzoni Manzini, Isabela Gobbo Ferreira, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Ana Rita Thomazela Machado, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes, José Cesar Rosa, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Background: In recent decades, snake venom disintegrins have received special attention due to their potential use in anticancer therapy. Disintegrins are small and cysteine-rich proteins present in snake venoms and can interact with specific integrins to inhibit their activities in cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. These molecules, known to inhibit platelet aggregation, are also capable of interacting with certain cancer-related integrins, and may interfere in important processes involved in carcinogenesis...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Simone S Grecco, Thais A Costa-Silva, Fernanda S Sousa, Stefano B Cargnelutti, Eric Umehara, Poliana S Mendonça, Andre G Tempone, Joao Henrique G Lago
Background: The therapeutic arsenal for the treatment of Leishmaniasis is limited and includes toxic compounds (antimonials, amphotericin B, pentamidine and miltefosine). Given these aspects, the search for new compounds based on floristic biodiversity is crucial. In the present work, we report the isolation, characterization and antileishmanial activity of six related neolignans ( 1-6 ) of bioactive extract from Nectandra leucantha (Lauraceae) twigs. Methods: Dried and powdered twigs of N...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Carina Agostinho Rodrigues, Paloma Freire Dos Santos, Marcela Oliveira Legramanti da Costa, Thais Fernanda Amorim Pavani, Patrícia Xander, Mariana Marques Geraldo, Ana Mengarda, Josué de Moraes, Daniela Gonçales Galasse Rando
Background: There is still a need for new alternatives in pharmacological therapy for neglected diseases, as the drugs available show high toxicity and parenteral administration. That is the case for the treatment of leishmaniasis, particularly to the cutaneous clinical form of the disease. In this study, we present the synthesis and biological screening of eight 4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-amines assayed against Leishmania amazonensis . Herein we propose that these compounds are good starting points for the search of new antileishmanial drugs by demonstrating some of the structural aspects which could interfere with the observed activity, as well as suggesting potential macromolecular targets...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Beatriz Philot Pavão, Kelly Cristina Demarque, Marcos Meuser Batista, Gabriel Melo de Oliveira, Cristiane França da Silva, Francisca Hildemagna Guedes da Silva, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves Caputo, Cynthia Machado Cascabulho, Marcello André Barcinski, Maria de Nazaré Correia Soeiro
Background: Autologous whole blood (AWB) administration is described as alternative/complementary medical practice widely employed in medical and veterinary therapy against infections, chronic pathologies and neoplasias. Our aim is to investigate in vivo biological effect of AWB using healthy murine models under the course of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Methods: The first set of studies consisted of injecting different volumes of AWB and saline (SAL) into the posterior region of quadriceps muscle of healthy male Swiss mice under distinct therapeutic schemes evaluating: animal behavior, body and organ weight, hemogram, plasmatic biochemical markers for tissue damage and inflammatory cytokine levels and profile...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Fábio L S Costa, Maria Elena De Lima, Suely G Figueiredo, Rafaela S Ferreira, Núbia S Prates, Tetsu Sakamoto, Carlos E Salas
Background: Lethal factors are multifunctional oligomeric proteins found in the venomous apparatus of Scorpaeniformes fish. These toxins elicit not only an array of biological responses in vitro but also cardiovascular disorders and strong hemolytic, nociceptive and edematogenic activities in vivo. This work describes the cloning and molecular identification of two toxin subunits, denominated Sp-CTx-α and Sp-CTx-β, from scorpionfish venom ( Scorpaena plumieri ). Methods: The primary structures were deduced after cDNA amplification by PCR with primers from conserved sequences described in Scorpaeniformes toxins...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Hathairat Srisong, Sophida Sukprasert, Sompong Klaynongsruang, Jureerut Daduang, Sakda Daduang
Background: Fire ant venom is a complex mixture consisting of basic piperidine alkaloids, various biologically active peptides and protein components, including a variety of major allergenic proteins. Tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata is an important stinging ant species that causes anaphylaxis and serious medical problems. Although the biological activities of allergenic venom proteins that are unique to ant venom, particularly Solenopsis 2 and 4, are still unknown, these proteins are believed to play important roles in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Cláudia S Oliveira, Cleópatra A S Caldeira, Rafaela Diniz-Sousa, Dolores L Romero, Silvana Marcussi, Laura A Moura, André L Fuly, Cicília de Carvalho, Walter L G Cavalcante, Márcia Gallacci, Maeli Dal Pai, Juliana P Zuliani, Leonardo A Calderon, Andreimar M Soares
Background: Cnidarians produce toxins, which are composed of different polypeptides that induce pharmacological effects of biotechnological interest, such as antitumor, antiophidic and anti-clotting activities. This study aimed to evaluate toxicological activities and potential as antitumor and antiophidic agents contained in total extracts from five cnidarians: Millepora alcicornis , Stichodactyla helianthus, Plexaura homomalla, Bartholomea annulata and Condylactis gigantea (total and body wall)...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Maria L A C Bordon, Márcia D Laurenti, Susan Pereira Ribeiro, Marcos H Toyama, Daniela de O Toyama, Luiz Felipe D Passero
Background: Lipid metabolites play an important role in parasite differentiation and virulence. Studies have revealed that Leishmania sp. uses prostaglandins to evade innate barriers, thus enabling the parasites to survive inside immune cells. Despite the role of the enzyme Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) in prostaglandins production, few studies have investigated the role of parasite PLA2 during the interaction between L. (L.) amazonensis and the host (in vitro and in vivo) immune cells. Methods: In the present work, the leishmanicidal effect of PLA2 inhibitors, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP), bromoenol lactone (BEL) and aristolochic acid (AA) were investigated in vitro (promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Alain Chippaux
Yellow fever was transported during the slave trade in the 15th and 16th centuries from Africa to the Americas where the virus encountered favorable ecological conditions that allowed creation of a sustainable sylvatic cycle. Despite effective vector control and immunization programs for nearly a century, yellow fever epidemics reemerged in many Latin American countries, particularly Brazil. The emergence or reemergence of vector-borne diseases encompasses many intricate factors. Yellow fever outbreaks occur if at least three conditions are fulfilled: the introduction of the virus into a non-immune human community, presence of competent and anthropophilic vectors and insufficiency of prevention and/or adequate management of the growing outbreak...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Wilson R Lourenço
This work aims to contribute to the general information on scorpion reproductive patterns in general including species that can be noxious to humans. Scorpions are unusual among terrestrial arthropods in several of their life-history traits since in many aspects their reproductive strategies are more similar to those of superior vertebrates than to those of arthropods in general. This communication focuses mainly on the aspects concerning embryonic and post-embryonic developments since these are quite peculiar in scorpions and can be directly connected to the scorpionism problem...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Tomás Arán-Sekul, José M Rojas, Mario Subiabre, Victoria Cruz, William Cortés, Luis Osorio, Jorge González, Jorge E Araya, Alejandro Catalán
Background: Loxoscelism is a severe human envenomation caused by Loxosceles spider venom. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the presence of antibodies against Loxosceles venom in loxoscelism patients without treatment with antivenom immunotherapy. We perform a comparative analysis for the presence of antibodies capable of recognizing Loxosceles venom in a group of patients diagnosed with loxoscelism and in a group of people without loxoscelism. Methods: The detection of L...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Laura L Valdez-Velázquez, Timoteo Olamendi-Portugal, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Fernando Z Zamudio, Lourival D Possani
Background: Centruroides hirsutipalpus , of the family Buthidae, is a scorpion endemic to the Western Pacific region of Mexico. Although medically important, its venom has not yet been studied. Therefore, this communication aims to identify their venom components and possible functions. Methods: Fingerprinting mass analysis of the soluble venom from this scorpion was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the soluble venom and its toxic effects were evaluated extensively via electrophysiological assays in HEK cells expressing human voltage-gated Na+ channels (hNav 1...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Carla Cristina Squaiella-Baptistão, Fábio Carlos Magnoli, José Roberto Marcelino, Osvaldo Augusto Sant'Anna, Denise V Tambourgi
Background: Among other applications, immunotherapy is used for the post-exposure treatment and/or prophylaxis of important infectious diseases, such as botulism, diphtheria, tetanus and rabies. The effectiveness of serum therapy is widely proven, but improvements on the immunoglobulin purification process and on the quality control are necessary to reduce the amount of protein aggregates. These may trigger adverse reactions in patients by activating the complement system and inducing the generation of anaphylatoxins...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Guowei Li, Qianyu Wu, Yanling Jin, Thuva Vanniyasingam, Lehana Thabane
In general, clinical research network capacity building refers to programs aimed at enhancing networks of researchers to conduct clinical research. Although in the literature there is a large body of research on how to develop and build capacity in clinical research networks, the conceptualizations and implementations remain controversial and challenging. Moreover, the experiences learnt from the past accomplishments and failures can assist in the future capacity building efforts to be more practical, effective and efficient...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Jordan Max Benjamin, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Bio Tamou Sambo, Achille Massougbodji
Background: The whole blood clotting test (WBCT) is a simple test of coagulation that is often used in the assessment, diagnosis, and therapeutic monitoring of snakebite patients in sub-Saharan Africa. WBCT requires only a clean glass tube and several milliliters of venous blood and is ideal for use in poorly equipped health centers throughout the rural areas where 95% of snakebites occur. However, questions surrounding the accuracy and reliability of the test remain unanswered due to variations in testing conditions and a lack of comparative research with which to validate them...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Milene Nóbrega de Oliveira Moritz, Lívia Mara Santos Eustáquio, Kelli Cristina Micocci, Ana Carolina Caetano Nunes, Patty Karina Dos Santos, Tamires de Castro Vieira, Heloísa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araujo
Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key players in tumor progression, helping tumor cells to modify their microenvironment, which allows cell migration to secondary sites. The role of integrins, adhesion receptors that connect cells to the extracellular matrix, in MMP expression and activity has been previously suggested. However, the mechanisms by which integrins control MMP expression are not completely understood. Particularly, the role of α2β1 integrin, one of the major collagen I receptors, in MMP activity and expression has not been studied...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Ariana Zavala-Moreno, Yadira Rufino-González, Martha Ponce-Macotela, Alejandro García-Arredondo, Miguel Cuevas-Cruz, Saúl Gómez-Manzo, Jaime Marcial-Quino, Barbarín Arreguín-Lozano, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa
Background: Cnidarian venoms and extracts have shown a broad variety of biological activities including cytotoxic, antibacterial and antitumoral effects. Most of these studied extracts were obtained from sea anemones or jellyfish. The present study aimed to determine the toxic activity and assess the antitumor and antiparasitic potential of Palythoa caribaeorum venom by evaluating its in vitro toxicity on several models including human tumor cell lines and against the parasite Giardia intestinalis ...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Roghayeh Mozafari, Sergiy Kyrylenko, Mateus Vidigal Castro, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues Oliveira
Background: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem, and the preferred surgical method for treating it is the end-to-end neurorrhaphy. When it is not possible due to a large nerve gap, autologous nerve grafting is used. However, these surgical techniques result in nerve regeneration at highly variable degrees. It is thus very important to seek complementary techniques to improve motor and sensory recovery. One promising approach could be cell therapy. Transplantation therapy with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is appealing because these cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into specialized cell types and have self-renewal ability...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Marcelo Abrahão Strauch, Guilherme Jones Souza, Jordana Nahar Pereira, Tyelli Dos Santos Ramos, Marcelo Oliveira Cesar, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Fernando Chagas Patrão-Neto, Paulo A Melo
Background: Bites provoked by the genus Micrurus represent less than 1% of snakebite cases notified in Brazil, a tiny fraction compared with other genus such as Bothrops and Crotalus , which together represent almost 80% of accidents. In addition to their less aggressive behavior, habits and morphology of coral snakes are determinant factors for such low incidence of accidents. Although Micrurus bites are rare, victims must be rescued and hospitalized in a short period of time, because this type of envenoming may evolve to a progressive muscle weakness and acute respiratory failure...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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