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Physiological Reports

Lucy Stiles, John N Reynolds, Ruth Napper, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
Connections between the vestibular system and the basal ganglia have been postulated since the early 20th century. However, the results of electrophysiological studies investigating neuronal responses to electrical stimulation of the vestibular system have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation of the vestibular labyrinth on single neuron activity and c-Fos expression in the rat striatum. We used electrical stimulation of the vestibular labyrinth (various intensities delivered to the round window) to examine the electrophysiological response of striatal neurons and c-Fos expression...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Zhencheng Li, Mette Line Rasmussen, Jingwen Li, Carlos Henríquez Olguín, Jonas Roland Knudsen, Ole Søgaard, Agnete B Madsen, Thomas E Jensen
A low-protein high carbohydrate (LPHC) diet and a high-protein low carbohydrate (HPLC) diet have been reported to positively and negatively regulate whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, respectively. Skeletal muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue clearing glucose in the postprandial state, but it is unclear if LPHC and HPLC diets directly influence insulin action in skeletal muscle. To test this, mice were placed on control chow diet, LPHC and HPLC diets for 13.5 weeks at which time the submaximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport and insulin signaling were evaluated in ex vivo incubated oxidative soleus and glycolytic EDL muscle...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Tomas D Tannvik, Audun E Rimehaug, Nils K Skjaervold, Idar Kirkeby-Garstad
This study assesses positional changes in cardiac power output and stroke work compared with classic hemodynamic variables, measured before and after elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The hypothesis was that cardiac power output was altered in relation to cardiac stunning. The study is a retrospective analysis of data from two previous studies performed in a tertiary care university hospital. Thirty-six patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery, with relatively preserved left ventricular function, were included...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Mi Liu, Mokan Deng, Jiahui Su, Yu Lin, Zhanjun Jia, Kexin Peng, Fei Wang, Tianxin Yang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is recognized as a novel gasotransmitter involved in the regulation of nervous system, cardiovascular functions, inflammatory response, gastrointestinal system, and renal function. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) are the major enzymes responsible for H2 S production through desulfuration reactions. H2 S is reported to play a protective role in both high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese and diabetic mice. However, the synthesizing enzyme involved is not clearly elucidated...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Birgitta W van der Kolk, Roel G Vink, Johan W E Jocken, Nadia J T Roumans, Gijs H Goossens, Edwin C M Mariman, Marleen A van Baak, Ellen E Blaak
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) plays a role in lipid partitioning by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-dependent plasma clearance of triacylglycerol in adipose tissue. We investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss on plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in relation to in vivo adipose tissue LPL activity and lipolysis and adipose tissue ANGPTL4 release in overweight/obese participants. Sixteen individuals (BMI: 28-35 kg/m2 ; 10 women) were randomized to a dietary intervention composed of either a low-calorie diet (1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks (n = 9) or a very low-calorie diet (500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks, followed by a 4-week weight stable period...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Morten B Thomsen, Morten S Nielsen, Annemarie Aarup, Line S Bisgaard, Tanja X Pedersen
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and uremia increase the risk of heart disease and sudden cardiac death. Coronary artery disease can only partly account for this. The remaining mechanistic links between CKD and sudden death are elusive, but may involve cardiac arrhythmias. For the present study, we hypothesized that a thorough electrophysiological study in mice with CKD would provide us valuable information that could aid in the identification of additional underlying causes of sudden cardiac death in patients with kidney disease...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Rebecca L Scalzo, Leslie A Knaub, Sara E Hull, Amy C Keller, Kendall Hunter, Lori A Walker, Jane E B Reusch
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) inversely predicts cardiovascular (CV) mortality and CRF is impaired in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Aerobic exercise training (ET) improves CRF and is associated with decreased risk of premature death in healthy and diseased populations. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to ET adaptation may identify targets for reducing CV mortality of relevance to people with T2D. The antihyperglycemic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) influences many of the same pathways as exercise and may contribute to CV adaptation to ET...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Obaid U Khurram, Matthew J Fogarty, Tiffany L Sarrafian, Arjun Bhatt, Carlos B Mantilla, Gary C Sieck
The diaphragm muscle (DIAm) is the primary inspiratory muscle in mammals and is active during ventilatory behaviors, but it is also involved in higher-force behaviors such as those necessary for clearing the airway. Our laboratory has previously reported DIAm sarcopenia in rats and mice characterized by DIAm atrophy and a reduction in maximum specific force at 24 months of age. In Fischer 344 rats, these studies were limited to male animals, although in other studies, we noted a more rapid increase in body mass from 6 to 24 months of age in females (~140%) compared to males (~110%)...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Yuping Wang, Shuang Zhao, Yang Gu, David F Lewis
Recent findings of podocyte shedding/podocyturia highlight the central significance of podocyte injury in preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder unique to human pregnancy. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to kidney podocyte injury in preeclampsia, we specifically examined expression and distribution of antioxidant CuZn-SOD with nephrin and podoplanin in shed podocytes from women with preeclampsia. Human podocyte AB 8/13 cells served as control. We found that CuZn-SOD was localized at the front/outreach region of nephrin at the cell periphery (foot process areas) in control podocytes and expression of CuZn-SOD, nephrin, and podoplanin were all dislocated or lost in shed podocytes from preeclamptic patients...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Nicole M Novielli-Kuntz, Kent A Lemaster, Jefferson C Frisbee, Dwayne N Jackson
Prediabetes is associated with impaired contraction-evoked dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles, which may be due to increased sympathetic activity accompanying this early stage of diabetes disease. Herein, we sought to determine whether blunted contraction-evoked vasodilation resulted from enhanced sympathetic neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1R) and alpha-1 adrenergic receptor (α1R) activation. Using intravital video microscopy, second-, third-, and fourth-order (2A, 3A, and 4A) arteriolar diameters were measured before and following electrical field stimulation of the gluteus maximus muscle (GM) in prediabetic (PD, Pound Mouse) and control (CTRL, c57bl6, CTRL) mice...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Brittany K Gorres-Martens, Tyler J Field, Emma R Schmidt, Karen A Munger
Previous studies suggest that the loss of estrogens increase one's risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), and combining the loss of estrogens with a high-fat diet (HFD) poses an even greater risk for T2D. The extent to which exercise can ameliorate the deleterious effects of estrogen loss combined with a HFD and the molecular mechanisms accounting for the whole body changes is currently unknown. Therefore, we fed female Wistar rats a standard diet or a HFD for 10 weeks. The rats fed the HFD were either ovariectomized (OVX) or their ovaries remained intact...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Aylin R Rodan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Charlotte B Christiansen, Sara J Lind, Berit Svendsen, Emilie Balk-Møller, Tina Dahlby, Rune E Kuhre, Bolette Hartmann, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen, Carolyn F Deacon, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Jens J Holst
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine secreted from skeletal muscle in response to exercise which, based on animal and cell studies, has been suggested to contribute to glucose metabolism by increasing secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and affecting secretion of insulin and glucagon from the pancreatic islets. We investigated the effect of IL-6 on GLP-1 secretion in GLP-1 producing cells (GLUTag) and using the perfused mouse small intestine (harboring GLP-1 producing cells). Furthermore, the direct effect of IL-6 on insulin and glucagon secretion was studied using isolated perfused mouse pancreas...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Maja M Dethlefsen, Caroline M Kristensen, Anna S Tøndering, Signe B Lassen, Stine Ringholm, Henriette Pilegaard
Hepatic autophagy has been shown to be regulated by acute exercise and exercise training. Moreover, high-fat diet-induced steatosis has been reported to be associated with impaired hepatic autophagy. In addition, autophagy has been shown to be regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in a PGC-1α dependent manner in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that high-fat high-fructose (HFF) diet changes hepatic autophagy and mitophagy, that exercise training can restore this through a PGC-1α-mediated mechanism, and that acute exercise regulates autophagy and mitophagy in the liver...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Nour Al-Muhtasib, Patrick A Forcelli, Stefano Vicini
The striatum consists of the dorsal (caudate/putamen) and the ventral (nucleus accumbens) regions. The nucleus accumbens is further divided into a core and shell. Both the dorsal and ventral striatum contain populations of spiny projection neurons, which make up 95% of the neurons within the striatum. SPNs are canonically categorized into those that express the D1-type dopamine receptor (D1 SPNs) and those that express the D2-type dopamine receptor (D2 SPNs). D1 and D2 SPNs differ with respect to both synaptic inputs and projection targets...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Weinan Zhou, Elizabeth A Davis, Kailiang Li, Romana A Nowak, Megan J Dailey
The intestinal epithelium is continuously regenerated by cell renewal of intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) located in the intestinal crypts. Obesity affects this process and results in changes in the size and cellular make-up of the tissue, but it remains unknown if there are sex differences in obesity-induced alterations in IESC proliferation and differentiation. We fed male and female mice a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) or a 10% low-fat diet (LFD) for 3 months and investigated the differences in (1) the expression of markers of different intestinal epithelial cell types in vivo, and (2) lasting effects on IESC growth in vitro...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Kayla L Moses, McKayla Seymour, Arij Beshish, Kim R Baker, David F Pegelow, Luke J Lamers, Marlowe W Eldridge, Melissa L Bates
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is linked to increased risk of decompression illness in divers. One theory is that venous gas emboli crossing the PFO can be minimized by avoiding lifting, straining and Valsalva maneuvers. Alternatively, we hypothesized that mild increases in external inspiratory and expiratory resistance, similar to that provided by a SCUBA regulator, recruit the PFO. Nine healthy adults with a Valsalva-proven PFO completed three randomized trials (inspiratory, expiratory, and combined external loading) with six levels of increasing external resistance (2-20 cmH2 O/L/sec)...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Thomas H Sisson, Paul J Christensen, Yo Muraki, Anthony J Dils, Lauren Chibucos, Natalya Subbotina, Kimio Tohyama, Jeffrey C Horowitz, Takanori Matsuo, Marc Bailie, Sham Nikam, Masatoshi Hazama
Fibrosis of the lung constitutes a major clinical challenge and novel therapies are required to alleviate the associated morbidity and mortality. Investigating the antifibrotic efficacy of drugs that are already in clinical practice offers an efficient strategy to identify new therapies. The phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, harbor therapeutic potential for pulmonary fibrosis by augmenting the activity of endogenous antifibrotic mediators that signal through cyclic AMP...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Chang Hyun Lim, Ju Hyun Gil, Helong Quan, Dang Ha Viet, Chang Keun Kim
We investigated the effects of regular leucine intake and/or resistance exercise training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cell activity after the administration of different doses of leucine. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups (n = 7 per group): a control group (Con), two groups receiving either 10% (0.135 g/kg.wt) (Leu10) or 50% (0.675 g/kg.wt) (Leu50) leucine supplementation, and three exercise groups receiving 0% (Ex), 10% (Leu10Ex), and 50% (Leu50Ex) leucine supplementation...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Pekka Matomäki, Heikki Kainulainen, Heikki Kyröläinen
An exercise bout or a dehydration often causes a reduction in plasma volume, which should be acknowledged when considering the change in biomarkers before and after the plasma changing event. The classic equation from Dill and Costill (1974, J. Appl. Physiol., 37, 247-248) for plasma volume shift is usually utilized in such a case. Although this works well with plasma and serum biomarkers, we argue in this note that this traditional approach gives misleading results in the context of whole blood biomarkers, such as lactate, white cells, and thrombocytes...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
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