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Physiological Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646097/highly-suggestive-preliminary-evidence-that-the-renal-interstitium-contracts-in%C3%A2-vivo
#1
Omar Flores-Sandoval, María Eugenia Sánchez-Briones, Juan F López-Rodríguez, Miriam Z Calvo-Turrubiartes, Lilia Llamazares-Azuara, Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez
To learn more about controlling renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP), we assessed its response to renal medullary direct interstitial volume expansion (rmDIVE = 100 μL bolus infusion/30 sec). Three experimental series (S) were performed in hydropenic, anesthetized, right-nephrectomized, acute left renal-denervated and renal perfusion pressure-controlled rats randomly assigned to groups in each S. S1: Rats without hormonal clamp were contrasted before and after rmDIVE induced via 0.9% saline solution bolus (SS group) or 2% albumin in SS bolus (2% ALB + SS group)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646096/heat-stress-causes-dysfunctional-autophagy-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#2
Alexandra J Brownstein, Shanthi Ganesan, Corey M Summers, Sarah Pearce, Benjamin J Hale, Jason W Ross, Nicholas Gabler, Jacob T Seibert, Robert P Rhoads, Lance H Baumgard, Joshua T Selsby
We have previously established that 24 h of environmental hyperthermia causes oxidative stress and have implicated mitochondria as likely contributors to this process. Given this, we hypothesized that heat stress would lead to increased autophagy/mitophagy and a reduction in mitochondrial content. To address this hypothesis pigs were housed in thermoneutral (TN; 20°C) or heat stress (35°C) conditions for 1- (HS1) or 3- (HS3) days and the red and white portions of the semitendinosus collected. We did not detect differences in glycolytic muscle...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642341/use-of-intraoperative-local-field-potential-spectral-analysis-to-differentiate-basal-ganglia-structures-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#3
Rachel Kolb, Aviva Abosch, Gidon Felsen, John A Thompson
Identification of brain structures traversed during implantation of deep brain-stimulating (DBS) electrodes into the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently relies on subjective correspondence between kinesthetic response and multiunit activity. However, recent work suggests that local field potentials (LFP) could be used as a more robust signal to objectively differentiate subcortical structures. The goal of this study was to analyze the spectral properties of LFP collected during STN-DBS in order to objectively identify commonly traversed brain regions and improve our understanding of aberrant oscillations in the PD-related pathophysiological cortico-basal ganglia network...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642340/cardiovascular-and-cerebral-hemodynamics-during-exercise-and-recovery-in-obese-individuals-as-a-function-of-their-fitness-status
#4
Mathieu Gayda, Gabriel Lapierre, Olivier Dupuy, Sarah Fraser, Louis Bherer, Martin Juneau, Vincent Gremeaux, Anil Nigam
The aim of this study was to compare cardiovascular hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation/perfusion (COP) during and after maximal incremental exercise in obese individuals according to their aerobic fitness versus age-matched healthy controls (AMHC). Fifty-four middle-aged obese (OB) and 16 AMHC were recruited. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis), cardiac hemodynamics (impedance cardiography), and left frontal COP (near-infrared spectroscopy: NIRS) were measured continuously during a maximal incremental ergocycle test...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642339/establishment-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-primary-culture-model-for-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#5
Tatsuya Usui, Masashi Sakurai, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Takashi Ohama, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Koichi Sato
New neurons are generated in the adult hippocampus throughout life and contribute to the functions of learning and memory. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which disrupted neurogenesis regulates central nervous system (CNS) disorders are not fully understood. Here, we established a novel 3D culture system of hippocampal neurogenesis using air liquid interface (ALI) culture and Matrigel culture from mouse hippocampus tissues. After isolated mouse hippocampus tissue fragments were seeded into ALI wells and cultured in stemness-stimulated media containing Wnt, EGF, Noggin and R-spondin for 7 days, small spheres gradually appeared in the tissues...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642338/cellular-distribution-and-function-of-ion-channels-involved-in-transport-processes-in-rat-tracheal-epithelium
#6
Anne Hahn, Johannes Faulhaber, Lalita Srisawang, Andreas Stortz, Johanna J Salomon, Marcus A Mall, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca(2+) or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca(2+)- dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl(-) secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, the epithelial Na(+) channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637708/hypohydration-impairs-endurance-performance-a-blinded-study
#7
Lewis J James, Jodie Moss, Joshua Henry, Charikleia Papadopoulou, Stephen A Mears
The general scientific consensus is that starting exercise with hypohydration >2% body mass impairs endurance performance/capacity, but most previous studies might be confounded by a lack of subject blinding. This study examined the effect of hypohydration in a single blind manner using combined oral and intragastric rehydration to manipulate hydration status. After familiarization, seven active males (mean ± SD: age 25 ± 2 years, height 1.79 ± 0.07, body mass 78.6 ± 6.2, VO2peak 48 ± 7 mL·kg·min(-1)) completed two randomized trials at 34°C...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637707/daily-rhythms-of-cloacal-temperature-in-broiler-chickens-of-different-age-groups-administered-with-zinc-gluconate-and-probiotic-during-the-hot-dry-season
#8
Tagang Aluwong, Victory O Sumanu, Joseph O Ayo, Benjamin O Ocheja, Friday O Zakari, Ndazo S Minka
The aim of the experiment was to evaluate effects of zinc gluconate (ZnGlu) and probiotic administration on the daily rhythm of cloacal temperature (tcloacal) in broiler chickens of different age groups during the hot-dry season. One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 60) were divided into groups I-IV of 15 chicks per group, and treated for 35 days: Group I (control) was given deionized water; Group II, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg); Group III, probiotic (4.125 × 10(6 )cfu/100 mL), and Group IV, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg) + probiotic (4...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637706/endothelial-mineralocorticoid-receptor-contributes-to-systolic-dysfunction-induced-by-pressure-overload-without-modulating-cardiac-hypertrophy-or-inflammation
#9
Ane M Salvador, M Elizabeth Moss, Mark Aronovitz, Kathleen B Mueller, Robert M Blanton, Iris Z Jaffe, Pilar Alcaide
Heart Failure (HF) is associated with increased circulating levels of aldosterone and systemic inflammation. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists block aldosterone action and decrease mortality in patients with congestive HF However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits of MR antagonists remain unclear. MR is expressed in all cell types in the heart, including the endothelial cells (EC), in which aldosterone induces the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637705/light-exercise-heart-rate-on-kinetics-a-comparison-of-data-fitted-with-sigmoidal-and-exponential-functions-and-the-impact-of-fitness-and-exercise-intensity
#10
Karl M Trounson, Spencer Roberts, Aaron Balloch, Stuart A Warmington
This study examined the suitability of sigmoidal (SIG) and exponential (EXP) functions for modeling HR kinetics at the onset of a 5-min low-intensity cycling ergometer exercise test (5MT). The effects of training status, absolute and relative workloads, and high versus low workloads on the accuracy and reliability of these functions were also examined. Untrained participants (UTabs; n = 13) performed 5MTs at 100W. One group of trained participants (n = 10) also performed 5MTs at 100W (ETabs). Another group of trained participants (n = 9) performed 5MTs at 45% and 60% V˙O2 max (ET45 and ET60, respectively)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637704/the-structure-function-remodeling-in-rabbit-hearts-of-myocardial-infarction
#11
Haotian Wu, Li Li, Pei Niu, Xu Huang, Jinyi Liu, Fengshun Zhang, Wenzeng Shen, Wenchang Tan, Yiling Wu, Yunlong Huo
Animal models are of importance to investigate basic mechanisms for ischemic heart failure (HF). The objective of the study was to create a rabbit model through multiple coronary artery ligations to investigate the postoperative structure-function remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) and coronary arterial trees. Here, we hypothesize that the interplay of the degenerated coronary vasculature and increased ventricle wall stress relevant to cardiac fibrosis in vicinity of myocardial infarction (MI) precipitates the incidence and progression of ischemic HF Echocardiographic measurements showed an approximately monotonic drop of fractional shortening and ejection fraction from 40% and 73% down to 28% and 58% as well as persistent enlargement of LV cavity and slight mitral regurgitation at postoperative 12 weeks...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611155/enhancement-of-intrarenal-plasma-membrane-calcium-pump-isoform-1-expression-in-chronic-angiotensin-ii-infused-mice
#12
Hiromichi Wakui, Koichiro Sumida, Megumi Fujita, Yuta Ohtomo, Masato Ohsawa, Ryu Kobayashi, Kazushi Uneda, Kengo Azushima, Kotaro Haruhara, Keisuke Yatsu, Nobuhito Hirawa, Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 1 (PMCA1) is encoded by ATPase plasma membrane Ca(2+)transporting 1 (ATP2B1), the most likely candidate gene responsible for hypertension. Although PMCA1 is highly expressed in the kidney, little is known about regulation of its renal expression in various pathological conditions in vivo. Our study was designed to elucidate regulation of renal PMCA1 expression in mice. We employed three mouse models for kidney disease. These were the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), the remnant kidney using 5/6 nephrectomy, and chronic angiotensin II administration models...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611154/cytoresistance-after-acute-kidney-injury-is-limited-to-the-recovery-period-of-proximal-tubule-integrity-and-possibly-involves-hippo-yap-signaling
#13
Takamasa Iwakura, Yoshihide Fujigaki, Tomoyuki Fujikura, Takayuki Tsuji, Naro Ohashi, Akihiko Kato, Hideo Yasuda
Rat proximal tubule (PT) cells that have recovered from severe acute kidney injury induced by uranyl acetate (UA) develop cytoresistance to subsequent UA treatments. We reported that enhanced G1 arrest might contribute to cytoresistance. Herein, we examined these mechanisms by investigating Yes-associated protein (YAP), a regulator of cell number, and survivin, a downstream mediator of YAP that inhibits apoptosis. Rats pretreated with saline (vehicle group) or UA (AKI group) were injected with UA 2 weeks, 2 months, or 6 months after treatment...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611153/effects-of-short-term-mild-hypercapnia-during-head-down-tilt-on-intracranial-pressure-and-ocular-structures-in-healthy-human-subjects
#14
Steven S Laurie, Gianmarco Vizzeri, Giovanni Taibbi, Connor R Ferguson, Xiao Hu, Stuart M C Lee, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Michael B Stenger
Many astronauts experience ocular structural and functional changes during long-duration spaceflight, including choroidal folds, optic disc edema, globe flattening, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) distension, retinal nerve fiber layer thickening, and decreased visual acuity. The leading hypothesis suggests that weightlessness-induced cephalad fluid shifts increase intracranial pressure (ICP), which contributes to the ocular structural changes, but elevated ambient CO2 levels on the International Space Station may also be a factor...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611152/hepatic-vein-pressure-predicts-gfr-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-hemodynamic-kidney-dysfunction
#15
Neel Desai, Joel Neugarten, Mary Dominguez, Ladan Golestaneh
The role of "nephrocongestion" in hemodynamic renal disease is understudied. Intra-abdominal hypertension accompanies liver disease and renal disease. Our hypothesis states that in those patients with liver disease, hepatic vein pressure measured during a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure reflects intra-abdominal pressure and predicts estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We gathered data from our clinical database and chart review on a cohort of cirrhotic patients who received TIPS at Montefiore as part of their clinical care between 2004 and 2014...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611151/fate-mapping-neurons-and-glia-derived-from-dbx1-expressing-progenitors-in-mouse-preb%C3%A3-tzinger-complex
#16
Andrew Kottick, Caroline A Martin, Christopher A Del Negro
The brainstem preBötzinger complex (preBötC) generates the inspiratory breathing rhythm, and its core rhythmogenic interneurons are derived from Dbx1-expressing progenitors. To study the neural bases of breathing, tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mice and Cre-dependent reporters are used to identify, record, and perturb Dbx1 preBötC neurons. However, the relationship between tamoxifen administration and reporter protein expression in preBötC neurons and glia has not been quantified. To address this problem, we crossed mice that express tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of the Dbx1 gene (Dbx1(Cre)(ERT)(2)) with Cre-dependent fluorescent reporter mice (Rosa26(tdTomato)), administered tamoxifen at different times during development, and analyzed tdTomato expression in the preBötC of their offspring...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611150/effects-of-stress-during-pregnancy-on-hepatic-glucogenic-capacity-in-rat-dams-and-their-fetuses
#17
Kathryn L Franko, Alison J Forhead, Abigail L Fowden
Stress during pregnancy is associated with metabolic dysfunction in the adult offspring in human and other animals. However, little is known about the metabolic effects of pregnancy stress on the mothers and fetuses during pregnancy itself. This study aimed to determine the consequences of the common experimental procedures of injection and single housing in pregnant rats on fetal and maternal hepatic glucogenic capacities. On day (D) 20 of pregnancy, feto-placental weights and the glycogen content and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) of fetal and maternal liver were measured in rats pair or single housed from D1 with or without saline injection from D15 to D19...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611149/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-effects-alone-and-in-combination-on-insulin-secretion-and-glucose-disappearance-in-mice
#18
Giovanni Pacini, Bo Ahrén
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) stimulate insulin secretion. They are both released after meal ingestion, and therefore they might cooperate in their actions. However, whether there is a cooperative action of the two incretins is not known. This study therefore investigated the effects on insulin secretion and glucose disappearance of GLP-1 and GIP when given together with intravenous glucose both alone and in combination in mice. Four different doses were used (0...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611148/failure-to-account-for-practice-effects-leads-to-clinical-misinterpretation-of-cognitive-outcome-following-carotid-endarterectomy
#19
Christopher J Marley, Andrew Sinnott, Judith E Hall, Gareth Morris-Stiff, Paul V Woodsford, Michael H Lewis, Damian M Bailey
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure to remove stenotic atherosclerotic plaque from the origin of the carotid artery to reduce the risk of major stroke. Its impact on postoperative cognitive function (POCF) remains controversial; complicated, in part, by a traditional failure to account for practice effects incurred during consecutive psychometric testing. To address this for the first time, we performed psychometric testing (learning and memory, working memory, attention and information processing, and visuomotor coordination) in 15 male patients aged 68 ± 8 years with symptomatic carotid stenosis the day before and 24 h following elective CEA (two consecutive tests, 48 h apart)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603143/reply-to-videomicroscopic-investigation-of-the-microcirculation-requires-uniform-definitions
#20
LETTER
Ian Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Physiological Reports
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