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Physiological Reports

G Andres Contreras, Kyan Thelen, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts
There are sex associated differences in the risk for cardiovascular comorbidities in obesity and metabolic syndrome. A common clinical finding in these diseases is the expansion of perivascular adipose tissues (PVAT) which is associated with alterations in their role as regulators of vessel function. PVAT hyperplasia and hypertrophy are dependent on the biology of populations of adipocyte progenitor cells (APC). It is currently unclear if PVAT enlargement diverges between males and females and the mechanisms linking APC biology with sexual dimorphism remain poorly understood...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Dobromila Pekala, Hanna Szkudlarek, Morten Raastad
We studied the ability of typical unmyelinated cortical axons to conduct action potentials at fever-like temperatures because fever often gives CNS symptoms. We investigated such axons in cerebellar and hippocampal slices from 10 to 25 days old rats at temperatures between 30 and 43°C. By recording with two electrodes along axonal pathways, we confirmed that the axons were able to initiate action potentials, but at temperatures >39°C, the propagation of the action potentials to a more distal recording site was reduced...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Charlie J Gilbride
Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) provide the experimental flexibility of cell culture while leaving much of the natural neuronal connectivity intact. Previously, it was shown that the functional and morphological features of CA1 pyramidal neurons in OHSCs resemble, to a surprising extent, those of CA1 neurons in the acute brain slice preparation. However, the extent to which the characteristics of other principle hippocampal neurons change or are preserved in cultured slices remains to be determined...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Mihail I Todorov, Katalin A Kékesi, Zsolt Borhegyi, Robert Galambos, Gábor Juhász, Anthony G Hudetz
Long-range gamma band EEG oscillations mediate information transmission between distant brain regions. Gamma band-based coupling may not be restricted to cortex-to-cortex communication but may include extracortical parts of the visual system. The retinogram and visual event-related evoked potentials exhibit time-locked, forward propagating oscillations that are candidates of gamma oscillatory coupling between the retina and the visual cortex. In this study, we tested if this gamma coupling is present as indicated by the coherence of gamma-range (70-200 Hz) oscillatory potentials (OPs) recorded simultaneously from the retina and the primary visual cortex in freely moving, adult rats...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Maria Skytioti, Signe Søvik, Maja Elstad
Intact cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for cerebral metabolism and function, whereas hypoperfusion in relation to hypovolemia and hypocapnia can lead to severe cerebral damage. This study was designed to assess internal carotid artery blood flow (ICA-BF) during simulated hypovolemia and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in young healthy humans. Beat-by-beat blood velocity (ICA and aorta) were measured by Doppler ultrasound during normovolemia and simulated hypovolemia (lower body negative pressure), with or without PPV in 15 awake subjects...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Aude Belliard, Gaurav K Gulati, Qiming Duan, Rosana Alves, Shannon Brewer, Namrata Madan, Yoann Sottejeau, Xiaoliang Wang, Jennifer Kalisz, Sandrine V Pierre
Cardiac glycosides (CG) are traditionally known as positive cardiac inotropes that inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-dependent ion transport. CG also trigger-specific signaling pathways through the cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, with beneficial effects in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (e.g., ouabain preconditioning, known as OPC) and hypertrophy. Our current understanding of hypersensitivity to CG and subsequent toxicity in the ischemic heart is mostly based on specific I/R-induced alterations of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzymatic function and has remained incomplete...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Audun E Rimehaug, Eirik Skogvoll, Petter Aadahl, Oddveig Lyng, Dag O Nordhaug, Lasse Løvstakken, Idar Kirkeby-Garstad
Cardiac power, the product of aortic flow and blood pressure, appears to be a fundamental cardiovascular parameter. The simplified version named cardiac power output (CPO), calculated as the product of cardiac output (CO) in L/min and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in mmHg divided by 451, has shown great ability to predict outcome in a broad spectrum of cardiac disease. Beat-by-beat evaluation of cardiac power (PWR) therefore appears to be a possibly valuable addition when monitoring circulatory unstable patients, providing parameters of overall cardiovascular function...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Naoyuki Kawao, Hironobu Morita, Koji Obata, Yukinori Tamura, Katsumi Okumoto, Hiroshi Kaji
Gravity changes concurrently affect muscle and bone as well as induce alterations in vestibular signals. However, the role of vestibular signals in the changes in muscle and bone induced by gravity changes remains unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of vestibular lesions (VL) on the changes in muscle and bone induced by 3 g hypergravity for 4 weeks in C57BL/6J mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis revealed that hypergravity increased muscle mass surrounding the tibia and trabecular bone mineral content, adjusting for body weight in mice...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Justin T Easley, Christina L M Maruyama, Ching-Shuen Wang, Olga J Baker
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of salivary and lacrimal glands leading to dry mouth and dry eyes, respectively. Currently, the etiology of SS is unknown and the current therapies have no permanent benefit; therefore, new approaches are necessary to effectively treat this condition. Resolvins are highly potent endogenous lipid mediators that are synthesized during the resolution of inflammation to restore tissue homeostasis. Previous studies indicate that the resolvin family member, RvD1, binds to the ALX/FPR2 receptor to block inflammatory signals caused by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the salivary epithelium...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Kerstin Lohr, Fiona Pachl, Amin Moghaddas Gholami, Kerstin E Geillinger, Hannelore Daniel, Bernhard Kuster, Martin Klingenspor
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health burden in the aging society with an urging medical need for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered critical in the development of hepatic steatosis, the hallmark of NAFLD. Our study addressed in C57BL/6J mice the effect of high fat diet feeding and age on liver mitochondria at an early stage of NAFLD development. We therefore analyzed functional characteristics of hepatic mitochondria and associated alterations in the mitochondrial proteome in response to high fat feeding in adolescent, young adult, and middle-aged mice...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Amalie Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus Ribel-Madsen, Charlotte Brøns, Christopher B Newgard, Allan A Vaag, Lars I Hellgren
We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta-oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4-OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta-oxidation relative to the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Ian M R Wright, Joanna L Latter, Rebecca M Dyson, Chris R Levi, Vicki L Clifton
The perinatal period remains a time of significant risk of death or disability. Increasing evidence suggests that this depends on microcirculatory behavior. Sidestream dark-field orthogonal polarized light videomicroscopy (OPS) has emerged as a useful assessment of adult microcirculation but the values derived are not delineated for the newborn. We aimed to define these parameters in well term newborn infants. Demographic details were collected prospectively on 42 healthy term neonates (n = 20 females, n = 22 males)...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Mathew Piasecki, Alex Ireland, Jessica Coulson, Dan W Stashuk, Andrew Hamilton-Wright, Agnieszka Swiecicka, Martin K Rutter, Jamie S McPhee, David A Jones
Muscle motor unit numbers decrease markedly in old age, while remaining motor units are enlarged and can have reduced neuromuscular junction transmission stability. However, it is possible that regular intense physical activity throughout life can attenuate this remodeling. The aim of this study was to compare the number, size, and neuromuscular junction transmission stability of tibialis anterior (TA) motor units in healthy young and older men with those of exceptionally active master runners. The distribution of motor unit potential (MUP) size was determined from intramuscular electromyographic signals recorded in healthy male Young (mean ± SD, 26 ± 5 years), Old (71 ± 4 years) and Master Athletes (69 ± 3 years)...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Satoru Ato, Yuhei Makanae, Kohei Kido, Satoshi Fujita
Resistance training with eccentric contraction has been shown to augment muscle hypertrophy more than other contraction modes do (i.e., concentric and isometric contraction). However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle contraction mode on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling using a standardized force-time integral (load (weight) × contraction time). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, and isometric contraction...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Toshiki Yamada, Robert Wondergem, Rebecca Morrison, Viravuth P Yin, Kevin Strange
A volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) has been electrophysiologically characterized in innumerable mammalian cell types. VRAC is activated by cell swelling and mediates the volume regulatory efflux of Cl(-) and small organic solutes from cells. Two groups recently identified the mammalian leucine-rich repeat containing protein LRRC8A as an essential VRAC component. LRRC8A must be coexpressed with at least one of the other four members of this gene family, LRRC8B-E, to reconstitute VRAC activity in LRRC8(-/-) cells...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Ryan M Broxterman, Phillip F Skiba, Jesse C Craig, Samuel L Wilcox, Carl J Ade, Thomas J Barstow
The sustainable duration of severe intensity exercise is well-predicted by critical power (CP) and the curvature constant (W'). The development of the W'BAL model allows for the pattern of W' expenditure and reconstitution to be characterized and this model has been applied to intermittent exercise protocols. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of relaxation phase duration and exercise intensity on W' reconstitution during dynamic constant power severe intensity exercise. Six men (24...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Bodo Davieds, Julian Gross, Marc M Berger, Emel Baloğlu, Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl
Oxygen diffusion across the alveolar wall is compromised by low alveolar oxygen but also by pulmonary edema, and leads to hypoxemia and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). To test, whether inhibition of alveolar fluid reabsorption results in an increased pulmonary arterial pressure and whether this effect enhances HPV, we established a model, where anesthetized rats were ventilated with normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (13.5% O2) gas received aerosolized amiloride and lipopolisaccharide (LPS) to inhibit alveolar fluid reabsorption...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Alison McGrane, Gavin Stewart
Gastrointestinal facilitative urea transporters play a significant role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process, which supports the symbiotic relationship between mammals and their gut microbial populations. UT-A6 urea transporters have been previously reported in the human gastrointestinal tract, specifically in the colon. As renal UT-A transporters can be regulated by external osmolality, this study investigated whether UT-A6 expression could also be regulated in this manner. Initial end-point RT-PCR experiments confirmed UT-A6 expression along the human gastrointestinal tract (colon > small intestine ≫ stomach) and also in the Caco-2 intestinal cell line...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Hamza S Elkhidir, Jeremy B Richards, Kevin R Cromar, Cynthia S Bell, Roger E Price, Constance L Atkins, Chantal Y Spencer, Farhan Malik, Amy L Alexander, Katherine J Cockerill, Ikram U Haque, Richard A Johnston
Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, the major physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is increased in the lung following inhalation of ozone (O3), a gaseous air pollutant. PAI-1 regulates expression of interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, which are cytokines that promote lung injury, pulmonary inflammation, and/or airway hyperresponsiveness following acute exposure to O3 Given these observations, we hypothesized that PAI-1 contributes to the severity of the aforementioned sequelae by regulating expression of IL-6, KC, and MIP-2 following acute exposure to O3 To test our hypothesis, wild-type mice and mice genetically deficient in PAI-1 (PAI-1-deficient mice) were acutely exposed to either filtered room air or O3 (2 ppm) for 3 h...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Lisa M Cotie, Katharine D Currie, Greg M McGill, Austin J Cameron, Alison S McFadden, Stuart M Phillips, Maureen J MacDonald
Examination of relationships between systemic markers and functional measures of arterial structure and function may assist in determining alternative indices of vascular regulation and designing and evaluating interventions to improve arterial structure and function. Twenty young healthy individuals, 20 older healthy men, and 26 individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD), comprising a spectrum of vascular health, participated. Systemic markers of vascular structure and function included: pro-collagen type I C-peptide (PIP) - marker of collagen synthesis, C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) - marker of collagen degradation, endothelin-1 (ET-1) - vasoconstrictor, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) - inflammatory marker...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
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