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Physiological Reports

Hayley McDonald, Jason Peart, Nyoman Kurniawan, Graham Galloway, Simon Royce, Chrishan S Samuel, Chen Chen
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) have been shown to improve cardiac function in models of IHD. This study determined whether hexarelin (HEX), a synthetic GHS, preserves cardiac function and morphology in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced by ligation of the left descending coronary artery in C57BL/6J mice followed by vehicle (VEH; n = 10) or HEX (0.3 mg/kg/day; n = 11) administration for 21 days...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Ramesh C Mishra, Mohammad M Rahman, Michael J Davis, Heike Wulff, Michael A Hill, Andrew P Braun
We have systematically investigated how vascular smooth muscle α1 -adrenoceptor activation impacts endothelium-mediated vasodilation in isolated, myogenically active, rat cremaster muscle 1A arteries. Cannulated cremaster arteries were pressurized intraluminally to 70 mmHg to induce myogenic tone, and exposed to vasoactive agents via bath superfusion at 34°C. Smooth muscle membrane potential was measured via sharp microelectrode recordings in pressurized, myogenic arteries. The α1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (25-100 nmol/L) produced further constriction of myogenic arteries, but did not alter the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine (0...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
John C Huetsch, Jasmine Walker, Clark Undem, Julie Lade, Xin Yun, Syeda Baksh, Haiyang Jiang, Ning Lai, Larissa A Shimoda
Excessive production of endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been observed in almost all forms of pulmonary hypertension. ET-1, a highly potent vasoconstrictor, can also potentiate pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) growth and migration, both of which contribute to the vascular remodeling that occurs during the development of pulmonary hypertension. Increasing evidence indicates that alkalinization of intracellular pH (pHi ), typically due to activation of Na+ /H+ exchange (NHE), is associated with enhanced PASMC proliferation and migration...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Simon Green, Eamon O'Connor, Catherine Kiely, Donal O'Shea, Mikel Egaña
Obesity has been associated with a slowing of V˙O2 dynamics in children and adolescents, but this problem has not been studied in adults. Cardiovascular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. In this study, 48 adults (18 males, 30 females) grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (lean < 25 kg·m-2 , overweight = 25-29.9 kg·m-2 , obese ≥30 kg·m-2 ) provided a fasting blood sample, completed a maximal graded exercise test and six bouts of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, and performed two protocols of calf exercise...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Ana G Jimenez, Joshua D Winward, Dana M Smith, Christina M Ragan
Anxiety is the most prevalent mental disorder among adults in the United States and females tend to have significantly higher rates of anxiety compared with men. Common treatments for anxiety include usage of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants, however, sex differences in the efficacy of these drugs exist. In this study, we were interested in determining if acutely manipulating serotonin mechanisms at the whole-animal level affects cellular metabolism and oxidative stress in primary fibroblast cells from clomipramine-treated Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Blair D Johnson, Morgan C O'Leary, Muhamed McBryde, James R Sackett, Zachary J Schlader, John J Leddy
We tested the hypothesis that concussed college athletes (CA) have attenuated parasympathetic and sympathetic responses to face cooling (FC). Eleven symptomatic CA (age: 20 ± 2 years, 5 women) who were within 10 days of concussion diagnosis and 10 healthy controls (HC; age: 24 ± 4 years, 5 women) participated. During FC, a plastic bag filled with ice water (~0°C) was placed on the forehead, eyes, and cheeks for 3 min. Heart rate (ECG) and blood pressure (photoplethysmography) were averaged at baseline and every 60 sec during FC...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Ingun Naeve, Maren Mommens, Augustine Arukwe, Elin Kjørsvik
Aiming to explore ultrasound technology as a noninvasive method for maturation monitoring, we compared ultrasound observations and measurements in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the last year before ovulation with standard, invasive methods such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonad histology and sex hormone analysis. Ultrasound measurements of ovaries correlated strongly (R > 0.9, P < 0.01) with ovary weight and GSI, and could be used as a noninvasive tool for GSI estimation. Using ultrasound, we were able to identify females with advanced oocyte development and elevated sex hormone and GSI levels earlier than previously observed...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Märta Borghede, Lars Vinter-Jensen, Henrik H Rasmussen, Simon Veedfald, Jens F Rehfeld, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, David P Sonne
A serious complication to the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is internal hernia, which can lead to massive bowel necrosis that may result in short bowel syndrome. We determined postprandial enteropancreatic hormonal responses and metabolites in a 22-year-old nondiabetic woman with a history of RYGB experiencing severe internal herniation with widespread bowel necrosis. Extensive resections were performed leaving her with a saliva fistula from the pouch-enteric anastomosis, an intact duodenum, 15 cm of jejunum, 35 cm of ileum, and intact colon...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Ryo Tanaka, Masanari Umemura, Masatoshi Narikawa, Takayuki Fujita, Utako Yokoyama, Tomoaki Ishigami, Kazuo Kimura, Kouichi Tamura, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Mechanical stresses play important roles in the process of constructing and modifying heart structure. It has been well established that stretch force acting on cardiac fibroblasts induces fibrosis. However, the effects of compressive force, that is, hydrostatic pressure (HP), have not been well elucidated. We thus evaluated the effects of HP using a pressure-loading apparatus in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) in vitro. In this study, high HP (200 mmHg) resulted in significant phosphorylation of Akt in HCFs...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Stephen Roy Morris, William Gittings, Rene Vandenboom
Sympathetic tone may influence force potentiation, that is, the stimulation-induced increase in skeletal muscle mechanical function associated with myosin phosphorylation, although the mechanism for this effect remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of epinephrine on concentric twitch force potentiation of wild-type and skeletal myosin light-chain kinase devoid mouse muscle (skMLCK-/- ). To this end, concentric twitch force was assessed before and after a potentiating stimulus (PS) to determine the peak and the duration of potentiation in the absence (-EPI) and presence (+EPI) of 1 μmol/L epinephrine in both genotypes...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Yong Qin Koh, Murray D Mitchell, Fatema B Almughlliq, Kanchan Vaswani, Hassendrini N Peiris
An abnormal uterine environment can influence maternal-fetal communication, conception rate and disrupt normal embryo development, thereby affecting fertility and the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Animal variability means that development of endometrial cell lines with appropriate characteristic are required. We evaluated the effect of an infectious agent (i.e., bacterial lipopolysaccharide; LPS) and proinflammatory mediators (i.e., Interleukin 1 beta; IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFα) on inflammatory mediator gene expression and production by bovine endometrial epithelial (bEEL) and stromal (bCSC) cell lines...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Hannah Margaret Lithgow, Geraint Florida-James, Melanie Leggate
High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) has been shown to reduce the risk of chronic conditions including the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Independently, a low vitamin D status has also been linked to the prevalence of T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a synergistic metabolic effect of HIIT and vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control. A total of 20 male and female participants (age, 34 ± 9 year; BMI, 31.4 ± 2.8 kg·m-2 ) completed 6 weeks HIIT, and were randomized to ingest 100 μg·day-1 of vitamin D3 or placebo...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Mariko Omatsu-Kanbe, Kengo Yoshioka, Ryo Fukunaga, Hironori Sagawa, Hiroshi Matsuura
The aim of this study was to establish a simple and reproducible antegrade perfusion method for isolating single viable mouse heart cells and to determine the standard practical protocols that are appropriate for mice of various ages. Antegrade perfusion was performed by injecting perfusate from near the apex of the left ventricle of the excised heart, the aorta of which was clamped, using an infusion pump. This could thoroughly perfuse the myocardium through the coronary circulation. All procedures were carried out on a prewarmed heater mat under a microscope, which allows for the processes of injection and perfusion to be monitored...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Su Hee Kim, Christine M Burt Solorzano, Christopher R McCartney
It remains unclear how rapidly progesterone suppresses luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency in women. Previous studies suggested that progesterone markedly increases LH pulse amplitude but does not slow LH pulse frequency within 10 h in estradiol-pretreated women studied during the late follicular phase. However, this experimental paradigm may be a model of preovulatory physiology, and progesterone may have different effects at other times of the cycle. We studied regularly cycling, nonobese women without hyperandrogenism to assess the acute effect of progesterone during the midfollicular phase and in the absence of estradiol pretreatment...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Michael R Deyhle, Paul S Hafen, Jacob Parmley, Coray N Preece, Marissa Robison, Jacob R Sorensen, Blake Jackson, Dennis L Eggett, Chad R Hancock, Robert D Hyldahl
CXCL10 is a chemokine for activated and memory T cells with many important immunological functions. We recently found that CXCL10 is upregulated in human muscle following contraction-induced damage. No information is available on the role of CXCL10 in the context of muscle damage or repair. In this study, we confirm that CXCL10 is elevated in human muscle at 2 and 3 days following damage and perform cell culture and animal studies to examine the role of CXCL10 in muscle repair. CXCL10 did not impact proliferation rates of human primary myoblasts but it did promote myogenic differentiation in vitro, suggesting a possible direct impact on muscle regeneration...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Amelia R Adelsperger, Evan H Phillips, Hilda S Ibriga, Bruce A Craig, Linden A Green, Michael P Murphy, Craig J Goergen
Abdominal aortic aneurysms are pathological dilations that can suddenly rupture, causing more than 15,000 deaths in the U.S. annually. Current treatment focuses on observation until an aneurysm's size warrants surgical intervention. Thus, there is a need for therapeutic intervention to inhibit growth of smaller aneurysms. An experimental aneurysm model that infuses angiotensin II into apolipoprotein E-deficient mice is widely used to investigate underlying pathological mechanisms and potential therapeutics, but this model has two caveats: (1) aneurysms do not always form, and (2) aneurysm severity and growth is inconsistent among animals...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Jonathan B Heston, Joseph Simon, Nancy F Day, Melissa J Coleman, Stephanie A White
Behavioral variability is thought to be critical for trial and error learning, but where such motor exploration is generated in the central nervous system is unclear. The zebra finch songbird species offers a highly appropriate model in which to address this question. The male song is amenable to detailed measurements of variability, while the brain contains an identified cortico-basal ganglia loop that underlies this behavior. We used pharmacogenetic interventions to separately interrogate cortical and basal ganglia nodes of zebra finch song control circuitry...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Nobuhiko Akazawa, Koichiro Tanahashi, Keisei Kosaki, Song-Gyu Ra, Tomoko Matsubara, Youngju Choi, Asako Zempo-Miyaki, Seiji Maeda
The brain's low resistance ensures a robust blood flow throughout systole and diastole and is susceptible to flow pulsatility. Increased cerebral pulsatility contributes to the progression of cerebrovascular disease. Although aerobic exercise affects vascular function, little is known about the effect of exercise on the cerebral pulsatility index in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise training on the post-exercise cerebral pulsatility response in older adults. Ten healthy older adults participated in a 12-week exercise training intervention...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Hasthi U Dissanayake, Rowena L McMullan, Adrienne Gordon, Ian D Caterson, David S Celermajer, Melinda Phang, Camille Raynes-Greenow, Michael R Skilton, Jaimie W Polson
Birth weight is associated with adult cardiovascular disease, such that those at both ends of the spectrum are at increased risk. This may be driven in part by modification to autonomic control, a mechanistic contributor to hypertension. However, birth weight is a relatively crude surrogate of fetal growth; and newborn body composition may more accurately identify the "at risk" infant. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether newborns with high or low body fat have altered autonomic control of vasomotor function and cardiac contractility...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Jun Yoshino, Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Anna C Moseley, Bettina Mittendorfer, Samuel Klein
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is likely involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunction in people with obesity and diabetes. Although tissue biopsy is often used to evaluate the presence and severity of ER stress, it is not known whether acute tissue injury-induced by percutaneous muscle biopsy causes ER stress and its potential downstream effects on markers of inflammation and metabolic function. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that percutaneous biopsy-induced tissue injury causes ER stress and alters inflammatory and metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
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