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Physiological Reports

Jean-Claude Henquin
In vitro studies of human pancreatic islets are critical for understanding normal insulin secretion and its perturbations in diabetic β-cells, but the influence of islet preparation characteristics and organ donor attributes in such experiments is poorly documented. Preparations from normal donors were tested with a standardized protocol evaluating dynamic insulin secretion induced by glucose, tolbutamide, and cAMP (forskolin). Secretion rates, normalized to insulin content (fractional insulin secretion), were analyzed as a function of preparation and donor characteristics...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Thais T Zampieri, Frederick Wasinski, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Jose Donato
Several metabolic adaptations emerge during pregnancy and continue through lactation, including increases in food intake and body weight, as well as insulin and leptin resistance. These maternal adaptations are thought to play a role in offspring viability and success. Using a model of attenuated maternal metabolic adaptations induced by ablation of the Socs3 gene in leptin receptor expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice), our study aimed to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes are required for normal offspring development, and if their absence causes metabolic imbalances in adulthood...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Junwei Huang, Dusik Kim, Jiajie Shan, Asmahan Abu-Arish, Yishan Luo, John W Hanrahan
Bicarbonate plays an important role in airway host defense, however, its transport mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we examined the relative contributions of the anion channel CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, ABCC7) and the anion exchanger pendrin (SLC26A4) to HCO3 - secretion by the human airway cell line Calu-3. Pendrin and CFTR were both detected in parental Calu-3 cells, although mRNA and protein expression appeared higher for CFTR than for pendrin. Targeting pendrin transcripts with lentiviral shRNA reduced pendrin detection by immunofluorescence staining but did not alter the rates of HCO3 - or fluid secretion, HCO3 - transport under pH-stat conditions, or net HCO3 - flux across basolaterally permeabilized monolayers...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Michael Tchirikov, Erich Saling, Gauri Bapayeva, Michael Bucher, Oliver Thews, Gregor Seliger
In the first case, the AA and glucose were infused through a perinatal port system into the umbilical vein at 30 weeks' gestation due to severe IUGR. The patient received daily hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO, 100% O2 ) with 1.4 atmospheres absolute for 50 min for 7 days. At 31+4  weeks' gestation, the patient gave birth spontaneously to a newborn weighing 1378 g, pH 7.33, APGAR score 4/6/intubation. In follow-up examinations at 5 years of age, the boy was doing well without any neurological disturbance or developmental delay...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
There is bidirectional communication between the immune system and the gut microbiome, however the precise mechanisms regulating this crosstalk are not well understood. Microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) within the gut, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that produces a quick and robust activation of the immune system, may be one way by which these interactions occur. Endogenous levels of LPS in the gut are low enough that they do not usually cause disease, although, in times of increased LPS loads, they may be capable of increasing vulnerability of the gut to pathogenic bacteria...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Ryan J Colquhoun, Mitchel A Magrini, Cody T Haun, Tyler W D Muddle, Patrick M Tomko, Micheal J Luera, Cameron S Mackey, Christopher G Vann, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Jason M DeFreitas, Michael D Roberts, Nathaniel D M Jenkins
Previous investigations have reported a relationship between skeletal muscle phenotype and motor unit (MU) firing parameters during submaximal contractions. The purpose of the current investigation, however, was to examine the relationships between motor unit firing behavior during a maximal voluntary contraction, Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) isoform content, and various molecular neuromuscular targets of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in resistance-trained men. Ten resistance-trained males completed a trapezoidal ramp contraction up to 100% of their maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Katie A O'Brien, Ross D Pollock, Mike Stroud, Rob J Lambert, Alex Kumar, Robert A Atkinson, David A Green, Ana Anton-Solanas, Lindsay M Edwards, Steve D R Harridge
An insufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues (hypoxia), as is experienced upon high-altitude exposure, elicits physiological acclimatization mechanisms alongside metabolic remodeling. Details of the integrative adaptive processes in response to chronic hypobaric hypoxic exposure remain to be sufficiently investigated. In this small applied field study, subjects (n = 5, male, age 28-54 years) undertook a 40 week Antarctica expedition in the winter months, which included 24 weeks residing above 2500 m...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Shiori Ito, Toshio Hosaka, Wataru Yano, Takahiro Itou, Misako Yasumura, Yukari Shimizu, Hideyuki Kobayashi, Takashi Nakagawa, Keisuke Inoue, Sohei Tanabe, Takuma Kondo, Hitoshi Ishida
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) exert their antidiabetic effects by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Nutrition therapy is obviously important, but little is known about the interactions between SGLT2i agents and carbohydrate restriction. Therefore, we studied these interactions using an obese diabetic animal model. KK-Ay mice were pair-fed normal chow [NC; carbohydrate: fat: protein = 65:15:20], low carbohydrate [LC; 43:42:15] or severely carbohydrate restricted diets [SR; 12:45:43] for 12 weeks...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Lianwei Mu, Dong Dong Xia, Teresa Michalkiewicz, Matthew Hodges, Gary Mouradian, Girija G Konduri, Margaret T T Wong-Riley
We have identified a critical period of respiratory development in rats at postnatal days P12-13, when inhibitory influence dominates and when the response to hypoxia is at its weakest. This critical period has significant implications for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), the cause of which remains elusive. One of the known risk factors for SIDS is prematurity. A common intervention used in premature infants is hyperoxic therapy, which, if prolonged, can alter the ventilatory response to hypoxia and induce sustained inhibition of lung alveolar growth and pulmonary remodeling...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Jun Kobayashi, Isamu Murata
Crush syndrome is characterized by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). The protective effect of nitrite on experimentally induced IRI has been demonstrated in the heart, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle. IRI in tissues and systemic organs occurs due to the massive generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent systemic inflammation. Therefore, ischemic pre and postconditioning are performed in clinical practice. Intravenous administration of nitrite inhibits IRI through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
J Harry Blaise, Jee E Park, Nicholas J Bellas, Thomas M Gitchell, Vy Phan
Caffeine, one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances in the world, has long been known to alter neurological functions, such as alertness, attention, and memory. Despite caffeine's popularity, systematic investigations of its effects on synaptic plasticity in the brain are still lacking. Here we used a freely behaving rodent model of long-term potentiation (LTP), a frequently studied form of synaptic plasticity, to assess the effects of caffeine consumption on hippocampal plasticity. LTP, which is a persistent increase in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons, is a cellular mechanism widely considered to underlie the processes of learning and memory...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Clare Minahan, Hailey O'Neill, Nelie Sikkema, Sarah Joyce, Brianna Larsen, Surendran Sabapathy
We sought to determine whether oral contraception alters the gender-related differences observed in the exercise pressor reflex during isometric handgrip exercise. Fifteen men, fifteen normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and fifteen women taking monophasic oral contraceptives (WomenOC) completed two trials of a 3-min isometric handgrip exercise protocol performed at 30% of their maximal voluntary contraction: (1) where arterial occlusion was applied to the previously exercising arm during a 3-min recovery period (Occlusion trial); (2) where no arterial occlusion was applied during recovery (Control trial)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Hisashi Kato, Shinya Masuda, Tomotaka Ohira, Luna Ohira, Hisashi Takakura, Yoshinobu Ohira, Tetsuya Izawa
β-Guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA) feeding inhibits growth-associated gain of body mass. It remains unknown, however, whether and how β-GPA feeding affects growth-associated increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. We examined the effects of 4- and 8-week β-GPA feeding on serum myostatin levels and expression of genes and proteins related to adipogenesis, lipolysis, and liposynthesis in epididymal WAT (eWAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in 3-week-old, juvenile male mice. Body, eWAT, and muscle weights were significantly lower in β-GPA-fed mice than in controls after feeding...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Sidney Abou Sawan, Stephan van Vliet, Justin T Parel, Joseph W Beals, Michael Mazzulla, Daniel W D West, Andrew Philp, Zhong Li, Scott A Paluska, Nicholas A Burd, Daniel R Moore
Translocation and colocalization of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with regulatory proteins represents a critical step in translation initiation of protein synthesis in vitro. However, mechanistic insight into the control of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates at rest and after an acute bout of endurance exercise in humans is lacking. In crossover trials, eight endurance-trained men received primed-continuous infusions of L-[ring-2 H5 ]phenylalanine and consumed a mixed-macronutrient meal (18 g protein, 60 g carbohydrates, 17 g fat) at rest (REST) and after 60 min of treadmill running at 70% VO2peak (EX)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Mare Mechelinck, Marc Hein, Sven Bellen, Rolf Rossaint, Anna B Roehl
The extent of right ventricular compensation compared to the left ventricle is restricted and varies among individuals, which makes it difficult to define. While establishing a model of acute pulmonary hypertension in pigs we observed two different kinds of compensation in our animals. Looking deeper into the hemodynamic data we tried to delineate why some animals could compensate and others could not. Pulmonary hypertension (mean pressure 45 mmHg) was induced gradually by infusion of a stable thromboxane A2 analogue U46619 in a porcine model (n = 22)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Anthony A Duplanty, Robert W Siggins, Timothy Allerton, Liz Simon, Patricia E Molina
Work from our group demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA)-induces mitochondrial gene dysregulation at end-stage disease of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve rhesus macaques. Alterations in gene expression can disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis and in turn contribute to the risk of metabolic comorbidities characterized by loss of skeletal muscle (SKM) functional mass that are associated with CBA, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and prolonged ART...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Stefan M Reitzner, Jessica Norrbom, Carl Johan Sundberg, Eva-Karin Gidlund
The striated activator of rho-signaling (STARS) protein acts as a link between external stimuli and exercise adaptation such as muscle hypertrophy. However, the acute and long-term adaptational response of STARS is still unclear. This study aimed at investigating the acute and long-term endurance training response on the mRNA and protein expression of STARS and its related upstream and downstream factors in human skeletal muscle. mRNA and protein levels of STARS and related factors were assessed in skeletal muscle of healthy young men and women following an acute bout of endurance exercise (n = 15) or 12 weeks of one-legged training (n = 23)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Glen Katsnelson, George Bikopoulos, Ayesha Iqbal, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated the molecular and metabolic responses of the liver to cold-induced thermogenesis. To accomplish that, male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4°C) for 7 days. Livers were then extracted and used for the determination of glucose and fatty acid oxidation, glycogen content, the expression and content of proteins involved in insulin signaling, as well as in the regulation of gluconeogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis. Despite being hyperphagic, cold-acclimated rats displayed normoglycemia with reduced insulinemia, which suggests improved whole-body insulin sensitivity...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Louise Prestipino, Jaimie W Polson, Elisabeth Brolin, Helen E Ritchie
A slow embryonic heart rate in early-mid gestation is associated with increased risk of embryonic death and malformation, however, the long-term consequences remain unknown. We administered Dofetilide (Dof, 2.5 mg/kg), a drug that produces embryo-specific bradycardia, to pregnant rats from gestational days 11-14. Embryonic heart rate and rhythm were determined using embryo culture. Cardiovascular function was assessed in surviving adult offspring at rest, during acute psychological stress (air jet stress, AJS), and after 7 days of repeated AJS...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Halima W M Al Balushi, David C Rees, John N Brewin, Anke Hannemann, John S Gibson
Red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are under greater oxidative challenge than those from normal individuals. We postulated that oxidants generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HO) contribute to the pathogenesis of SCA through altering solute permeability. Sickling, activities of the main red cell dehydration pathways (Psickle , Gardos channel, and KCl cotransporter [KCC]), and cell volume were measured at 100, 30, and 0 mmHg O2 , together with deoxygenation-induced nonelectrolyte hemolysis...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
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