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Physiological Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100723/a-respiratory-gated-micro-ct-comparison-of-respiratory-patterns-in-free-breathing-and-mechanically-ventilated-rats
#1
Nancy L Ford, Lynda McCaig, Andrew Jeklin, James F Lewis, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, David W Holdsworth, Maria Drangova
In this study, we aim to quantify the differences in lung metrics measured in free-breathing and mechanically ventilated rodents using respiratory-gated micro-computed tomography. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine and scanned with a retrospective respiratory gating protocol on a GE Locus Ultra micro-CT scanner. Each animal was scanned while free-breathing, then intubated and mechanically ventilated (MV) and rescanned with a standard ventilation protocol (56 bpm, 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2O) and again with a ventilation protocol that approximates the free-breathing parameters (88 bpm, 2...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100722/issue-information
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087819/electrophysiologic-effects-of-the-ik1-inhibitor-pa-6-are-modulated-by-extracellular-potassium-in-isolated-guinea-pig-hearts
#3
Gregory S Hoeker, Mark A Skarsfeldt, Thomas Jespersen, Steven Poelzing
The pentamidine analog PA-6 was developed as a specific inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) antagonist, because established inhibitors either lack specificity or have side effects that prohibit their use in vivo. We previously demonstrated that BaCl2, an established IK1 inhibitor, could prolong action potential duration (APD) and increase cardiac conduction velocity (CV). However, few studies have addressed whether targeted IK1 inhibition similarly affects ventricular electrophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PA-6 on cardiac repolarization and conduction in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087818/three-hours-of-intermittent-hypoxia-increases-circulating-glucose-levels-in-healthy-adults
#4
Lauren P Newhouse, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry, Marcello C Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli, Adrian Vella, Jacqueline K Limberg
An independent association exists between sleep apnea and diabetes. Animal models suggest exposure to intermittent hypoxia, a consequence of sleep apnea, results in altered glucose metabolism and fasting hyperglycemia. However, it is unknown if acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia increases glucose concentrations in nondiabetic humans. We hypothesized plasma glucose would be increased from baseline following 3 h of intermittent hypoxia in healthy humans independent of any effect on insulin sensitivity. Eight (7M/1F, 21-34 years) healthy subjects completed two study visits randomized to 3 h of intermittent hypoxia or continuous normoxia, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087817/t-cell-redeployment-and-intracellular-cytokine-expression-following-exercise-effects-of-exercise-intensity-and-cytomegalovirus-infection
#5
Emily C LaVoy, Maryam Hussain, Justin Reed, Hawley Kunz, Mira Pistillo, Austin B Bigley, Richard J Simpson
The magnitude of lymphocytosis following exercise is directly related to exercise intensity. Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) also augments lymphocytosis after exercise. It is not known if the enhanced T-cell response to exercise due to CMV depends on exercise intensity. Furthermore, exercise-induced changes in T-cell expression of type I and type II cytokines are thought to be intensity dependent, but direct comparisons are lacking. The aim of this experiment was to determine if CMV affects the exercise-induced redistribution of T-cell subsets at varying intensities, and determine the effect of exercise intensity on CD8(+) T-cell cytokine expression...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#6
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082431/underlying-mechanism-of-the-cyclic-migrating-motor-complex-in-suncus-murinus-a-change-in-gastrointestinal-ph-is-the-key-regulator
#7
Anupom Mondal, Kouhei Koyama, Takashi Mikami, Taichi Horita, Shota Takemi, Sachiko Tsuda, Ichiro Sakata, Takafumi Sakai
In the fasted gastrointestinal (GI) tract, a characteristic cyclical rhythmic migrating motor complex (MMC) occurs in an ultradian rhythm, at 90-120 min time intervals, in many species. However, the underlying mechanism directing this ultradian rhythmic MMC pattern is yet to be completely elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the possible causes or factors that involve in the occurrence of the fasting gastric contractions by using Suncus murinus a small model animal featuring almost the same rhythmic MMC as that found in humans and dogs...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082430/increased-cardiac-work-provides-a-link-between-systemic-hypertension-and-heart-failure
#8
Alexander J Wilson, Vicky Y Wang, Gregory B Sands, Alistair A Young, Martyn P Nash, Ian J LeGrice
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an established model of human hypertensive heart disease transitioning into heart failure. The study of the progression to heart failure in these animals has been limited by the lack of longitudinal data. We used MRI to quantify left ventricular mass, volume, and cardiac work in SHRs at age 3 to 21 month and compared these indices to data from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) controls. SHR had lower ejection fraction compared with WKY at all ages, but there was no difference in cardiac output at any age...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082429/chronic-trkb-agonist-treatment-in-old-age-does-not-mitigate-diaphragm-neuromuscular-dysfunction
#9
Sarah M Greising, Amrit K Vasdev, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Previously, we found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through the high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase receptor subtype B (TrkB) enhances neuromuscular transmission in the diaphragm muscle. However, there is an age-related loss of this effect of BDNF/TrkB signaling that may contribute to diaphragm muscle sarcopenia (atrophy and force loss). We hypothesized that chronic treatment with 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a small molecule BDNF analog and TrkB agonist, will mitigate age-related diaphragm neuromuscular transmission failure and sarcopenia in old mice...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082428/a-comparison-of-substrate-oxidation-during-prolonged-exercise-in-men-at-terrestrial-altitude-and-normobaric-normoxia-following-the-coingestion-of-13c-glucose-and-13c-fructose
#10
John P O'Hara, David R Woods, Adrian Mellor, Christopher Boos, Liam Gallagher, Costas Tsakirides, Nicola C Arjomandkhah, David A Holdsworth, Carlton B Cooke, Douglas J Morrison, Thomas Preston, Roderick Fgj King
This study compared the effects of coingesting glucose and fructose on exogenous and endogenous substrate oxidation during prolonged exercise at altitude and sea level, in men. Seven male British military personnel completed two bouts of cycling at the same relative workload (55% Wmax) for 120 min on acute exposure to altitude (3375 m) and at sea level (~113 m). In each trial, participants ingested 1.2 g·min(-1) of glucose (enriched with (13)C glucose) and 0.6 g·min(-1) of fructose (enriched with (13)C fructose) directly before and every 15 min during exercise...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082427/respiratory-gas-exchange-as-a-new-aid-to-monitor-acidosis-in-endotoxemic-rats-relationship-to-metabolic-fuel-substrates-and-thermometabolic-responses
#11
Alexandre A Steiner, Elizabeth A Flatow, Camila F Brito, Monique T Fonseca, Evilin N Komegae
This study introduces the respiratory exchange ratio (RER; the ratio of whole-body CO2 production to O2 consumption) as an aid to monitor metabolic acidosis during the early phase of endotoxic shock in unanesthetized, freely moving rats. Two serotypes of lipopolysaccharide (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] O55:B5 and O127:B8) were tested at shock-inducing doses (0.5-2 mg/kg). Phasic rises in RER were observed consistently across LPS serotypes and doses. The RER rise often exceeded the ceiling of the quotient for oxidative metabolism, and was mirrored by depletion of arterial bicarbonate and decreases in pH It occurred independently of ventilatory adjustments...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082426/metabolic-profiling-reveals-reprogramming-of-lipid-metabolic-pathways-in-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-with-3-iodothyronamine
#12
Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Zeinab Bolandnazar, Martina Sabatini, Michael Rogowski, Grazia Chiellini, Riccardo Zucchi, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Complex diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with intricate pathophysiological, hormonal, and metabolic feedbacks that make their early diagnosis challenging, thus increasing the prevalence risks for obesity, cardiovascular, and fatty liver diseases. To explore the crosstalk between endocrine and lipid metabolic pathways, we administered 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), a natural analog of thyroid hormone, in a mouse model of PCOS and analyzed plasma and tissue extracts using multidisciplinary omics and biochemical approaches...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077603/influence-of-focus-of-attention-reinvestment-and-fall-history-on-elderly-gait-stability
#13
Jonathan L A de Melker Worms, John F Stins, Erwin E H van Wegen, Ian D Loram, Peter J Beek
Falls represent a substantial risk in the elderly. Previous studies have found that a focus on the outcome or effect of the movement (external focus of attention) leads to improved balance performance, whereas a focus on the movement execution itself (internal focus of attention) impairs balance performance in elderly. A shift toward more conscious, explicit forms of motor control occurs when existing declarative knowledge is recruited in motor control, a phenomenon called reinvestment. We investigated the effects of attentional focus and reinvestment on gait stability in elderly fallers and nonfallers...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057852/endothelin-1-and-et-receptors-impair-left-ventricular-function-by-mediated-coronary-arteries-dysfunction-in-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-rats
#14
Jin-Wei Wang, Ai-Ying Li, Qiu-Hong Guo, Ya-Jing Guo, James W Weiss, En-Sheng Ji
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results in cardiac dysfunction and vascular endothelium injury. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main characteristic of OSAS, is considered to be mainly responsible for cardiovascular system impairment. This study is aimed to evaluate the role of endothelin-1(ET-1) system in coronary injury and cardiac dysfunction in CIH rats. In our study, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (FiO2 9% for 1.5 min, repeated every 3 min for 8 h/d, 7 days/week for 3 weeks). After 3 weeks, the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and coronary resistance (CR) were measured with the langendorff mode in isolated hearts...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057851/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-improves-survival-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia-by-reducing-pulmonary-inflammation
#15
Brittney Burnley, Harlan P Jones
The use of glucocorticoids to reduce inflammatory responses is largely based on the knowledge of the physiological action of the endogenous glucocorticoid, cortisol. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide released from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the central nervous system. This hormone serves as an important mediator of adaptive physiological responses to stress. In addition to its role in inducing downstream cortisol release that in turn regulates immune suppression, CRH has also been found to mediate inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057850/investigation-of-the-link-between-fluid-shift-and-airway-collapsibility-as-a-mechanism-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-congestive-heart-failure
#16
Tom Carlisle, Neil R Ward, Angela Atalla, Martin R Cowie, Anita K Simonds, Mary J Morrell
The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in congestive heart failure (CHF) may be associated with rostral fluid shift. We investigated the effect of overnight rostral fluid shift on pharyngeal collapsibility (Pcrit), pharyngeal caliber (APmean), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in CHF patients. Twenty-three optimally treated systolic CHF patients were studied. Neck circumference was measured immediately prior to sleep in the evening and immediately after waking in the morning as a marker of rostral fluid shift...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053225/the-v-atpase-is-expressed-in-the-choroid-plexus-and-mediates-camp-induced-intracellular-ph-alterations
#17
Henriette L Christensen, Teodor G Păunescu, Vladimir Matchkov, Dagne Barbuskaite, Dennis Brown, Helle H Damkier, Jeppe Praetorius
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pH influences brain interstitial pH and, therefore, brain function. We hypothesized that the choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) expresses the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) as an acid extrusion mechanism in the luminal membrane to counteract detrimental elevations in CSF pH. The expression of mRNA corresponding to several V-ATPase subunits was demonstrated by RT-PCR analysis of CPE cells (CPECs) isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized the V-ATPase primarily in intracellular vesicles with only a minor fraction in the luminal microvillus area...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053224/issue-information
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039411/nasal-trpa1-mediates-irritant-induced-bradypnea-in-mice
#19
Keiichi Inui, ChangPing Chen, Jordan L Pauli, Chiharu Kuroki, Shogo Tashiro, Yuichi Kanmura, Hideki Kashiwadani, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a member of the TRP superfamily, exists in sensory neurons such as trigeminal neurons innervating the nasal cavity and vagal neurons innervating the trachea and the lung. Although TRPA1 has been proposed as an irritant receptor that, when stimulated, triggers bradypnea, precise locations of the receptors responsible have not been elucidated. Here, we examined the relative importance of TRPA1 located in the upper airway (nasal) and the lower airway (trachea/lungs) in urethane-anesthetized mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039410/effects-of-novel-muscarinic-m3-receptor-ligand-c1213-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-models
#20
Mohamed Ahmed, Sonya VanPatten, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Hardik Patel, Thomas R Coleman, Yousef Al-Abed
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex disease comprising a pathologic remodeling and thickening of the pulmonary vessels causing an after load on the right heart ventricle that can result in ventricular failure. Triggered by oxidative stress, episodes of hypoxia, and other undetermined causes, PH is associated with poor outcomes and a high rate of morbidity. In the neonate, this disease has a similar etiology but is further complicated by the transition to breathing after birth, which requires a reduction in vascular resistance...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
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