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Physiological Reports

Yuki Yoshida, Arata Tsutaki, Yuki Tamura, Karina Kouzaki, Koichi Sashihara, Shohei Nakashima, Motoyuki Tagashira, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Koichi Nakazato
Dietary apple polyphenols (AP) have been shown to exhibit beneficial effects on muscle endurance. Fast-to-slow change in the composition of myosin heavy chains was known as one of the molecular mechanisms. Here, we examined the effects of dietary AP on the capillaries and mitochondria in the rat skeletal muscle to elucidate the mechanisms underlying muscular endurance enhancement. Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided into three groups, namely, the control group, 0.5% AP group, and 5% AP group (n = 8 in each group)...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Michael J Stacey, David R Woods, Stephen J Brett, Sophie E Britland, Joanne L Fallowfield, Adrian J Allsopp, Simon K Delves
Acclimatization favors greater extracellular tonicity from lower sweat sodium, yet hyperosmolality may impair thermoregulation during heat stress. Enhanced secretion or action of vasopressin could mitigate this through increased free water retention. Aims were to determine responses of the vasopressin surrogate copeptin to dehydrating exercise and investigate its relationships with tonicity during short and long-term acclimatization. Twenty-three participants completed a structured exercise programme following arrival from a temperate to a hot climate...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Tine L Dohlmann, Morten Hindsø, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge, Steen Larsen
The effect of high-intensity training (HIT) on mitochondrial ADP sensitivity and respiratory capacity was investigated in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Twelve men and women underwent 6 weeks of HIT (7 × 1 min at app. 100% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max )). Mitochondrial respiration was measured in permeabilized muscle fibers and in abdominal SAT. Mitochondrial ADP sensitivity was determined using Michaelis Menten enzyme kinetics. VO2max , body composition and citrate synthase (CS) activity (skeletal muscle) and mtDNA (SAT) were measured before and after training...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Shigehiko Ogoh, Takuro Washio, Kazuya Suzuki, Keisuke Ikeda, Takaaki Hori, Niels D Olesen, Yoshiho Muraoka
Leg immersion in carbonated water improves endothelial-mediated vasodilator function and decreases arterial stiffness but the mechanism underlying this effect remains poorly defined. We hypothesized that carbonated water immersion increases muscle blood flow. To test this hypothesis, 10 men (age 21 ± 0 years; mean ± SD) underwent lower leg immersion in tap or carbonated water at 38°C. We evaluated gastrocnemius muscle oxyhemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy, skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, and popliteal artery (PA) blood flow by duplex ultrasound...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Jordan C Patik, Wesley J Tucker, Bryon M Curtis, Michael D Nelson, Aida Nasirian, Suwon Park, Robert M Brothers
Consumption of a representative fast-food meal (FFMeal) acutely impairs peripheral conduit artery vascular function; however, the effect on cerebral vascular function remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that a FFMeal would impair cerebral vascular function as indexed by an attenuated increase in cerebral vascular conductance (CVCI) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during a hypercapnic challenge. Ten healthy men (age: 24 ± 3 years, BMI: 24.3 ± 3.8 kg/m2 ) were studied under two conditions; a standardized FFMeal (990 kcals, 50% fat, 36% carbohydrate, 14% protein, and 2120 mg sodium) and a fasting control condition...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Steen Larsen, Anne-Kristine M Lundby, Sune Dandanell, Laura Oberholzer, Stefanie Keiser, Andreas B Andersen, Thomas Haider, Carsten Lundby
Bed rest leads to impaired glucose tolerance. Whether this is linked to maladaptation's in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and in particular to the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is at present unknown. The aim of this longitudinal study was to quantify skeletal muscle mitochondrial function (respiratory capacity and ROS production) together with glucose tolerance after 4 days of strict bed rest in healthy young male subjects (n = 14). Mitochondrial function was determined in permeabilized muscle fibers using high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry, mitochondrial content (citrate synthase [CS] activity) and antioxidant protein expression levels were assessed in parallel to this...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Maria Belen Rabaglino, Maureen Keller-Wood, Charles E Wood
Estradiol plays a critical role in stimulating the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis at the end of gestation. Estradiol action is mediated through nuclear and membrane receptors that can be modulated by ICI 182,780, a pure antiestrogen compound. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transcriptomic profile of estradiol and ICI 182,780, testing the hypothesis that ICI 182,780 antagonizes the action of estradiol in the fetal hypothalamus. Chronically catheterized ovine fetuses were infused for 48 h with: vehicle (Control, n = 6), 17β-estradiol 500 μg/kg/day (Estradiol, n = 4), ICI 182,780 5 μg/kg/day (ICI 5 μg, n = 4) and ICI 182,780 5 mg/kg/day (ICI 5 mg, n = 5)...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
James O M Plumb, Shriya Kumar, James Otto, Walter Schmidt, Toby Richards, Hugh E Montgomery, Mike P W Grocott
Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) is a function of total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) and plasma volume. [Hb] may fall by dilution due to plasma volume expansion and changes in the perioperative period may therefore correlate poorly with blood loss. A simple, reliable, repeatable way to measure plasma volume and tHb-mass would have substantial clinical utility. The "optimized carbon monoxide re-breathing method" (oCOR) meets these criteria. However, it is recommended that a minimum of 12 h (when breathing room air) is left between repeat measurements...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Daniil V Popov, Evgeny A Lysenko, Roman O Bokov, Maria A Volodina, Nadia S Kurochkina, Pavel A Makhnovskii, Mikhail Y Vyssokikh, Olga L Vinogradova
Most studies examining the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation of human skeletal muscles to aerobic exercise focused on the response to acute exercise. Here, we examined the effect of a 2-month aerobic training program on baseline parameters in human muscle. Ten untrained males performed a one-legged knee extension exercise for 1 h with the same relative intensity before and after a 2-month aerobic training program. Biopsy samples were taken from vastus lateralis muscle at rest before and after the 2 month training program (baseline samples)...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Erika I Boesen
Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and acute kidney injury (AKI) increase the risk of developing hypertension, with T cells suspected as a possible mechanistic link. Endothelin promotes renal T cell infiltration in several diseases, predominantly via the ETA receptor, but its contribution to renal T cell infiltration following renal IR injury is poorly understood. To test whether ETA receptor activation promotes T cell infiltration of the kidney following IR injury, male C57BL/6 mice were treated with the ETA receptor antagonist ABT-627 or vehicle, commencing 2 days prior to unilateral renal IR injury...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Katja Braun, Felix Atmanspacher, Rolf Schreckenberg, Ivica Grgic, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter
An active lifestyle is generally recommended for hypertensive patients to prevent subsequent end-organ damage. However, experimental data on long-term effects of exercise on hypertension are insufficient and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of exercise on renal expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 (PTHR1) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Twenty-four rats started free running wheel exercise at the age of 1...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Karl Björling, Philomeena D Joseph, Kristian Egebjerg, Max Salomonsson, Jakob L Hansen, Trine P Ludvigsen, Lars J Jensen
The myogenic response (MR) and myogenic tone (MT) in resistance vessels is crucial for maintaining peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow autoregulation. Development of MT involves G protein-coupled receptors, and may be affected by aging. AIMS: (1) to estimate the mesenteric blood flow in myogenically active small mesenteric arteries; (2) to investigate the signaling from Gαq/11 and/or Gα12 activation to MT development; (3) to investigate the role of Rho-kinase 2 and aging on MT in mesenteric resistance arteries...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Jonathan R N Lacey, Carlos Kidel, Jildou M van der Kaaij, Paul Brinkman, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, Michael P W Grocott, Michael G Mythen, Daniel S Martin
Electronic nose (e-nose) devices may be used to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath. VOCs generated via metabolic processes are candidate biomarkers of (patho)physiological pathways. We explored the feasibility of using an e-nose to generate human "breathprints" at high altitude. Furthermore, we explored the hypothesis that pathophysiological processes involved in the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS) would manifest as altered VOC profiles. Breath analysis was performed on Sherpa and lowlander trekkers at high altitude (3500 m)...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Arvind Sehgal, Mohan B Krishnamurthy, Megan Clark, Samuel Menahem
Premature infants have a high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Systemic hypertension, arterial thickness and stiffness, and increased systemic afterload may all contribute to BPD pathophysiology by altering left ventricular (LV) function and increasing pulmonary venous congestion by lowering end-diastolic compliance. This case series studied the usefulness of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by measuring clinical and echocardiographic improvements in six consecutive infants with "severe" BPD unresponsive to conventional therapy...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Friday O Zakari, Joseph O Ayo, Peter I Rekwot, Muhammed U Kawu, Ndazo S Minka
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of season on diurnal rhythms of heart (HR) and respiratory rates (RespR) in the adult, yearling, and foal donkeys during the cold-dry and hot-dry seasons under natural light/dark cycle. The resting HR and RespR were recorded bihourly for 24 consecutive hours from 06:00 to 06:00 h (GMT +1) in 30, clinically healthy donkeys (10 adults,10 yearlings, and 10 foals). Dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH), temperature-humidity index (THI) and wet-bulb globe temperature index (WBGT) inside the pen were recorded bihourly from 06:00 to 06:00 h...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Tommi Ojanen, Petri Jalanko, Heikki Kyröläinen
Physical fitness is crucial to warfighters' performance in the battlefield. Previous studies have shown negative changes in their hormonal and neuromuscular responses induced by military field training (MFT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in hormonal and immunological values and body composition during a prolonged MFT and to find out how warfighters' physical condition influences these changes. Conscripts (n = 49, age 20 ± 1 years, height 179 ± 9 cm, body mass 73.8 ± 7...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Hang Cao, Syed M Qadri, Elisabeth Lang, Lisann Pelzl, Anja T Umbach, Veronika Leiss, Lutz Birnbaumer, Bernd Nürnberg, Burkert Pieske, Jakob Voelkl, Meinrad Gawaz, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
Gαi2 , a heterotrimeric G-protein subunit, regulates various cell functions including ion channel activity, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Platelet-expressed Gαi2 is decisive for the extent of tissue injury following ischemia/reperfusion. However, it is not known whether Gαi2 plays a role in the regulation of platelet apoptosis, which is characterized by caspase activation, cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation to the platelet surface. Stimulators of platelet apoptosis include thrombin and collagen-related peptide (CoRP), which are further known to enhance degranulation and activation of αII b β3-integrin and caspases...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Iurii Semenov, Robert Brenner
Studies have shown that the activity of muscarinic receptors and their affinity to agonists are sensitive to membrane potential. It was reported that in airway smooth muscle (ASM) depolarization evoked by high K+ solution increases contractility through direct effects on M3 muscarinic receptors. In this study, we assessed the physiological relevance of voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors on ASM contractility. Our findings reveal that depolarization by high K+ solution induces contraction in intact mouse trachea predominantly through activation of acetylcholine release from embedded nerves, and to a lesser extent by direct effects on M3 receptors...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Felicia Seemann, Lauren A Baldassarre, Fiorella Llanos-Chea, Ricardo A Gonzales, Karl Grunseich, Chenxi Hu, Lissa Sugeng, Judith Meadows, Einar Heiberg, Dana C Peters
Atrial fibrosis can be estimated noninvasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), but diastolic dysfunction is clinically assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and rarely by MRI. This study aimed to evaluate well-established diastolic parameters using MRI, and validate them with TTE and left ventricular (LV) filling pressures, and to study the relationship between left atrial (LA) remodeling and parameters of diastolic function. The study retrospectively included 105 patients (53 ± 16 years, 39 females) who underwent 3D LGE MRI between 2012 and 2016...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Reshma Ramracheya, Caroline Chapman, Margarita Chibalina, Haiqiang Dou, Caroline Miranda, Alejandro González, Yusuke Moritoh, Makoto Shigeto, Quan Zhang, Matthias Braun, Anne Clark, Paul R Johnson, Patrik Rorsman, Linford J B Briant
Glucagon is the body's main hyperglycemic hormone, and its secretion is dysregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released from the gut and is used in T2DM therapy. Uniquely, it both stimulates insulin and inhibits glucagon secretion and thereby lowers plasma glucose levels. In this study, we have investigated the action of GLP-1 on glucagon release from human pancreatic islets. Immunocytochemistry revealed that only <0.5% of the α-cells possess detectable GLP-1R immunoreactivity...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
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