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Physiological Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526782/acute-impact-of-drinking-coffee-on-the-cerebral-and-systemic-vasculature
#1
Takuro Washio, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Shigehiko Ogoh
Previous studies have suggested that the risk of ischemic stroke increases immediately after drinking coffee. Indeed, drinking coffee, that is, caffeine, acutely increases arterial stiffness as well as blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance. On the other hand, it has been reported that arterial stiffening is associated with elevation in the pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which increases the risk of brain disease. However, the effect of drinking coffee on the PI of the CBF and its interaction with arterial stiffness remain unknown...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526781/cd36-is-essential-for-endurance-improvement-changes-in%C3%A2-whole-body-metabolism-and-efficient-ppar-related-transcriptional-responses-in-the-muscle-with-exercise-training
#2
Mark Christian C Manio, Shigenobu Matsumura, Daisaku Masuda, Kazuo Inoue
Although circulating fatty acids are utilized as energy substrates, they also function as ligands to the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), a family of fatty acid sensing transcription factors. Exercise training leads to various adaptations in the muscle such as elevation of glycogen content, mitochondrial number as well as upregulation of fatty acid uptake and utilization through downstream transcriptional adaptations. In line with this, CD36 has been shown to be critical in controlling fatty acid uptake and consequently, fatty acid oxidation...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526780/issue-information
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507167/early-activation-of-deleterious-molecular-pathways-in-the-kidney-in-experimental-heart-failure-with-atrial-remodeling
#4
Tomoko Ichiki, Brenda K Huntley, Gail J Harty, S Jeson Sangaralingham, John C Burnett
Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem with worsening outcomes when renal impairment is present. Therapeutics for early phase HF may be effective for cardiorenal protection, however the detailed characteristics of the kidney in early-stage HF (ES-HF), and therefore treatment for potential renal protection, are poorly defined. We sought to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of specific maladaptive pathways of ES-HF in the kidney and heart. Experimental canine ES-HF, characterized by de-novo HF with atrial remodeling but not ventricular fibrosis, was induced by right ventricular pacing for 10 days...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507166/matrix-stiffness-regulates-migration-of-human-lung-fibroblasts
#5
Shuichi Asano, Satoru Ito, Kota Takahashi, Kishio Furuya, Masashi Kondo, Masahiro Sokabe, Yoshinori Hasegawa
In patients with pulmonary diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, progressive pulmonary fibrosis is caused by dysregulated wound healing via activation of fibroblasts after lung inflammation or severe damage. Migration of fibroblasts toward the fibrotic lesions plays an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrotic tissue in the lung is much stiffer than normal lung tissue. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that the stiffness of the matrix is not only a consequence of fibrosis, but also can induce fibroblast activation...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507165/reliability-and-validity-of-an-agility-like-incremental-exercise-test-with-multidirectional-change-of-direction-movements-in-response-to-a-visual-stimulus
#6
Dennis-Peter Born, Philipp Kunz, Billy Sperlich
The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables, that is, peak oxygen uptake (V'O2peak) and heart rate (HRpeak), obtained from an agility-like incremental exercise test for team sport athletes. To investigate the test-retest reliability, 25 team sport athletes (age: 22 ± 3 years, body mass: 75 ± 7 kg, height: 182 ± 6 cm) performed an agility-like incremental exercise test on the SpeedCourt (SC) system incorporating multidirectional change-of-direction (COD) movements twice...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507164/reliability-of-low-power-cycling-efficiency-in-energy-expenditure-phenotyping-of-inactive-men-and-women
#7
Elie-Jacques Fares, Laurie Isacco, Cathriona R Monnard, Jennifer L Miles-Chan, Jean-Pierre Montani, Yves Schutz, Abdul G Dulloo
Standardized approaches to assess human energy expenditure (EE) are well defined at rest and at moderate to high-intensity exercise, but not at light intensity physical activities energetically comparable with those of daily life (i.e., 1.5-4 times the resting EE, i.e., 1.5-4 METs). Our aim was to validate a graded exercise test for assessing the energy cost of low-intensity dynamic work in physically inactive humans, that is, those who habitually do not meet the guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity levels...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483861/is-the-fvb-n-mouse-strain-truly-resistant-to-diet-induced-obesity
#8
Michelle Nascimento-Sales, Izabelle Fredo-da-Costa, Adriane C B Borges Mendes, Suzane Melo, Thais T Ravache, Thiago G B Gomez, Fernanda Gaisler-Silva, Miriam O Ribeiro, Arnaldo R Santos, Marcela S Carneiro-Ramos, Marcelo A Christoffolete
C57Bl/6J mice are the gold standard animal model of diet-induced obesity. These animals become obese with higher adiposity, blood fasting glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Conversely, the FVB/N mouse line is thought to be resistant to diet-induced obesity, with low or no weight gain and adiposity in response to a HFD In this study, we investigated whether FVB/N mice are resistant or susceptible to metabolic disorder that is promoted by a HFD Biometric parameters and blood chemistry were analyzed in C57Bl/6J and FVB/N mice that were fed a chow diet or HFD Glucose and insulin sensitivity were assessed by performing the glucose tolerance test and measuring serum insulin/glucose and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483860/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-predominant-central-sleep-apnea-relieved-by-positive-airway-pressure-a-case-report
#9
Noah P Jouett, Michael L Smith, Donald E Watenpaugh, Maryam Siddiqui, Maleeha Ahmad, Farrukh Siddiqui
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is characterized by intermittent apneas and hypopneas during sleep that result from absent central respiratory drive. CSA occurs almost exclusively during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep due to enhanced neuronal ventilatory drive during REM sleep that makes central apneas highly unlikely to form. A 45-year-old obese African American female presented with co-existing Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and CSA, not in the form of mixed or complex sleep apnea. Peculiarly, her CSA occurred only during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, which is exceedingly rare...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483859/wearing-graduated-compression-stockings-augments-cutaneous-vasodilation-but-not-sweating-during-exercise-in-the-heat
#10
Naoto Fujii, Toshiya Nikawa, Bun Tsuji, Glen P Kenny, Narihiko Kondo, Takeshi Nishiyasu
The activation of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating are essential to the regulation of core temperature during exercise in the heat. We assessed the effect of graduated compression induced by wearing stockings on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat (30°C). On two separate occasions, nine young males exercised for 45 min or until core temperature reached ~1.5°C above baseline resting while wearing either (1) stockings causing graduated compression (graduate compression stockings, GCS), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without compression (Control)...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483858/validation-of-a-routine-two-sample-iohexol-plasma-clearance-assessment-of-gfr-and-an-evaluation-of-common-endogenous-markers-in-a-rat-model-of-ckd
#11
Mandy E Turner, Kimberly J Laverty, Paul S Jeronimo, Martin Kaufmann, Glenville Jones, Christine A White, Rachel M Holden, Michael A Adams
Endogenous markers of kidney function are insensitive to early declines in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and in rodent models, validated, practical alternatives are unavailable. In this study, we determined GFR by modeling the plasma clearance of two compounds, iohexol and inulin, and compared the findings to common endogenous markers. All plasma clearance methods of both iohexol and inulin detected a decline in renal function weeks prior to any increase in endogenous marker. Iohexol plasma clearance and inulin plasma clearance had a very high agreement and minimal bias when using 12-sample models...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483857/cortical-dynamics-of-disfluency-in-adults-who-stutter
#12
Ranit Sengupta, Shalin Shah, Torrey M J Loucks, Kristin Pelczarski, J Scott Yaruss, Katie Gore, Sazzad M Nasir
Stuttering is a disorder of speech production whose origins have been traced to the central nervous system. One of the factors that may underlie stuttering is aberrant neural miscommunication within the speech motor network. It is thus argued that disfluency (any interruption in the forward flow of speech) in adults who stutter (AWS) could be associated with anomalous cortical dynamics. Aberrant brain activity has been demonstrated in AWS in the absence of overt disfluency, but recording neural activity during disfluency is more challenging...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473320/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-brain-regions-associated-with-early-stage-neurodegeneration
#13
Brina Snyder, Brent Shell, J Thomas Cunningham, Rebecca L Cunningham
Sleep apnea is a common comorbidity of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have shown an association between elevated oxidative stress and inflammation with severe sleep apnea. Elevated oxidative stress and inflammation are also hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. We show increased oxidative stress and inflammation in a manner consistent with early stages of neurodegenerative disease in an animal model of mild sleep apnea. Male rats were exposed to 7 days chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) for 8 h/day during the light period...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468850/temporal-and-regional-intestinal-changes-in-permeability-tight-junction-and-cytokine-gene-expression-following-ovariectomy-induced-estrogen-deficiency
#14
Fraser L Collins, Naiomy D Rios-Arce, Shelby Atkinson, Hayley Bierhalter, Daniel Schoenherr, Jason N Bazil, Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Estrogen deficiency that occurs during menopause is associated with wide-ranging consequences, including effects on the gastrointestinal system. Although previous studies have implicated a role for estrogen in modulating colonic permeability and inflammatory gene expression, the kinetics of these changes following loss of estrogen and whether they are intestinal region specific are unknown. To test this, we performed sham or ovariectomy (OVX) surgery in BALB/c mice and examined permeability (in vivo and ex vivo) and gene expression changes in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postsurgery...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468849/musculotendon-adaptations-and-preservation-of-spinal-reflex-pathways-following-agonist-to-antagonist-tendon-transfer
#15
Mark A Lyle, T Richard Nichols, Elma Kajtaz, Huub Maas
Tendon transfer surgeries are performed to restore lost motor function, but outcomes are variable, particularly those involving agonist-to-antagonist muscles. Here, we evaluated the possibility that lack of proprioceptive feedback reorganization and musculotendon adaptations could influence outcomes. Plantaris-to-tibialis anterior tendon transfer along with resection of the distal third of the tibialis anterior muscle belly was performed in eight cats. Four cats had concurrent transection of the deep peroneal nerve...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455453/short-term-heat-stress-alters-redox-balance-in-porcine-skeletal-muscle
#16
Olga Volodina, Shanthi Ganesan, Sarah C Pearce, Nicholas K Gabler, Lance H Baumgard, Robert P Rhoads, Joshua T Selsby
Heat stress contributes to higher morbidity and mortality in humans and animals and is an agricultural economic challenge because it reduces livestock productivity. Redox balance and associated mitochondrial responses appear to play a central role in heat stress-induced skeletal muscle pathology. We have previously reported increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial content in oxidative muscle following 12 h of heat stress. The purposes of this investigation were to characterize heat stress-induced oxidative stress and changes in mitochondrial content and biogenic signaling in oxidative skeletal muscle...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455452/corticospinal-excitability-to-the-biceps-brachii-and-its-relationship-to-postactivation-potentiation-of-the-elbow-flexors
#17
Brandon W Collins, Laura H Gale, Natasha C M Buckle, Duane C Button
We examined the effects of a submaximal voluntary elbow flexor contraction protocol on measures of corticospinal excitability and postactivation potentiation of evoked muscle forces and if these measures were state-dependent (rest vs. voluntary muscle contraction). Participants completed four experimental sessions where they rested or performed a 5% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the elbow flexors prior to, immediately, and 5 min following a submaximal contraction protocol. During rest or 5% MVC, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transmastoid electrical stimulation, electrical stimulation of biceps brachii motor point and Erb's point were elicited to induce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cervicomedullary MEPs (CMEPs), potentiated twitch (PT) force, and maximal muscle compound action potential (Mmax), respectively prior to, immediately, and 5 min postcontraction protocol...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455451/long-term-mir-29b-suppression-reduces-aneurysm-formation-in-a-marfan-mouse-model
#18
Homare Okamura, Fabian Emrich, Jeffrey Trojan, Peter Chiu, Alex R Dalal, Mamoru Arakawa, Tetsuya Sato, Kiril Penov, Tiffany Koyano, Albert Pedroza, Andrew J Connolly, Marlene Rabinovitch, Cristina Alvira, Michael P Fischbein
Aortic root aneurysm formation and subsequent dissection and/or rupture remain the leading cause of death in patients with Marfan syndrome. Our laboratory has reported that miR-29b participates in aortic root/ascending aorta extracellular matrix remodeling during early aneurysm formation in Fbn1(C1039G/+) Marfan mice. Herein, we sought to determine whether miR-29b suppression can reduce aneurysm formation long-term. Fbn1(C1039G/+) Marfan mice were treated with retro-orbital LNA-anti-miR-29b inhibitor or scrambled-control-miR before aneurysms develop either (1) a single dose prenatally (pregnant Fbn1(C1039G/+) mice at 14...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455450/microvascular-function-in-pre-eclampsia-is-influenced-by-insulin-resistance-and-an-imbalance-of-angiogenic-mediators
#19
Anshuman Ghosh, Nicholas S Freestone, Nicholas Anim-Nyame, Francesca I F Arrigoni
In preeclampsia, maternal microvascular function is disrupted and angiogenesis is dysfunctional. Insulin resistance that occurs in some pregnancies also pathologically affects microvascular function. We wished to examine the relationship of angiogenic mediators and insulin resistance on microvascular health in pregnancy. We performed a nested, case-control study of 16 women who developed preeclampsia with 17 normal pregnant controls. We hypothesized that the impaired microvascular blood flow in preeclamptic women associated with an increased ratio of the antiangiogenic factors; (s-endoglin [sEng] and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 [sFlt-1]) and proangiogenic molecule (placental growth factor [PlGF]) could be influenced by insulin resistance...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438986/transient-enalapril-attenuates-the-reduction-in-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-prenatally-programmed-rats
#20
Asifhusen Mansuri, Ayah Elmaghrabi, Issa Alhamoud, Susan K Legan, Jyothsna Gattineni, Michel Baum
A maternal low-protein diet has been shown to program hypertension and a reduction in glomerular filtration rate in adult offspring. This study examined the effect of continuous administration of enalapril in the drinking water and transient administration of enalapril administered from 21 to 42 days of age on blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in male rats whose mothers were fed a 20% protein diet (control) or a 6% protein diet (programmed) during the last half of pregnancy. After birth all rats were fed a 20% protein diet...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
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