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Redox Biology

Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
Wei-Jun Wu, Wan-Wan Jia, Xin-Hua Liu, Li-Long Pan, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Di Yang, Xiao-Yan Shen, Liang Liu, Yi Zhun Zhu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third physiological gasotransmitter, is well recognized as an anti-inflammatory mediator in various inflammatory conditions. Herein, we explored the protective effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also known as ZYZ-802), an endogenous H2S modulator, on RA and determined the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, SPRC concentration-dependently attenuated inflammatory mediator expression, reactive oxidase species generation, and the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in interleukin (IL)-1β-induced human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes MH7A...
October 6, 2016: Redox Biology
Kuo Du, Anup Ramachandran, Hartmut Jaeschke
Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is characterized by an extensive oxidative stress. However, its source, pathophysiological role and possible therapeutic potential if targeted, have been controversially described. Earlier studies argued for cytochrome P450-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) during APAP metabolism, which resulted in massive lipid peroxidation and subsequent liver injury. However, subsequent studies convincingly challenged this assumption and the current paradigm suggests that mitochondria are the main source of ROS, which impair mitochondrial function and are responsible for cell signaling resulting in cell death...
October 4, 2016: Redox Biology
Ashleigh M Byrne, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Sarah L Roche, Jennifer N Moloney, Alice C Wyse-Jackson, Thomas G Cotter
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common retinal degenerative conditions affecting people worldwide, and is currently incurable. It is characterized by the progressive loss of photoreceptors, in which the death of rod cells leads to the secondary death of cone cells; the cause of eventual blindness. As rod cells die, retinal-oxygen metabolism becomes perturbed, leading to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus oxidative stress; a key factor in the secondary death of cones. In this study, norgestrel, an FDA-approved synthetic analog of progesterone, was found to be a powerful neuroprotective antioxidant, preventing light-induced ROS in photoreceptor cells, and subsequent cell death...
October 4, 2016: Redox Biology
Priscila de Souza, Karla Lorena Guarido, Karin Scheschowitsch, Luísa Mota da Silva, Maria Fernanda Werner, Jamil Assreuy, José Eduardo da Silva-Santos
We investigated long-lasting changes in endothelial and vascular function in adult rat survivors of severe sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. For this, male Wistar rats (200-350g) had their cecum punctured once (non-transfixing hole) with a 14-gauge needle. Performed in this way, a mortality rate around 30% was achieved in the first 72h. The survivors, together with age-matched control rats (not subjected to CLP), were maintained in our holding room for 60 days (S60 group) and had the descending thoracic aorta processed for functional, histological, biochemical or molecular analyses...
September 30, 2016: Redox Biology
Hua Chen, Gang Cao, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Nosratola D Vaziri, Zhi-Hao Zhang, Jia-Rong Mao, Xu Bai, Ying-Yong Zhao
Early detection is critical in prevention and treatment of kidney disease. However currently clinical laboratory and histopathological tests do not provide region-specific and accurate biomarkers for early detection of kidney disease. The present study was conducted to identify sensitive biomarkers for early detection and progression of tubulo-interstitial nephropathy in aristolochic acid I-induced rats at weeks 4, 8 and 12. Biomarkers were validated using aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) rats at week 24, adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) rats and CKD patients...
September 28, 2016: Redox Biology
Christa Zollbrecht, A Erik G Persson, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg, Mattias Carlström
BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrite has shown beneficial effects in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases partly via attenuation of NADPH-oxidase (NOX)-mediated oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of S-nitrosation or altered expression of NOX subunits, and the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in nitrite-derived nitric oxide (NO) production. METHODS: Mouse macrophages were activated with LPS in the presence or absence of nitrite...
September 28, 2016: Redox Biology
Guoyang Huang, Jiale Diao, Hongjie Yi, Li Xu, Jiajun Xu, Weigang Xu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating disease, effective prevention measures are in desperate need. Our previous work found that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning significantly protected rats from SCI after stimulated diving, and in vitro study further testified that HBO protected primary cultured rat spinal neurons from oxidative insult and oxygen glucose deprivation injury via heat shock protein (HSP) 32 induction. In this study, underlying molecular mechanisms were further investigated. The results showed that a single exposure to HBO significantly increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and activated MEK1/2, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, CREB, Bach1 and Nrf2...
September 24, 2016: Redox Biology
L S E P W Castro, M R Kviecinski, F Ourique, E B Parisotto, V M A S Grinevicius, J F G Correia, D Wilhelm Filho, R C Pedrosa
This work evaluated the antitumor effects of albendazole (ABZ) and its relationship with modulation of oxidative stress and induction of DNA damage. The present results showed that ABZ causes oxidative cleavage on calf-thymus DNA suggesting that this compound can break DNA. ABZ treatment decreased MCF-7 cell viability (EC50=44.9 for 24h) and inhibited MCF-7 colony formation (~67.5% at 5μM). Intracellular ROS levels increased with ABZ treatment (~123%). The antioxidant NAC is able to revert the cytotoxic effects, ROS generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential of MCF-7 cells treated with ABZ...
September 22, 2016: Redox Biology
Georgina A Rivera-Ingraham, Aude Nommick, Eva Blondeau-Bidet, Peter Ladurner, Jehan-Hervé Lignot
In the context of global change, there is an urgent need for researchers in conservation physiology to understand the physiological mechanisms leading to the acquisition of stress acclimation phenotypes. Intertidal organisms continuously cope with drastic changes in their environmental conditions, making them outstanding models for the study of physiological acclimation. As the implementation of such processes usually comes at a high bioenergetic cost, a mitochondrial/oxidative stress approach emerges as the most relevant approach when seeking to analyze whole-animal responses...
September 22, 2016: Redox Biology
Nicholas O Thomas, Kate P Shay, Amanda R Kelley, Judy A Butler, Tory M Hagen
Isolated hepatocytes from young (4-6mo) and old (24-26mo) F344 rats were exposed to increasing concentrations of menadione, a vitamin K derivative and redox cycling agent, to determine whether the age-related decline in Nrf2-mediated detoxification defenses resulted in heightened susceptibility to xenobiotic insult. An LC50 for each age group was established, which showed that aging resulted in a nearly 2-fold increase in susceptibility to menadione (LC50 for young: 405μM; LC50 for old: 275μM). Examination of the known Nrf2-regulated pathways associated with menadione detoxification revealed, surprisingly, that NAD(P)H: quinone oxido-reductase 1 (NQO1) protein levels and activity were induced 9-fold and 4-fold with age, respectively (p=0...
September 22, 2016: Redox Biology
Weiqian Chen, Peng Zou, Zhongwei Zhao, Xi Chen, Xiaoxi Fan, Rajamanickam Vinothkumar, Ri Cui, Fazong Wu, Qianqian Zhang, Guang Liang, Jiansong Ji
Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a new potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. Rapamycin and rapamycin analogs are undergoing clinical trials and have produced clinical responses in a subgroup of cancer patients. However, monotherapy with rapamycin at safe dosage fails to induce cell apoptosis and tumor regression which has hampered its clinical application. This has led to the exploration of more effective combinatorial regimens to enhance the effectiveness of rapamycin...
September 21, 2016: Redox Biology
Daniel J Tyrrell, Manish S Bharadwaj, Matthew J Jorgensen, Thomas C Register, Anthony J A Molina
Blood based bioenergetic profiling strategies are emerging as potential reporters of systemic mitochondrial function; however, the extent to which these measures reflect the bioenergetic capacity of other tissues is not known. The premise of this work is that highly metabolically active tissues, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle, are susceptible to differences in systemic bioenergetic capacity. Therefore, we tested whether the respiratory capacity of blood cells, monocytes and platelets, are related to contemporaneous respirometric assessments of skeletal and cardiac muscle mitochondria...
September 21, 2016: Redox Biology
Ivan Dimauro, Mattia Scalabrin, Cristina Fantini, Elisa Grazioli, Maria Reyes Beltran Valls, Neri Mercatelli, Attilio Parisi, Stefania Sabatini, Luigi Di Luigi, Daniela Caporossi
Regular physical activity is effective as prevention and treatment for different chronic conditions related to the ageing processes. In fact, a sedentary lifestyle has been linked to a worsening of cellular ageing biomarkers such as telomere length (TL) and/or specific epigenetic changes (e.g. DNA methylation), with increase of the propensity to aging-related diseases and premature death. Extending our previous findings, we aimed to test the hypothesis that 12 weeks of low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) may attenuate age-associated genomic changes...
September 21, 2016: Redox Biology
Anna Czajka, Afshan N Malik
Damage to renal tubular and mesangial cells is central to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), a complication of diabetes which can lead to renal failure. Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in DN. Since the kidney is an organ with high bioenergetic needs, we postulated that hyperglycemia causes damage to renal mitochondria resulting in bioenergetic deficit. The bioenergetic profiles and the effect of hyperglycemia on cellular respiration of human primary mesangial (HMCs) and proximal tubular cells (HK-2) were compared in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions using the seahorse bio-analyzer...
September 17, 2016: Redox Biology
Ruoting Ding, Hui Jiang, Baihui Sun, Xiaoliang Wu, Wei Li, Siyuan Zhu, Congrui Liao, Zhaoming Zhong, Jianting Chen
Oxidative stress is a possible pathogenesis of hyperalgesia. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a new family of oxidized protein compounds, have been considered as a novel marker of oxidative stress. However, the role of AOPPs in the mechanism of hyperalgesia remains unknown. Our study aims to investigate whether AOPPs have an effect on hyperalgesia and the possible underlying mechanisms. To identify the AOPPs involved, we induced hyperalgesia in rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in hindpaw...
September 17, 2016: Redox Biology
Gabriella Testa, Erica Staurenghi, Chiara Zerbinati, Simona Gargiulo, Luigi Iuliano, Giorgio Giaccone, Fausto Fantò, Giuseppe Poli, Gabriella Leonarduzzi, Paola Gamba
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a gradually debilitating disease that leads to dementia. The molecular mechanisms underlying AD are still not clear, and at present no reliable biomarkers are available for the early diagnosis. In the last several years, together with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, altered cholesterol metabolism in the brain has become increasingly implicated in AD progression. A significant body of evidence indicates that oxidized cholesterol, in the form of oxysterols, is one of the main triggers of AD...
September 16, 2016: Redox Biology
Walter A Baseler, Luke C Davies, Laura Quigley, Lisa A Ridnour, Jonathan M Weiss, S Perwez Hussain, David A Wink, Daniel W McVicar
Inflammatory maturation of M1 macrophages by proinflammatory stimuli such as toll like receptor ligands results in profound metabolic reprogramming resulting in commitment to aerobic glycolysis as evidenced by repression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and enhanced glucose utilization. In contrast, "alternatively activated" macrophages adopt a metabolic program dominated by fatty acid-fueled OXPHOS. Despite the known importance of these developmental stages on the qualitative aspects of an inflammatory response, relatively little is know regarding the regulation of these metabolic adjustments...
September 16, 2016: Redox Biology
Jingyan Han, Robert M Weisbrod, Di Shao, Yosuke Watanabe, Xiaoyan Yin, Markus M Bachschmid, Francesca Seta, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger, Reiko Matsui, Mengwei Zang, Naomi M Hamburg, Richard A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is implicated in increased vascular permeability associated with metabolic disorders, but the underlying redox mechanism is poorly defined. S-glutathionylation, a stable adduct of glutathione with protein sulfhydryl, is a reversible oxidative modification of protein and is emerging as an important redox signaling paradigm in cardiovascular physiopathology. The present study determines the role of protein S-glutathionylation in metabolic stress-induced endothelial cell permeability...
September 11, 2016: Redox Biology
Gaetano Serviddio, Francesco Bellanti, Rosanna Villani, Rosanna Tamborra, Chiara Zerbinati, Maria Blonda, Marco Ciacciarelli, Giuseppe Poli, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Luigi Iuliano
Lipid accumulation is the hallmark of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and has been suggested to play a role in promoting fatty liver inflammation. Previous findings indicate that during oxidative stress conditions excess cholesterol autoxidizes to oxysterols. To date, the role of oxysterols and their potential interaction with fatty acids accumulation in NASH pathogenesis remains little investigated. We used the nutritional model of high fatty acids (HFA), high cholesterol (HCh) or high fat and high cholesterol (HFA+FCh) diets and explored by a lipidomic approach, the blood and liver distribution of fatty acids and oxysterols in response to dietary manipulation...
September 9, 2016: Redox Biology
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