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Redox Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918959/specificity-protein-1-zinc-finger-protein-179-pathway-is-involved-in-the-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-following-brain-injury
#1
Jian-Ying Chuang, Tzu-Jen Kao, Shu-Hui Lin, An-Chih Wu, Pin-Tse Lee, Tsung-Ping Su, Shiu-Hwa Yeh, Yi-Chao Lee, Chung-Che Wu, Wen-Chang Chang
After sudden traumatic brain injuries, secondary injuries may occur during the following days or weeks, which leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since ROS exacerbate brain damage, it is important to protect neurons against their activity. Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) was shown to act as a neuroprotective factor, but the regulation of gene expression under oxidative stress remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated an increase in Znf179 protein levels in both in vitro model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation and animal models of traumatic brain injury...
November 29, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912197/rac1-nadph-oxidase-signaling-promotes-cd36-activation-under-glucotoxic-conditions-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#2
Suma Elumalai, Udayakumar Karunakaran, In Kyu Lee, Jun Sung Moon, Kyu Chang Won
We recently reported that cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, plays a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced β-cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression. Emerging evidence suggests that the small GTPase Rac1 is involved in the pathogenesis of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the role of Rac1 in CD36 activation and its impact on β-cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus...
November 23, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912195/mass-spectrometry-profiling-of-oxysterols-in-human-sperm-identifies-25-hydroxycholesterol-as-a-marker-of-sperm-function
#3
Chiara Zerbinati, Luisa Caponecchia, Rosa Puca, Marco Ciacciarelli, Pietro Salacone, Annalisa Sebastianelli, Antonio Pastore, Giovanni Palleschi, Vincenzo Petrozza, Natale Porta, Rocco Rago, Antonio Carbone, Luigi Iuliano
Cholesterol is a main lipid component of sperm cell that is essential for sperm membrane fluidity, capacitation, and acrosomal reaction. Recent data obtained in bovine sperm showed that sperm capacitation is associated to the formation of oxysterols, oxidized products of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to profile oxysterol content in human semen, and to investigate their potential role in sperm pathophysiology. Among the 12 oxysterols analyzed, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) resulted the most represented in normozoospermic samples, and its concentration positively correlated with spermatozoa number...
November 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889639/sulforaphane-is-a-nrf2-independent-inhibitor-of-mitochondrial-fission
#4
Gary B O'Mealey, William L Berry, Scott M Plafker
The KEAP1-Nrf2-ARE antioxidant system is a principal means by which cells respond to oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Sulforaphane (SFN), an electrophilic isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, activates the KEAP1-Nrf2-ARE pathway and has become a molecule-of-interest in the treatment of diseases in which chronic oxidative stress plays a major etiological role. We demonstrate here that the mitochondria of cultured, human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE-1) cells treated with SFN undergo hyperfusion that is independent of both Nrf2 and its cytoplasmic inhibitor KEAP1...
November 21, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889641/increased-mitochondrial-superoxide-in-the-brain-but-not-periphery-sensitizes-mice-to-angiotensin-ii-mediated-hypertension
#5
Adam J Case, Jun Tian, Matthew C Zimmerman
Angiotensin II (AngII) elicits the production of superoxide (O2(•-)) from mitochondria in numerous cell types within peripheral organs and in the brain suggesting a role for mitochondrial-produced O2(•-) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, it remains unclear if mitochondrial O2(•-) is causal in the development of AngII-induced hypertension, or if mitochondrial O2(•-) in the absence of elevated AngII is sufficient to increase blood pressure. Further, the tissue specific (i.e. central versus peripheral) redox regulation of AngII hypertension remains elusive...
November 20, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888692/mitochondrial-gsh-replenishment-as-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-niemann-pick-type-c-disease
#6
Sandra Torres, Nuria Matías, Anna Baulies, Susana Nuñez, Cristina Alarcon-Vila, Laura Martinez, Natalia Nuño, Anna Fernandez, Joan Caballeria, Thierry Levade, Alba Gonzalez-Franquesa, Pablo Garcia-Rovés, Elisa Balboa, Silvana Zanlungo, Gemma Fabrías, Josefina Casas, Carlos Enrich, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, José C Fernández-Checa
Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding NPC1/NPC2 proteins, characterized by neurological defects, hepatosplenomegaly and premature death. While the primary biochemical feature of NPC disease is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides, predominantly in endolysosomes, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation has also been reported. As accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria is known to impair the transport of GSH into mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) depletion, we investigated the impact of mGSH recovery in NPC disease...
November 20, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912196/nox-isoforms-in-the-development-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#7
Kin Lung Siu, Qiang Li, Yixuan Zhang, Jun Guo, Ji Youn Youn, Jie Du, Hua Cai
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and we have recently established a causal role of uncoupled eNOS in this severe human disease. We have also shown that activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) lies upstream of uncoupled eNOS. Therefore, identification of the specific NOX isoforms that are required for eNOS uncoupling and AAA formation would ultimately lead to novel therapies for AAA. In the present study, we used the Ang II infused hph-1 mice to examine the roles of NOX isoforms in the development of AAA...
November 19, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889640/inhibition-of-autophagy-with-bafilomycin-and-chloroquine-decreases-mitochondrial-quality-and-bioenergetic-function-in-primary-neurons
#8
Matthew Redmann, Gloria A Benavides, Taylor F Berryhill, Willayat Y Wani, Xiaosen Ouyang, Michelle S Johnson, Saranya Ravi, Stephen Barnes, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang
Autophagy is an important cell recycling program responsible for the clearance of damaged or long-lived proteins and organelles. Pharmacological modulators of this pathway have been extensively utilized in a wide range of basic research and pre-clinical studies. Bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine are commonly used compounds that inhibit autophagy by targeting the lysosomes but through distinct mechanisms. Since it is now clear that mitochondrial quality control, particularly in neurons, is dependent on autophagy, it is important to determine whether these compounds modify cellular bioenergetics...
November 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888691/redox-imbalance-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-the-diabetic-lung
#9
Jinzi Wu, Zhen Jin, Liang-Jun Yan
Although the lung is one of the least studied organs in diabetes, increasing evidence indicates that it is an inevitable target of diabetic complications. Nevertheless, the underlying biochemical mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes remain largely unexplored. Given that redox imbalance, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in diabetic tissue injury, we set out to investigate mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate NADH/NAD(+) redox status, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung...
November 17, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889642/redox-control-of-senescence-and-age-related-disease
#10
REVIEW
Akshaya Chandrasekaran, Maria Del Pilar Sosa Idelchik, J Andrés Melendez
The signaling networks that drive the aging process, associated functional deterioration, and pathologies has captured the scientific community's attention for decades. While many theories exist to explain the aging process, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) provides a signaling link between engagement of cellular senescence and several age-associated pathologies. Cellular senescence has evolved to restrict tumor progression but the accompanying senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) promotes pathogenic pathways...
November 16, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863297/degenerate-cysteine-patterns-mediate-two-redox-sensing-mechanisms-in-the-papillomavirus-e7-oncoprotein
#11
Gabriela Camporeale, Juan R Lorenzo, Maria G Thomas, Edgardo Salvatierra, Silvia S Borkosky, Marikena G Risso, Ignacio E Sánchez, Gonzalo de Prat Gay, Leonardo G Alonso
Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus induces deregulation of cellular redox homeostasis. Virus replication and papillomavirus-induced cell transformation require persistent expression of viral oncoproteins E7 and E6 that must retain their functionality in a persistent oxidative environment. Here, we dissected the molecular mechanisms by which E7 oncoprotein can sense and manage the potentially harmful oxidative environment of the papillomavirus-infected cell. The carboxy terminal domain of E7 protein from most of the 79 papillomavirus viral types of alpha genus, which encloses all the tumorigenic viral types, is a cysteine rich domain that contains two classes of cysteines: strictly conserved low reactive Zn(+2) binding and degenerate reactive cysteine residues that can sense reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 12, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835780/brain-adaptation-to-hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-in-mice
#12
Laura Terraneo, Rita Paroni, Paola Bianciardi, Toniella Giallongo, Stephana Carelli, Alfredo Gorio, Michele Samaja
AIMS: Hyperoxic breathing might lead to redox imbalance and signaling changes that affect cerebral function. Paradoxically, hypoxic breathing is also believed to cause oxidative stress. Our aim is to dissect the cerebral tissue responses to altered O2 fractions in breathed air by assessing the redox imbalance and the recruitment of the hypoxia signaling pathways. RESULTS: Mice were exposed to mild hypoxia (10%O2), normoxia (21%O2) or mild hyperoxia (30%O2) for 28 days, sacrificed and brain tissue excised and analyzed...
November 4, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835779/berberine-protects-against-6-ohda-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-and-zebrafish-through-hormetic-mechanisms-involving-pi3k-akt-bcl-2-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathways
#13
Chao Zhang, Chuwen Li, Shenghui Chen, Zhiping Li, Xuejing Jia, Kai Wang, Jiaolin Bao, Yeer Liang, Xiaotong Wang, Meiwan Chen, Peng Li, Huanxing Su, Jian-Bo Wan, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Kechun Liu, Chengwei He
Berberine (BBR) is a renowned natural compound that exhibits potent neuroprotective activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Hormesis is an adaptive mechanism generally activated by mild oxidative stress to protect the cells from further damage. Many phytochemicals have been shown to induce hormesis. This study aims to investigate whether the neuroprotective activity of BBR is mediated by hormesis and the related signaling pathways in 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cells and zebrafish neurotoxic models...
November 4, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840283/vitamin-b12-deficiency-results-in-severe-oxidative-stress-leading-to-memory-retention-impairment-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Tomohiro Bito, Taihei Misaki, Yukinori Yabuta, Takahiro Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Kawano, Fumio Watanabe
Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H2O2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities, indicating that vitamin B12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms...
November 3, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846439/a-new-role-for-oxidative-stress-in-aging-the-accelerated-aging-phenotype-in-sod1-mice-is-correlated-to-increased-cellular-senescence
#15
Yiqiang Zhang, Archana Unnikrishnan, Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Yuhong Liu, Yan Li, Yuji Ikeno, Danuta Sosnowska, Holly Van Remmen, Arlan Richardson
In contrast to other mouse models that are deficient in antioxidant enzymes, mice null for Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1(-/)(-) mice) show a major decrease in lifespan and several accelerated aging phenotypes. The goal of this study was to determine if cell senescence might be a contributing factor in the accelerated aging phenotype observed in the Sod1(-/)(-) mice. We focused on kidney because it is a tissue that has been shown to a significant increase in senescent cells with age. The Sod1(-/)(-) mice are characterized by high levels of DNA oxidation in the kidney, which is attenuated by DR...
November 2, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810734/the-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-modulates-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-leukocyte-endothelium-interactions-in-leukocytes-isolated-from-type-2-diabetic-patients
#16
Irene Escribano-Lopez, Noelia Diaz-Morales, Susana Rovira-Llopis, Arantxa Martinez de Marañon, Samuel Orden, Angeles Alvarez, Celia Bañuls, Milagros Rocha, Michael P Murphy, Antonio Hernandez-Mijares, Victor M Victor
It is not known if the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as mitoquinone (MitoQ) can modulate oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in T2D patients. We aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of MitoQ on oxidative stress parameters and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in leukocytes of T2D patients. The study population consisted of 98 T2D patients and 71 control subjects. We assessed metabolic and anthropometric parameters, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1), NFκB-p65, TNFα and leukocyte-endothelium interactions...
October 27, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810735/profound-differences-between-humans-and-rodents-in-the-ability-to-concentrate-salivary-nitrate-implications-for-translational-research
#17
Marcelo F Montenegro, Michaela L Sundqvist, Carina Nihlén, Michael Hezel, Mattias Carlström, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon O Lundberg
In humans dietary circulating nitrate accumulates rapidly in saliva through active transport in the salivary glands. By this mechanism resulting salivary nitrate concentrations are 10-20 times higher than in plasma. In the oral cavity nitrate is reduced by commensal bacteria to nitrite, which is subsequently swallowed and further metabolized to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides in blood and tissues. This entero-salivary circulation of nitrate is central in the various NO-like effects observed after ingestion of inorganic nitrate...
October 25, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810737/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-enhances-key-enzymatic-activities-of-hepatic-thioredoxin-and-glutathione-systems-in-selenium-optimal-mice-but-activates-hepatic-nrf2-responses-in-selenium-deficient-mice
#18
Ruixia Dong, Dongxu Wang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ke Zhang, Pingping Chen, Chung S Yang, Jinsong Zhang
Selenium participates in the antioxidant defense mainly through a class of selenoproteins, including thioredoxin reductase. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active catechin in green tea. Depending upon the dose and biological systems, EGCG may function either as an antioxidant or as an inducer of antioxidant defense via its pro-oxidant action or other unidentified mechanisms. By manipulating the selenium status, the present study investigated the interactions of EGCG with antioxidant defense systems including the thioredoxin system comprising of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, the glutathione system comprising of glutathione and glutathione reductase coupled with glutaredoxin, and the Nrf2 system...
October 24, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810736/oxalomalate-reduces-expression-and-secretion-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-inhibits-angiogenesis-implications-for-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
Sung Hwan Kim, Hyunjin Kim, Hyeong Jun Ku, Jung Hyun Park, Hanvit Cha, Seoyoon Lee, Jin Hyup Lee, Jeen-Woo Park
Clinical and experimental observations indicate a critical role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), secreted by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), in pathological angiogenesis and the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). RPE-mediated VEGF expression, leading to angiogenesis, is a major signaling mechanism underlying ocular neovascular disease. Inhibiting this signaling pathway with a therapeutic molecule is a promising anti-angiogenic strategy to treat this disease with potentially fewer side effects...
October 24, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810738/hydroxytyrosol-inhibits-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-apoptotic-signaling-via-labile-iron-chelation
#20
Natalia Kitsati, Michalis D Mantzaris, Dimitrios Galaris
Although it is known that Mediterranean diet plays an important role in maintaining human health, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the potential role of ortho-dihydroxy group containing natural compounds in H2O2-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. For this purpose, the main phenolic alcohols of olive oil, namely hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, were examined for their ability to protect cultured cells under conditions of oxidative stress. A strong correlation was observed between the ability of hydroxytyrosol to mitigate intracellular labile iron level and the protection offered against H2O2-induced DNA damage and apoptosis...
October 15, 2016: Redox Biology
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