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Redox Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214706/influence-of-oxygen-partial-pressure-on-the-characteristics-of-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells
#1
Jenifer Trepiana, Susana Meijide, Rosaura Navarro, M Luisa Hernández, José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz, M Begoña Ruiz-Larrea
Most of the in vitro studies using liver cell lines have been performed under atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (21% O2). However, the oxygen concentrations in the liver and cancer cells are far from this value. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of oxygen on 1) the tumor cell lines features (growth, steady-state ROS levels, GSH content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, p66 Shc and SOD expressions, metalloproteinases secretion, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and b) the response of the cells to an oxidant stimulus (aqueous leaf extract of the V...
February 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214453/reciprocal-regulation-of-enos-h2s-and-co-synthesizing-enzymes-in-human-atheroma-correlation-with-plaque-stability-and-effects-of-simvastatin
#2
Fragiska Sigala, Panagiotis Efentakis, Dimitra Karageorgiadi, Konstadinos Filis, Paraskevas Zampas, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, George Zografos, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ioanna Andreadou
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain obscure. We sought to elucidate the correlation between NO, H2S and CO-generating enzymes, nitro-oxidative stress and plaque stability in carotid arteries. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 62 patients who had undergone endarterectomy due to internal artery stenosis. Following histological evaluation the plaques were divided into stable and unstable ones. To investigate the impact of simvastatin we divided patients with stable plaques, into those receiving and to those not receiving simvastatin...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#3
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212523/redox-regulation-in-metabolic-programming-and-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Helen R Griffiths, Dan Gao, Chathyan Pararasa
Energy metabolism and redox state are intrinsically linked. In order to mount an adequate immune response, cells must have an adequate and rapidly available energy resource to migrate to the inflammatory site, to generate reactive oxygen species using NADPH as a cofactor and to engulf bacteria or damaged tissue. The first responder cells of the innate immune response, neutrophils, are largely dependent on glycolysis. Neutrophils are relatively short-lived, dying via apoptosis in the process of bacterial killing through production of hypochlorous acid and release of extracellular NETs...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214707/shortcuts-to-a-functional-adipose-tissue-the-role-of-small-non-coding-rnas
#5
REVIEW
Bruna B Brandão, Beatriz A Guerra, Marcelo A Mori
Metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes are a major public health issue worldwide. These diseases are often linked to a dysfunctional adipose tissue. Fat is a large, heterogenic, pleiotropic and rather complex tissue. It is found in virtually all cavities of the human body, shows unique plasticity among tissues, and harbors many cell types in addition to its main functional unit - the adipocyte. Adipose tissue function varies depending on the localization of the fat depot, the cell composition of the tissue and the energy status of the organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212522/taking-up-the-cudgels-for-the-traditional-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-detection-assays-and-their-use-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#6
REVIEW
Andreas Daiber, Matthias Oelze, Sebastian Steven, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Thomas Münzel
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS such as H2O2, nitric oxide) confer redox regulation of essential cellular functions (e.g. differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis), initiate and catalyze adaptive stress responses. In contrast, excessive formation of RONS caused by impaired break-down by cellular antioxidant systems and/or insufficient repair of the resulting oxidative damage of biomolecules may lead to appreciable impairment of cellular function and in the worst case to cell death, organ dysfunction and severe disease phenotypes of the entire organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209514/plasma-metabolite-score-correlates-with-hypoxia-time-in-a-newly-born-piglet-model-for-asphyxia
#7
Julia Kuligowski, Rønnaug Solberg, Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Leonid Pankratov, Anna Parra-Llorca, Guillermo Quintás, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Máximo Vento
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) secondary to perinatal asphyxia is a leading cause of mortality and acquired long-term neurologic co-morbidities in the neonate. The most successful intervention for the treatment of moderate to severe HIE is moderate whole body hypothermia initiated within 6h from birth. The objective and prompt identification of infants who are at risk of developing moderate to severe HIE in the critical first hours still remains a challenge. This work proposes a metabolite score calculated based on the relative intensities of three metabolites (choline, 6,8-dihydroxypurine and hypoxanthine) that showed maximum correlation with hypoxia time in a consolidated piglet model for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212525/ablation-of-ferroptosis-regulator-glutathione-peroxidase-4-in-forebrain-neurons-promotes-cognitive-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#8
William Sealy Hambright, Rene Solano Fonseca, Liuji Chen, Ren Na, Qitao Ran
Synaptic loss and neuron death are the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the modalities of cell death in those diseases remain unclear. Ferroptosis, a newly identified oxidative cell death mechanism triggered by massive lipid peroxidation, is implicated in the degeneration of neurons populations such as spinal motor neurons and midbrain neurons. Here, we investigated whether neurons in forebrain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) that are severely afflicted in AD patients might be vulnerable to ferroptosis...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212521/angiogenesis-in-the-atherosclerotic-plaque
#9
REVIEW
Caroline Camaré, Mélanie Pucelle, Anne Nègre-Salvayre, Robert Salvayre
Atherosclerosis is a multifocal alteration of the vascular wall of medium and large arteries characterized by a local accumulation of cholesterol and non-resolving inflammation. Atherothrombotic complications are the leading cause of disability and mortality in western countries. Neovascularization in atherosclerotic lesions plays a major role in plaque growth and instability. The angiogenic process is mediated by classical angiogenic factors and by additional factors specific to atherosclerotic angiogenesis...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187322/chronic-aspartame-intake-causes-changes-in-the-trans-sulphuration-pathway-glutathione-depletion-and-liver-damage-in-mice
#10
Isabela Finamor, Salvador Pérez, Caroline A Bressan, Carlos E Brenner, Sergio Rius-Pérez, Patricia C Brittes, Gabriele Cheiran, Maria I Rocha, Marcelo da Veiga, Juan Sastre, Maria A Pavanato
No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167333/regional-asymmetry-of-metabolic-and-antioxidant-profile-in-the-sciaenid-fish-shi-drum-umbrina-cirrosa-white-muscle-response-to-starvation-and-refeeding
#11
M Carmen Hidalgo, Amalia E Morales, Marta Arizcun, Emilia Abellán, Gabriel Cardenete
The objective of the present study is to characterize the metabolic and antioxidant profile of white muscle of shi drum in two sites of the body, anterior dorsal (AM) and posterior dorsal (PM) portions. In addition, it will be analyzed the possible effect of starvation and a subsequent refeeding, with two different protocols, pair feeding and ad libitum. Activities of key enzymes of intermediary metabolism and of antioxidant enzymes, as well as lipid peroxidation, as an index of oxidative stress, were evaluated...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183062/thioredoxin-trxo1-interacts-with-proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-pcna-and-its-overexpression-affects-the-growth-of-tobacco-cell-culture
#12
Aingeru Calderón, Ana Ortiz-Espín, Raquel Iglesias-Fernández, Pilar Carbonero, Federico Vicente Pallardó, Francisca Sevilla, Ana Jiménez
Thioredoxins (Trxs), key components of cellular redox regulation, act by controlling the redox status of many target proteins, and have been shown to play an essential role in cell survival and growth. The presence of a Trx system in the nucleus has received little attention in plants, and the nuclear targets of plant Trxs have not been conclusively identified. Thus, very little is known about the function of Trxs in this cellular compartment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of PsTrxo1 and confirmed its presence in mitochondria and, interestingly, in the nucleus under standard growth conditions...
January 31, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157665/inhibition-of-cancer-migration-and-invasion-by-knocking-down-delta-5-desaturase-in-cox-2-overexpressed-cancer-cells
#13
Xiaoyu Yang, Yi Xu, Tao Wang, Dan Shu, Peixuan Guo, Keith Miskimins, Steven Y Qian
We recently reported that knockdown of delta-5-desaturase (a key enzyme that converts dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, DGLA, to the downstream ω-6 arachidonic acid) promotes formation of an anti-cancer byproduct 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid from cyclooxygenase (COX)-catalyzed DGLA peroxidation. 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid can exert its growth inhibitory effect on cancer cells (e.g. colon and pancreatic cancer) by serving as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Since histone deacetylase inhibitors have been well-known to suppress cancer cell migration and invasion, we thus tested whether knockdown of delta-5-desaturase and DGLA treatment could also be used to inhibit cancer migration and invasion of colon cancer and pancreatic cancer cells...
January 26, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160744/mitochondrial-contribution-to-lipofuscin-formation
#14
Jeannette König, Christiane Ott, Martín Hugo, Tobias Jung, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Tilman Grune, Annika Höhn
Mitochondria have been in the focus of oxidative stress and aging research for decades due to their permanent production of ROS during the oxidative phosphorylation. The hypothesis exists that mitochondria are involved in the formation of lipofuscin, an autofluorescent protein aggregate that accumulates progressively over time in lysosomes of post-mitotic and senescent cells. To investigate the influence and involvement of mitochondria in lipofuscinogenesis, we analyzed lipofuscin amounts as well as the mitochondrial function in young and senescent cells...
January 25, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193594/lactobacilli-enhance-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-apoptosis-inducing-signaling
#15
Hannah Krüger, Georg Bauer
H2O2-producing lactobacilli in the vaginal fluid have been suggested to play a potential tumor-preventive role in addition to the control of undesirable microorganisms. As the vaginal fluid also contains a significant concentration of peroxidase that might utilize lactobacilli-derived H2O2 as substrate for HOCl synthesis, a dominant biological role of HOCl in both natural defence systems has been postulated. Our study shows that lactobacillus-derived H2O2 per se is not likely to be beneficial for the vaginal epithelium, as it causes apoptosis nonselectively in nontransformed as well as transformed cells...
January 24, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157664/silver-nanoparticles-can-attenuate-nitrative-stress
#16
Mariusz Zuberek, Patrycja Paciorek, Grzegorz Bartosz, Agnieszka Grzelak
We have reported previously that glucose availability can modify toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via elevation of antioxidant defence triggered by increased mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined the effect of glucose availability on the production of reactive nitrogen species in HepG2 cells and modification of nitrative stress by AgNPs. We found that lowering the glucose concentration increased expression of genes coding for inducible nitric oxide syntheas, NOS2 and NOS2A resulting in enhanced production of nitric oxide...
January 24, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131081/oral-administration-of-%C3%AE-glutamylcysteine-increases-intracellular-glutathione-levels-above-homeostasis-in-a-randomised-human-trial-pilot-study
#17
Martin Hani Zarka, Wallace John Bridge
OBJECTIVE: To determine if orally dosed γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GC) can increase cellular glutathione (GSH) levels above homeostasis. Many chronic and age-related disorders are associated with down-regulation, or impairment, of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). This suggests that γ-GC supply may become limiting for the maintenance of cellular GSH at the normal levels required to effectively protect against oxidative stress and any resulting physiological damage. METHODS: GSH levels were measured in lymphocytes of healthy, non-fasting participants before and after single oral doses (2 and 4g) of γ-GC...
January 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126520/metabolic-zonation-of-the-liver-the-oxygen-gradient-revisited
#18
Thomas Kietzmann
The liver has a multitude of functions which are necessary to maintain whole body homeostasis. This requires that various metabolic pathways can run in parallel in the most efficient manner and that futile cycles are kept to a minimum. To a large extent this is achieved due to a functional specialization of the liver parenchyma known as metabolic zonation which is often lost in liver diseases. Although this phenomenon is known for about 40 years, the underlying regulatory pathways are not yet fully elucidated...
January 17, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131082/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-type-2-diabetes-pathophysiological-implications
#19
REVIEW
Susana Rovira-Llopis, Celia Bañuls, Noelia Diaz-Morales, Antonio Hernandez-Mijares, Milagros Rocha, Victor M Victor
Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cellular metabolic homeostasis. These organelles have a high plasticity and are involved in dynamic processes such as mitochondrial fusion and fission, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction, high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and low levels of ATP. Mitochondrial fusion is modulated by different proteins, including mitofusin-1 (MFN1), mitofusin-2 (MFN2) and optic atrophy (OPA-1), while fission is controlled by mitochondrial fission 1 (FIS1), dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) and mitochondrial fission factor (MFF)...
January 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110217/induced-dopaminergic-neurons-a-new-promise-for-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Zhimin Xu, Xingkun Chu, Houbo Jiang, Haley Schilling, Shengdi Chen, Jian Feng
Motor symptoms that define Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by the selective loss of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Cell replacement therapy for PD has been focused on midbrain DA neurons derived from human fetal mesencephalic tissue, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Recent development in the direct conversion of human fibroblasts to induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons offers new opportunities for transplantation study and disease modeling in PD. The iDA neurons are generated directly from human fibroblasts in a short period of time, bypassing lengthy differentiation process from human pluripotent stem cells and the concern for potentially tumorigenic mitotic cells...
January 16, 2017: Redox Biology
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