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Redox Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909017/adropin-regulates-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-in-cardiac-cells-via-a-novel-gpcr-mapk-pdk4-signaling-pathway
#1
Dharendra Thapa, Michael W Stoner, Manling Zhang, Bingxian Xie, Janet R Manning, Danielle Guimaraes, Sruti Shiva, Michael J Jurczak, Iain Scott
Mitochondria supply ~90% of the ATP required for contractile function in cardiac cells. While adult cardiomyocytes preferentially utilize fatty acids as a fuel source for oxidative phosphorylation, cardiac mitochondria can switch to other substrates when required. This change is driven in part by a combination of extracellular and intracellular signal transduction pathways that alter mitochondrial gene expression and enzymatic activity. The mechanisms by which extracellular metabolic information is conveyed to cardiac mitochondria are not currently well defined...
June 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891355/corrigendum-to-augmentation-of-intracellular-iron-using-iron-sucrose-enhances-the-toxicity-of-pharmacological-ascorbate-in-colon-cancer-cells-redox-biol-2018-82-87
#2
Kristin E Brandt, Kelly C Falls, Joshua D Schoenfeld, Samuel N Rodman, Zhimin Gu, Fenghuang Zhan, Joseph J Cullen, Brett A Wagner, Garry R Buettner, Bryan G Allen, Daniel J Berg, Douglas R Spitz, Melissa A Fath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886395/parp1-promoter-links-cell-cycle-progression-with-adaptation-to-oxidative-environment
#3
REVIEW
Julita Pietrzak, Corinne M Spickett, Tomasz Płoszaj, László Virág, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz
Although electrophiles are considered as detrimental to cells, accumulating recent evidence indicates that proliferating non-cancerous and particularly cancerous cells utilize these agents for pro-survival and cell cycle promoting signaling. Hence, the redox shift to mild oxidant release must be balanced by multiple defense mechanisms. Our latest findings demonstrate that cell cycle progression, which dictates oxidant level in stress-free conditions, determines PARP1 transcription. Growth modulating factors regulate CDK4/6-RBs-E2Fs axis...
June 2, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890337/neuroprotection-against-6-ohda-toxicity-in-pc12-cells-and-mice-through-the-nrf2-pathway-by-a-sesquiterpenoid-from-tussilago-farfara
#4
Joohee Lee, Kwangho Song, Eugene Huh, Myung Sook Oh, Yeong Shik Kim
Oxidative stress plays a key role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key regulator of the antioxidative response, is considered to be important as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the underlying mechanism of Nrf2-mediated neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress in the PC12 cell line by 7β-(3-ethyl-cis-crotonoyloxy)-1α-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-3,14-dehydro-Z-notonipetranone (ECN), one of the sesquiterpenoids in Farfarae Flos...
June 1, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885625/cardiac-specific-overexpression-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-exacerbates-cardiac-remodeling-in-response-to-pressure-overload
#5
Sujith Dassanayaka, Yuting Zheng, Andrew A Gibb, Timothy D Cummins, Lindsey A McNally, Kenneth R Brittian, Ganapathy Jagatheesan, Timothy N Audam, Bethany W Long, Robert E Brainard, Steven P Jones, Bradford G Hill
Pathological cardiac remodeling during heart failure is associated with higher levels of lipid peroxidation products and lower abundance of several aldehyde detoxification enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). An emerging idea that could explain these findings concerns the role of electrophilic species in redox signaling, which may be important for adaptive responses to stress or injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetically increasing ALDH2 activity affects pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction...
June 1, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883959/ceruloplasmin-and-hephaestin-jointly-protect-the-exocrine-pancreas-against-oxidative-damage-by-facilitating-iron-efflux
#6
Min Chen, Jiashuo Zheng, Guohao Liu, En Xu, Junzhuo Wang, Brie K Fuqua, Chris D Vulpe, Gregory J Anderson, Huijun Chen
Little is known about the iron efflux from the pancreas, but it is likely that multicopper ferroxidases (MCFs) are involved in this process. We thus used hephaestin (Heph) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) single-knockout mice and Heph/Cp double-knockout mice to investigate the roles of MCFs in pancreatic iron homeostasis. We found that both HEPH and CP were expressed in the mouse pancreas, and that ablation of either MCF had limited effect on the pancreatic iron levels. However, ablation of both MCFs together led to extensive pancreatic iron deposition and severe oxidative damage...
May 31, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890336/cyanidin-and-delphinidin-modulate-inflammation-and-altered-redox-signaling-improving-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#7
Elena Daveri, Eleonora Cremonini, Angela Mastaloudis, Shelly N Hester, Steven M Wood, Andrew L Waterhouse, Mauri Anderson, Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza
Consumption of diets high in fat and/or fructose content promotes tissue inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance, activating signals (e.g. NF-κB/JNK) that downregulate the insulin cascade. Current evidence supports the concept that select flavonoids can mitigate obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This work investigated if supplementation with the anthocyanidins (AC) cyanidin and delphinidin could attenuate the adverse consequences of consuming a high fat diet (HFD) in mice. Consumption of an AC-rich blend mitigated HFD-induced obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (impaired responses to insulin and glucose)...
May 30, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879549/the-role-of-autophagy-in-survival-response-induced-by-27-hydroxycholesterol-in-human-promonocytic-cells
#8
Beyza Vurusaner, Simona Gargiulo, Gabriella Testa, Paola Gamba, Gabriella Leonarduzzi, Giuseppe Poli, Huveyda Basaga
Autophagy has been shown to be stimulated in advanced atherosclerotic plaques by metabolic stress, inflammation and oxidized lipids. The lack of published studies addressing the potential stimulation of pro-survival autophagy by oxysterols, a family of cholesterol oxidation products, has prompted our study. Thus, the goal of the current study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the autophagy induced by 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH), that is one of the most abundant oxysterols in advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and to assess whether the pro-oxidant effect of the oxysterol is involved in the given response...
May 26, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857311/fatiguing-contractions-increase-protein-s-glutathionylation-occupancy-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#9
Philip A Kramer, Jicheng Duan, Matthew J Gaffrey, Anil K Shukla, Lu Wang, Theo K Bammler, Wei-Jun Qian, David J Marcinek
Protein S-glutathionylation is an important reversible post-translational modification implicated in redox signaling. Oxidative modifications to protein thiols can alter the activity of metabolic enzymes, transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, and the function of contractile proteins. However, the extent to which muscle contraction induces oxidative modifications in redox sensitive thiols is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the targets of S-glutathionylation redox signaling following fatiguing contractions...
May 23, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883958/a-silver-lining-for-24-hydroxycholesterol-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-involvement-of-the-neuroprotective-enzyme-sirtuin-1
#10
Gabriella Testa, Erica Staurenghi, Serena Giannelli, Simona Gargiulo, Michela Guglielmotto, Massimo Tabaton, Elena Tamagno, Paola Gamba, Gabriella Leonarduzzi
It is now established that cholesterol oxidation products (oxysterols) are involved in several events underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Of note, certain oxysterols cause neuron dysfunction and degeneration but, recently, some of them have been shown also to have neuroprotective effects. The present study, which aimed to understand the potential effects of 24-hydroxycholesterol (24-OH) against the intraneuronal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, stressed these latter effects. A beneficial effect of 24-OH was demonstrated in SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cells, and is due to its ability to modulate the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which contributes to preventing the neurotoxic accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein...
May 22, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879550/loss-of-the-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-ube2e3-induces-cellular-senescence
#11
Kendra S Plafker, Katarzyna Zyla, William Berry, Scott M Plafker
Cellular senescence plays essential roles in tissue homeostasis as well as a host of diseases ranging from cancers to age-related neurodegeneration. Various molecular pathways can induce senescence and these different pathways dictate the phenotypic and metabolic changes that accompany the transition to, and maintenance of, the senescence state. Here, we describe a novel senescence phenotype induced by depletion of UBE2E3, a highly-conserved, metazoan ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. Cells depleted of UBE2E3 become senescent in the absence of overt DNA damage and have a distinct senescence-associated secretory phenotype, increased mitochondrial and lysosomal mass, an increased sensitivity to mitochondrial and lysosomal poisons, and an increased basal autophagic flux...
May 21, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857312/neuron-specific-regulation-of-superoxide-dismutase-amid-pathogen-induced-gut-dysbiosis
#12
Alexander M Horspool, Howard C Chang
Superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that converts superoxide into less-toxic hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, has been shown to mediate behavioral response to pathogens. However, it remains largely unknown how superoxide dismutase is regulated in the nervous system amid pathogen-induced gut dysbiosis. Although there are five superoxide dismutases in C. elegans, our genetic analyses suggest that SOD-1 is the primary superoxide dismutase to mediate the pathogen avoidance response. When C. elegans are fed a P. aeruginosa diet, the lack of SOD-1 contributes to enhanced lethality...
May 19, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793168/olive-oil-polyphenols-reduce-oxysterols-induced-redox-imbalance-and-pro-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-cells
#13
Gessica Serra, Alessandra Incani, Gabriele Serreli, Laura Porru, M Paola Melis, Carlo I G Tuberoso, Daniela Rossin, Fiorella Biasi, Monica Deiana
Dietary habits may strongly influence intestinal homeostasis. Oxysterols, the oxidized products of cholesterol present in cholesterol-containing foodstuffs, have been shown to exert pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects, altering intestinal epithelial layer and thus contributing to the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel diseases and colon cancer. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and concentrate in the intestinal lumen, where may help in preventing intestinal diseases...
May 16, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793167/improvement-of-neuronal-differentiation-by-carbon-monoxide-role-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#14
Ana S Almeida, Nuno L Soares, Catarina O Sequeira, Sofia A Pereira, Ursula Sonnewald, Helena L A Vieira
Over the last decades, the silent-killer carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to also be an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and modulate mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal metabolism is mostly oxidative and neurons also use glucose for maintaining their anti-oxidant status by generation of reduced glutathione (GSH) via the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP). It is established that neuronal differentiation depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and signalling, however there is a lack of information about modulation of the PPP during adult neurogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803149/the-relationship-between-standard-reduction-potentials-of-catechins-and-biological-activities-involved-in-redox-control
#15
Monika Baranowska, Klaudia Suliborska, Wojciech Chrzanowski, Barbara Kusznierewicz, Jacek Namieśnik, Agnieszka Bartoszek
Redox homeostasis involves factors that ensure proper function of cells. The excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress and increased risk of oxidative damage to cellular components. In contrast, upon reductive stress, insufficient ROS abundance may result in faulty cell signalling. It may be expected that dietary antioxidants, depending on their standard reduction potentials (E°), will affect both scenarios. In our study, for the first time, we systematically tested the relationship among E°, chemical properties, and biological effects in HT29 cells for a series of structurally different catechins and a major endogenous antioxidant - glutathione (GSH), at both physiological and dietary concentrations...
May 14, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775960/strategies-to-decrease-oxidative-stress-biomarker-levels-in-human-medical-conditions-a-meta-analysis-on-8-iso-prostaglandin-f-2%C3%AE
#16
Thomas J van 't Erve
The widespread detection of elevated oxidative stress levels in many medical conditions has led to numerous efforts to design interventions to reduce its effects. Efforts have been wide-ranging, from dietary changes to administration of antioxidants, supplements, e.g., omega-3-fatty acids, and many medications. However, there is still no systemic assessment of the efficacy of treatments for oxidative stress reduction across a variety of medical conditions. The goal of this meta-analysis is, by combining multiple studies, to quantitate the change in the levels of the popular oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α ) after a variety of treatment strategies in human populations...
May 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775961/antioxidant-response-elements-discovery-classes-regulation-and-potential-applications
#17
REVIEW
Azhwar Raghunath, Kiruthika Sundarraj, Raju Nagarajan, Frank Arfuso, Jinsong Bian, Alan P Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Ekambaram Perumal
Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs), which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes...
May 7, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775963/brain-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-against-ischemic-injury-and-preserves-the-blood-brain-barrier-via-oxidative-signaling-and-nrf2-activation
#18
Tuo Yang, Yang Sun, Leilei Mao, Meijuan Zhang, Qianqian Li, Lili Zhang, Yejie Shi, Rehana K Leak, Jun Chen, Feng Zhang
Brain ischemic preconditioning (IPC) with mild ischemic episodes is well known to protect the brain against subsequent ischemic challenges. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate the critical role of the master redox transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), in IPC-mediated neuroprotection and blood-brain barrier (BBB) preservation. We report that IPC causes generation of endogenous lipid electrophiles, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), which release Nrf2 from inhibition by Keap1 (via Keap1-C288) and inhibition by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (via GSK3β-C199)...
May 6, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860106/gsnor-modulates-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-t-cell-activation-and-atherosclerosis-by-switching-akt-s-nitrosylation-to-phosphorylation
#19
Jing Li, Yan Zhang, Yuying Zhang, Silin Lü, Yutong Miao, Juan Yang, Shenming Huang, Xiaolong Ma, Lulu Han, Jiacheng Deng, Fangfang Fan, Bo Liu, Yong Huo, Qingbo Xu, Chang Chen, Xian Wang, Juan Feng
The adaptive immune system plays a critical role in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis. Recent studies suggest that HHcy aggravates atherosclerosis with elevated oxidative stress and reduced S-nitrosylation level of redox-sensitive protein residues in the vasculature. However, whether and how S-nitrosylation contributes to T-cell-driven atherosclerosis remain unclear. In the present study, we report that HHcy reduced the level of protein S-nitrosylation in T cells by inducing S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), the key denitrosylase that catalyzes S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which is the main restored form of nitric oxide in vivo...
May 1, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775962/preterm-birth-and-oxidative-stress-effects-of-acute-physical-exercise-and-hypoxia-physiological-responses
#20
Agnès Martin, Camille Faes, Tadej Debevec, Chantal Rytz, Grégoire Millet, Vincent Pialoux
Preterm birth is a global health issue that can induce lifelong medical sequela. Presently, at least one in ten newborns are born prematurely. At birth, preterm newborns exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress (OS) due to the inability to face the oxygen rich environment in which they are born into. Moreover, their immature respiratory, digestive, immune and antioxidant defense systems, as well as the potential numerous medical interventions following a preterm birth, such as oxygen resuscitation, nutrition, phototherapy and blood transfusion further contribute to high levels of OS...
May 1, 2018: Redox Biology
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