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Redox Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086195/zinc-deficiency-affects-the-stat1-3-signaling-pathways-in-part-through-redox-mediated-mechanisms
#1
S Supasai, L Aimo, A M Adamo, G G Mackenzie, P I Oteiza
Zinc deficiency affects the development of the central nervous system (CNS) through mechanisms only partially understood. We previously showed that zinc deficiency causes CNS oxidative stress, damaging microtubules and impairing protein nuclear shuttling. STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors, which require nuclear import for their functions, play major roles in CNS development. Thus, we investigated whether zinc deficiency disrupts STAT1 and STAT3 signaling pathways in the developing fetal CNS, characterizing the involvement of oxidative stress and the cytoskeleton in the adverse effects...
January 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068606/trehalose-does-not-improve-neuronal-survival-on-exposure-to-alpha-synuclein-pre-formed-fibrils
#2
Matthew Redmann, Willayat Y Wani, Laura Volpicelli-Daley, Victor Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang
Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that is pathologically characterized by intracellular inclusions comprised primarily of alpha-synuclein (αSyn) that can also be transmitted from neuron to neuron. Several lines of evidence suggest that these inclusions cause neurodegeneration. Thus exploring strategies to improve neuronal survival in neurons with αSyn aggregates is critical. Previously, exposure to αSyn pre-formed fibrils (PFFs) has been shown to induce aggregation of endogenous αSyn resulting in cell death that is exacerbated by either starvation or inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin, both of which are able to induce autophagy, an intracellular protein degradation pathway...
January 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063381/brd4-inhibition-attenuates-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-induced-fibrosis-by-blocking-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-nox4-expression
#3
Baoshang Zhou, Jiao Mu, Yi Gong, Caibao Lu, Youguang Zhao, Ting He, Zhexue Qin
Uncovering new therapeutic targets for renal fibrosis holds promise for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors have been shown to effectively ameliorate pathological fibrotic responses. However, the pharmacological effects and underlying mechanisms of these inhibitors in renal fibrosis remain elusive. In this study, we determined that the inhibition of Brd4, a BET family member, with a selective potent chemical inhibitor, JQ1, could prevent the development of renal fibrosis and block the progression of fibrosis in rats that have undergone unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)...
December 30, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064116/sex-specific-and-inter-individual-differences-in-biomarkers-of-selenium-status-identified-by-a-calibrated-elisa-for-selenoprotein-p
#4
Sandra Hybsier, Torsten Schulz, Zida Wu, Ilja Demuth, Waldemar B Minich, Kostja Renko, Eddy Rijntjes, Josef Köhrle, Christian J Strasburger, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Lutz Schomburg
Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) is a liver-derived transporter of selenium (Se) in blood, and a meaningful biomarker of Se status. Se is an essential trace element for the biosynthesis of enzymatically-active selenoproteins, protecting the organism from oxidative damage. The usage of uncalibrated assays hinders the comparability of SELENOP concentrations and their pathophysiological interpretation across different clinical studies. On this account, we established a new sandwich SELENOP-ELISA and calibrated against a standard reference material (SRM1950)...
December 29, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086193/cross-talk-between-lipid-and-protein-carbonylation-in-a-dynamic-cardiomyocyte-model-of-mild-nitroxidative-stress
#5
Eva Griesser, Venukumar Vemula, Nora Raulien, Ulf Wagner, Sandra Reeg, Tilman Grune, Maria Fedorova
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) play an important role in the regulation of cardiac function. Increase in ROS/RNS concentration results in lipid and protein oxidation and is often associated with onset and/or progression of many cardiovascular disorders. However, interplay between lipid and protein modifications has not been simultaneously studied in detail so far. Biomolecule carbonylation is one of the most common biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using a dynamic model of nitroxidative stress we demonstrated rapid changes in biomolecule carbonylation in rat cardiomyocytes...
December 28, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063379/oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-abnormalities-and-antioxidant-defense-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-bloom-syndrome-and-nijmegen-breakage-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Mateusz Maciejczyk, Bozena Mikoluc, Barbara Pietrucha, Edyta Heropolitanska-Pliszka, Malgorzata Pac, Radosław Motkowski, Halina Car
Rare pleiotropic genetic disorders, Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), Bloom syndrome (BS) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) are characterised by immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, higher cancer susceptibility, premature aging, neurodegeneration and insulin resistance. Some of these functional abnormalities can be explained by aberrant DNA damage response and chromosomal instability. It has been suggested that one possible common denominator of these conditions could be chronic oxidative stress caused by endogenous ROS overproduction and impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis...
December 28, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043053/the-decay-of-redox-stress-response-capacity-is-a-substantive-characteristic-of-aging-revising-the-redox-theory-of-aging
#7
Jiao Meng, Zhenyu Lv, Xinhua Qiao, Xiaopeng Li, Yazi Li, Yuying Zhang, Chang Chen
Aging is tightly associated with redox events. The free radical theory of aging indicates that redox imbalance may be an important factor in the aging process. Most studies about redox and aging focused on the static status of oxidative stress levels, there has been little research investigating differential responses to redox challenge during aging. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans and human fibroblasts as models to compare differential responses to oxidative stress challenge in young and old individuals...
December 28, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063380/hydroxytyrosol-supplementation-increases-vitamin-c-levels-in-vivo-a-human-volunteer-trial
#8
Eduardo Lopez-Huertas, Juristo Fonolla
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a main phenolic component of olive oil. In this study, we investigated the safety and effects produced by HT purified (99.5%) from olive mill waste. HT was administered at a daily dosage of 45mg for 8 weeks to volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia (n=14). We measured markers of cardiovascular disease risk, enzyme markers of several clinical conditions, hematology, antioxidant parameters, vitamins and minerals at baseline (T0), 4 weeks (T4) and 8 weeks (T8). The values obtained at T4 and T8 were compared with baseline...
December 26, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039839/lps-induced-renal-inflammation-is-prevented-by-epicatechin-in-rats
#9
Paula Denise Prince, Laura Fischerman, Jorge E Toblli, Cesar G Fraga, Monica Galleano
This work investigated the capacity of (-)-epicatechin to prevent the renal damage induced by LPS administration in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed for 4 days a diet without or with supplementation with (-)-epicatechin (80mg/kg BW/d), and subsequently i.p. injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six hours after injection, LPS-treated rats exhibited increased plasma creatinine and urea levels as indicators of impaired renal function. The renal cortex of the LPS-treated rats showed: i) increased expression of inflammatory molecules (TNF-α, iNOS and IL-6); ii) activation of several steps of NF-κB pathway; iii) overexpression of TLR4, and iv) higher superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation index in association with increased levels of gp91(phox) and p47(phox) (NOX2) and NOX4...
December 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039838/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-its-novel-association-with-oxidative-stress
#10
REVIEW
Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano, Mariana Grajales-Gómez, Julia María Zuarth-Vázquez, Ma Fernanda Navarro-Flores, Mayela Martínez-Saavedra, Óscar Alfredo Juárez-León, Mariana G Morales-García, Víctor Manuel Enríquez-Estrada, Francisco J Gómez-Pérez, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration...
December 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038425/knock-out-of-the-nadph-oxidase-nox4-has-no-impact-on-life-span-in-mice
#11
Flavia Rezende, Christoph Schürmann, Susanne Schütz, Sabine Harenkamp, Eva Herrmann, Michael Seimetz, Norbert Weißmann, Katrin Schröder
The free radical theory of aging suggests reactive oxygen species as a main reason for accumulation of damage events eventually leading to aging. Nox4, a member of the family of NADPH oxidases constitutively produces ROS and therefore has the potential to be a main driver of aging. Herein we analyzed the life span of Nox4 deficient mice and found no difference when compared to their wildtype littermates. Accordingly neither Tert expression nor telomere length was different in cells isolated from those animals...
December 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038427/autophagy-regulates-turnover-of-lipid-droplets-via-ros-dependent-rab25-activation-in-hepatic-stellate-cell
#12
Zili Zhang, Shifeng Zhao, Zhen Yao, Ling Wang, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in liver fibrosis, characterized by dramatic disappearance of lipid droplets (LDs). Although LD disappearance has long been considered one of the hallmarks of HSC activation, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of autophagy in the process of LD disappearance, and to further examine the underlying mechanisms in this molecular context. We found that LD disappearance during HSC activation was associated with a coordinate increase in autophagy...
December 21, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038426/oxidized-epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibited-lysozyme-fibrillation-more-strongly-than-the-native-form
#13
Ting-Ting An, Shuang Feng, Cheng-Ming Zeng
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant flavanoid in green tea, is currently being evaluated in the clinic due to its benefits in the treatment of amyloid disorders. Its anti-amyloidogenic effect has been attributed to direct interaction of the intact molecule with misfolded polypeptides. In addition, antioxidant activity is also involved in the anti-amyloidogenic role. The detailed molecular mechanism is still unclear and requires further investigation. In the present study, the kinetics of EGCG oxidation and the anti-amyloidogenic effect of the resultant oxidation substances have been examined...
December 21, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033563/the-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-ameliorated-tubular-injury-mediated-by-mitophagy-in-diabetic-kidney-disease-via-nrf2-pink1
#14
Li Xiao, Xiaoxuan Xu, Fan Zhang, Ming Wang, Yan Xu, Dan Tang, Jiahui Wang, Yan Qin, Yu Liu, Chengyuan Tang, Liyu He, Anna Greka, Zhiguang Zhou, Fuyou Liu, Zheng Dong, Lin Sun
Mitochondria play a crucial role in tubular injury in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). MitoQ is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that exerts protective effects in diabetic mice, but the mechanism underlying these effects is not clear. We demonstrated that mitochondrial abnormalities, such as defective mitophagy, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) overexpression and mitochondrial fragmentation, occurred in the tubular cells of db/db mice, accompanied by reduced PINK and Parkin expression and increased apoptosis...
December 21, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030785/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-protects-against-oxidative-stress-associated-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Tao Xu, Shuangyue Liu, Tingting Ma, Ziyi Jia, Zhifei Zhang, Aimei Wang
The cardioprotective benefits of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) are well established, although the regulatory role of ALDH2 in vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is largely unknown. ALDH2 potently regulates the metabolism of aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), the endogenous product of lipid peroxidation. Thus, we hypothesized that ALDH2 ameliorates the proliferation and migration of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) by inhibiting 4-HNE accumulation and regulating downstream signaling pathways, thereby ameliorating pulmonary vascular remodeling...
December 21, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064117/differential-proteomic-and-oxidative-profiles-unveil-dysfunctional-protein-import-to-adipocyte-mitochondria-in-obesity-associated-aging-and-diabetes
#16
María Gómez-Serrano, Emilio Camafeita, Juan A López, Miguel A Rubio, Irene Bretón, Inés García-Consuegra, Eva García-Santos, Jesús Lago, Andrés Sánchez-Pernaute, Antonio Torres, Jesús Vázquez, Belén Peral
Human age-related diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), have long been associated to mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the role for adipose tissue mitochondria in these conditions remains unknown. We have tackled the impact of aging and T2DM on adipocyte mitochondria from obese patients by quantitating not only the corresponding abundance changes of proteins, but also the redox alterations undergone by Cys residues thereof. For that, we have resorted to a high-throughput proteomic approach based on isobaric labeling, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry...
December 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013188/a-capture-method-based-on-the-vc1-domain-reveals-new-binding-properties-of-the-human-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-rage
#17
Genny Degani, Alessandra A Altomare, Mara Colzani, Caterina Martino, Angelica Mazzolari, Guenter Fritz, Giulio Vistoli, Laura Popolo, Giancarlo Aldini
The Advanced Glycation and Lipoxidation End products (AGEs and ALEs) are a heterogeneous class of compounds derived from the non-enzymatic glycation or protein adduction by lipoxidation break-down products. The receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is involved in the progression of chronic diseases based on persistent inflammatory state and oxidative stress. RAGE is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and the inhibition of the interaction with its ligands or of the ligand accumulation have a potential therapeutic effect...
December 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012441/ugonin-u-stimulates-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-enhances-inflammasome-mediated-pathogen-clearance
#18
Chun-Yu Chen, Chuan-Hui Yang, Yung-Fong Tsai, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Wen-Yi Chang, Tsong-Long Hwang
The NOD-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contains Nod-like receptors, a subclass of pattern recognition receptors, suggesting that this complex has a prominent role in host defenses. Various structurally diverse stimulators activate the NLRP3 inflammasome through different signaling pathways. We previously reported that ugonin U (UgU), a natural flavonoid isolated from Helminthostachys zeylanica (L) Hook, directly stimulates phospholipase C (PLC) and triggers superoxide release in human neutrophils...
December 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012440/nrf2-inhibition-reverses-the-resistance-of-cisplatin-resistant-head-and-neck-cancer-cells-to-artesunate-induced-ferroptosis
#19
Jong-Lyel Roh, Eun Hye Kim, Hyejin Jang, Daiha Shin
: Artesunate, an anti-malarial drug, has been repurposed as an anticancer drug due to its induction of cell death via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cancer cell death and the resistance of cells to artesunate remain unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanisms behind the antitumor effects of artesunate and an approach to overcome artesunate resistance in head and neck cancer (HNC). The effects of artesunate and trigonelline were tested in different HNC cell lines, including three cisplatin-resistant HNC cell lines...
December 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012437/autophagy-deficient-keratinocytes-display-increased-dna-damage-senescence-and-aberrant-lipid-composition-after-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Xiuzu Song, Marie Sophie Narzt, Ionela Mariana Nagelreiter, Philipp Hohensinner, Lucia Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Erwin Tschachler, Johannes Grillari, Florian Gruber
Autophagy allows cells fundamental adaptations to metabolic needs and to stress. Using autophagic bulk degradation cells can clear crosslinked macromolecules and damaged organelles that arise under redox stress. Accumulation of such debris results in cellular dysfunction and is observed in aged tissue and senescent cells. Conversely, promising anti-aging strategies aim at inhibiting the mTOR pathway and thereby activating autophagy, to counteract aging associated damage. We have inactivated autophagy related 7 (Atg7), an essential autophagy gene, in murine keratinocytes (KC) and have found in an earlier study that this resulted in increased baseline oxidative stress and reduced capacity to degrade crosslinked proteins after oxidative ultraviolet stress...
December 18, 2016: Redox Biology
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