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Redox Biology

Ying-Ming Shih, Marcus S Cooke, Chih-Hong Pan, Mu-Rong Chao, Chiung-Wen Hu
A reliable and fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of three oxidized nucleic acid damage products in urine, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo). We applied this method to assess the effect of various urine workup procedures on the urinary concentrations of the oxidized nucleic acid products. Our results showed that frozen urine samples must be warmed (i...
November 26, 2018: Redox Biology
Bernice Woon Li Lee, Pramila Ghode, Derrick Sek Tong Ong
The failure in effective cancer treatment is thought to be attributed to a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell-like properties. These cancer stem cells (CSCs) are intimately linked to tumor initiation, heterogeneity, maintenance, recurrence and metastasis. Increasing evidence supports the view that a tight redox regulation is crucial for CSC proliferation, tumorigenicity, therapy resistance and metastasis in many cancer types. Since the distinct metabolic and epigenetic states of CSCs may influence ROS levels, and hence their malignancy, ROS modulating agents hold promise in their utility as anti-CSC agents that may improve the durability of current cancer treatments...
November 23, 2018: Redox Biology
Jason D Matthews, April R Reedy, Huixia Wu, Benjamin H Hinrichs, Trevor M Darby, Caroline Addis, Brian S Robinson, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones, Rheinallt M Jones, Andrew S Neish
Intestinal homeostasis is regulated in-part by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated in the colonic mucosa following contact with certain lactobacilli. Mechanistically, ROS can modulate protein function through the oxidation of cysteine residues within proteins. Recent advances in cysteine labeling by the Isotope Coded Affinity Tags (ICATs) technique has facilitated the identification of cysteine thiol modifications in response to stimuli. Here, we used ICATs to map the redox protein network oxidized upon initial contact of the colonic mucosa with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)...
November 22, 2018: Redox Biology
Ye-Ri Kim, Jeong-In Baek, Sung Hwan Kim, Min-A Kim, Byeonghyeon Lee, Nari Ryu, Kyung-Hee Kim, Deok-Gyun Choi, Hye-Min Kim, Michael P Murphy, Greg Macpherson, Yeon-Sik Choo, Jinwoong Bok, Kyu-Yup Lee, Jeen-Woo Park, Un-Kyung Kim
Mitochondrial NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is a major NADPH-producing enzyme which is essential for maintaining the mitochondrial redox balance in cells. We sought to determine whether IDH2 deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction and modulates auditory function, and investigated the protective potential of an antioxidant agent against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cochlear damage in Idh2 knockout (Idh2-/- ) mice. Idh2 deficiency leads to damages to hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the cochlea and ultimately to apoptotic cell death and progressive sensorineural hearing loss in Idh2-/- mice...
November 20, 2018: Redox Biology
Beth L Worley, Yeon Soo Kim, Jennifer Mardini, Rameez Zaman, Kelly E Leon, Piyushi Gupta Vallur, Asvelt Nduwumwami, Joshua I Warrick, Patrick F Timmins, Joshua P Kesterson, Rébécca Phaëton, Nam Y Lee, Vonn Walter, Lauren Endres, Karthikeyan Mythreye, Katherine M Aird, Nadine Hempel
Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, and is primarily diagnosed at late stage when considerable metastasis has occurred in the peritoneal cavity. At late stage abdominal cavity ascites accumulation provides a tumor-supporting medium in which cancer cells gain access to growth factors and cytokines that promote survival and metastasis. However, little is known about the redox status of ascites, or whether antioxidant enzymes are required to support ovarian cancer survival during transcoelomic metastasis in this medium...
November 17, 2018: Redox Biology
L Bramasole, A Sinha, S Gurevich, M Radzinski, Y Klein, N Panat, E Gefen, T Rinaldi, D Jimenez-Morales, J Johnson, N J Krogan, N Reis, D Reichmann, M H Glickman, E Pick
Cycles of Cdc53/Cullin1 rubylation (a.k.a NEDDylation) protect ubiquitin-E3 SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein) complexes from self-destruction and play an important role in mediating the ubiquitination of key protein substrates involved in cell cycle progression, development, and survival. Cul1 rubylation is balanced by the COP9 signalosome (CSN), a multi-subunit derubylase that shows 1:1 paralogy to the 26S proteasome lid. The turnover of SCF substrates and their relevance to various diseases is well studied, yet, the extent by which environmental perturbations influence Cul1 rubylation/derubylation cycles per se is still unclear...
November 17, 2018: Redox Biology
Quach Ngoc Tung, Vu Van Loi, Tobias Busche, Andreas Nerlich, Maren Mieth, Johanna Milse, Jörn Kalinowski, Andreas C Hocke, Haike Antelmann
Mycothiol (MSH) functions as major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol in the industrially important Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this study, we genomically integrated an Mrx1-roGFP2 biosensor in C. glutamicum to measure dynamic changes of the MSH redox potential (EMSH ) during the growth and under oxidative stress. C. glutamicum maintains a highly reducing intrabacterial EMSH throughout the growth curve with basal EMSH levels of ~- 296 mV. Consistent with its H2 O2 resistant phenotype, C. glutamicum responds only weakly to 40 mM H2 O2 , but is rapidly oxidized by low doses of NaOCl...
November 17, 2018: Redox Biology
Zhe Zhang, Lu Zhang, Li Zhou, Yunlong Lei, Yuanyuan Zhang, Canhua Huang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic organelle orchestrating the folding and post-translational maturation of almost all membrane proteins and most secreted proteins. These proteins synthesized in the ER, need to form disulfide bridge to acquire specific three-dimensional structures for function. The formation of disulfide bridge is mediated via protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family and other oxidoreductases, which contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and consumption in the ER. Therefore, redox regulation of ER is delicate and sensitive to perturbation...
November 14, 2018: Redox Biology
Marie-Sophie Narzt, Ionela-Mariana Nagelreiter, Olga Oskolkova, Valery N Bochkov, Julie Latreille, Maria Fedorova, Zhixu Ni, Fernando J Sialana, Gert Lubec, Manuel Filzwieser, Maria Laggner, Martin Bilban, Michael Mildner, Erwin Tschachler, Johannes Grillari, Florian Gruber
Ultraviolet light is the dominant environmental oxidative skin stressor and a major skin aging factor. We studied which oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) mediators would be generated in primary human keratinocytes (KC) upon exposure to ultraviolet A light (UVA) and investigated the contribution of OxPL to UVA responses. Mass spectrometric analysis immediately or 24 h post UV stress revealed significant changes in abundance of 173 and 84 lipid species, respectively. We identified known and novel lipid species including known bioactive and also potentially reactive carbonyl containing species...
November 13, 2018: Redox Biology
Holger Steinbrenner, Mustafa Micoogullari, Ngoc Anh Hoang, Ina Bergheim, Lars-Oliver Klotz, Helmut Sies
Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) has recently been reported to catalyse the oxidation of methanethiol, an organosulfur compound produced by gut microbiota. Two of the reaction products of methanethiol oxidation, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen sulphide, serve as signalling molecules for cell differentiation. Indeed, colonocyte differentiation has been found to be associated with SELENBP1 induction. Here, we show that SELENBP1 is induced when 3T3-L1 preadipocytes undergo terminal differentiation and maturation to adipocytes...
November 10, 2018: Redox Biology
Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Marie-Pierre Bourguignon, Nicole Villeneuve, Benjamin Gottschalk, Christiane Klec, Sarah Stryeck, Snjezana Radulovic, Warisara Parichatikanond, Saša Frank, Tobias Madl, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
BACKGROUND: Senescence is characterized by a gradual decline in cellular functions, including changes in energy homeostasis and decreased proliferation activity. As cellular power plants, contributors to signal transduction, sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and executors of programmed cell death, mitochondria are in a unique position to affect aging-associated processes of cellular decline. Notably, metabolic activation of mitochondria is tightly linked to Ca2+ due to the Ca2+ -dependency of several enzymes in the Krebs cycle, however, overload of mitochondria with Ca2+ triggers cell death pathways...
November 9, 2018: Redox Biology
Jason R Treberg, Kristen Braun, Parisa Selseleh
Mitochondria are widely recognized as sources of reactive oxygen species in animal cells, with H2 O2 being of particular note because it can act not only in oxidative stress but also is important to several signalling pathways. Lesser recognized is that mitochondria can have far greater capacity to consume H2 O2 than to produce it; however, the consumption of H2 O2 may be kinetically constrained by H2 O2 availability especially at the low nanomolar (or lower) concentrations that occur in vivo. The production of H2 O2 is a function of many factors, not the least of which are respiratory substrate availability and the protonmotive force (Δp)...
November 8, 2018: Redox Biology
Tina Nybo, Simon Dieterich, Luke F Gamon, Christine Y Chuang, Astrid Hammer, Gerald Hoefler, Ernst Malle, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Michael J Davies
Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that underlie arterial wall endothelial cells, with laminin being a key structural and biologically-active component. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent oxidizing and chlorinating agent, is formed in vivo at sites of inflammation via the enzymatic action of myeloperoxidase (MPO), released by activated leukocytes. Considerable data supports a role for MPO-derived oxidants in cardiovascular disease and particularly atherosclerosis. These effects may be mediated via extracellular matrix damage to which MPO binds...
November 3, 2018: Redox Biology
YunYan Tai, Fengjun Cao, Mingxing Li, Pindong Li, Tao Xu, Xuanbin Wang, Yuandong Yu, Bing Gu, Xiongjie Yu, Xiaojun Cai, Feng Ao, Peng Ge, Longchao Xiang, Bingbing Yang, Yingpin Jiang, Yong Li
Metabolic reprogramming is a feature of cancer cells and crucial for tumor growth and metastasis. Interferon-γ (IFNγ) is a cytokine that plays a pivotal role in host antitumor immunity. However, little is known about the roles of metabolic reprogramming in immune responses. Here, we show that colon cancer cells reprogram metabolism to coordinate proper cellular responses to IFNγ by downregulating mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC)1 and 2 via STAT3 signaling. Forced overexpression of MPC promote the production of reactive oxygen species and enhance the apoptosis induced by IFNγ in colon cancer cells...
November 3, 2018: Redox Biology
Nadeem Wajih, Swati Basu, Kamil B Ucer, Fernando Rigal, Aryatara Shakya, Elaheh Rahbar, Vidula Vachharajani, Martin Guthold, Mark T Gladwin, Lane M Smith, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Nitrite is reduced by heme-proteins and molybdenum-containing enzymes to form the important signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO), mediating NO signaling. Substantial evidence suggests that deoxygenated hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBCs) is the main erythrocytic protein responsible for mediating nitrite-dependent NO signaling. In other work, infrared and far red light have been shown to have therapeutic potential that some attribute to production of NO. Here we explore whether a combination of nitrite and far red light treatment has an additive effect in NO-dependent processes, and whether this effect is mediated by RBCs...
November 3, 2018: Redox Biology
Tao Xu, Wei Ding, Xiang Ao, Xianming Chu, Qinggong Wan, Yu Wang, Dandan Xiao, Wanpeng Yu, Mengyang Li, Fei Yu, Jianxun Wang
Necrosis is a key factor in myocardial injury during cardiac pathological processes, such as myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and heart failure. Increasing evidence suggests that several aspects of necrosis are programmed and tightly regulated, so targeting the necrosis process has become a new trend for myocardial protection. Multiple cellular signaling pathways have been implicated in necrotic cell death, such as the death receptor-mediated extrinsic and mitochondrial intrinsic pathways...
November 2, 2018: Redox Biology
Pengfei Xu, Qian Liu, Yi Xie, Xiaolei Shi, Yunzi Li, Mengna Peng, Hongquan Guo, Rui Sun, Juanji Li, Ye Hong, Xinfeng Liu, Gelin Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Redox Biology
Chen Chen, Lei-Xin Zou, Qiu-Yue Lin, Xiao Yan, Hai-Lian Bi, Xin Xie, Shuai Wang, Qing-Shan Wang, Yun-Long Zhang, Hui-Hua Li
Sustained cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of heart failure (HF) and death. Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (RES) exerts a protective role in hypertrophic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. In this study, cardiac hypertrophic remodeling in mice were established by pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and invasive pressure-volume analysis. Cardiomyocyte size was detected by wheat germ agglutinin staining...
November 1, 2018: Redox Biology
Hsuan Chia Chang, Chien Han Kao, Shih Ying Chung, Wei Cheng Chen, Lulus Putri Aninda, Yi Huan Chen, Yi An Juan, Shen Liang Chen
PGC-1α is a key regulator of oxidative metabolism facilitating the expression of genes critical for the function and biogenesis of the two key oxidative organelles, mitochondria and peroxisomes, in skeletal muscle (SKM) and other organs. Our recent studies have found that the transcription factor Bhlhe40 negatively regulates PGC-1α gene expression and its coactivational activity, therefore, this factor should have profound influence on the biogenesis and metabolic activity of mitochondria and peroxisomes...
October 29, 2018: Redox Biology
Diego Pozzer, Ersilia Varone, Alexander Chernorudskiy, Silvia Schiarea, Sonia Missiroli, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton, Marta Canato, Elena Germinario, Leonardo Nogara, Bert Blaauw, Ester Zito
Selenoprotein N (SELENON) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein whose loss of function leads to human SELENON-related myopathies. SelenoN knockout (KO) mouse limb muscles, however, are protected from the disease, and display no major alterations in muscle histology or contractile properties. Interestingly, we find that the highly active diaphragm muscle shows impaired force production, in line with the human phenotype. In addition, after repeated stimulation with a protocol which induces muscle fatigue, also hind limb muscles show altered relaxation times...
October 26, 2018: Redox Biology
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