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Redox Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040960/a-novel-s-sulfhydrated-human-serum-albumin-preparation-suppresses-melanin-synthesis
#1
Mayumi Ikeda, Yu Ishima, Ryo Kinoshita, Victor T G Chuang, Nanami Tasaka, Nana Matsuo, Hiroshi Watanabe, Taro Shimizu, Tatsuhiro Ishida, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
Products of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) stimulate melanin synthesis. Reactive sulfur species (RSS) have been shown to have strong ROS and NO scavenging effects. However, the instability and low retention of RSS limit their use as inhibitors of melanin synthesis. The free thiol at Cys34 on human serum albumin (HSA) is highly stable, has a long retention and possess a high reactivity for RSS. We report herein on the development of an HSA based RSS delivery system...
October 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049981/angiotensin-receptor-blockade-improves-cardiac-mitochondrial-activity-in-response-to-an-acute-glucose-load-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#2
Max Thorwald, Ruben Rodriguez, Andrew Lee, Bridget Martinez, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Daisuke Nakano, Akira Nishiyama, Rudy M Ortiz
Hyperglycemia increases the risk of oxidant overproduction in the heart through activation of a multitude of pathways. Oxidation of mitochondrial enzymes may impair their function resulting in accumulation of intermediates and reverse electron transfer, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) becomes inappropriately activated during metabolic syndrome, increasing oxidant production. To combat excess oxidant production, the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythriod-2- related factor 2 (Nrf2), induces expression of many antioxidant genes...
October 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049980/the-dual-role-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-in-modulating-parthanatos-and-autophagy-under-oxidative-stress-in-rat-cochlear-marginal-cells-of-the-stria-vascularis
#3
Hong-Yan Jiang, Yang Yang, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Zhen Xie, Xue-Yan Zhao, Yu Sun, Wei-Jia Kong
Oxidative stress is reported to regulate several apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in auditory tissues. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can be activated under oxidative stress, which is the hallmark of parthanatos. Autophagy, which serves either a pro-survival or pro-death function, can also be stimulated by oxidative stress, but the role of autophagy and its relationship with parthanatos underlying this activation in the inner ear remains unknown. In this study, we established an oxidative stress model in vitro by glucose oxidase/glucose (GO/G), which could continuously generate low concentrations of H2O2 to mimic continuous exposure to H2O2 in physiological conditions, for investigation of oxidative stress-induced cell death mechanisms and the regulatory role of PARP-1 in this process...
October 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032312/advanced-oxidation-protein-products-induce-s-phase-arrest-of-hepatocytes-via-the-ros-dependent-%C3%AE-catenin-cdk2-mediated-pathway
#4
Shibo Sun, Fang Xie, Xiaoping Xu, Qing Cai, Qifan Zhang, Zhonglin Cui, Yujian Zheng, Jie Zhou
Liver regeneration has important clinical importance in the setting of partial hepatectomy (PH). Following PH, quiescent hepatocytes can reenter cell cycle to restore liver mass. Hepatocyte cell cycle progression, as the basic motivations of liver regeneration, can be disrupted by multiple pathological factors such as oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the role of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in S-phase arrest in hepatocytes. Serum AOPP level were measured during the perioperative period of PH in 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017115/a-review-of-the-basics-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-metabolism-and-related-signaling-pathways-in-cancer-cells-therapeutic-targeting-of-tumor-mitochondria-with-lipophilic-cationic-compounds
#5
REVIEW
Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Gang Cheng, Micael Hardy, Olivier Ouari, Marcos Lopez, Joy Joseph, Jacek Zielonka, Michael B Dwinell
The present review is a sequel to the previous review on cancer metabolism published in this journal. This review focuses on the selective antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics (MTTs) in cancer cells. Emerging research reveals a key role of mitochondrial respiration on tumor proliferation. Previously, a mitochondria-targeted nitroxide was shown to selectively inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation at submicromolar levels. This review is centered on the therapeutic use of MTTs and their bioenergetic profiling in cancer cells...
September 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992589/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-promotes-healthy-lifespan-through-mitohormesis-during-early-to-mid-adulthood-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Li-Gui Xiong, Yi-Jun Chen, Jie-Wen Tong, Yu-Shun Gong, Jian-An Huang, Zhong-Hua Liu
The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is widely consumed as a dietary supplement. Its potential properties include slowing aging and extending lifespan, although how exactly this is achieved remains unclear. Here, we report that EGCG promoted healthy lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans when administered throughout or only at early-to-mid adulthood. Specifically, EGCG extended lifespan in an inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. The life-extending mechanism was stimulated by EGCG-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
September 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982073/cardiac-specific-inactivation-of-lpp3-in-mice-leads-to-myocardial-dysfunction-and-heart-failure
#7
Mini Chandra, Diana Escalante-Alcalde, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Anthony Wayne Orr, Christopher Kevil, Andrew J Morris, Hyung Nam, Paari Dominic, Kevin J McCarthy, Sumitra Miriyala, Manikandan Panchatcharam
Lipid Phosphate phosphatase 3 (LPP3), encoded by the Plpp3 gene, is an enzyme that dephosphorylates the bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). To study the role of LPP3 in the myocardium, we generated a cardiac specific Plpp3 deficient mouse strain. Although these mice were viable at birth in contrast to global Plpp3 knockout mice, they showed increased mortality ~ 8 months. LPP3 deficient mice had enlarged hearts with reduced left ventricular performance as seen by echocardiography. Cardiac specific Plpp3 deficient mice had longer ventricular effective refractory periods compared to their Plpp3 littermates...
September 28, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987868/impairment-of-akt-activity-by-cyp2e1-mediated-oxidative-stress-is-involved-in-chronic-ethanol-induced-fatty-liver
#8
Tao Zeng, Cui-Li Zhang, Ning Zhao, Min-Jie Guan, Mo Xiao, Rui Yang, Xiu-Lan Zhao, Li-Hua Yu, Zhen-Ping Zhu, Ke-Qin Xie
Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) plays important roles in the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and impairment of Akt activity has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies suggest that cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) plays causal roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL). We hypothesized that Akt activity might be impaired due to CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress in chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis. In this study, we found that chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis was accompanied with reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 in mice liver...
September 27, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978491/complement-receptor-3-mediates-nadph-oxidase-activation-and-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-through-a-src-erk-dependent-pathway
#9
Liyan Hou, Ke Wang, Cong Zhang, Fuqiang Sun, Yuning Che, Xiulan Zhao, Dan Zhang, Huihua Li, Qingshan Wang
Microglial NADPH oxidase (Nox2) plays a key role in chronic neuroinflammation and related dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms behind Nox2 activation remain unclear. Here, we revealed the critical role of complement receptor 3 (CR3), a microglia-specific pattern recognition receptor, in Nox2 activation and subsequent dopaminergic neurodegeneration by using paraquat and maneb-induced PD model. Suppression or genetic deletion of CR3 impeded paraquat and maneb-induced activation of microglial Nox2, which was associated with attenuation of dopaminergic neurodegeneration...
September 27, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982074/autophagy-regulates-duox1-localization-and-superoxide-production-in-airway-epithelial-cells-during-chronic-il-13-stimulation
#10
John D Dickinson, Jenea M Sweeter, Kristi J Warren, Iman M Ahmad, Xavier De Deken, Matthew C Zimmerman, Steven L Brody
The airway epithelium is a broad interface with the environment, mandating well-orchestrated responses to properly modulate inflammation. Classically, autophagy is a homeostatic pathway triggered in response to external cellular stresses, and is elevated in chronic airway diseases. Recent findings highlight the additional role of autophagy in vesicle trafficking and protein secretion, implicating autophagy pathways in complex cellular responses in disease. Th2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-4, are increased in asthma and other airway diseases contributing to chronic inflammation...
September 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965082/butaselen-prevents-hepatocarcinogenesis-and-progression-through-inhibiting-thioredoxin-reductase-activity
#11
Xiaoqing Zheng, Weiwei Ma, Ruoxuan Sun, Hanwei Yin, Fei Lin, Yuxi Liu, Wei Xu, Huihui Zeng
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for most of primary liver cancer, of which five-year survival rate remains low and chemoprevention has become a strategy to reduce disease burden of HCC. We aim to explore the in vivo chemopreventive effect of an organoselenium-containing compound butaselen (BS) against hepatocarcinogenesis and its underlying mechanisms. Pre- and sustained BS treatment (9, 18 and 36mg/Kg BS) could dose-dependently inhibit chronic hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and HCC on murine models with 24 weeks treatment scheme...
September 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965081/sirt1-sirt3-axis-regulates-human-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-response-to-ischemia
#12
Tao Chen, Shu-Hui Dai, Xia Li, Peng Luo, Jie Zhu, Yu-Hai Wang, Zhou Fei, Xiao-Fan Jiang
Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and Sirtuin3 (Sirt3) are two well-characterized members of the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) family of proteins. Both Sirt1 and Sirt3 have been shown to play vital roles in resistance to cellular stress, but the interaction between these two sirtuins has not been fully determined. In this study, we investigated the role of Sirt1-Sirt3 axis in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability after ischemia in vitro. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes were co-cultured to model the BBB in vitro and oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) was performed to mimic ischemia...
September 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987867/neuroprotective-effect-of-a-new-variant-of-epo-nonhematopoietic-against-oxidative-stress
#13
C Castillo, S Zaror, M Gonzalez, A Hidalgo, C F Burgos, O I Cabezas, F Hugues, S P Jiménez, E González-Horta, I González-Chavarría, J Gavilán, R Montesino, O Sánchez, Manuela G Lopez, J Fuentealba, J R Toledo
Human erythropoietin is mainly recognized for its hematopoietic function; however, by binding to its receptor (EpoR), it can activate different signaling pathways as STAT, PI3K, MAPK and RAS to increase cellular differentiation or provide neuroprotective effects, among others. A recombinant human erythropoietin variant with low glycosylation and without hematopoietic effect (EpoL) was purified from skimmed goat milk. Recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) was obtained from CHO cell line and used as control to compare EpoL effects...
September 21, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961512/n-acetylcysteine-attenuates-systemic-platelet-activation-and-cerebral-vessel-thrombosis-in-diabetes
#14
Bin Wang, Tak Yee Aw, Karen Y Stokes
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that diabetes exacerbates stroke-induced brain injury, and that this correlates with brain methylglyoxal (MG)-to-glutathione (GSH) status. Cerebral injury was reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Here we tested if the pro-thrombotic phenotype seen in the systemic circulation and brain during diabetes was associated with increased MG-glycation of proteins, and if NAC could reverse this. METHODS: The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes was used...
September 20, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954246/cytoprotective-mechanisms-of-dj-1-against-oxidative-stress-through-modulating-erk1-2-and-ask1-signal-transduction
#15
REVIEW
Stephanie E Oh, M Maral Mouradian
DJ-1 is a highly conserved multifunctional protein linked to both neurodegeneration and neoplasia. Among its various activities is an antioxidant property leading to cytoprotection under oxidative stress conditions. This is associated with the ability to modulate signal transduction events that determine how the cell regulates normal processes such as growth, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy in order to adapt to environmental stimuli and stresses. Alterations in DJ-1 expression or function can disrupt homeostatic signaling networks and initiate cascades that play a role in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Parkinson's disease and cancer...
September 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942197/integrated-metabolic-models-for-xenobiotic-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-skeletal-muscle
#16
William Dott, Jayne Wright, Kelvin Cain, Pratibha Mistry, Karl E Herbert
There is a need for robust in vitro models to sensitively capture skeletal muscle adverse toxicities early in the research and development of novel xenobiotics. To this end, an in vitro rat skeletal muscle model (L6) was used to study the translation of transcriptomics data generated from an in vivo rat model. Novel sulfonyl isoxazoline herbicides were associated with skeletal muscle toxicity in an in vivo rat model. Gene expression pathway analysis on skeletal muscle tissues taken from in vivo repeat dose studies identified enriched pathways associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, energy metabolism, protein regulation and cell cycle...
September 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942194/the-2-oxoglutarate-carrier-promotes-liver-cancer-by-sustaining-mitochondrial-gsh-despite-cholesterol-loading
#17
Anna Baulies, Joan Montero, Nuria Matías, Naroa Insausti, Oihana Terrones, Gorka Basañez, Carmen Vallejo, Laura Conde de La Rosa, Laura Martinez, David Robles, Albert Morales, Joaquin Abian, Montserrat Carrascal, Keigo Machida, Dinesh B U Kumar, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Neil Kaplowitz, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, José C Fernández-Checa
Cancer cells exhibit mitochondrial cholesterol (mt-cholesterol) accumulation, which contributes to cell death resistance by antagonizing mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeabilization. Hepatocellular mt-cholesterol loading, however, promotes steatohepatitis, an advanced stage of chronic liver disease that precedes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), by depleting mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) due to a cholesterol-mediated impairment in mGSH transport. Whether and how HCC cells overcome the restriction of mGSH transport imposed by mt-cholesterol loading to support mGSH uptake remains unknown...
September 14, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942193/identification-of-novel-nrf2-activators-from-cinnamomum-chartophyllum-h-w-li-and-their-potential-application-of-preventing-oxidative-insults-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#18
Ming-Xing Zhou, Guo-Hui Li, Bin Sun, You-Wei Xu, Ai-Ling Li, Yan-Ru Li, Dong-Mei Ren, Xiao-Ning Wang, Xue-Sen Wen, Hong-Xiang Lou, Tao Shen
Human lung tissue, directly exposed to the environmental oxidants and toxicants, is apt to be harmed to bring about acute or chronic oxidative insults. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) represents a central cellular defense mechanism, and is a target for developing agents against oxidative insult-induced human lung diseases. Our previous study found that the EtOH extract of Cinnamomum chartophyllum protected human bronchial epithelial cells against oxidative insults via Nrf2 activation...
September 14, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024896/identification-of-a-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-in-rbcs-preserved-activity-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#19
Miriam M Cortese-Krott, Evanthia Mergia, Christian M Kramer, Wiebke Lückstädt, Jiangning Yang, Georg Wolff, Christina Panknin, Thilo Bracht, Barbara Sitek, John Pernow, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Martin Feelisch, Doris Koesling, Malte Kelm
Endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased NO bioavailability and impaired activation of the NO receptor soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in the vasculature and in platelets. Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to produce NO under hypoxic and normoxic conditions; however evidence of expression and/or activity of sGC and downstream signaling pathway including phopshodiesterase (PDE)-5 and protein kinase G (PKG) in RBCs is still controversial. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether RBCs carry a functional sGC signaling pathway and to address whether this pathway is compromised in coronary artery disease (CAD)...
September 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938192/idh2-deficiency-increases-the-liver-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-increased-mitochondrial-oxidative-injury
#20
Sang Jun Han, Hong Seok Choi, Jee In Kim, Jeen-Woo Park, Kwon Moo Park
Mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is a major producer of mitochondrial NADPH, required for glutathione (GSH)-associated mitochondrial antioxidant systems including glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Here, we investigated the role of IDH2 in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR)-associated mitochondrial injury using Idh2-knockout (Idh2(-/-)) mice and wild-type (Idh2(+/+)) littermates. Mice were subjected to either 60min of partial liver ischemia or sham-operation...
September 8, 2017: Redox Biology
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