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Journal of Diabetes Research

Wenjuan Liu, Wei Gong, Min He, Yemei Liu, Yeping Yang, Meng Wang, Meng Wu, Shizhe Guo, Yifei Yu, Xuanchun Wang, Fei Sun, Yiming Li, Linuo Zhou, Shengmei Qin, Zhaoyun Zhang
Spironolactone (SPR) has been shown to protect diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), but the specific mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we determined the cardioprotective role of SPR in diabetic mice and further explored the potential mechanisms in both in vivo and in vitro models. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats were used as the in vivo model. After the onset of diabetes, rats were treated with either SPR (STZ + SPR) or saline (STZ + NS) for 12 weeks; nondiabetic rats were used as controls (NDCs)...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Rebecca Paprott, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Christin Heidemann
Previous studies investigating determinants of changes in glycemic status among individuals with prediabetes mainly focused on glucose-defined prediabetes. In this study, we examined determinants of a regression to normoglycemia or a progression to diabetes among individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes. The study included 817 participants (18-79 years) with prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-47 mmol/mol)) at baseline. Glycemic status at follow-up was categorized as diagnosed diabetes (self-reported physician diagnosis or antidiabetic medication), undiagnosed diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Fabiana Picconi, Giorgia Mataluni, Lucia Ziccardi, Mariacristina Parravano, Antonio Di Renzo, Dorina Ylli, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Valeria Studer, Laura Chioma, Girolama Alessandra Marfia, Simona Frontoni
Objectives: It has been already confirmed that retinal neurodegeneration has a predictive value in the development of microvascular alterations in diabetic retinopathy. However, no data are available on the association between neuroretinal dysfunction and peripheral motor unit loss. Our study, therefore, was aimed at investigating the hypothesis that retinal neurodegeneration could be considered an early marker of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Methods: 20 T1DM patients with no symptoms/signs of peripheral polyneuropathy, without DR or with very mild nonproliferative DR, and 14 healthy controls (C) age- and gender-matched were enrolled...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Luca Rinaldi, Nadia Lascar, Aldo Marrone, Pia Clara Pafundi, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Raffaele Marfella
Both incidence and mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among diabetic patients are much higher than those among nondiabetics. Actually, there are many studies that addressed glycemic control and CV risk, whilst the literature on the role of tight glycemic control during ACS is currently poor. Therefore, in this review, we critically discussed the studies that investigated this specific topic. Hyperglycemia is implicated in vascular damage and cardiac myocyte death through different molecular mechanisms as advanced glycation end products, protein kinase C, polyol pathway flux, and the hexosamine pathway...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Xiangyang Cheng, Jing Hu, Ya Wang, Hongwei Ye, Xiaohong Li, Qin Gao, Zhenghong Li
Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) exerts cardioprotection against myocardial I/R injury in diabetic hearts and the mechanisms involved. Methods: A total of 30 diabetic rats induced by high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) were randomly assigned to five groups: diabetic sham-operated group (DM-S), diabetic I/R group (DM-I/R), diabetic DEX group (DM-D), diabetic DEX + Wort group (DM-DW), and diabetic Wort group (DM-W)...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Bogdan Mircea Mihai, Cătălina Mihai, Cristina Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Elena-Daniela Grigorescu, Mihaela Dranga, Vasile Drug, Ioan Sporea, Cristina Mihaela Lăcătușu
Gastric emptying and glycemic control pathways are closely interrelated processes. Gastric chyme is transferred into the duodenum with velocities depending on its solid or liquid state, as well as on its caloric and nutritional composition. Once nutrients enter the intestine, the secretion of incretins (hormonal products of intestinal cells) is stimulated. Among incretins, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has multiple glycemic-regulatory effects that include delayed gastric emptying, thus triggering a feedback loop lowering postprandial serum glucose levels...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Ignacio Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José-Víctor Rodríguez, Miguel-Ángel Zamora-Izquierdo
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) is a growing disease, and a deep understanding of the patient is required to prescribe the most appropriate treatment, adjusted to the patient's habits and characteristics. Before now, knowledge regarding each patient has been incomplete, discontinuous, and partial. However, the recent development of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and new biomedical sensors/gadgets, based on automatic continuous monitoring, offers a new perspective on DM1 management, since these innovative devices allow the collection of 24-hour biomedical data in addition to blood glucose levels...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Yanlin Wang-Fischer, Tina Garyantes
The Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic model is widely used; however, unexplained acute toxicity has given the model an unreliable reputation. To improve the reliability and utility of this model, we characterize the age dependence of STZ toxicity and introduce novel endpoints to assess diabetic complications and reveal possible mechanisms for diabetic development. Diabetes was induced by STZ injection into male, 6 to 23 weeks old, Sprague-Dawley rats. Their metabolic (glucose, lipids, and hormones), inflammatory (cytokines), histologic and behavioral endpoints were observed for 1...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Kongye Lu, Benli Su, Xiuxiang Meng
Vaccines are commonly used in the prevention of infectious diseases. The basic principle of vaccination is to use specific antigens, endogenous or exogenous to stimulate immunity against the specific antigens or cells producing them. Autoantigen or oligo vaccination has been used for disease animal models. More recently humanized monoclonal antibodies have been successfully used for the treatment of neoplastic disorders or familial hypercholesterolemia. Humanized monoclonal antibody therapy needs repeated injection, and the therapy is expensive...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Sandro Gentile, Felice Strollo, Francesca Viazzi, Giuseppina Russo, Pamela Piscitelli, Antonio Ceriello, Carlo Giorda, Piero Guida, Paola Fioretto, Roberto Pontremoli, Salvatore De Cosmo, The Amd-Annals Study Group
We performed a real-life analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters, in orally treated T2DM patients aiming at identifying predictors of insulin treatment initiation. Overall, 366955 patients (55.8% males, age 65 ± 11 years, diabetes duration 7 ± 8 years) were followed up between 2004 and 2011. Each patient was analyzed step-by-step until either eventually starting insulin treatment or getting to the end of the follow-up period. Patients switching to insulin showed a worse global risk profile, longer disease duration (10 ± 9 years vs...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Mohamad Adam Bujang, Tassha Hilda Adnan, Nur Khairul Bariyyah Mohd Hatta, Mastura Ismail, Chien Joo Lim
Background: Diabetes quality of life (DQoL) instrument has been widely used to measure quality of life among diabetes patients. This study aimed to develop a revised version of DQoL instrument that incorporated issues of redundancies in the items and strengthen the basis of validity of the instrument. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study where diabetes patients were recruited from December 1, 2014, until end of March 2015 at a public health clinic in Peninsular Malaysia...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Ebrahim M Yimer, Kaleab Alemayehu Zewdie, Hailemichael Zeru Hishe
Diabetes is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome and is one of the shared long-lasting illnesses globally. It is linked to long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications that contribute to disability, compromised quality of life, and reduction in lifespan, which eventually leads to death. This disease is not only incurring significant economic burden but also adversely affects the patients, caregivers, communities, and the society at large. The interruption of diabetes progress and its complications is a primary focus of scientific communities...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Theresa Meldgaard, Søren Schou Olesen, Adam D Farmer, Klaus Krogh, Anne Astrid Wendel, Birgitte Brock, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Christina Brock
The incidence of the micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes is rising, mirroring the increase in the worldwide prevalence. Arguably, the most common microvascular complication is neuropathy, leading to deleterious changes in both the structure and function of neurons. Amongst the various neuropathies with the highest symptom burden are those associated with alterations in the enteric nervous system, referred to as diabetic enteropathy. The primary aim of this review is to provide a contemporaneous summary of pathophysiology of diabetic enteropathy thereby allowing a "molecule to mechanism" approach to treatment, which will include 4 distinct aspects...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Chang Su, Xue-Jun Liang, Wen-Jing Li, Di Wu, Min Liu, Bing-Yan Cao, Jia-Jia Chen, Miao Qin, Xi Meng, Chun-Xiu Gong
Objective: To characterize the genotype and phenotype of Chinese patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) caused by activating mutations in GLUD1 , the gene that encodes mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Methods: The clinical data of glutamate dehydrogenase hyperinsulinism (GDH-HI) patients were reviewed, and gene mutations were confirmed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger DNA sequencing. Results: Twenty-six patients with GDH-HI heterozygous missense mutations were identified from 240 patients diagnosed as congenital hyperinsulinism over past 15 years...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Anil Poudel, Joseph Yi Zhou, Darren Story, Lixin Li
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of death in the U.S. American Indian/Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs), who comprise only 2% of the total population. The AI/AN population has a high prevalence of DM in adults aged 20 years or older and is developing DM at a younger age than the general U.S. POPULATION: DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality from CVD is higher in AI/ANs than the general population, as is the prevalence of stroke and 1-year poststroke mortality for both genders when compared to non-Hispanic whites...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Steen Larsen, Andreas Vigelsø, Sune Dandanell, Clara Prats, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
Background: A prevalent side-effect of simvastatin is attenuated glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but impaired lipid metabolism may provide the link. The aim of this study was to investigate whether simvastatin-treated patients had a lower capacity to oxidize lipids and reduced expression of the major proteins regulating lipid uptake, synthesis, lipolysis, and storage in skeletal muscle than matched controls. Materials and Methods: Ten men were treated with simvastatin (HbA1c: 5...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
John Winkler, Sanjoy Ghosh
Chronic inflammatory diseases like diabetes are on a rise in the Western world. Based on the tsunami of new cases every year, new therapeutic measures must be considered. A promising avenue might involve the attenuation of underlying inflammation through natural health products (NHPs). This is because most NHPs have a rich history in traditional medicine and might be considered safer under appropriate doses and conditions. However, the biggest impediment in NHP research is that rarely do these products come with verified health benefits or dosing schedules established through modern scientific research...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Pu Wang, Yu Cheng Lu, Yuan Fei Li, Lan Wang, Shao Chin Lee
Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for all-site cancers including colon cancer. Diabetic patients present typical pathophysiological features including an increased level of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which comes from a series of nonenzymatic reactions between sugars and biological macromolecules, positively associated with the occurrence of diabetic complications. MDM2 is an oncogene implicated in cancer development. The present study investigated whether diabetes promoted MDM2 expression in colon cells and the underlying mechanisms...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Xiaowei Ma, Ran Lu, Nan Gu, Xiaowei Wei, Ge Bai, Jianwei Zhang, Ruifen Deng, Nan Feng, Jianping Li, Xiaohui Guo
Background: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) bestows protective effects upon the cardiovascular system through direct cardiovascular interactions or by improvements to metabolic function. Both these effects are thought to be at least partly mediated by the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). This case-controlled study investigated whether polymorphisms in the GLP-1R gene affect the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients in the Chinese Han population. Methods: Eleven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), distributed across 22 kb of the 39 kb GLP-1R gene, were selected and genotyped in diabetic patients from a Chinese Han population...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Eleanor Race Mackey, Lyndsay O'Brecht, Clarissa S Holmes, Marni Jacobs, Randi Streisand
Objective: To characterize the intake of macronutrient and fiber in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine their association with health indicators. Methods: Baseline data from an RCT were examined. Adolescent-parent dyads ( n = 257, mean age 12 ± 1.2 years, 49.4% girls) reported dietary intake via two separate 24-hour recall interviews during a two-week period. Demographic and medical variables were abstracted from questionnaires and medical charts...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
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