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Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194563/a-critical-evaluation-of-the-quality-of-published-13-c-nmr-data-in-natural-product-chemistry
#1
REVIEW
Wolfgang Robien
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy contributes very efficiently to the structure elucidation process in organic chemistry. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy allows direct insight into the skeleton of organic compounds and therefore plays a central role in the structural assignment of natural products. Despite this important contribution, there is no established and well-accepted workflow protocol utilized during the first steps of interpreting spectroscopic data and converting them into structural fragments and then combining them, by considering the given spectroscopic constraints, into a final proposal of structure...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194562/the-iboga-alkaloids
#2
REVIEW
Catherine Lavaud, Georges Massiot
Iboga alkaloids are a particular class of indolomonoterpenes most often characterized by an isoquinuclidine nucleus. Their first occurrence was detected in the roots of Tabernanthe iboga, a sacred plant to the people of Gabon, which made it cult object. Ibogaine is the main representative of this class of alkaloids and its psychoactive properties are well documented. It has been proposed as a drug cessation treatment and has a wide range of activities in targeting opioids, cocaine, and alcohol. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a background on this molecule and related compounds and to update knowledge on the most recent advances made...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194561/xanthine-alkaloids-occurrence-biosynthesis-and-function-in-plants
#3
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ashihara, Kouichi Mizuno, Takao Yokota, Alan Crozier
Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid found in non-alcoholic beverages such as tea, coffee, and cocoa. It was discovered in tea and coffee in the 1820s, but it was not until 2000 that details of molecular events associated with caffeine biosynthesis began to be unraveled. Reviewed are the occurrence of xanthine alkaloids in the plant kingdom and the elucidation of the caffeine biosynthesis pathway, providing details of the N-methyltransferases, belonging to the motif B' methyltransferase family, which catalyze three steps in the four-step pathway leading from xanthosine to caffeine...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160212/phthalides-distribution-in-nature-chemical-reactivity-synthesis-and-biological-activity
#4
REVIEW
Alejandra León, Mayela Del-Ángel, José Luis Ávila, Guillermo Delgado
Phthalides are a relatively small group of natural compounds confined to several plant families and some genera of fungi and liverworts. They are divided into two structural groups, the monomeric and dimeric phthalides, and known mainly as bioactive constituents of different plant species used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Asia, Europe, and North America.The first reports on the chemistry of phthalides appeared at the end of the nineteenth century, in which they were identified as the odor constituents of the essential oil of celery (Apium graveolens) by Ciamician and Silber (1897)...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160211/natural-product-molecular-fossils
#5
REVIEW
Heinz Falk, Klaus Wolkenstein
The natural products synthesized by organisms that were living a long time ago gave rise to their molecular fossils. These can consist of either the original unchanged compounds or they may undergo peripheral transformations in which their skeletons remain intact. In cases when molecular fossils can be traced to their organismic source, they are termed "geological biomarkers".This contribution describes apolar and polar molecular fossils and, in particular biomarkers, along the lines usually followed in organic chemistry textbooks, and points to their bioprecursors when available...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120232/molecular-targets-of-the-phytocannabinoids-a-complex-picture
#6
REVIEW
Paula Morales, Dow P Hurst, Patricia H Reggio
For centuries, hashish and marihuana, both derived from the Indian hemp Cannabis sativa L., have been used for their medicinal, as well as, their psychotropic effects. These effects are associated with the phytocannabinoids which are oxygen containing C21 aromatic hydrocarbons found in Cannabis sativa L. To date, over 120 phytocannabinoids have been isolated from Cannabis. For many years, it was assumed that the beneficial effects of the phytocannabinoids were mediated by the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120231/molecular-pharmacology-of-phytocannabinoids
#7
REVIEW
Sarah E Turner, Claire M Williams, Leslie Iversen, Benjamin J Whalley
Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational, therapeutic and other uses for thousands of years. The plant contains more than 120 C21 terpenophenolic constituents named phytocannabinoids. The Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol type class of phytocannabinoids comprises the largest proportion of the phytocannabinoid content. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol was first discovered in 1971. This led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in mammals, including the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts its well-known psychotropic effects through the CB1 receptor but this effect of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol has limited the use of cannabis medicinally, despite the therapeutic benefits of this phytocannabinoid...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120230/synthesis-of-phytocannabinoids
#8
REVIEW
Michael A Schafroth, Erick M Carreira
The changing legal landscape including medicinal and recreational consumption of Cannabis sativa has led to renewed interest to study the chemistry and biology of cannabinoids. The chemistry in this chapter highlights approaches to cannabinoid total synthesis with an emphasis on the implementation of modern methods and tactics, which provide access to modified structures and enable investigations of the biology of the cannabinoid product family.
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120229/phytochemistry-of-cannabis-sativa-l
#9
REVIEW
Mahmoud A ElSohly, Mohamed M Radwan, Waseem Gul, Suman Chandra, Ahmed Galal
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) and its constituents-in particular the cannabinoids-have been the focus of extensive chemical and biological research for almost half a century since the discovery of the chemical structure of its major active constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The plant's behavioral and psychotropic effects are attributed to its content of this class of compounds, the cannabinoids, primarily Δ(9)-THC, which is produced mainly in the leaves and flower buds of the plant...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538412/erratum-to-dimeric-sesquiterpenoids
#10
Shang-Gao Liao, Jian-Min Yue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380407/the-laurencia-paradox-an-endless-source-of-chemodiversity
#11
REVIEW
Maria Harizani, Efstathia Ioannou, Vassilios Roussis
Nature, the most prolific source of biological and chemical diversity, has provided mankind with treatments for health problems since ancient times and continues to be the most promising reservoir of bioactive chemicals for the development of modern drugs. In addition to the terrestrial organisms that still remain a promising source of new bioactive metabolites, the marine environment, covering approximately 70% of the Earth's surface and containing a largely unexplored biodiversity, offers an enormous resource for the discovery of novel compounds...
2016: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380406/ingenane-diterpenoids
#12
REVIEW
Giovanni Appendino
Despite a more recent isolation and chemical characterization when compared to phorbol, along with its chemical instability, limited distribution in Nature, and scarce availability, ingenol is the only Euphorbia diterpenoid that has undergone successful pharmaceutical development, with ingenol 3-angelate (ingenol mebutate, Picato(®)) entering the pharmaceutical market in 2012 for the treatment of actinic keratosis. The phytochemical, chemical, and biological literature on members of the ingenane class of diterpenoids is reviewed from their first isolation in 1968 through 2015, highlighting unresolved issues both common to phorboids (biogenesis, relationship between molecular targets, and in vivo activity) and specific to ingenol derivatives (two-dimensional representation, in-out stereoisomerism, versatility of binding mode to PKC, and inconsistencies in the structural elucidation of some classes of derivatives)...
2016: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26659109/acetogenins-from-annonaceae
#13
REVIEW
Chih-Chuang Liaw, Jing-Ru Liou, Tung-Ying Wu, Fang-Rong Chang, Yang-Chang Wu
In recent decades, annonaceous acetogenins have become highly studied plant secondary metabolites in terms of their isolation, structure elucidation, synthesis, biological evaluation, mechanism of action, and toxicity. The aim of the present contribution is to summarize chemical and biological reports published since 1997 on annonaceous acetogenins and synthetic acetogenin mimics. The compounds are considered biologically in terms of their cytotoxicity for cancer cell lines, neurotoxicity, pesticidal effects, and miscellaneous activities...
2016: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26659108/dimeric-sesquiterpenoids
#14
REVIEW
Shang-Gao Liao, Jian-Min Yue
It is widely accepted that a large number of proteins that are responsible for cellular function exist as dimers or need to be activated by dimerization before mediating certain signaling pathways. Simultaneously targeting both monomeric moieties of the dimeric proteins has shown potential in the development of various therapeutic agents. As dimeric molecules might be able to act on both moieties of a dimeric protein, dimeric sesquiterpenoids (DSs), which are generated biogenetically from coupling of two sesquiterpenoid molecules, are in essence potential biologically active molecules, and have attracted in recent years great attention for their peculiar structures and biological activities...
2016: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632564/the-series-progress-in-the-chemistry-of-organic-natural-products-75-years-of-service-in-the-development-of-natural-product-chemistry
#15
Rudolf Werner Soukup, Klara Soukup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632563/vibrational-circular-dichroism-absolute-configuration-determination-of-natural-products
#16
Pedro Joseph-Nathan, Bárbara Gordillo-Román
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632562/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-in-the-structural-elucidation-of-natural-products
#17
William F Reynolds, Eugene P Mazzola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632561/mass-spectrometry-in-natural-product-structure-elucidation
#18
Herbert Budzikiewicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632560/structure-elucidation-of-natural-compounds-by-x-ray-crystallography
#19
Ulrike Wagner, Christoph Kratky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632559/foreword-methodology
#20
Kinghorn A D, Falk H, Kobayashi J
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
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