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Zhi-Zhong Li, Andrew W Gichira, Qing-Feng Wang, Jin-Ming Chen
Brasenia schreberi J.F. Gmelin (Cabombaceae), an aquatic herb that occurs in fragmented locations in China, is rare and endangered. Understanding its genetic diversity and structure is crucial for its conservation and management. In this study, 12 microsatellite markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity and variation in 21 populations of B. schreberi in China. A total of 61 alleles were found; assessment of allelic richness ( A r = 1.92) and observed and expected heterozygosity ( H O = 0.200, H E = 0...
2018: PeerJ
Robert A Petit, Timothy D Read
Low-cost Illumina sequencing of clinically-important bacterial pathogens has generated thousands of publicly available genomic datasets. Analyzing these genomes and extracting relevant information for each pathogen and the associated clinical phenotypes requires not only resources and bioinformatic skills but organism-specific knowledge. In light of these issues, we created Staphopia, an analysis pipeline, database and application programming interface, focused on Staphylococcus aureus , a common colonizer of humans and a major antibiotic-resistant pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of hospital and community-associated infections...
2018: PeerJ
Toshiharu Mitsuhashi
Background: The Internet is widely used as a source of information by people searching for medical or healthcare information. However, information found on the Internet has several drawbacks, and the ability to consume accurate health information on the Internet (eHealth literacy) is increasingly important. This study's goal was to clarify the extent to which eHealth literacy is improved after e-learning in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Data were collected on 301 Japanese adults through an online survey...
2018: PeerJ
Leidy J Castro-Meneses, Paul F Sowman
Background: A robust feature of sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) performance in finger tapping to an auditory pacing signal is the negative asynchrony of the tap with respect to the pacing signal. The Paillard-Fraisse hypothesis suggests that negative asynchrony is a result of inter-modal integration, in which the brain compares sensory information across two modalities (auditory and tactile). The current study compared the asynchronies of vocalizations and finger tapping in time to an auditory pacing signal...
2018: PeerJ
Alla V Silina
Sex structure is very labile between populations and specific for each population because it is a result of genetic, ontogenetic and biocenotic influences on the mollusks. In this study, the age frequency distribution, age-sex structure, and sex ratio were assessed in the wild populations of the Yeso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay) observed at fifteen sites in the northwestern Sea of Japan (=East Sea). The sex ratio varied between the populations from 0.83:1 to 1.52:1 (males/females), with the mean sex ratio being 1...
2018: PeerJ
Xiangli Wu, Zhihao Hou, Chenyang Huang, Qiang Chen, Wei Gao, Jinxia Zhang
Pleurotus tuoliensis , a kind of valuable and favorable edible mushroom in China, is always subjected to high environmental temperature during cultivation. In our previous study with P. tuoliensis , trehalose proved to be effective for tolerating heat stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS; EC2.4.1.15) plays a key role in the biosynthesis of trehalose in fungi. In this study, a full-length of cDNA with 1,665 nucleotides encoding TPS ( PtTPS ) in P. tuoliensis was cloned. The PtTPS amino acid was aligned with other homologues and several highly conserved regions were analyzed...
2018: PeerJ
Ankush Ashok Saddhe, Manali Ramakant Malvankar, Kundan Kumar
Rhizophora apiculata is a halophytic, small mangrove tree distributed along the coastal regions of the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. They are natural genetic reservoirs of salt adaptation genes and offer a unique system to explore adaptive mechanisms under salinity stress. However, there are no reliable studies available on selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in R. apiculata physiological tissues and in salt stress conditions...
2018: PeerJ
Carlos Riquelme, Sergio A Estay, Rodrigo López, Hernán Pastore, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa, Paulo Corti
Background: Climate change is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, pushing species to shift their distribution ranges and making existing protected areas inadequate. Estimating species distribution and potential modifications under climate change are then necessary for adjusting conservation and management plans; this is especially true for endangered species. An example of this issue is the huemul ( Hippocamelus bisulcus ), an endemic endangered deer from the southern Andes Range, with less than 2,000 individuals...
2018: PeerJ
Yu-Long Wang, Wen Yu
Objective: MicroRNA (miR)-122 is highly expressed in the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism. A recent study reported that miR-122 plays a role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; however, whether it connects with severity of atherosclerotic lesion is still controversial. We therefore investigated the association between miR-122 expression and presence and severity of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Methods: During January-November 2017, we included 300 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 100 subjects as the control group...
2018: PeerJ
Funmilola A Ayeni, Werner Ruppitsch, Franz Allerberger
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a human colonizer with high potential for virulence, and the spread of the virulent strains from the colonized hosts to non-carriers in the community is on the increase. However, there are few reports on comprehensive analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes with clonal lineage in S. aureus in Africa. This is essential because of diversity of cultures and habits of the people. This study analyzed spa types and enterotoxin genes in S. aureus strains previously isolated from the human nostrils, poultry and clinical samples in Southern Nigeria...
2018: PeerJ
Wanli Zhang, Yanming Di
The accumulation of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) gene expression data in recent years has resulted in large and complex data sets of high dimensions. Exploratory analysis, including data mining and visualization, reveals hidden patterns and potential outliers in such data, but is often challenged by the high dimensional nature of the data. The scatterplot matrix is a commonly used tool for visualizing multivariate data, and allows us to view multiple bivariate relationships simultaneously. However, the scatterplot matrix becomes less effective for high dimensional data because the number of bivariate displays increases quadratically with data dimensionality...
2018: PeerJ
José G B Derraik, Benjamin B Albert, Martin de Bock, Éadaoin M Butler, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Socioeconomic status is a known determinant of health. In secondary data analyses, we assessed whether socioeconomic status affected health-related quality of life in a group of overweight (body mass index 25-30 kg/m2 ) middle-aged (45.9 ± 5.4 years) men, recruited in Auckland (New Zealand). Health-related quality of life was assessed with SF-36v2 three times: at baseline, and 12 and 30 weeks later. Socioeconomic status was determined by geo-coded deprivation scores derived from current address using the New Zealand Index of Deprivation 2006 (NZDep2006), as well as capital value of residence...
2018: PeerJ
Eric F Tom, Ian J Molineux, Matthew L Paff, James J Bull
The dsDNA bacteriophage T7 was subjected to 30 cycles of lethal ultraviolet light (UV) exposure to select increased resistance to UV. The exposure effected a 0.9999 kill of the ancestral population, and survival of the ending population was nearly 50-fold improved. At the end point, a 2.1 kb deletion of early genes and three substitutions in structural-genes were the only changes observed at high frequency throughout the 40 kb genome; no changes were observed in genes affecting DNA metabolism. The deletion accounted for only a two-fold improvement in survival...
2018: PeerJ
Jun Mizushima, Keitaro Seki, Justin W L Keogh, Kei Maeda, Atsushi Shibata, Hiroyuki Koyama, Keigo Ohyama-Byun
Background: Anecdotally, a wide variety of benefits of barefoot running have been advocated by numerous individuals. The influence of the alterations in the properties of the shoe on the running movement has been demonstrated in adults at submaximal jogging speeds. However, the biomechanical differences between shod and barefoot running in children at sprinting speeds and the potential developmental implications of these differences are still less examined. The purpose was to determine the potential differences in habitually shod children's sprint kinematics between shod and barefoot conditions...
2018: PeerJ
Chao Ou-Yang, Chandrawati Putri Wulandari, Rizka Aisha Rahmi Hariadi, Han-Cheng Wang, Chiehfeng Chen
Background and Objective: Increases in outpatients seeking medical check-ups are expanding the number of health examination data records, which can be utilized for medical strategic planning and other purposes. However, because hospital visits by outpatients seeking medical check-ups are unpredictable, those patients often cannot receive optimal service due to limited facilities of hospitals. To resolve this problem, this study attempted to predict re-visit patterns of outpatients. Method: Two-phase sequential pattern mining (SPM) and an association mining method were chosen to predict patient returns using sequential data...
2018: PeerJ
William H Clark, Jason R Franz
The human Achilles tendon (AT) consists of sub-tendons arising from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles that exhibit non-uniform tissue displacements thought to facilitate some independent actuation. However, the mechanisms governing non-uniform displacement patterns within the AT, and their relevance to triceps surae muscle contractile dynamics, have remained elusive. We used a dual-probe ultrasound imaging approach to investigate triceps surae muscle dynamics (i.e., medial gastrocnemius-GAS, soleus-SOL) as a determinant of non-uniform tendon tissue displacements in the human AT...
2018: PeerJ
Qiuxia Han, Songyan Li, Bo Fu, Dongwei Liu, Maoqing Wu, Xiaoli Yang, Guangyan Cai, Zhangsuo Liu, Xiangmei Chen, Hanyu Zhu
Background: The importance of circulating antibodies as biomarkers of kidney disease has recently been recognized. However, no study has systematically described the methodology of sample preparation and storage regarding antibodies as biomarkers of kidney disease. It remains unknown whether repetitive freeze-thaw cycles, physical disturbances, storage at different temperatures or for different periods of time, or haemolytic or turbid serum samples affect antibody measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate the stabilities of antibodies associated with kidney disease in serum samples under various relevant clinical and research conditions...
2018: PeerJ
Carolin Thielsch, Tanja Andor, Thomas Ehring
Background: Metacognitive beliefs have been proposed to play a key role in initiating and maintaining worry. The Why Worry-Scale-II (WW-II) and Consequences of Worry Scale (COWS) are self-report questionnaires assessing positive and negative metacognitive beliefs. The main goal of this study was to validate German versions of these two questionnaires. Method: N  = 603 participants completed a questionnaire battery, including the two self-report measures of metacognitive beliefs...
2018: PeerJ
Kaja M Abbas, Gloria J Kang, Daniel Chen, Stephen R Werre, Achla Marathe
Objective: The study objective is to analyze influenza vaccination status by demographic factors, perceived vaccine efficacy, social influence, herd immunity, vaccine cost, health insurance status, and barriers to influenza vaccination among adults 18 years and older in the United States. Background: Influenza vaccination coverage among adults 18 years and older was 41% during 2010-2011 and has increased and plateaued at 43% during 2016-2017. This is below the target of 70% influenza vaccination coverage among adults, which is an objective of the Healthy People 2020 initiative...
2018: PeerJ
Keri A Lydon, Megan J Robertson, Erin K Lipp
The antimicrobial additive triclosan has been used in personal care products widely across the globe for decades. Triclosan resistance has been noted among Vibrio spp., but reports have been anecdotal and the extent of phenotypic triclosan resistance across the Vibrionaceae family has not been established . Here, triclosan resistance was determined for Vibrionaceae strains across nine distinct clades. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 70 isolates from clinical ( n  = 6) and environmental sources ( n  = 64); only two were susceptible to triclosan...
2018: PeerJ
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