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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920957/eurasian-jays-do-not-copy-the-choices-of-conspecifics-but-they-do-show-evidence-of-stimulus-enhancement
#1
Rachael Miller, Corina J Logan, Katherine Lister, Nicola S Clayton
Corvids (birds in the crow family) are hypothesised to have a general cognitive tool-kit because they show a wide range of transferrable skills across social, physical and temporal tasks, despite differences in socioecology. However, it is unknown whether relatively asocial corvids differ from social corvids in their use of social information in the context of copying the choices of others, because only one such test has been conducted in a relatively asocial corvid. We investigated whether relatively asocial Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) use social information (i...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920956/grassland-productivity-in-response-to-nutrient-additions-and-herbivory-is-scale-dependent
#2
Erica A H Smithwick, Douglas C Baldwin, Kusum J Naithani
Vegetation response to nutrient addition can vary across space, yet studies that explicitly incorporate spatial pattern into experimental approaches are rare. To explore whether there are unique spatial scales (grains) at which grass response to nutrients and herbivory is best expressed, we imposed a large (∼3.75 ha) experiment in a South African coastal grassland ecosystem. In two of six 60 × 60 m grassland plots, we imposed a scaled sampling design in which fertilizer was added in replicated sub-plots (1 × 1 m, 2 × 2 m, and 4 × 4 m)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920955/patma-parser-of-archival-tissue-microarray
#3
Lukasz Roszkowiak, Carlos Lopez
Tissue microarrays are commonly used in modern pathology for cancer tissue evaluation, as it is a very potent technique. Tissue microarray slides are often scanned to perform computer-aided histopathological analysis of the tissue cores. For processing the image, splitting the whole virtual slide into images of individual cores is required. The only way to distinguish cores corresponding to specimens in the tissue microarray is through their arrangement. Unfortunately, distinguishing the correct order of cores is not a trivial task as they are not labelled directly on the slide...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920954/drosophila-chem-mutations-disrupt-epithelial-polarity-in-drosophila-embryos
#4
José M Zamudio-Arroyo, Juan R Riesgo-Escovar
Drosophila embryogenesis has proven to be an extremely powerful system for developmental gene discovery and characterization. We isolated five new EMS-induced alleles that do not complement the l(3R)5G83 lethal line isolated in the Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus screens. We have named this locus chem. Lethality of the new alleles as homozygous zygotic mutants is not completely penetrant, and they have an extended phenocritical period. Like the original allele, a fraction of mutant embryos die with cuticular defects, notably head involution and dorsal closure defects...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920953/age-growth-and-population-structure-of-invasive-lionfish-pterois-volitans-miles-in-northeast-florida-using-a-length-based-age-structured-population-model
#5
Eric G Johnson, Mary Katherine Swenarton
The effective management of invasive species requires detailed understanding of the invader's life history. This information is essential for modeling population growth and predicting rates of expansion, quantifying ecological impacts and assessing the efficacy of removal and control strategies. Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have rapidly invaded the western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea with documented negative impacts on native ecosystems. To better understand the life history of this species, we developed and validated a length-based, age-structured model to investigate age, growth and population structure in northeast Florida...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920952/a-methodology-for-the-design-of-experiments-in-computational-intelligence-with-multiple-regression-models
#6
Carlos Fernandez-Lozano, Marcos Gestal, Cristian R Munteanu, Julian Dorado, Alejandro Pazos
The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920951/risk-factors-for-in-hospital-mortality-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-in-patients-80%C3%A2-years-old-or-older-a-retrospective-case-series-study
#7
Jacek Piątek, Anna Kędziora, Janusz Konstanty-Kalandyk, Grzegorz Kiełbasa, Marta Olszewska, Bryan HyoChan Song, Karol Wierzbicki, Irena Milaniak, Tomasz Darocha, Dorota Sobczyk, Bogusław Kapelak
BACKGROUND: Age remains a significant and unmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and an increasing number of patients older than 80 years of age undergo Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). Old age is also an independent risk factor for postoperative complications. The aim of this study is to describe the population of patients 80 years of age or older who underwent CABG procedure and to assess the mortality rate and risk factors for in-hospital mortality. METHODS: A retrospective case-series study analyzing 388 consecutive patients aged 80 years of age or older who underwent isolated CABG procedure between 2010 and 2014 in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantology, John Paul II Hospital, Krakow...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920950/on-the-intrinsic-sterility-of-3d-printing
#8
Russell Y Neches, Kaitlin J Flynn, Luis Zaman, Emily Tung, Nicholas Pudlo
3D printers that build objects using extruded thermoplastic are quickly becoming commonplace tools in laboratories. We demonstrate that with appropriate handling, these devices are capable of producing sterile components from a non-sterile feedstock of thermoplastic without any treatment after fabrication. The fabrication process itself results in sterilization of the material. The resulting 3D printed components are suitable for a wide variety of applications, including experiments with bacteria and cell culture...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920949/development-of-olfactory-epithelium-and-associated-structures-in-the-green-iguana-iguana-iguana-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-study
#9
Olga Sapoznikov, Petr Cizek, Frantisek Tichy
The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917323/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-prevalent-invasive-multi-drug-resistant-strains-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#10
Rehab H Bahy, Hayam M Hamouda, Amal S Shahat, Aymen S Yassin, Magdy A Amin
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that causes serious invasive infections, such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in addition to mild upper respiratory tract infections. Protection from pneumococcal diseases is thought to be mediated mainly by serotype-specific antibodies to capsular antigens. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine consists of sugars (polysaccharides) from the capsule of the bacterium S. pneumoniae that are conjugated to a carrier protein. Three pneumococcal conjugated vaccines, each directed against a group of serotypes, are registered in Egypt; however, local vaccine production is required to cover the most prevalent serotypes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917322/bioinformatical-analysis-of-eukaryotic-shugoshins-reveals-meiosis-specific-features-of-vertebrate-shugoshins
#11
Tatiana M Grishaeva, Darya Kulichenko, Yuri F Bogdanov
BACKGROUND: Shugoshins (SGOs) are proteins that protect cohesins located at the centromeres of sister chromatids from their early cleavage during mitosis and meiosis in plants, fungi, and animals. Their function is to prevent premature sister-chromatid disjunction and segregation. The study focused on the structural differences among SGOs acting during mitosis and meiosis that cause differences in chromosome behavior in these two types of cell division in different organisms. METHODS: A bioinformatical analysis of protein domains, conserved amino acid motifs, and physicochemical properties of 32 proteins from 25 species of plants, fungi, and animals was performed...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917321/effects-of-arachidonic-acid-supplementation-in-maturation-diet-on-female-reproductive-performance-and-larval-quality-of-giant-river-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#12
Chanpim Kangpanich, Jarunan Pratoomyot, Nisa Siranonthana, Wansuk Senanan
The giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is one of the most farmed freshwater crustaceans in the world. Its global production has been stalling in the past decade due to the inconsistent quality of broodstock and hatchery-produced seeds. A better understanding of the role of nutrition in maturation diets will help overcome some of the production challenges. Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, ARA) is a fatty acid precursor of signaling molecules important for crustacean reproduction, prostaglandins E and F of the series II (PGE2 and PGF2α), and is often lacking in maturation diets of shrimp and prawns...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917320/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-helwingia-himalaica-helwingiaceae-aquifoliales-and-a-chloroplast-phylogenomic-analysis-of-the-campanulidae
#13
Xin Yao, Ying-Ying Liu, Yun-Hong Tan, Yu Song, Richard T Corlett
Complete chloroplast genome sequences have been very useful for understanding phylogenetic relationships in angiosperms at the family level and above, but there are currently large gaps in coverage. We report the chloroplast genome for Helwingia himalaica, the first in the distinctive family Helwingiaceae and only the second genus to be sequenced in the order Aquifoliales. We then combine this with 36 published sequences in the large (c. 35,000 species) subclass Campanulidae in order to investigate relationships at the order and family levels...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917319/the-effectiveness-of-cooling-conditions-on-temperature-of-canine-edta-whole-blood-samples
#14
Karen M Tobias, Leslie Serrano, Xiaocun Sun, Bente Flatland
BACKGROUND: Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917318/disentangling-urban-habitat-and-matrix-effects-on-wild-bee-species
#15
Leonie K Fischer, Julia Eichfeld, Ingo Kowarik, Sascha Buchholz
In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a) if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b) how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917317/flexible-ureteroscopy-for-renal-stone-without-preoperative-ureteral-stenting-shows-good-prognosis
#16
Jiaqiao Zhang, Chuou Xu, Deng He, Yuchao Lu, Henglong Hu, Baolong Qin, Yufeng Wang, Qing Wang, Cong Li, Shaogang Wang, Jihong Liu
PURPOSE: To clarify the outcome of flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) for management of renal calculi without preoperative stenting. METHODS: A total of 171 patients who received 176 fURS procedures for unilateral renal stones were reviewed. All procedures were divided into two groups depending on whether they received ureteral stenting preoperatively. Baseline characteristics of patients, stone burden, operation time, stone-free rates, and complications were compared between both groups...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917316/quantitative-analysis-of-rat-adipose-tissue-cell-recovery-and-non-fat-cell-volume-in-primary-cell-cultures
#17
Floriana Rotondo, María Del Mar Romero, Ana Cecilia Ho-Palma, Xavier Remesar, José Antonio Fernández-López, Marià Alemany
BACKGROUND: White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917315/the-first-complete-plastid-genomes-of-melastomataceae-are-highly-structurally-conserved
#18
Marcelo Reginato, Kurt M Neubig, Lucas C Majure, Fabian A Michelangeli
BACKGROUND: In the past three decades, several studies have predominantly relied on a small sample of the plastome to infer deep phylogenetic relationships in the species-rich Melastomataceae. Here, we report the first full plastid sequences of this family, compare general features of the sampled plastomes to other sequenced Myrtales, and survey the plastomes for highly informative regions for phylogenetics. METHODS: Genome skimming was performed for 16 species spread across the Melastomataceae...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917314/pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-developing-rats-prenatally-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#19
Angel A Puig-Lagunes, Jorge Manzo, Luis Beltrán-Parrazal, Consuelo Morgado-Valle, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, Maria-Leonor López-Meraz
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates epilepsy is more common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (20-25%) than in the general population. The aim of this project was to analyze seizure susceptibility in developing rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as autism model. METHODS: Pregnant females were injected with VPA during the twelfth embryonic day. Seizures were induced in fourteen-days-old rat pups using two models of convulsions: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917313/open-surgery-versus-retroperitoneal-laparoscopic-nephrectomy-for-renal-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-study-of-120-patients
#20
Su Zhang, You Luo, Cheng Wang, Hu Xiong, Sheng-Jun Fu, Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic renal surgery has been widely used in the treatment of renal diseases. However, there is still little research about its application in addressing renal tuberculosis. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively investigate the surgical results of laparoscopic and open surgery for nonfunctional tuberculous kidneys. METHODS: Between May 2011 and June 2016, 120 nephrectomies were performed in patients with a nonfunctional tuberculous kidney...
2016: PeerJ
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