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Fei Zhao, En-De Liu, Hua Peng, Chun-Lei Xiang
Scutellaria wuana, a new species discovered from a xeric valley in Muli County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, the new species shares similarities with S. mairei, but can be readily distinguished by a suite of morphological characters including a white-pubescent erect stem, conspicuous leaf petioles, and a yellow corolla with a trapeziform lower-middle lip lobe. The habitat and distribution of S. wuana are also distinctive. The position of the new species within Scutellaria is examined in a phylogenetic context using the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers...
2017: PeerJ
Andreas Bartols, Bernt-Peter Robra, Winfried Walther
BACKGROUND: Reciproc instruments are the only contemporary root canal instruments where glide path preparation is no longer strictly demanded by the manufacturer. As the complete preparation of root canals is associated with success in endodontic treatment we wanted to assess the ability and find predictors for Reciproc instruments to reach full working length (RFWL) in root canals of maxillary molars in primary root canal treatment (1°RCTx) and retreatment (2°RCTx) cases. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 255 endodontic treatment cases of maxillary molars...
2017: PeerJ
Juan Wang, Li Zhang, Qi-Lin Zhang, Min-Qiang Zhou, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Ming-Long Yuan
The family Miridae is one of the most species-rich families of insects. To better understand the diversity and evolution of mirids, we determined the mitogenome of Lygus pratenszs and re-sequenced the mitogenomes of four mirids (i.e., Apolygus lucorum, Adelphocoris suturalis, Ade. fasciaticollis and Ade. lineolatus). We performed a comparative analysis for 15 mitogenomic sequences representing 11 species of five genera within Miridae and evaluated the potential of these mitochondrial genes as molecular markers...
2017: PeerJ
Jagrati Mathur, Soe Naing, Paul Mills, David Limsui
AIM: To prospectively evaluate the effects of vitamin D3 on disease activity and quality of life in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with hypovitaminosis D. METHODS: The study was a prospective double-blinded, randomized trial conducted at Community Regional Medical Center, Fresno, CA from 2012-2013. Patients with UC and a serum 25(OH)D level <30 ng/ml were eligible for the study. Enrolled subjects were randomized to receive either 2,000 IU or 4,000 IU of oral vitamin D3 daily for a total of 90 days...
2017: PeerJ
Katherine A Cronin, Sarah L Jacobson, Kristin E Bonnie, Lydia M Hopper
BACKGROUND: Studying animal cognition in a social setting is associated with practical and statistical challenges. However, conducting cognitive research without disturbing species-typical social groups can increase ecological validity, minimize distress, and improve animal welfare. Here, we review the existing literature on cognitive research run with primates in a social setting in order to determine how widespread such testing is and highlight approaches that may guide future research planning...
2017: PeerJ
Katarzyna Iwanicka, Aneta Gerhant, Marcin Olajossy
BACKGROUND: The problem of coping with stress is an important one in the context of development and persistence of alcohol dependence. In the literature to date very little attention has been paid to coping patterns construed as a configuration of specific coping styles, particularly as regards the functioning of addicted individuals. The aim of the study was to verify whether individuals with alcohol dependence characterized by different coping patterns differ with respect to the severity of psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives...
2017: PeerJ
Mohammad Taghi Moghadamnia, Ali Ardalan, Alireza Mesdaghinia, Abbas Keshtkar, Kazem Naddafi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
INTRODUCTION: Our study aims at identifying and quantifying the relationship between the cold and heat exposure and the risk of cardiovascular mortality through a systematic review and meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Peer-reviewed studies about the temperature and cardiovascular mortality were retrieved in the MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from January 2000 up to the end of 2015...
2017: PeerJ
Philipp Weise, Gábor A Czirják, Oliver Lindecke, Sara Bumrungsri, Christian C Voigt
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte concentrations follow a circadian pattern in mammals, with elevated values at times of potential contact with pathogens and parasites. We hypothesized that this pattern is disturbed after an immune challenge. METHODS: In Thailand, we captured wrinkle-lipped bats (Chaerephon plicatus), when they returned to their colony at dawn. We challenged half of the animals (experimental group) with bacterial lipopolysaccharides and treated the others only with the carrier liquid (control group)...
2017: PeerJ
Julia D Albright, Reza M Seddighi, Zenithson Ng, Xiaocun Sun, D J Rezac
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in human patients suggest depth of sedation may be affected by environmental noise or music; however, related data in domestic animals is limited. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of noise and music on dexmedetomidine-induced (DM- 10 µg/kg, IM) sedation in 10 dogs. METHODS: In a crossover design, post-DM injection dogs were immediately subjected to recorded human voices at either 55-60 decibel (dB) (Noise 1) or 80-85 dB (Noise 2); classical music at 45-50 dB (Music); or background noise of 40-45 dB (Control+)...
2017: PeerJ
Sarah K Hilton, Michael B Doud, Jesse D Bloom
It has recently become possible to experimentally measure the effects of all amino-acid point mutations to proteins using deep mutational scanning. These experimental measurements can inform site-specific phylogenetic substitution models of gene evolution in nature. Here we describe software that efficiently performs analyses with such substitution models. This software, phydms, can be used to compare the results of deep mutational scanning experiments to the selection on genes in nature. Given a phylogenetic tree topology inferred with another program, phydms enables rigorous comparison of how well different experiments on the same gene capture actual natural selection...
2017: PeerJ
Atsuko Fukunaga, Randall K Kosaki
A distance-based multivariate control chart is a useful tool for ecological monitoring to detect changes in biological community resulting from natural or anthropogenic disturbances at permanent monitoring sites. It is based on a matrix of any distances or dissimilarities among observations obtained from species composition and abundance data, and bootstrapping techniques are used to set upper confidence bounds that trigger an alarm for further investigations. We extended the use of multivariate control charts to stratified random sampling and analyzed reef fish monitoring data collected annually on shallow (≤30 m) reefs across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), part of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument...
2017: PeerJ
Jessica A Conlan, Melissa M Rocker, David S Francis
Lipids are involved in a host of biochemical and physiological processes in corals. Therefore, changes in lipid composition reflect changes in the ecology, nutrition, and health of corals. As such, accurate lipid extraction, quantification, and identification is critical to obtain comprehensive insight into a coral's condition. However, discrepancies exist in sample preparation methodology globally, and it is currently unknown whether these techniques generate analogous results. This study compared the two most common sample preparation techniques for lipid analysis in corals: (1) tissue isolation by air-spraying and (2) crushing the coral in toto...
2017: PeerJ
Laura Chabrolles, Imen Ben Ammar, Marie S A Fernandez, Nicolas Boyer, Joël Attia, Paulo J Fonseca, M Clara P Amorim, Marilyn Beauchaud
Communication is essential during social interactions including animal conflicts and it is often a complex process involving multiple sensory channels or modalities. To better understand how different modalities interact during communication, it is fundamental to study the behavioural responses to both the composite multimodal signal and each unimodal component with adequate experimental protocols. Here we test how an African cichlid, which communicates with multiple senses, responds to different sensory stimuli in a social relevant scenario...
2017: PeerJ
Xue Liu, Huaman Liu, Yi Zhai, Yan Li, Xue Zhu, Wei Zhang
Oxidative damage is a major cause of lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. Laminarin is a kind of polysaccharide extracted from brown algae and plays vital roles in various biological processes. However, the functions and mechanisms of laminarin in pulmonary oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study aimed at investigating the protective effect of laminarin against pulmonary oxidative damage and underlying mechanisms. Human lung fibroblasts MRC-5 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative damage...
2017: PeerJ
Warren R Francis, Lynne M Christianson, Steven H D Haddock
The squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, formerly Symplectoteuthis oualaniensis, generates light using the luciferin coelenterazine and a unique enzyme, symplectin. Genetic information is limited for bioluminescent cephalopod species, so many proteins, including symplectin, occur in public databases only as sequence isolates with few identifiable homologs. As the distribution of the symplectin/pantetheinase protein family in Metazoa remains mostly unexplored, we have sequenced the transcriptomes of four additional luminous squid, and make use of publicly available but unanalyzed data of other cephalopods, to examine the occurrence and evolution of this protein family...
2017: PeerJ
Cody M Rhoden, William E Peterman, Christopher A Taylor
BACKGROUND: Rare or narrowly endemic organisms are difficult to monitor and conserve when their total distribution and habitat preferences are incompletely known. One method employed in determining distributions of these organisms is species distribution modeling (SDM). METHODS: Using two species of narrowly endemic burrowing crayfish species as our study organisms, we sought to ground validate Maxent, a commonly used program to conduct SDMs. We used fine scale (30 m) resolution rasters of pertinent habitat variables collected from historical museum records in 2014...
2017: PeerJ
Dan Luo, Ling Chen, Xiajuan Yu, Li Ma, Wan Chen, Ning Zhou, Wenzhi Cai
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to compare changes in urinary incontinence (UI) symptoms and pelvic floor structure during pregnancy between nulliparous and multiparous women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed among pregnant women from July 2016 to January 2017. In total, 358 pregnant women from two hospitals underwent an interview and pelvic floor transperineal ultrasound assessment. A questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, gynecological, obstetric features and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) were used for the interview...
2017: PeerJ
Wei Shi, Pei-Liang Liu, Lei Duan, Bo-Rong Pan, Zhi-Hao Su
Previous works resolved diverse phylogenetic positions for genera of the Fabaceae tribe Thermopsideae, without a thoroughly biogeography study. Based on sequence data from nuclear ITS and four cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF) mainly sourced from GenBank, the phylogeny of tribe Thermopsideae was inferred. Our analyses support the genera of Thermopsideae, with the exclusion of Pickeringia, being merged into a monophyletic Sophoreae. Genera of Sophoreae were assigned into the Thermopsoid clade and Sophoroid clade...
2017: PeerJ
Dominik Marchowski, Łukasz Jankowiak, Dariusz Wysocki, Łukasz Ławicki, Józef Girjatowicz
Some species of birds react to climate change by reducing the distance they travel during migration. The Odra River Estuary in the Baltic Sea is important for wintering waterfowl and is where we investigated how waterbirds respond to freezing surface waters. The most abundant birds here comprise two ecological groups: bottom-feeders and piscivores. Numbers of all bottom-feeders, but not piscivores, were negatively correlated with the presence of ice. With ongoing global warming, this area is increasing in importance for bottom-feeders and decreasing for piscivores...
2017: PeerJ
Sarah Reed-Guy, Connor Gehris, Meng Shi, Daniel T Blumstein
The decisions animals make to adjust their antipredator behavior to rapidly changing conditions have been well studied. Inducible defenses in plants are an antipredator behavior that acts on a longer time scale, but sensitive plants, Mimosa pudica, have a much more rapid antipredator response; they temporarily close their leaves when touched. The time they remain closed is defined as hiding time. We studied hiding time in sensitive plants and found that individual plants differed significantly in their hiding times...
2017: PeerJ
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