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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417061/rates-of-morphological-evolution-in-captorhinidae-an-adaptive-radiation-of-permian-herbivores
#1
Neil Brocklehurst
The evolution of herbivory in early tetrapods was crucial in the establishment of terrestrial ecosystems, although it is so far unclear what effect this innovation had on the macro-evolutionary patterns observed within this clade. The clades that entered this under-filled region of ecospace might be expected to have experienced an "adaptive radiation": an increase in rates of morphological evolution and speciation driven by the evolution of a key innovation. However such inferences are often circumstantial, being based on the coincidence of a rate shift with the origin of an evolutionary novelty...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417060/burden-and-predictors-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-s-pseudintermedius-infections-among-dogs-presented-at-an-academic-veterinary-hospital-in-south-africa-2007-2012
#2
Daniel N Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Fortune Sithole, Agricola Odoi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococci are commensals of the mucosal surface and skin of humans and animals, but have been implicated in infections such as otitis externa, pyoderma, urinary tract infections and post-surgical complications. Laboratory records provide useful information to help investigate these infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the burdens of these infections and use multinomial regression to examine the associations between various Staphylococcus infections and demographic and temporal factors among dogs admitted to an academic veterinary hospital in South Africa...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417059/susceptibility-of-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-oscc-h103-and-h376-cell-lines-to-retroviral-oskm-mediated-reprogramming
#3
Nalini Devi Verusingam, Swee Keong Yeap, Huynh Ky, Ian C Paterson, Suan Phaik Khoo, Soon Keng Cheong, Alan H K Ong, Tunku Kamarul
Although numbers of cancer cell lines have been shown to be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), reprogramming Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to pluripotency in relation to its cancer cell type and the expression pattern of pluripotent genes under later passage remain unexplored. In our study, we reprogrammed and characterised H103 and H376 oral squamous carcinoma cells using retroviral OSKM mediated method. Reprogrammed cells were characterized for their embryonic stem cells (ESCs) like morphology, pluripotent gene expression via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence staining, embryoid bodies (EB) formation and directed differentiation capacity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413732/calcification-and-growth-rate-recovery-of-the-reef-building-pocillopora-species-in-the-northeast-tropical-pacific-following-an-enso-disturbance
#4
Jose de Jesús A Tortolero-Langarica, Alma P Rodríguez-Troncoso, Amílcar L Cupul-Magaña, Juan P Carricart-Ganivet
Pocilloporids are one of the major reef-building corals in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and also the most affected by thermal stress events, mainly those associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods. To date, coral growth parameters have been poorly reported in Pocillopora species in the northeastern region of the tropical Pacific. Monthly and annual growth rates of the three most abundant morphospecies (P. cf. verrucosa, P. cf. capitata, and P. cf. damicornis) were evaluated during two annual periods at a site on the Pacific coast of Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413731/meloxicam-ameliorates-the-cartilage-and-subchondral-bone-deterioration-in-monoiodoacetate-induced-rat-osteoarthritis
#5
Előd Nagy, Enikő Vajda, Camil Vari, Sándor Sipka, Ana-Maria Fárr, Emőke Horváth
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the cartilage- and subchondral bone-related effects of low-dose and high-dose meloxicam treatment in the late phase of mono-iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis of the stifle. METHODS: Thirty-four male Wistar rats received intra-articular injection of mono-iodoacetate to trigger osteoarthritis; 10 control animals (Grp Co) received saline. The mono-iodoacetate-injected rats were assigned to three groups and treated from week 4 to the end of week 7 with placebo (Grp P, n = 11), low-dose (GrpM Lo, 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413730/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-clothianidin-on-the-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris
#6
Kate Basley, Dave Goulson
Although neonicotinoids are targeted at insects, their predominant use as a seed dressing and their long persistence in soils mean that non-target soil organisms such as earthworms are likely to be chronically exposed to them. Chronic exposure may pose risks that are not evaluated in most toxicity tests. We experimentally tested the effect of field-realistic concentrations of a commonly used neonicotinoid, clothianidin, on mortality, weight gain, and food consumption to assess the impacts of chronic exposure over four months on fitness of L...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413729/elucidating-the-diet-of-the-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-in-peninsular-malaysia-through-illumina-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Sheema Abdul Aziz, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Lee Yin Peng, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Kim R McConkey, Pierre-Michel Forget, Han Ming Gan
There is an urgent need to identify and understand the ecosystem services of pollination and seed dispersal provided by threatened mammals such as flying foxes. The first step towards this is to obtain comprehensive data on their diet. However, the volant and nocturnal nature of bats presents a particularly challenging situation, and conventional microhistological approaches to studying their diet can be laborious and time-consuming, and provide incomplete information. We used Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) as a novel, non-invasive method for analysing the diet of the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) on Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413728/mechanism-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-phosphorylation-and-activation-by-tentacle-extract-from-the-jellyfish-cyanea-capillata
#8
Beilei Wang, Dan Liu, Chao Wang, Qianqian Wang, Hui Zhang, Guoyan Liu, Xia Tao, Liming Zhang
Our previous study demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata) could cause a weak relaxation response mediated by nitric oxide (NO) using isolated aorta rings. However, the intracellular mechanisms of TE-induced vasodilation remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the role of TE on Akt/eNOS/NO and Ca(2+) signaling pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results showed that TE induced dose- and time-dependent increases of eNOS activity and NO production...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413727/a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-the-initial-validation-of-a-single-cell-protein-as-an-alternative-protein-source-for-use-in-aquafeeds
#9
Michael Tlusty, Andrew Rhyne, Joseph T Szczebak, Bradford Bourque, Jennifer L Bowen, Gary Burr, Christopher J Marx, Lawrence Feinberg
The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offer a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for people. To demonstrate a given type of SCP has potential as a protein source for use in aquaculture feed, a number of steps need to be validated including demonstrating that the SCP is accepted by the species in question, leads to equivalent survival and growth, does not result in illness or other maladies, is palatable to the consumer, is cost effective to produce and can easily be incorporated into diets using existing technology...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413726/gb4gv-a-genome-browser-for-geminivirus
#10
Eric S Ho, Catherine M Newsom-Stewart, Lysa Diarra, Caroline S McCauley
BACKGROUND: Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae) are prevalent plant viruses that imperil agriculture globally, causing serious damage to the livelihood of farmers, particularly in developing countries. The virus evolves rapidly, attributing to its single-stranded genome propensity, resulting in worldwide circulation of diverse and viable genomes. Genomics is a prominent approach taken by researchers in elucidating the infectious mechanism of the virus. Currently, the NCBI Viral Genome website is a popular repository of viral genomes that conveniently provides researchers a centralized data source of genomic information...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413725/trypanosoma-cruzi-reservoir-triatomine-vector-co-occurrence-networks-reveal-meta-community-effects-by-synanthropic-mammals-on-geographic-dispersal
#11
Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña, Leopoldo Valiente-Banuet, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Christopher R Stephens, Janine M Ramsey
Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species' nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413724/are-anti-ganglioside-antibodies-associated-with-proventricular-dilatation-disease-in-birds
#12
Jeann Leal de Araujo, Ian Tizard, Jianhua Guo, J Jill Heatley, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Raquel R Rech
The identification of Parrot bornaviruses (PaBV) in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) has not been sufficient to explain the pathogenesis of this fatal disease, since not all infected birds develop clinical signs. Although the most accepted theory indicates that PaBV directly triggers an inflammatory response in this disease, another hypothesis suggests the disease is triggered by autoantibodies targeting neuronal gangliosides, and PDD might therefore resemble Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in its pathogenesis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413723/physiological-effects-of-five-different-marine-natural-organic-matters-noms-and-three-different-metals-cu-pb-zn-on-early-life-stages-of-the-blue-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#13
Lygia Sega Nogueira, Adalto Bianchini, Scott Smith, Marianna Basso Jorge, Rachael L Diamond, Chris M Wood
Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM) but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis-one inshore (terrigenous origin), two offshore (autochthonous origin), and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413722/performance-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-a-meta-analysis
#14
Qianqian Liu, Wenzhang Li, Yunfeng Chen, Xinmiao Du, Chengdi Wang, Binmiao Liang, Yin Tang, Yulin Feng, Chuanmin Tao, Jian-Qing He
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic values of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) in tuberculosis (TB) vary a lot with different site of infections, with especially higher sensitivities in chronic forms of TB such as tuberculosis of the lymph node. We conducted a meta-analysis to comprehensively evaluate the overall accuracy of diagnostic IGRA for tuberculous lymphadenitis. METHODS: Pubmed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Wanfang and CNKI databases up to February 17, 2017 were searched to identify published studies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413721/aspects-of-gorgonopsian-paleobiology-and-evolution-insights-from-the-basicranium-occiput-osseous-labyrinth-vasculature-and-neuroanatomy
#15
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Michael J Polcyn, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations throughout the past 270 Ma, eventually leading to the evolution of the mammalian bauplan. However, the anatomy of some therapsid groups remains obscure. Gorgonopsian braincase anatomy is poorly known and many anatomical aspects of the brain, cranial nerves, vasculature, and osseous labyrinth, remain unclear...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413720/direct-imaging-of-app-proteolysis-in-living-cells
#16
Niccoló Parenti, Ambra Del Grosso, Claudia Antoni, Marco Cecchini, Renato Corradetti, Francesco S Pavone, Martino Calamai
Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial disorder caused by the interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. The formation of cytotoxic oligomers consisting of Aβ peptide is widely accepted as being one of the main key events triggering the development of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ peptide production results from the specific proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Deciphering the factors governing the activity of the secretases responsible for the cleavage of APP is still a critical issue...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413719/intra-specific-variation-and-allometry-of-the-skull-of-late-cretaceous-side-necked-turtle-bauruemys-elegans-pleurodira-podocnemididae-and-how-to-deal-with-morphometric-data-in-fossil-vertebrates
#17
Thiago F Mariani, Pedro S R Romano
BACKGROUND: Previous quantitative studies on Bauruemys elegans (Suárez, 1969) shell variation, as well as the taphonomic interpretation of its type locality, have suggested that all specimens collected in this locality may have belonged to the same population. We rely on this hypothesis in a morphometric study of the skull. Also, we tentatively assessed the eating preference habits differentiation that might be explained as due to ontogenetic changes. METHODS: We carried out an ANOVA testing 29 linear measurements from 21 skulls of B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396828/the-impacts-of-climate-change-on-the-abundance-and-distribution-of-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#18
Aaron B Langille, Ellen M Arteca, Jonathan A Newman
D. suzukii is a relatively recent and destructive pest species to the North American soft-skinned fruit industry. Understanding this species' potential to shift in abundance and range due to changing climate is an important part of an effective mitigation and management strategy. We parameterized a temperature-driven D. suzukii population dynamics model using temperature data derived from several Global Circulation Models (CMIP5) with a range of relative concentration pathway (RCP) predictions. Mean consensus between the models suggest that without adaptation to both higher prolonged temperatures and higher short-term temperature events D...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396827/seasonally-distinct-taxonomic-and-functional-shifts-in-macroinvertebrate-communities-following-dam-removal
#19
S Mažeika P Sullivan, David W P Manning
Dam removal is an increasingly popular restoration tool, but our understanding of ecological responses to dam removal over time is still in the early stages. We quantified seasonal benthic macroinvertebrate density, taxonomic composition, and functional traits for three years after lowhead dam removal in three reaches of the Olentangy River (Ohio, USA): two upstream of former dam (one restored, one unrestored), and one downstream of former dam. Macroinvertebrate community density, generic richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity decreased between ∼9 and ∼15 months after dam removal; all three variables consistently increased thereafter...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396826/the-association-between-continual-year-round-hunting-and-bellowing-rate-of-bison-bulls-during-the-rut
#20
Ronald J Sarno, Melissa M Grigione, Alessandra Higa, Eddie Childers, Trudy Ecoffey
The impact of hunting (selective harvest, trophy hunting) on the demography of mammals is well documented. However, despite continual year-round hunting of bison in some populations, little is known about how the behavior of survivors may be altered. Therefore, in this initial study, we used focal-animal observations in adjacent populations of continually hunted and protected Plains bison (Bison bison bison) in western South Dakota, to examine the potential impact of hunting on bellowing rate-an important behavior that serves to intimidate rival bulls and potentially influences mate choice by females...
2017: PeerJ
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