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Denis V Goryunov, Svetlana V Goryunova, Oxana I Kuznetsova, Maria D Logacheva, Irina A Milyutina, Alina V Fedorova, Michael S Ignatov, Aleksey V Troitsky
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4350.].
2018: PeerJ
Wiem Boussellaa, Lassad Neifar, M Anouk Goedknegt, David W Thieltges
Background: Parasites can play various roles in the invasion of non-native species, but these are still understudied in marine ecosystems. This also applies to invasions from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal, the so-called Lessepsian migration. In this study, we investigated the role of parasites in the invasion of the Lessepsian migrant Sphyraena chrysotaenia in the Tunisian Mediterranean Sea. Methods: We compared metazoan parasite richness, prevalence and intensity of S...
2018: PeerJ
Michael Tessler, Jean P Gaffney, Jason M Crawford, Eric Trautman, Nehaben A Gujarati, Philip Alatalo, Vincent A Pieribone, David F Gruber
Bioluminescent copepods are often the most abundant marine zooplankton and play critical roles in oceanic food webs. Metridia copepods exhibit particularly bright bioluminescence, and the molecular basis of their light production has just recently begun to be explored. Here we add to this body of work by transcriptomically profiling Metridia lucens , a common species found in temperate, northern, and southern latitudes. In this previously molecularly-uncharacterized species, we find the typical luciferase paralog gene set found in Metridia ...
2018: PeerJ
Giase M de Araujo, Carlos A Peres, Fabricio B Baccaro, Rafael S Guerta
Collision rates between aircraft and birds have been rising worldwide. The increases in both air traffic and population sizes of large-bodied birds in cities lacking urban planning result in human-wildlife conflicts, economic loss and even lethal casualties. Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ) represent the most hazardous bird to Brazilian civil and military aviation on the basis of their flight behavior, body mass and consequently physical damage to aircraft following collisions. This study investigated how storage apparatus and type of organic residue discarded in public street markets modulate the spatial distribution and abundance of urban Black Vultures in the largest city in the Amazon (Manaus, Brazil)...
2018: PeerJ
Julie Peacock, Joey Ting, Karen L Bacon
The estates of stately homes or manor houses are an untapped resource for assessing the ecosystem services provided by trees. Many of these estates have large collections of trees with clear value in terms of carbon storage, runoff prevention, and pollution removal along with additional benefits to biodiversity and human health. The estate of Harewood House in North Yorkshire represents an ideal example of such a stately home with a mixture of parkland and more formally planted gardens. The trees in each type of garden were analysed for height, diameter at breast height and light exposure...
2018: PeerJ
Sergio A Useche, Francisco Alonso, Luis Montoro, Cristina Esteban
Background: Undisputedly, traffic crashes constitute a public health concern whose impact and importance have been increasing during the past few decades. Specifically, road safety data have systematically shown how cyclists are highly vulnerable to suffering traffic crashes and severe injuries derived from them. Furthermore, although the empirical evidence is still very limited in this regard, in addition to other human factors involved in cycling crashes, distractions while cycling appear to be a major contributor to the road risk of cyclists...
2018: PeerJ
Dennis Gilfillan, Timothy A Joyner, Phillip Scheuerman
Background: The leading cause of surface water impairment in United States' rivers and streams is pathogen contamination. Although use of fecal indicators has reduced human health risk, current approaches to identify and reduce exposure can be improved. One important knowledge gap within exposure assessment is characterization of complex fate and transport processes of fecal pollution. Novel modeling processes can inform watershed decision-making to improve exposure assessment. Methods: We used the ecological model, Maxent, and the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli to identify environmental factors associated with surface water impairment ...
2018: PeerJ
Ming-Jr Jian, Yun-Hsiang Cheng, Cherng-Lih Perng, Hung-Sheng Shang
Objectives: Several Elizabethkingia species often exhibit extensive antibiotic resistance, causing infections associated with severe morbidity and high mortality rates worldwide. In this study, we determined fluoroquinolone susceptibility profiles of clinical Elizabethkingia spp. isolates and investigated the resistance mechanisms. Methods: In 2017-2018, 131 Elizabethkingia spp. isolates were recovered from specimens collected at tertiary care centers in northern Taiwan...
2018: PeerJ
Marco Cucco, Reed Bowman
Much evidence suggests that birds actively regulate their body mass reserves relative to their energy needs. Energy requirements during reproduction may differ in relation to sex-specific behavioural roles or, in the case of cooperative breeders, breeders relative to helpers. We measured body mass of free-living Florida scrub-jays throughout the nesting season by training them to land on an electronic balance. Jays exhibited a pattern of diurnal linear mass gain, from morning to afternoon. Day-to-day mass fluctuations, defined as the difference between mass on two consecutive days, were small (>80% were within 2 g, less than 3% of the mass of an adult bird) for all classes of jays: female breeders, male breeders and prebreeding helpers...
2018: PeerJ
Leslie Myint, Jeffrey T Leek, Leah R Jager
Most researchers do not deliberately claim causal results in an observational study. But do we lead our readers to draw a causal conclusion unintentionally by explaining why significant correlations and relationships may exist? Here we perform a randomized controlled experiment in a massive open online course run in 2013 that teaches data analysis concepts to test the hypothesis that explaining an analysis will lead readers to interpret an inferential analysis as causal. We test this hypothesis with a single example of an observational study on the relationship between smoking and cancer...
2018: PeerJ
Ma Fernanda Sánchez-Soto Jiménez, Daniel Cerqueda-García, Jorge L Montero-Muñoz, Ma Leopoldina Aguirre-Macedo, José Q García-Maldonado
The Mexican region of the Perdido Fold Belt (PFB), in northwestern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), is a geological province with important oil reservoirs that will be subjected to forthcoming oil exploration and extraction activities. To date, little is known about the native microbial communities of this region, and how these change relative to water depth. In this study we assessed the bacterial community structure of surficial sediments by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene at 11 sites in the PFB, along a water column depth gradient from 20 to 3,700 m, including five shallow (20-600 m) and six deep (2,800-3,700 m) samples...
2018: PeerJ
Thomas Wesener
The pill millipede species Glomeris aurita Koch, 1847 remained of relative unknown origin and appearance until its recent rediscovery in samples from the Bergamasque Alps, northern Italy. In order to provide an integrative redescription and accurate identification of the high-altitude microendemic G. aurita , COI barcode sequences from three individuals coming from two different localities were obtained. These sequences are compared with those of the syntopic endemic G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, the widespread black morph of G...
2018: PeerJ
Malinalli Brianza-Padilla, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Gonzalo Vázquez-Palacios, Fengyang Huang, Julio César Almanza-Pérez, Rafael Bojalil, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime
Background: Sleep has a fundamental role in the regulation of homeostasis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and recovery on serum levels of cytokines and miRNAs related to inflammatory responses. Methods: Male Wistar rats were submitted to a PSD of 24, 96, or 192 h, or of 192 h followed by 20 days of recovery (192 h PSD+R). The concentrations of corticosterone, cytokines (IL-6, TNF, IL-10, Adiponectin) and miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-155, miR-223, miR-16, miR-126, miR-21) in serum were evaluated...
2018: PeerJ
Sankari Durairajan, Charles Emmanuel Jebaraj Walter, Mary Divya Samuel, Dinesh Palani, Dicky John Davis G, George Priya Doss C, Sneha Pasupati, Thanka Johnson
Background: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the fifth most common malignancy that accounts for 5% of all cancers. Diagnostic markers that predict UC progressions are inadequate. NF-κB contributes towards disease progression upon constitutive activation in many solid tumors. The nuclear localization of NF-κB indicates increased transcriptional activity while cytoplasmic localization indicates the inactive protein repository that can be utilized readily by a malignant cell. This study delineates the nuclear and cytoplasmic differential expression of NF-κB heterodimers in UC progression...
2018: PeerJ
Olivier Lambert, Camille Auclair, Cirilo Cauxeiro, Michel Lopez, Sylvain Adnet
Background: A few odontocetes (echolocating toothed cetaceans) have been able to independently colonize freshwater ecosystems. Although some extant species of delphinids (true dolphins) and phocoenids (porpoises) at least occasionally migrate upstream of large river systems, they have close relatives in fully marine regions. This contrasts with the three odontocete families only containing extant species with a strictly freshwater habitat (Iniidae in South America, the recently extinct Lipotidae in China, and Platanistidae in southeast Asia)...
2018: PeerJ
Leah Bouterse, Cara Wall-Scheffler
A major portion of humans' activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Walking behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different environmental and task constraints. While sex differences in the speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of how walkers adjust their speed in more varied groups and in groups containing children remains unexplored. Furthermore, little ecological data exists to illustrate the relationships between walking speed and child-carrying...
2018: PeerJ
Agustín Martínez-Molina, Víctor B Arias
Background: The Mini-IPIP scales (Donellan et al., 2006) are possibly one of the most commonly used short inventories for measuring the Big Five Factors of personality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of two Mini-IPIP Spanish short forms, one balanced and one positively wording (PW). Method: Two samples, one from native Spanish speakers and another from native English speakers, made up a total of 940 participants in this study...
2018: PeerJ
Sven Heimbuch, Daniel Bodemer
One purpose of wikis is the collaborative generation of content. During creation processes, controversies between authors emerge that they discuss on the article's talk page. Research suggests that controversies based on opposing points of view and contradictory evidence can be fruitful to trigger individual elaboration processes. However, previous research also showed that many wikis are not necessarily suited to identify relevant discussion contents and thus users need additional support as guidance. In an experimental laboratory study ( N  = 181) on wiki talk pages, we investigated two guidance measures in conjunction with the need for cognitive closure: (1) visual markers to highlight controversy status ( implicit guidance ) and (2) a collaboration script that directs users towards discussions ( explicit guidance )...
2018: PeerJ
Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Alireza Majd, Ali Javinani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Background: Autonomic dysfunction (AD) is one of the non-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Some symptoms tend to occur in the early stages of PD. AD also has a great impact on patient's quality of life. In this study, we aimed to discover the association between AD (Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Autonomic, SCOPA-AUT) and microstructural changes in white matter tracts in drug-naïve early PD patients to elucidate the central effects of autonomic nervous system impairments...
2018: PeerJ
Georgina Cordone, Tomás I Marina, Vanesa Salinas, Santiago R Doyle, Leonardo A Saravia, Fernando R Momo
Antarctica is seriously affected by climate change, particularly at the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) where a rapid regional warming is observed. Potter Cove is a WAP fjord at Shetland Islands that constitutes a biodiversity hotspot where over the last years, Potter Cove annual air temperatures averages increased by 0.66 °C, coastal glaciers declined, and suspended particulate matter increased due to ice melting. Macroalgae are the main energy source for all consumers and detritivores of Potter Cove. Some effects of climate change favor pioneer macroalgae species that exploit new ice-free areas and can also decline rates of photosynthesis and intensify competition between species due to the increase of suspended particulate matter...
2018: PeerJ
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