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Jingming Zhao, Wencheng Yu
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease characterized by chronic airway infection with a high incidence and poor prognosis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are pathogens commonly found in CF patients. Clinically, these two microorganisms often coexist in the airway of CF patients. Combined infection with P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus results in worsening lung function and clinical condition. Methods: In this review, we focus on the mutual inhibition and promotion mechanisms of P...
2018: PeerJ
Glauco B O Machado, Fosca P P Leite, Erik E Sotka
Consumers can regulate the acquisition and use of nutrients through behavioral and physiological mechanisms. Here, we present an experimental approach that simultaneously integrates multiple nutritional traits, feeding assays, and juvenile performance to assess whether a marine herbivore (the amphipod Ampithoe valida ) regulates the intake of elements (carbon and nitrogen), macronutrients (protein and non-protein) or both when offered freeze-dried tissues of seaweeds varying in nutritional content. We assessed behavioral regulation of nutrients in three ways...
2018: PeerJ
Alejandro L Antonia, Liuyang Wang, Dennis C Ko
Eukaryotic parasites in the genus Leishmania place approximately 350 million people per year at risk of disease. In addition to their global health significance, Leishmania spp. have served as an important model for delineating basic concepts in immunology such as T-helper cell polarization. There have been many qPCR-based assays reported for measuring parasite burden in humans and animals. However, these are largely optimized for use in clinical diagnosis and not specifically for animal models. This has led several of these assays to have suboptimal characteristics for use in animal models...
2018: PeerJ
Doreen Scharner, Claudia Gittel, Karsten Winter, Dominique Blaue, Carola Schedlbauer, Ingrid Vervuert, Walter Brehm
Background: Development of incisional complications following ventral median celiotomy might depend on suture pattern for skin closure. Methods: In this prospective study, 21 healthy male horses underwent celiotomy. Skin closure was either performed via a continuous percutaneous pattern (CO group; 5 warmbloods/5 ponies) or an intradermal pattern (ID group; 5 warmbloods/6 ponies). Follow-up examination of the incisional site included daily monitoring for edema, dehiscence, and drainage...
2018: PeerJ
Anis Sfendla, Dina Lemrani, Britt Hedman Ahlström, Meftaha Senhaji, Nóra Kerekes
Background: Substance use is linked to biological, environmental, and social factors. This study provides insights on protective and risk factors for drug dependence in two Moroccan, high-risk, male samples. Methods: Data from the "Mental and Somatic Health without borders" (MeSHe) survey were utilized in the present study. The MeSHe survey assesses somatic and mental health parameters by self-report from prison inmates ( n = 177) and outpatients from an addiction institution ( n = 54)...
2018: PeerJ
Yara Haridy
Teeth have been a focus of research in both extinct and extant taxa alike; a significant portion of dental literature is concerned with dental patterning and replacement. Most non-mammalian vertebrates continuously replace their dentition but an anomalous group of squamates has forgone this process in only having one tooth generation; these squamates all have apically implanted teeth, a condition known as acrodonty. Acrodont dentition and various characteristics attributed to it, including a lack of replacement, have often been defined ambiguously...
2018: PeerJ
Zhichun Li, Yanping Zhao, Xiaoguang Xu, Ruiming Han, Mingyue Wang, Guoxiang Wang
The decomposition processes of accumulated cyanobacteria can release large amounts of organic carbon and affect the carbon cycling in shallow eutrophic lakes. However, the migration and transformation mechanisms of dissolved carbon (DC) require further study and discussion. In this study, a 73-day laboratory microcosm experiment using suction samplers (Rhizon and syringe) was conducted to understand the migration and transformation of DC during the cyanobacteria decomposition. The decomposition of cyanobacteria biomass caused anoxic and reduction conditions, and changed the acid-base environment in the water column...
2018: PeerJ
Kumar Manish, Maharaj K Pandit
The Himalaya is one of the youngest and the loftiest mountain chains of the world; it is also referred to as the water tower of Asia. The Himalayan region harbors nearly 10,000 plant species constituting approximately 2.5% of the global angiosperm diversity of which over 4,000 are endemics. The present-day Himalayan flora consists of an admixture of immigrant taxa and diversified species over the last 40 million years. The interesting questions about the Himalayan flora discussed here are: how did the Himalaya achieve high endemic plant diversity starting with immigrant taxa and what were the main drivers of this diversity? This contribution aims to answer these questions and raise some more...
2018: PeerJ
Patricia Henríquez-Piskulich, Alejandro Vera, Gino Sandoval, Cristian Villagra
Native bees contribute a considerable portion of pollination services for endemic as well as introduced plant species. Their decline has been attributed to several human-derived influences including global warming as well as the reduction, alteration, and loss of bees' habitat. With human expansion comes along the introduction of exotic plant species with negative impacts over native ecosystems. Anthropic effects may even have a deeper impact on communities adapted to extreme environments, such as high elevation habitats, where abiotic stressors alone are a natural limitation to biodiversity...
2018: PeerJ
Fei Wang, Xuejun Zhao, Wenhua Tan, Wei Liu, Yuxia Jin, Qian Liu
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common gynecologic malignancy. A clinical observational study was performed to investigate whether indicators that assess the risk of metastasis can identify recurrence earlier in OC patients. By successfully recruiting 41 patients with OC who underwent chemotherapy, we compared cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) and the ovarian cancer metastasis index (OCMI), which was previously developed by us in the clinic for this purpose. Our results showed that patients and their families generally took a sensible attitude toward disease progression and were willing to accept a new way to gain knowledge about the disease...
2018: PeerJ
David Miklesh, Christof Meile
In coastal marsh ecosystems, porewater salinity strongly affects vegetation distribution and productivity. To simulate marsh porewater salinity, an integrated, spatially explicit model was developed, accounting for tidal inundation, evaporation, and precipitation, as well as lateral and vertical exchanges in both surface waters and the subsurface. It was applied to the Duplin River marsh, Sapelo Island, USA, over a 3-year period, which covered both drought and wet conditions. Simulated porewater salinity in the low and high marsh correlated with Duplin River salinity, with evapotranspiration and precipitation leading to substantial variations in porewater salinities across seasons, in particular in the high marsh...
2018: PeerJ
Patricia Ornelas-García, Silvia Pajares, Víctor M Sosa-Jiménez, Sylvie Rétaux, Ramsés A Miranda-Gamboa
Symbiotic relationships between host and microbiome can play a major role in local adaptation. Previous studies with freshwater organisms have shown that microbiome performs numerous important biochemical functions for the host, playing a key role in metabolism, physiology or health. Experimental studies in fish groups have found an effect of enzymatic activity of gut microbiota on a variety of metabolic processes. The goal of this study was to compare stomach microbiome from cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus, in order to evaluate the potential response of microbiota to contrasting environmental conditions and physiological adaptations of the host...
2018: PeerJ
Ricarda Gatter, Marco Cavalli, Stefano Crema, Giulia Bossi
Latest advances in topographic data acquisition techniques have greatly enhanced the possibility to analyse landscapes in order to understand the processes that shaped them. High-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), such as LiDAR-derived ones, provide detailed topographic information. In particular, if multi-temporal DEMs are available, it is possible to carry out a detailed geomorphic change detection analysis. This analysis may provide information about the dynamics of large landslides and may thus, be useful for landslide risk assessments...
2018: PeerJ
Einar B Thorsteinsson, Natasha M Loi, Kathryn Farr
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent mental illness affecting women, and less commonly, men in the weeks and months after giving birth. Despite the high incidence of PPD in Australia, rates for help-seeking remain low, with stigma and discrimination frequently cited as the most common deterrents to seeking help from a professional source. The present study sought to investigate PPD stigma in a sample of parents and to examine the effects of an intervention on stigma and help-seeking behaviour. A total of 212 parents aged 18-71 years ( M = 36...
2018: PeerJ
Raquel F Salla, Gisele M Rizzi-Possignolo, Cristiane R Oliveira, Carolina Lambertini, Lilian Franco-Belussi, Domingos S Leite, Elaine Cristina M Silva-Zacarin, Fábio C Abdalla, Thomas S Jenkinson, Luís Felipe Toledo, Monica Jones-Costa
Background: Understanding of the physiological effects of chytridiomycosis is crucial to worldwide amphibian conservation. Therefore, we analyzed the cardiac function of two anuran species ( Xenopus laevis and Physalaemus albonotatus ) with different susceptibilities to infection by the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd ). Methods: We analyzed the in situ heart rate ( f H - bpm), relative ventricular mass (RVM -%), and Ca2+ handling in heart of Bd infected animals compared to uninfected controls of both study species...
2018: PeerJ
Sean McGee, Melissa Whitfield-Aslund, Daiana Duca, Nicole Kopysh, Tereza Dan, Loren Knopper, Larry Brewer
The objective of this study was to quantify consumption of clothianidin-treated corn seed by birds following standard planting practices. Based on post-planting seed counts on 21 fields in southwestern Ontario, Canada, between 29 and 813 seeds/ha (mean of 224 ± 167 (SD)) were estimated to remain on the soil surface immediately post planting (i.e., less than one seed per 10 m2 ). This represents between 0.03 and 1.2% of the total sown seeds. The number of seeds missing on each field on the third day after planting as a result of any process (e...
2018: PeerJ
Olivia Messinger Carril, Terry Griswold, James Haefner, Joseph S Wilson
Interest in bees has grown dramatically in recent years in light of several studies that have reported widespread declines in bees and other pollinators. Investigating declines in wild bees can be difficult, however, due to the lack of faunal surveys that provide baseline data of bee richness and diversity. Protected lands such as national monuments and national parks can provide unique opportunities to learn about and monitor bee populations dynamics in a natural setting because the opportunity for large-scale changes to the landscape are reduced compared to unprotected lands...
2018: PeerJ
Ramit Bharanikumar, Keshav Aditya R Premkumar, Ashok Palaniappan
We present PromoterPredict, a dynamic multiple regression approach to predict the strength of Escherichia coli promoters binding the σ70 factor of RNA polymerase. σ70 promoters are ubiquitously used in recombinant DNA technology, but characterizing their strength is demanding in terms of both time and money. We parsed a comprehensive database of bacterial promoters for the -35 and -10 hexamer regions of σ70 -binding promoters and used these sequences to construct the respective position weight matrices (PWM)...
2018: PeerJ
Nicola J van Wilgen, Micaela S Gillespie, David M Richardson, John Measey
For many taxa, new records of non-native introductions globally occur at a near exponential rate. We undertook a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on non-native herpetofauna, to assess the information base available for assessing risks of future invasions, resulting in 836 relevant papers. The taxonomic and geographic scope of the literature was also compared to a published database of all known invasions globally. We found 1,116 species of herpetofauna, 95% of which were present in fewer than 12 studies...
2018: PeerJ
Sergiy Yakovenko, Anton Sobinov, Valeriya Gritsenko
The ability of vertebrates to generate rhythm within their spinal neural networks is essential for walking, running, and other rhythmic behaviors. The central pattern generator (CPG) network responsible for these behaviors is well-characterized with experimental and theoretical studies, and it can be formulated as a nonlinear dynamical system. The underlying mechanism responsible for locomotor behavior can be expressed as the process of leaky integration with resetting states generating appropriate phases for changing body velocity...
2018: PeerJ
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