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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630804/diversity-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-osteoporosis-and-osteopenia-patients
#1
Jihan Wang, Yangyang Wang, Wenjie Gao, Biao Wang, Heping Zhao, Yuhong Zeng, Yanhong Ji, Dingjun Hao
Some evidence suggests that bone health can be regulated by gut microbiota. To better understand this, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to analyze the intestinal microbial diversity in primary osteoporosis (OP) patients, osteopenia (ON) patients and normal controls (NC). We observed an inverse correlation between the number of bacterial taxa and the value of bone mineral density. The diversity estimators in the OP and ON groups were increased compared with those in the NC group. Beta diversity analyses based on hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) could discriminate the NC samples from OP and ON samples...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630803/putative-archaeal-viruses-from-the-mesopelagic-ocean
#2
Dean R Vik, Simon Roux, Jennifer R Brum, Ben Bolduc, Joanne B Emerson, Cory C Padilla, Frank J Stewart, Matthew B Sullivan
Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630802/effects-of-a-wind-farm-installation-on-the-understory-bat-community-of-a-highly-biodiverse-tropical-region-in-mexico
#3
Miguel Briones-Salas, Mario C Lavariega, Claudia E Moreno
Wind energy has rapidly become an important alternative among renewable energies, and it is generally considered clean. However, little is known about its impact at the level of ecological communities, especially in biodiversity hotspots. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is a highly biodiverse region in Mesoamerica, and has the highest potential for generating wind energy in Mexico. To assess the effects of installing a wind farm on the understory bat community in a landscape of fragmented habitat, we assessed its diversity and composition over four stages of installation (site preparation, construction, and two stages of operation)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630801/characterization-of-the-transcriptome-and-est-ssr-development-in-boea-clarkeana-a-desiccation-tolerant-plant-endemic-to-china
#4
Ying Wang, Kun Liu, De Bi, Shoubiao Zhou, Jianwen Shao
BACKGROUND: Desiccation-tolerant (DT) plants can recover full metabolic competence upon rehydration after losing most of their cellular water (>95%) for extended periods of time. Functional genomic approaches such as transcriptome sequencing can help us understand how DT plants survive and respond to dehydration, which has great significance for plant biology and improving the drought tolerance of crops. Boea clarkeana Hemsl. (Gesneriaceae) is a DT dicotyledonous herb. Its genomic sequences characteristics remain unknown...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630800/taxonomic-richness-and-abundance-of-cryptic-peracarid-crustaceans-in-the-puerto-morelos-reef-national-park-mexico
#5
Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez, Rosa Elisa Rodríguez-Martínez, Fernando Alvarez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP), and their relationship with depth. METHODS: Three reef sites were selected: (1) Bonanza, (2) Bocana, and (3) Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef), 6-8 m (fore-reef), and 10-12 m (fore-reef)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626619/african-penguins-follow-the-gaze-direction-of-conspecifics
#6
Christian Nawroth, Egle Trincas, Livio Favaro
Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for hunting and predator avoidance may occur...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626618/cytoplasmic-expression-of-c-myc-protein-is-associated-with-risk-stratification-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#7
Yi Gong, Xi Zhang, Rui Chen, Yan Wei, Zhongmin Zou, Xinghua Chen
AIM: To investigate the association of C-MYC protein expression and risk stratification in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and to evaluate the utility of C-MYC protein as a prognostic biomarker in clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted immunohistochemical staining of C-MYC, Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), CD8, Ki-67, p53 and SRY (sex determining region Y) -11 (SOX11) to investigate their expression in 64 patients with MCL. The staining results and other clinical data were evaluated for their roles in risk stratification of MCL cases using ANOVA, Chi-square, and Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient analysis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626617/doc-concentrations-across-a-depth-dependent-light-gradient-on-a-caribbean-coral-reef
#8
Benjamin Mueller, Erik H Meesters, Fleur C van Duyl
Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP), such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water column. As the DOC release of BPP increases with increasing light availability, elevated DOC concentrations near them will, in part, also depend on light availability. Consequently, DOC concentrations are likely to be higher on the shallow, well-lit reef terrace than in deeper sections on the fore reef slope...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626616/discrimination-of-picea-chihuahuana-martinez-populations-on-the-basis-of-climatic-edaphic-dendrometric-genetic-and-population-traits
#9
Iliana Karina Dominguez-Guerrero, Samantha Del Rocío Mariscal-Lucero, José Ciro Hernández-Díaz, Berthold Heinze, José Ángel Prieto-Ruiz, Christian Wehenkel
BACKGROUND: Picea chihuahuana, which is endemic to Mexico, is currently listed as "Endangered" on the Red List. Chihuahua spruce is only found in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), Mexico. About 42,600 individuals are distributed in forty populations. These populations are fragmented and can be classified into three geographically distinct clusters in the SMO. The total area covered by P. chihuahuana populations is less than 300 ha. A recent study suggested assisted migration as an alternative to the ex situ conservation of P...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626615/getting-off-to-a-good-start-genetic-evaluation-of-the-ex-situ-conservation-project-of-the-critically-endangered-montseny-brook-newt-calotriton-arnoldi
#10
Emilio Valbuena-Ureña, Anna Soler-Membrives, Sebastian Steinfartz, Mònica Alonso, Francesc Carbonell, Raquel Larios-Martín, Elena Obon, Salvador Carranza
Ex situ management strategies play an important role in the conservation of threatened species when the wild survival of the species cannot be ensured. Molecular markers have become an outstanding tool for the evaluation and management of captive breeding programs. Two main genetic objectives should be prioritized when planning breeding programs: the maintenance of maximum neutral genetic diversity, and to obtain "self-sustaining" captive populations. In this study, we use 24 microsatellite loci to analyze and evaluate the genetic representativity of the initial phases of the captive breeding program of the Montseny brook newt, Calotriton arnoldi, an Iberian endemic listed as Critically Endangered...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626614/identification-of-two-cigads-from-caragana-intermedia-and-their-transcriptional-responses-to-abiotic-stresses-and-exogenous-abscisic-acid
#11
Jing Ji, Lingyu Zheng, Jianyun Yue, Xiamei Yao, Ermei Chang, Tiantian Xie, Nan Deng, Lanzhen Chen, Yuwen Huang, Zeping Jiang, Shengqing Shi
BACKGROUND: Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), as a key enzyme in the γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to form GABA. This pathway has attracted much interest because of its roles in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, and signaling in higher plants. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize genes encoding GADs from Caragana intermedia, an important nitrogen-fixing leguminous shrub. METHODS: Two full-length cDNAs encoding GADs (designated as CiGAD1 and CiGAD2) were isolated and characterized...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626613/modelling-environmental-drivers-of-black-band-disease-outbreaks-in-populations-of-foliose-corals-in-the-genus-montipora
#12
Carla C M Chen, David G Bourne, Christopher C Drovandi, Kerrie Mengersen, Bette L Willis, M Julian Caley, Yui Sato
Seawater temperature anomalies associated with warming climate have been linked to increases in coral disease outbreaks that have contributed to coral reef declines globally. However, little is known about how seasonal scale variations in environmental factors influence disease dynamics at the level of individual coral colonies. In this study, we applied a multi-state Markov model (MSM) to investigate the dynamics of black band disease (BBD) developing from apparently healthy corals and/or a precursor-stage, termed 'cyanobacterial patches' (CP), in relation to seasonal variation in light and seawater temperature at two reef sites around Pelorus Island in the central sector of the Great Barrier Reef...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626612/postmortem-succession-of-gut-microbial-communities-in-deceased-human%C3%A2-subjects
#13
Jennifer M DeBruyn, Kathleen A Hauther
The human microbiome has demonstrated an importance for the health and functioning in living individuals. However, the fate of the microbiome after death is less understood. In addition to a better understanding of microbe-mediated decomposition processes, postmortem succession of human-associated microbial communities has been suggested as a possible forensic tool for estimating time since death, or postmortem interval (PMI). The objective of our study was to document postmortem changes in human gut bacterial communities...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626611/discrimination-factors-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-stable-isotopes-in-meerkat-feces
#14
Shaena Montanari
Stable isotope analysis of feces can provide a non-invasive method for tracking the dietary habits of nearly any mammalian species. While fecal samples are often collected for macroscopic and genetic study, stable isotope analysis can also be applied to expand the knowledge of species-specific dietary ecology. It is somewhat unclear how digestion changes the isotope ratios of animals' diets, so more controlled diet studies are needed. To date, most diet-to-feces controlled stable isotope experiments have been performed on herbivores, so in this study I analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in the diet and feces of the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a small omnivorous mammal...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626610/tiny-pollen-grains-first-evidence-of-saururaceae-from-the-late-cretaceous-of-western-north-america
#15
Friðgeir Grímsson, Guido W Grimm, Reinhard Zetter
BACKGROUND: The Saururaceae, a very small family of Piperales comprising only six species in four genera, have a relatively scanty fossil record outside of Europe. The phylogenetic relationships of the four genera to each other are resolved, with the type genus Saururus occurring in both eastern North America and East Asia. No extant species occurs in western Eurasia. The most exceptional find so far has been an inflorescence with in-situ pollen, Saururus tuckerae S.Y.Sm. & Stockey from Eocene of North America with strong affinities to extant species of Saururus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626609/detection-and-drug-resistance-profile-of-escherichia-coli-from-subclinical-mastitis-cows-and-water-supply-in-dairy-farms-in-saraburi-province-thailand
#16
Woranich Hinthong, Natapol Pumipuntu, Sirijan Santajit, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Shutipen Buranasinsup, Nitat Sookrung, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Pisinee Aiumurai, Nitaya Indrawattana
Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626608/c-kit-modifies-the-inflammatory-status-of-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Lei Song, Laisel Martinez, Zachary M Zigmond, Diana R Hernandez, Roberta M Lassance-Soares, Guillermo Selman, Roberto I Vazquez-Padron
BACKGROUND: c-Kit is a receptor tyrosine kinase present in multiple cell types, including vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). However, little is known about how c-Kit influences SMC biology and vascular pathogenesis. METHODS: High-throughput microarray assays and in silico pathway analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes between primary c-Kit deficient (Kit(W/W-v)) and control (Kit(+/+)) SMC. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and functional assays further confirmed the differences in gene expression and pro-inflammatory pathway regulation between both SMC populations...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626607/phenotypic-variation-in-dorsal-fin-morphology-of-coastal-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-off-mexico
#18
Eduardo Morteo, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Rodrigo Morteo, David W Weller
Geographic variation in external morphology is thought to reflect an interplay between genotype and the environment. Morphological variation has been well-described for a number of cetacean species, including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). In this study we analyzed dorsal fin morphometric variation in coastal bottlenose dolphins to search for geographic patterns at different spatial scales. A total of 533 dorsal fin images from 19 available photo-identification catalogs across the three Mexican oceanic regions (Pacific Ocean n = 6, Gulf of California n = 6 and, Gulf of Mexico n = 7) were used in the analysis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626606/the-ways-parents-cope-with-stress-in-difficult-parenting-situations-the-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#19
Agnieszka Szymańska, Kamila Anna Dobrenko
The purpose of this study was to verify a theoretical model of parents' responses to difficulties they experienced with their child. The model presents relationships between seven variables: (a) discrepancy between parental goal and the child's current level of development, (b) parental experience of a difficulty, (c) representation of the child in the parent's mind, (d) parent's withdrawal from the parenting situation, (e) seeking help, (f) distancing oneself from the situation, and (g) applying pressure on the child...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626605/no-relationship-between-vertebral-column-shifts-and-limb-fluctuating-asymmetry-in-human-foetuses
#20
Clara M A Ten Broek, Jessica Bots, Marianna Bugiani, Frietson Galis, Stefan Van Dongen
Disturbance from the normal developmental trajectory of a trait during growth-the so-called developmental instability-can be observed morphologically through phenodeviants and subtle deviations from perfect symmetry (fluctuating asymmetry). This study investigates the relationship between phenodeviance in the human vertebral column (as a result of axial patterning defects) and limb fluctuating asymmetry. Since both types of markers of developmental instability have been found associated with congenital abnormalities in humans, we anticipate a relationship between them if the concept of developmental instability, measured through either phenodeviants or asymmetry, would reflect an organism-wide process...
2017: PeerJ
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