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African Journal of Laboratory Medicine

Naseem Cassim, Lindi M Coetzee, Nelesh P Govender, Deborah K Glencross
Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of mortality among HIV-positive South Africans. Reflex cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing of remnant plasma was offered as a pilot prior to implementation in October 2016 in KwaZulu-Natal province. The national reflex CrAg positivity was 5.4% compared to 7.3% for KwaZulu-Natal. Objectives: The aim of this study was to interrogate CrAg positivity by health levels to identify hotspots. Method: Data for the period October 2016 to June 2017 were analysed...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Nalia Ismael, Orvalho Augusto, Adolfo Vubil, Sofia O Viegas, Fernanda Miambo, Patrina Chongo, Nédio Mabunda
This study evaluated a National External Quality Scheme Program for early infant diagnosis of HIV. Fourteen laboratory technicians participated and nine testing panel cycles were sent between 2011 and 2014. The response rate was 100% for the first eight panels, and the number of technicians with a test score of 100% increased during the first three panels. Based on the evaluations of the technicians, the quality of testing for early infant diagnosis of HIV improved over time in the laboratories.
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Lindi-Marie Coetzee, Naseem Cassim, Deborah K Glencross
Background and objective: The National Health Laboratory Service provides CD4 testing through an integrated tiered service delivery model with a target laboratory turn-around time (TAT) of 48 h. Mean TAT provides insight into national CD4 laboratory performance. However, it is not sensitive enough to identify inefficiencies of outlying laboratories or predict the percentage of samples meeting the TAT target. The aim of this study was to describe the use of the median, 75th percentile and percentage within target of laboratory TAT data to categorise laboratory performance...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Medard Beyanga, Lisa Gerwing-Adima, Kahima Jackson, Benjamin Majaliwa, Henrico Shimba, Simon Ezekiel, Charles Massambu, Dickson Majige, Michael Mwasegaka, Wilson Mtotela, Patrick Mateta, Christa Kasang
Background: Use of laboratory evidence-based patient health care in Tanzania remains a complex problem, as with many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As at 2010, 39 African countries, including Tanzania, had no clinical laboratories that met the minimum requirements for international laboratory standards (International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 15189). Objective: The aim of this article is to share experience from Bugando Medical Centre laboratory's milestones in reaching ISO 15189 accreditation...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Zhiyong Zhou, Kevin Tang, Guoqing Zhang, Nellie Wadonda-Kabondo, Kundai Moyo, Lori A Rowe, Joshua R DeVos, Nick Wagar, Du-Ping Zheng, Hongxiong Guo, John Nkengasong, Mike Frace, Scott Sammons, Chunfu Yang
Background: Minority drug resistance mutations (DRMs) that are often missed by Sanger sequencing are clinically significant, as they can cause virologic failure in individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of minor DRMs among patients enrolled in a Malawi HIV drug resistance monitoring survey at baseline and at one year after initiation of ART. Methods: Forty-one plasma specimens collected from HIV-1 subtype C-positive patients and seven clonal control samples were analysed using ultra-deep sequencing technology...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Annie Zhang, Enoch Jumbe, Robert Krysiak, Sabeen Sidiki, Holden V Kelley, Elly K Chemey, Chancy Kamba, Victor Mwapasa, Juan I García, Alison Norris, Xueliang J Pan, Carlton Evans, Shu-Hua Wang, Jesse J Kwiek, Jordi B Torrelles
Background: Rural settings where molecular tuberculosis diagnostics are not currently available need easy-to-use tests that do not require additional processing or equipment. While acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear is the most common and often only tuberculosis diagnosis test performed in rural settings, it is labour intensive, has less-than-ideal sensitivity, and cannot assess tuberculosis drug susceptibility patterns. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-tuberculosis coloured agar-based culture test (tuberculosis CX-test), which can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and evaluate for drug susceptibility to isoniazid, rifampicin and a fluoroquinolone (i...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Barbara I Nabaigwa, Bashir Mwambi, John Okiria, Caesar Oyet
Between June 2015 and October 2015, 159 mid-stream urine samples from diabetic patients were cultured. The prevalence of urinary tract infection was high at 22% and women were more affected compared with men ( P = 0.017). Factors associated with urinary tract infection in these patients were age, sex and high blood glucose levels. Diabetic patients should be screened periodically for urinary tract infection.
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Oluwaseyi S Ashaka, Olajide O Agbede, Adesuyi A Omoare, Samuel K Ernest
Sera collected from 57 anaemic and 115 non-anaemic age-matched pre-school children in Ilorin, Nigeria, between November 2014 and December 2015 were assayed for human parvovirus B19-specific IgM antibodies by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. A total of 17 (29.8%) anaemic children and 18 (15.7%) non-anaemic children were positive for parvovirus B19 infection. Infection with parvovirus B19 is common in this population, and screening for the virus during differential diagnosis is recommended...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Takudzwa J Mtisi, Charles Maponga, Tsitsi G Monera-Penduka, Tinashe Mudzviti, Dexter Chagwena, Faithful Makita-Chingombe, Robin DiFranchesco, Gene D Morse
Background: A growing number of drug development studies that include pharmacokinetic evaluations are conducted in regions lacking a specialised pharmacology laboratory. This necessitated the development of an International Pharmacology Specialty Laboratory (IPSL) in Zimbabwe. Objectives: The aim of this article is to describe the development of an IPSL in Zimbabwe. Methods: The IPSL was developed collaboratively by the University of Zimbabwe and the University at Buffalo Center for Integrated Global Biomedical Sciences...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Tshiphiri Senamela, Marleen Kock, Piet Becker, Joachim J C Potgieter
The purpose of this study was to develop a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of the JAK2 V617F mutation that could be used in diagnostic laboratories. Sanger sequencing and a newly developed locked nucleic-acid, real-time PCR assay were used to detect the JAK2 V617F mutation. There was 100% agreement between the sequencing and PCR analysis. Both assays were able to detect the mutation in all 24 of the 60 test specimens harbouring the mutation.
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Ishani Pathmanathan, Anand Date, William L Coggin, John Nkengasong, Amy S Piatek, Heather Alexander
BACKGROUND: To eliminate preventable deaths, disease and suffering due to tuberculosis (TB), improved diagnostic capacity is critical. The Cepheid Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is recommended by the World Health Organization as the initial diagnostic test for people with suspected HIV-associated TB. However, despite high expectations, its scale-up in real-world settings has faced challenges, often due to the systems that support it. OPPORTUNITIES FOR SYSTEM STRENGTHENING: In this commentary we discuss needs and opportunities for systems strengthening to support widespread scale-up of Xpert® MTB/RIF as they relate to each step within the TB diagnostic cascade, from finding presumptive patients, to collecting, transporting and testing sputum specimens, to reporting and receiving results, to initiating and monitoring treatment and, ultimately, to ensuring successful and timely treatment and cure...
March 31, 2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Iruka N Okeke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Samuel E Nnukwu, Simon J Utsalo, Olufunmilayo G Oyero, Michel Ntemgwa, James A Ayukekbong
Background: Rotaviruses are the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide and a significant proportion of these infections occur in Africa. Objectives: In the present study, we determined the prevalence and risk factors of rotavirus infection among children younger than age 5 years with or without diarrhoea in Calabar, Nigeria, using a rapid point-of-care test. Methods: Two hundred infants younger than age 5 years presenting with acute gastroenteritis and a control group of 200 infants without diarrhoea were tested for rotavirus...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
John B Kalule, Karen H Keddy, Anthony Smith, Mark P Nicol, Lourens Robberts
Introduction: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an emerging infectious pathogen which could lead to haemolytic uremic syndrome. Even though previous studies have compared the performance of CHROMagarTM STEC to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Europe, no study has been done to assess its performance on African isolates. Objectives: This project aimed to validate and test an in-house-developed duplex real-time PCR and use it as a reference standard to determine the performance of CHROMagarTM STEC on African isolates from diarrhoeic stool samples...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Atang Bulane, Anwar Hoosen
Background: Rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is of utmost importance for management of patients. Current identification relies on conventional phenotypic methods which are time consuming. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is based on proteomic profiling and allows for rapid identification of pathogens. Objective: We compared MALDI-TOF MS against two commercial systems, MicroScan Walkaway and VITEK 2 MS...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Victor N Fondoh, Njong A Mom
Background: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, has been a major global public health burden. Despite the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis by HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants, safe obstetric practice and safe infant feeding habits in the prevention of MTCT of HIV, the prevalence of HIV among HIV-exposed infants is still high in Cameroon. Objective: Our objectives were to determine the prevalence, assess the predictors and determine the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on MTCT of HIV at the regional hospital in Bamenda, Cameroon...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Francina Kaindjee-Tjituka, Souleymane Sawadogo, Graham Mutandi, Andrew D Maher, Natanael Salomo, Claudia Mbapaha, Marytha Neo, Anita Beukes, Justice Gweshe, Alexinah Muadinohamba, David W Lowrance
Introduction: Access to CD4+ testing remains a common barrier to early initiation of antiretroviral therapy among persons living with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries. The feasibility of task-shifting of point-of-care (POC) CD4+ testing to lay health workers in Namibia has not been evaluated. Methods: From July to August 2011, Pima CD4+ analysers were used to improve access to CD4+ testing at 10 selected public health facilities in Namibia. POC Pima CD4+ testing was performed by nurses or lay health workers...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Shahin Sayed, Susan C Lester, Michael Wilson, Daniel Berney, Ricard Masia, Zahir Moloo, Jennifer Stall, Alexia Eslan, Stephanie Ayers, Angela Mutuku, Jeannette Guarner
Background: Case-based learning (CBL) is an established pedagogical active learning method used in various disciplines and defined based on the field of study and type of case. The utility of CBL for teaching specific aspects of cancer diagnosis to practising pathologists has not been previously studied in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: We aimed to pilot test standardised cancer cases on a group of practising pathologists in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate case content, clarity of questions and delivery of content...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Amy Piatek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Heidi Albert, Andre Trollip, Donatelle Erni, Kekeletso Kao
BACKGROUND: Quality-assured tuberculosis laboratory services are critical to achieve global and national goals for tuberculosis prevention and care. Implementation of a quality management system (QMS) in laboratories leads to improved quality of diagnostic tests and better patient care. The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme has led to measurable improvements in the QMS of clinical laboratories. However, progress in tuberculosis laboratories has been slower, which may be attributed to the need for a structured tuberculosis-specific approach to implementing QMS...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
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