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Plant Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695277/molecular-movement-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-female-gametophyte
#1
Robert M Erdmann, Anja Hoffmann, Heidi-Kristin Walter, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht, Rita Groß-Hardt, Mary Gehring
Size limits on molecular movement among female gametes. Cellular decisions can be influenced by information communicated from neighboring cells. Communication can occur via signaling or through the direct transfer of molecules. Movement of RNAs and proteins has frequently been observed among symplastically connected plant cells. In flowering plants, the female gametes, the egg cell and central cell, are closely apposed within the female gametophyte. Here we investigated the ability of fluorescently labeled dyes and small RNAs to move from the Arabidopsis thaliana central cell to the egg apparatus following microinjection...
July 10, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597166/sex-allocation-in-gynodioecious-cyananthus-delavayi-differs-between-gender-morphs-and-soil-quality
#2
Jianguo Chen, Yang Niu, Zhimin Li, Yang Yang, Hang Sun
Sex allocation in Cyananthus delavayi. Gynodioecy, where females and hermaphrodites coexist in the same natural population, is particularly suitable for predicting the ecological pressures that drive the stability of gender polymorphism. Since females have a disadvantage in that they only contribute to the next generation via ovules, they should gain an advantage via other means, of which resource allocation is an important component. Thus, to study their sex allocation is very helpful to understand how the dimorphic sexual system is maintained in natural systems...
June 8, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526911/dynamics-of-post-translationally-modified-histones-during-barley-pollen-embryogenesis-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-the-epi-drug-trichostatin-a
#3
Pooja Pandey, Diaa S Daghma, Andreas Houben, Jochen Kumlehn, Michael Melzer, Twan Rutten
Improving pollen embryogenesis. Despite the agro-economic importance of pollen embryogenesis, the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. We describe the dynamics of chromatin modifications (histones H3K4me2, H3K9ac, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3) and chromatin marks (RNA polymerase II CDC phospho-Ser5, and CENH3) during barley pollen embryogenesis. Immunolabeling results show that, in reaction to stress, immature pollen rapidly starts reorganizing several important chromatin modifications indicative of a change in cell fate...
May 19, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508929/untargeted-metabolomic-analysis-of-tomato-pollen-development-and-heat-stress-response
#4
Marine J Paupière, Florian Müller, Hanjing Li, Ivo Rieu, Yury M Tikunov, Richard G F Visser, Arnaud G Bovy
Pollen development metabolomics. Developing pollen is among the plant structures most sensitive to high temperatures, and a decrease in pollen viability is often associated with an alteration of metabolite content. Most of the metabolic studies of pollen have focused on a specific group of compounds, which limits the identification of physiologically important metabolites. To get a better insight into pollen development and the pollen heat stress response, we used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform to detect secondary metabolites in pollen of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L...
June 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303339/evidence-for-post-zygotic-self-incompatibility-in-handroanthus-impetiginosus-bignoniaceae
#5
Nelson Sabino Bittencourt Júnior
Late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI) has been defined as a genetically controlled self-sterility mechanism that prevents seed set by selfing, despite normal pollen tube growth and ovule penetration in self-pollinated pistils. In species of the Bignoniaceae with LSI, such as Handroanthus impetiginosus, the selfed pistils are characterized by a marked delay in ovule penetration, fertilization, and endosperm initiation, followed by uniform pistil abscission. This highlights the contentious possibility of a post-zygotic self-incompatibility system...
March 16, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238020/haploid-embryo-production-in-rice-and-maize-induced-by-psasgr-bbml-transgenes
#6
Joann A Conner, Maricel Podio, Peggy Ozias-Akins
The PsASGR - BBML transgene, derived from a wild apomictic grass species, can induce parthenogenesis, embryo formation without fertilization, in rice and maize, leading to the formation of haploid plants. The ability to engineer apomictic crop plants using genes identified from naturally occurring apomicts will depend on the ability of those genes to function in crop plants. The PsASGR-BBML transgene, derived from the apomictic species Pennisetum squamulatum, promotes parthenogenesis in sexual pearl millet, a member of the same genus, leading to the formation of haploid embryos...
March 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229234/sequencing-the-genomic-regions-flanking-s-linked-pvglo-sequences-confirms-the-presence-of-two-glo-loci-one-of-which-lies-adjacent-to-the-style-length-determinant-gene-cyp734a50
#7
Benjamin A Burrows, Andrew G McCubbin
Primula vulgaris contains two GLOBOSA loci, one located adjacent to the style length determinant gene CYP734A50 which lies within the S -locus. Using a combination of BAC walking and PacBio sequencing, we have sequenced two substantial genomic contigs in and around the S-locus of Primula vulgaris. Using these data, we were able to demonstrate that two alleles of PvGlo (P) as well as PvGlo (T) can be present in the genome of a single plant, providing empirical evidence that these two forms of the MADS-box gene GLOBOSA are separate loci and not allelic as previously reported...
March 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176007/functional-characterization-of-agamous-subfamily-members-from-cotton-during-reproductive-development-and-in-response-to-plant-hormones
#8
Stéfanie Menezes de Moura, Sinara Artico, Cássio Lima, Sarah Muniz Nardeli, Ana Berbel, Osmundo Brilhante Oliveira-Neto, Maria Fátima Grossi-de-Sá, Cristina Ferrándiz, Francisco Madueño, Márcio Alves-Ferreira
Expression analysis of the AG -subfamily members from G. hirsutum during flower and fruit development. Reproductive development in cotton, including the fruit and fiber formation, is a complex process; it involves the coordinated action of gene expression regulators, and it is highly influenced by plant hormones. Several studies have reported the identification and expression of the transcription factor family MADS-box members in cotton ovules and fibers; however, their roles are still elusive during the reproductive development in cotton...
March 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896439/characterization-of-pollen-expressed-bzip-protein-interactions-and-the-role-of-atbzip18-in-the-male-gametophyte
#9
Antónia Gibalová, Lenka Steinbachová, Said Hafidh, Veronika Bláhová, Zuzana Gadiou, Christos Michailidis, Karel Műller, Roman Pleskot, Nikoleta Dupľáková, David Honys
KEY MESSAGE : bZIP TF network in pollen. Transcriptional control of gene expression represents an important mechanism guiding organisms through developmental processes and providing plasticity towards environmental stimuli. Because of their sessile nature, plants require effective gene regulation for rapid response to variation in environmental and developmental conditions. Transcription factors (TFs) provide such control ensuring correct gene expression in spatial and temporal manner. Our work reports the interaction network of six bZIP TFs expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen and highlights the potential functional role for AtbZIP18 in pollen...
March 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878597/the-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-flowering-locus-t-gene-is-expressed-during-floral-bud-determination-and-can-promote-flowering-in-a-winter-annual-arabidopsis-accession
#10
Antonia Yarur, Esteban Soto, Gabriel León, Andrea Miyasaka Almeida
FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858171/a-mutational-approach-for-the-detection-of-genetic-factors-affecting-seed-size-in-maize
#11
Stefano Sangiorgio, Laura Carabelli, Damiano Gabotti, Priscilla Sofia Manzotti, Martina Persico, Gabriella Consonni, Giuseppe Gavazzi
Genes influencing seed size. The designation emp (empty pericarp) refers to a group of defective kernel mutants that exhibit a drastic reduction in endosperm tissue production. They allow the isolation of genes controlling seed development and affecting seed size. Nine independently isolated emp mutants have been analyzed in this study and in all cases longitudinal sections of mature seeds revealed the absence of morphogenesis in the embryo proper, an observation that correlates with their failure to germinate...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796586/application-of-rice-microspore-preferred-promoters-to-manipulate-early-pollen-development-in-arabidopsis-a-heterologous-system
#12
Tien Dung Nguyen, Sunok Moon, Moe Moe Oo, Rupesh Tayade, Moon-Soo Soh, Jong Tae Song, Sung Aeong Oh, Ki Hong Jung, Soon Ki Park
Rice microspore-promoters. Based on microarray data analyzed for developing anthers and pollen grains, we identified nine rice microspore-preferred (RMP) genes, designated RMP1 through RMP9. To extend their biotechnological applicability, we then investigated the activity of RMP promoters originating from monocotyledonous rice in a heterologous system of dicotyledonous Arabidopsis. Expression of GUS was significantly induced in transgenic plants from the microspore to the mature pollen stages and was driven by the RMP1, RMP3, RMP4, RMP5, and RMP9 promoters...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761651/sumo-proteases-ots1-and-2-control-filament-elongation-through-a-della-dependent-mechanism
#13
Alberto Campanaro, Raffaella Battaglia, Massimo Galbiati, Ari Sadanandom, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
SUMOylation and anther growth. During fertilization, stamen elongation needs to be synchronized with pistil growth. The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) promotes stamen growth by stimulating the degradation of growth repressing DELLA proteins. DELLA accumulation is negatively regulated by GAs through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a proportion of DELLAs is also conjugated to the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein, which stabilizes DELLAs. Increased DELLA levels occur in the SUMO protease-deficient OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT 1 and 2 (ots1 ots2) double mutants, especially under salt stress conditions...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699505/a-transcriptomic-resource-for-douglas-fir-seed-development-and-analysis-of-transcription-during-late-megagametophyte-development
#14
Stefan A Little, Ian G Boyes, Kate Donaleshen, Patrick von Aderkas, Jürgen Ehlting
Douglas-fir transcriptomics. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is economically important with extensive breeding programs and seed trade. However, the molecular genetics of its seed development are largely unknown. We developed a transcriptome resource covering key developmental stages of megagametophytes over time: prefertilization, fertilization, embryogenesis, and early, unfertilized abortion. RNA sequencing reads were assembled de novo into 105,505 predicted high-confidence transcripts derived from 34,521 predicted genes...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450467/mechanisms-of-endosperm-initiation
#15
REVIEW
Philip Hands, David S Rabiger, Anna Koltunow
Overview of developmental events and signalling during central cell maturation and early endosperm development with a focus on mechanisms of sexual and autonomous endosperm initiation. Endosperm is important for seed viability and global food supply. The mechanisms regulating the developmental transition between Female Gametophyte (FG) maturation and early endosperm development in angiosperms are difficult to study as they occur buried deep within the ovule. Knowledge of the molecular events underlying this developmental window of events has significantly increased with the combined use of mutants, cell specific markers, and plant hormone sensing reporters...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422435/epigenetic-marks-in-the-hyacinthus-orientalis-l-mature-pollen-grain-and-during-in-vitro-pollen-tube-growth
#16
Marlena Kozłowska, Katarzyna Niedojadło, Marta Brzostek, Elżbieta Bednarska-Kozakiewicz
During the sexual reproduction of flowering plants, epigenetic control of gene expression and genome integrity by DNA methylation and histone modifications plays an important role in male gametogenesis. In this study, we compared the chromatin modification patterns of the generative, sperm cells and vegetative nuclei during Hyacinthus orientalis male gametophyte development. Changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of 5-methylcytosine, acetylated histone H4 and histone deacetylase indicated potential differences in the specific epigenetic state of all analysed cells, in both the mature cellular pollen grains and the in vitro growing pollen tubes...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349421/expression-analysis-of-kdel-cyseps-programmed-cell-death-markers-during-reproduction-in-arabidopsis
#17
Liang-Zi Zhou, Timo Höwing, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes, Christine Gietl, Thomas Dresselhaus
CEP cell death markers. Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for proper plant growth and development. Plant-specific papain-type KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases (KDEL-CysEPs or CEPs) have been shown to be involved in PCD during vegetative development as executors for the last step in the process. The Arabidopsis genome encodes three KDEL-CysEPs: AtCEP1, AtCEP2 and AtCEP3. With the help of fluorescent fusion reporter lines, we report here a detailed expression analysis of KDEL-CysEP (pro)proteins during reproductive processes, including flower organ and germline development, fertilization and seed development...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342989/identification-of-a-novel-mlpk-homologous-gene-mlpkn1-and-its-expression-analysis-in-brassica-oleracea
#18
Qiguo Gao, Songmei Shi, Yudong Liu, Quanming Pu, Xiaohuan Liu, Ying Zhang, Liquan Zhu
M locus protein kinase, one of the SRK-interacting proteins, is a necessary positive regulator for the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In B. rapa, MLPK is expressed as two different transcripts, MLPKf1 and MLPKf2, and either isoform can complement the mlpk/mlpk mutation. The AtAPK1B gene has been considered to be the ortholog of BrMLPK, and AtAPK1B has no role in self-incompatibility (SI) response in A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. Until now, what causes the MLPK and APK1B function difference during SI response in Brassica and A...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295366/genetic-interactions-of-the-unfinished-flower-development-ufd-mutant-support-a-significant-role-of-the-tomato-ufd-gene-in-regulating-floral-organogenesis
#19
Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez, Muriel Quinet, Ana Ortíz-Atienza, Sandra Bretones, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Rafael Lozano
Genetic interactions of UFD gene support its specific function during reproductive development of tomato; in this process, UFD could play a pivotal role between inflorescence architecture and flower initiation genes. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a major vegetable crop that also constitutes a model species for the study of plant developmental processes. To gain insight into the control of flowering and floral development, a novel tomato mutant, unfinished flower development (ufd), whose inflorescence and flowers were unable to complete their normal development was characterized using double mutant and gene expression analyses...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282498/pollen-as-a-target-of-environmental-changes
#20
EDITORIAL
Anil Grover, David Twell, Enrico Schleiff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
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