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Plant Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270910/cell-cycle-in-egg-cell-and-its-progression-during-zygotic-development-in-rice
#1
Yumiko Sukawa, Takashi Okamoto
Rice egg is arrested at G1 phase probably by OsKRP2. After fusion with sperm, karyogamy, OsWEE1-mediated parental DNA integrity in zygote nucleus, zygote progresses cell cycle to produce two-celled embryo. In angiosperms, female and male gametes exist in gametophytes after the complementation of meiosis and the progression of nuclear/cell division of the haploid cell. Within the embryo sac, the egg cell is specially differentiated for fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis, and cellular programs for embryonic development, such as restarting the cell cycle and de novo gene expression, are halted...
December 21, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264708/the-early-inflorescence-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-demonstrates-positional-effects-in-floral-organ-growth-and-meristem-patterning
#2
Andrew R G Plackett, Stephen J Powers, Andy L Phillips, Zoe A Wilson, Peter Hedden, Stephen G Thomas
Linear modelling approaches detected significant gradients in organ growth and patterning across early flowers of the Arabidopsis inflorescence and uncovered evidence of new roles for gibberellin in floral development. Most flowering plants, including the genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana, produce multiple flowers in sequence from a reproductive shoot apex to form a flower spike (inflorescence). The development of individual flowers on an Arabidopsis inflorescence has typically been considered as highly stereotypical and uniform, but this assumption is contradicted by the existence of mutants with phenotypes visible in early flowers only...
December 20, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248961/multilayered-dominance-hierarchy-in-plant-self-incompatibility
#3
REVIEW
Sota Fujii, Seiji Takayama
Epigenetic dominance modifier. In polymorphic loci, complex genetic dominance relationships between alleles are often observed. In plants, control of self-incompatibility (SI) expression via allelic interactions in the Brassicaceae is the best-known example of such mechanisms. Here, with emphasis on two recently published papers, we review the progress toward understanding the dominance regulatory mechanism of SI in the Brassicaceae. Multiple small RNA genes linked to the Self-incompatibility (S) locus were found in both Brassica and Arabidopsis genera...
December 16, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236154/calcium-dynamics-in-tomato-pollen-tubes-using-the-yellow-cameleon-3-6-sensor
#4
María Laura Barberini, Lorena Sigaut, Weijie Huang, Silvina Mangano, Silvina Paola Denita Juarez, Eliana Marzol, José Estevez, Mariana Obertello, Lía Pietrasanta, Weihua Tang, Jorge Muschietti
In vitro tomato pollen tubes show a cytoplasmic calcium gradient that oscillates with the same period as growth. Pollen tube growth requires coordination between the tip-focused cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) gradient and the actin cytoskeleton. This [Ca2+]cyt gradient is necessary for exocytosis of small vesicles, which contributes to the delivery of new membrane and cell wall at the pollen tube tip. The mechanisms that generate and maintain this [Ca2+]cyt gradient are not completely understood...
December 13, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218597/role-of-tulipa-gesneriana-teosinte-branched1-tgtb1-in-the-control-of-axillary-bud-outgrowth-in-bulbs
#5
Natalia M Moreno-Pachon, Marie-Chantal Mutimawurugo, Eveline Heynen, Lidiya Sergeeva, Anne Benders, Ikram Blilou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218596/regulation-of-floral-meristem-activity-through-the-interaction-of-agamous-superman-and-clavata3-in-arabidopsis
#6
Akira Uemura, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yifeng Xu, WanYi Wee, Yasunori Ichihashi, Takamasa Suzuki, Arisa Shibata, Ken Shirasu, Toshiro Ito
Floral meristem size is redundantly controlled by CLAVATA3, AGAMOUS , and SUPERMAN in Arabidopsis. The proper regulation of floral meristem activity is key to the formation of optimally sized flowers with a fixed number of organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple regulators determine this activity. A small secreted peptide, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), functions as an important negative regulator of stem cell activity. Two transcription factors, AGAMOUS (AG) and SUPERMAN (SUP), act in different pathways to regulate the termination of floral meristem activity...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192328/crispr-cas9-mediated-knockout-of-pissk1-reveals-essential-role-of-s-locus-f-box-protein-containing-scf-complexes-in-recognition-of-non-self-s-rnases-during-cross-compatible-pollination-in-self-incompatible-petunia-inflata
#7
Linhan Sun, Teh-Hui Kao
Function of Petunia PiSSK1. Self-incompatibility (SI), an inbreeding-preventing mechanism, is regulated in Petunia inflata by the polymorphic S-locus, which houses multiple pollen-specific S-locus F-box (SLF) genes and a single pistil-specific S-RNase gene. S 2-haplotype and S 3-haplotype possess the same 17 polymorphic SLF genes (named SLF1 to SLF17), and each SLF protein produced in pollen is assembled into an SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. A complete suite of SLF proteins is thought to collectively interact with all non-self S-RNases to mediate their ubiquitination and degradation by the 26S proteasome, allowing cross-compatible pollination...
November 30, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159588/arabidopsis-thaliana-mlo-genes-are-expressed-in-discrete-domains-during-reproductive-development
#8
Thomas C Davis, Daniel S Jones, Arianna J Dino, Nicholas I Cejda, Jing Yuan, Andrew C Willoughby, Sharon A Kessler
MLOs in Plant Reproduction. The MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS-O (MLO) protein family, comprised of 15 members, plays roles in diverse cell-cell communication processes such as powdery mildew susceptibility, root thigmomorphogenesis, and pollen tube reception. The NORTIA (NTA, AtMLO7) gene is expressed in the synergid cells of the female gametophyte where it functions in intercellular communication with the pollen tube. Discrepancies between previously published promoter::GUS and promoter::gene-GUS constructs expression patterns led us to explore the regulation of NTA expression...
November 20, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116403/style-morphology-and-pollen-tube-pathway
#9
REVIEW
M M Gotelli, E C Lattar, L M Zini, B G Galati
The style morphology and anatomy vary among different species. Three basic types are: open, closed, and semi-closed. Cells involved in the pollen tube pathway in the different types of styles present abundant endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes, mitochondria, and ribosomes. These secretory characteristics are related to the secretion where pollen tube grows. This secretion can be represented by the substances either in the canal or in the intercellular matrix or in the cell wall. Most studies suggest that pollen tubes only grow through the secretion of the canal in open styles...
November 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101473/tracking-maize-pollen-development-by-the-leaf-collar-method
#10
Kevin Begcy, Thomas Dresselhaus
An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant...
November 4, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094211/genetic-and-molecular-characterization-of-photoperiod-and-thermo-sensitive-male-sterility-in-rice
#11
REVIEW
Yourong Fan, Qifa Zhang
A review on photoperiod and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility in rice. Male sterility in plants, facilitating the development of hybrid crops, has made great contribution to crop productivity worldwide. Environment-sensitive genic male sterility (EGMS), including photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS), has provided a special class of germplasms for the breeding of "two-line" hybrids in several crops. In rice, the finding of the PGMS NK58S mutant in 1973 started the journey of research and breeding of two-line hybrids...
November 2, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988325/advances-in-understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-and-restoration-in-rice
#12
Huiwu Tang, Yongyao Xie, Yao-Guang Liu, Letian Chen
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants is a male reproductive defect determined by mitochondrial genes and inherited maternally. CMS can be suppressed by nuclear restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Therefore, CMS/Rf systems provide a classic model for the study of mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in plants. Moreover, CMS/Rf systems are economical, effective tools for the production of hybrid seeds. For example, CMS/Rf systems have been applied in over forty countries to breed hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L...
October 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900728/calcium-controls-the-formation-of-vacuoles-from-mitochondria-to-regulate-microspore-development-in-wheat
#13
Dong Xiao Li, Hai Yan Hu, Gan Li, Zhen Gang Ru, Hui Qiao Tian
Potassium antimonite was used to investigate the localisation of calcium in developing wheat anthers to examine the relationship between Ca(2+) and pollen development. During anther development, calcium precipitate formation increased in anther wall cells prior to microspore mother cell meiosis and appeared in microspores, suggesting the presence of a calcium influx from anther wall cells into the locule. Initially, the precipitates in microspore cytoplasm primarily accumulated in the mitochondria and destroyed their inner membranes (cisterns) to become small vacuoles, which expanded and fused, ultimately becoming a large vacuole during microspore vacuolisation...
September 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840335/developmental-landmarks-during-floral-ontogeny-of-jalape%C3%A3-o-chili-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-and-the-effect-of-gibberellin-on-ovary-growth
#14
R Sandoval-Oliveros, L Guevara-Olvera, J P Beltrán, C Gómez-Mena, G Acosta-García
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important horticultural crop in many regions of the world. The final shape and size of the fruit are known to be determined at a very early step of flower development. During flower development hormonal treatments using gibberellins seem to promote growth resulting in higher yield and fruit quality. However, the morphological changes that occur in the pepper flowers after these treatments are largely unknown. In the present study, we provide a description of floral development landmarks of jalapeño chili pepper (cultivar Huichol), divided in nine representative stages from its initiation until the opening of the bud...
September 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791484/loss-of-gcs1-hap2-does-not-affect-the-ovule-targeting-behavior-of-pollen-tubes
#15
Taro Takahashi, Ken Honda, Toshiyuki Mori, Tomoko Igawa
KEY MESSAGE : hap2-1 pollen tube ovule targeting. Upon pollination, a pollen grain germinates to produce a pollen tube, which grows through the style to deliver two immobile sperm cells to the female gametophyte. Double fertilization is completed after the pollen tube enters an ovule. GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1 (GCS1)/HAPLESS 2 (HAP2) contributes to the fusion of gametes at fertilization and has been suggested to affect pollen tube guidance. However, there is controversy over the role of GCS1/HAP2 in pollen tube guidance because of conflicting results from different studies...
September 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695277/molecular-movement-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-female-gametophyte
#16
Robert M Erdmann, Anja Hoffmann, Heidi-Kristin Walter, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht, Rita Groß-Hardt, Mary Gehring
Size limits on molecular movement among female gametes. Cellular decisions can be influenced by information communicated from neighboring cells. Communication can occur via signaling or through the direct transfer of molecules. Movement of RNAs and proteins has frequently been observed among symplastically connected plant cells. In flowering plants, the female gametes, the egg cell and central cell, are closely apposed within the female gametophyte. Here we investigated the ability of fluorescently labeled dyes and small RNAs to move from the Arabidopsis thaliana central cell to the egg apparatus following microinjection...
September 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795187/erratum-to-the-long-pollen-tube-journey-and-in-vitro-pollen-germination-of-phalaenopsis-orchids
#17
Jhun-Chen Chen, Su-Chiung Fang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597166/sex-allocation-in-gynodioecious-cyananthus-delavayi-differs-between-gender-morphs-and-soil-quality
#18
Jianguo Chen, Yang Niu, Zhimin Li, Yang Yang, Hang Sun
Sex allocation in Cyananthus delavayi. Gynodioecy, where females and hermaphrodites coexist in the same natural population, is particularly suitable for predicting the ecological pressures that drive the stability of gender polymorphism. Since females have a disadvantage in that they only contribute to the next generation via ovules, they should gain an advantage via other means, of which resource allocation is an important component. Thus, to study their sex allocation is very helpful to understand how the dimorphic sexual system is maintained in natural systems...
June 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526911/dynamics-of-post-translationally-modified-histones-during-barley-pollen-embryogenesis-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-the-epi-drug-trichostatin-a
#19
Pooja Pandey, Diaa S Daghma, Andreas Houben, Jochen Kumlehn, Michael Melzer, Twan Rutten
Improving pollen embryogenesis. Despite the agro-economic importance of pollen embryogenesis, the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. We describe the dynamics of chromatin modifications (histones H3K4me2, H3K9ac, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3) and chromatin marks (RNA polymerase II CDC phospho-Ser5, and CENH3) during barley pollen embryogenesis. Immunolabeling results show that, in reaction to stress, immature pollen rapidly starts reorganizing several important chromatin modifications indicative of a change in cell fate...
June 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508929/untargeted-metabolomic-analysis-of-tomato-pollen-development-and-heat-stress-response
#20
Marine J Paupière, Florian Müller, Hanjing Li, Ivo Rieu, Yury M Tikunov, Richard G F Visser, Arnaud G Bovy
Pollen development metabolomics. Developing pollen is among the plant structures most sensitive to high temperatures, and a decrease in pollen viability is often associated with an alteration of metabolite content. Most of the metabolic studies of pollen have focused on a specific group of compounds, which limits the identification of physiologically important metabolites. To get a better insight into pollen development and the pollen heat stress response, we used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform to detect secondary metabolites in pollen of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L...
June 2017: Plant Reproduction
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