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Plant Reproduction

Joakim Palovaara, Dolf Weijers
In the early embryo of vascular plants, the different cell types and stem cells of the seedling are specified as the embryo develops from a zygote towards maturity. How the key steps in cell and tissue specification are instructed by genome-wide transcriptional activity is poorly understood. Progress in defining transcriptional regulation at the genome-wide level in plant embryos has been hampered by difficulties associated with capturing cell-type-specific transcriptomes in this small and inaccessible structure...
November 15, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Natalie Prior, Stefan A Little, Ian Boyes, Patrick Griffith, Chad Husby, Cary Pirone-Davies, Dennis W Stevenson, P Barry Tomlinson, Patrick von Aderkas
Complex protein-containing reproductive secretions are a conserved trait amongst all extant gymnosperms; the pollination drops of most groups include carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and defence proteins. Pollination drops are aqueous secretions that receive pollen and transport it to the ovule interior in gymnosperms (Coniferales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Gnetales). Proteins are well established as components of pollination drops in conifers (Coniferales) and Ephedra spp. (Gnetales), but it is unknown whether proteins are also present in the pollination drops of cycads (Cycadales), Ginkgo (Ginkgoales), Gnetum (Gnetales), or in the pollination drops produced by sterile ovules occurring on pollen plants in the Gnetales...
November 14, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Wen Liu, Changlan Wang, Xiangling Shen, Hongwei Liang, Yubing Wang, Zhengquan He, Dechun Zhang, Faju Chen
The major pathways and key events related to somatic embryo development in Catalpa bungei were illustrated by deep analysis of DEGs and quantification of hormone contents. Catalpa bungei C.A. Meyer is a valuable timber species, known as "The king of wood" in China. Due to the low propagation rate, somatic embryogenesis-based rapid propagation can regenerate a large number of new plants in a very short period of time and thus has great commercial value for this timber species. However, the mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis in C...
November 12, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Encarnación Aguado, Alicia García, Susana Manzano, Juan Luis Valenzuela, Julián Cuevas, Virginia Pinillos, Manuel Jamilena
In the species of the Cucurbitaceae family, the occurrence of separate male and female flowers in the same plant (monoecy) is controlled by an ethylene biosynthesis ACS gene, which specifically suppresses the development of stamen in the female flower. In watermelon, a mutation of loss of function in CitACS4 promotes the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and of monoecious into andromonoecious plants. We have studied whether the ethylene produced by CitACS4 enzyme could also be involved in other ethylene-regulated traits, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of female flowers per plant, the development of floral organs other than stamens, as well as fruit and seed set, and fruit development...
December 2018: Plant Reproduction
Sridharan Jegadeesan, Avital Beery, Leviah Altahan, Shimon Meir, Etan Pressman, Nurit Firon
Tomato pollen grains have the capacity for ethylene production, possessing specific components of the ethylene-biosynthesis and -signaling pathways, being affected/responsive to high-temperature conditions. Exposure of plants to heat stress (HS) conditions reduces crop yield and quality, mainly due to sensitivity of pollen grains. Recently, it was demonstrated that ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, plays a significant role in tomato pollen heat-tolerance. It is not clear, however, whether, or to what extent, pollen grains are dependent on the capacity of the surrounding anther tissues for ethylene synthesis and signaling, or can synthesize this hormone and possess an active signaling pathway...
December 2018: Plant Reproduction
Kevin Begcy, Thomas Dresselhaus
Overview of current understanding of epigenetic alterations after abiotic stresses during reproductive development in cereals. Abiotic stresses, including heat, drought, cold, flooding, and salinity, negatively impact crop productivity. Various stages during reproductive development are especially sensitive to environmental stresses, which may lead to complete sterility and severe yield losses. Plants exhibit diverse responses to ameliorate stress damage. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification as well as regulation of small RNA and long noncoding RNA pathways have been shown to represent key modulators in plant stress responses...
December 2018: Plant Reproduction
Nikita Maksimov, Anastasia Evmenyeva, Maria Breygina, Igor Yermakov
Endogenous ROS, including those produced by NADPH oxidase, are required for spruce pollen germination and regulate membrane potential in pollen tubes; [Formula: see text] and H 2 O 2 are unevenly distributed along the tube. Recently, the key role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant reproduction has been decisively demonstrated for angiosperms. This paper is dedicated to the involvement of ROS in pollen germination of gymnosperms, which remained largely unknown. We found that ROS are secreted from pollen grains of blue spruce during the early stage of activation...
December 2018: Plant Reproduction
Edith Francoz, Loïc Lepiniec, Helen M North
Seed coats as commodities. Seed coats play important roles in the protection of the embryo from biological attack and physical damage by the environment as well as dispersion strategies. A significant part of the energy devoted by the mother plant to seed production is channeled into the production of the cell layers and metabolites that surround the embryo. Nevertheless, in crop species these are often discarded post-harvest and are a wasted resource that could be processed to yield co-products. The production of novel compounds from existing metabolites is also a possibility...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
Shanshan Zhang, Junpeng Zhan, Ramin Yadegari
The endosperm of angiosperms is a zygotic seed organ that stores nutrient reserves to support embryogenesis and seed germination. Cereal endosperm is also a major source of human calories and an industrial feedstock. Maize opaque endosperm mutants commonly exhibit opaque, floury kernels, along with other abnormal seed and/or non-seed phenotypes. The opaque endosperm phenotype is sometimes accompanied by a soft kernel texture and increased nutritional quality, including a higher lysine content, which are valuable agronomic traits that have drawn attention of maize breeders...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
Jing Lu, Enrico Magnani
Flowering plants display a large spectrum of seed architectures. The volume ratio of maternal versus zygotic seed tissues changes considerably among species and underlies different nutrient-storing strategies. Such diversity arose through the evolution of cell elimination programs that regulate the relative growth of one tissue over another to become the major storage compartment. The elimination of the nucellus maternal tissue is regulated by developmental programs that marked the origin of angiosperms and outlined the most ancient seed architectures...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
L Lepiniec, M Devic, T J Roscoe, D Bouyer, D-X Zhou, C Boulard, S Baud, B Dubreucq
The LAFL (i.e. LEC1, ABI3, FUS3, and LEC2) master transcriptional regulators interact to form different complexes that induce embryo development and maturation, and inhibit seed germination and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis. Orthologous genes involved in similar regulatory processes have been described in various angiosperms including important crop species. Consistent with a prominent role of the LAFL regulators in triggering and maintaining embryonic cell fate, their expression appears finely tuned in different tissues during seed development and tightly repressed in vegetative tissues by a surprisingly high number of genetic and epigenetic factors...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
Manuel Aguirre, Edward Kiegle, Giulia Leo, Ignacio Ezquer
Seeds are one of the most important food sources, providing humans and animals with essential nutrients. These nutrients include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates are one of the main energy sources for both plant and animal cells and play a fundamental role in seed development, human nutrition and the food industry. Many studies have focused on the molecular pathways that control carbohydrate flow during seed development in monocot and dicot species. For this reason, an overview of seed biodiversity focused on the multiple metabolic and physiological mechanisms that govern seed carbohydrate storage function in the plant kingdom is required...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
Julia Karmann, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes
Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004)...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
Na Li, Ran Xu, Penggen Duan, Yunhai Li
Summary of rice grain size. Rice is one of the most important crops in the world. Increasing rice yield has been an urgent need to support the rapid growth of global population. The size of grains is one of major components determining rice yield; thus, grain size has been an essential target during rice breeding. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms of grain size control can provide new strategies for yield improvement in rice. In general, the final size of rice grains is coordinately controlled by cell proliferation and cell expansion in the spikelet hull, which sets the storage capacity of the grain and limits grain filling...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
Sébastien Baud
Studying seed oil metabolism. The seeds of higher plants represent valuable factories capable of converting photosynthetically derived sugars into a variety of storage compounds, including oils. Oils are the most energy-dense plant reserves and fatty acids composing these oils represent an excellent nutritional source. They supply humans with much of the calories and essential fatty acids required in their diet. These oils are then increasingly being utilized as renewable alternatives to petroleum for the chemical industry and for biofuels...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
Wenyi Wang, Mengyun Xu, Guoping Wang, Gad Galili
Aspartate-family amino acids. Aspartate (Asp)-family pathway, via several metabolic branches, leads to four key essential amino acids: Lys, Met, Thr, and Ile. Among these, Lys and Met have received the most attention, as they are the most limiting amino acid in cereals and legumes crops, respectively. The metabolic pathways of these four essential amino acids and their interactions with regulatory networks have been well characterized. Using this knowledge, extensive efforts have been devoted to augmenting the levels of these amino acids in various plant organs, especially seeds, which serve as the main source of human food and livestock feed...
September 2018: Plant Reproduction
Gwyneth Ingram, Helen North, Loïc Lepiniec
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Yansheng Wu, Baozhi Qin, Kaili Feng, Ruolin Yan, Erfang Kang, Ting Liu, Zhonglin Shang
Extracellular ATP (eATP) plays an essential role in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Here, we report that eATP participated in Nicotiana tabacum pollen germination (PG) and pollen tube growth (PTG) by regulating K+ and Ca2+ influx. Exogenous ATP or ADP effectively promoted PG and PTG in a dose-dependent manner; weakly hydrolysable ATP analog (ATPγS) showed a similar effect. AMP, adenosine, adenine, and phosphate did not affect PG or PTG. Within a certain range, higher concentrations of K+ or Ca2+ in the medium increased the effect of ATP in promoting PG and PTG...
June 22, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Jorge Lora, José I Hormaza
The mango (Mangifera indica) is a woody perennial crop currently cultivated worldwide in regions with tropical and subtropical climates. Despite its importance, an essential process such as pollen development, and, specifically, cell wall composition that influences crosstalk between somatic cells and the male germline, is still poorly understood in this species and in the Anacardiaceae as a whole. A detailed understanding of this process is particularly important to know the effect of low temperatures during flowering on pollen development that can be a limiting factor for fertilization and fruit set...
June 22, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Yusuke Horinouchi, Tatsuya Togashi
Within-clutch gamete size variability in Monostroma angicava. In many organisms, it is unclear how the size variation in gametes is generated in each clutch (i.e., total gametes produced by a gametophyte for a single spawning) or how gamete size is adjusted. Within-clutch variation in gamete size has been explained as a result of either physiological/developmental constraints or bet hedging during gametogenesis. These two explanations have been assumed to be mutually exclusive, and related observations are conflicting...
June 2018: Plant Reproduction
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