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Plant Reproduction

Stefan A Little, Ian G Boyes, Kate Donaleshen, Patrick von Aderkas, Jürgen Ehlting
Douglas-fir transcriptomics. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is economically important with extensive breeding programs and seed trade. However, the molecular genetics of its seed development are largely unknown. We developed a transcriptome resource covering key developmental stages of megagametophytes over time: prefertilization, fertilization, embryogenesis, and early, unfertilized abortion. RNA sequencing reads were assembled de novo into 105,505 predicted high-confidence transcripts derived from 34,521 predicted genes...
October 3, 2016: Plant Reproduction
Philip Hands, David S Rabiger, Anna Koltunow
Overview of developmental events and signalling during central cell maturation and early endosperm development with a focus on mechanisms of sexual and autonomous endosperm initiation. Endosperm is important for seed viability and global food supply. The mechanisms regulating the developmental transition between Female Gametophyte (FG) maturation and early endosperm development in angiosperms are difficult to study as they occur buried deep within the ovule. Knowledge of the molecular events underlying this developmental window of events has significantly increased with the combined use of mutants, cell specific markers, and plant hormone sensing reporters...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
Marlena Kozłowska, Katarzyna Niedojadło, Marta Brzostek, Elżbieta Bednarska-Kozakiewicz
During the sexual reproduction of flowering plants, epigenetic control of gene expression and genome integrity by DNA methylation and histone modifications plays an important role in male gametogenesis. In this study, we compared the chromatin modification patterns of the generative, sperm cells and vegetative nuclei during Hyacinthus orientalis male gametophyte development. Changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of 5-methylcytosine, acetylated histone H4 and histone deacetylase indicated potential differences in the specific epigenetic state of all analysed cells, in both the mature cellular pollen grains and the in vitro growing pollen tubes...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
Liang-Zi Zhou, Timo Höwing, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes, Christine Gietl, Thomas Dresselhaus
CEP cell death markers. Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for proper plant growth and development. Plant-specific papain-type KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases (KDEL-CysEPs or CEPs) have been shown to be involved in PCD during vegetative development as executors for the last step in the process. The Arabidopsis genome encodes three KDEL-CysEPs: AtCEP1, AtCEP2 and AtCEP3. With the help of fluorescent fusion reporter lines, we report here a detailed expression analysis of KDEL-CysEP (pro)proteins during reproductive processes, including flower organ and germline development, fertilization and seed development...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
Qiguo Gao, Songmei Shi, Yudong Liu, Quanming Pu, Xiaohuan Liu, Ying Zhang, Liquan Zhu
M locus protein kinase, one of the SRK-interacting proteins, is a necessary positive regulator for the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In B. rapa, MLPK is expressed as two different transcripts, MLPKf1 and MLPKf2, and either isoform can complement the mlpk/mlpk mutation. The AtAPK1B gene has been considered to be the ortholog of BrMLPK, and AtAPK1B has no role in self-incompatibility (SI) response in A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. Until now, what causes the MLPK and APK1B function difference during SI response in Brassica and A...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez, Muriel Quinet, Ana Ortíz-Atienza, Sandra Bretones, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Rafael Lozano
Genetic interactions of UFD gene support its specific function during reproductive development of tomato; in this process, UFD could play a pivotal role between inflorescence architecture and flower initiation genes. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a major vegetable crop that also constitutes a model species for the study of plant developmental processes. To gain insight into the control of flowering and floral development, a novel tomato mutant, unfinished flower development (ufd), whose inflorescence and flowers were unable to complete their normal development was characterized using double mutant and gene expression analyses...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
Anil Grover, David Twell, Enrico Schleiff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Palak Chaturvedi, Arindam Ghatak, Wolfram Weckwerth
Pollen development and stress. In angiosperms, pollen or pollen grain (male gametophyte) is a highly reduced two- or three-cell structure which plays a decisive role in plant reproduction. Male gametophyte development takes place in anther locules where diploid sporophytic cells undergo meiotic division followed by two consecutive mitotic processes. A desiccated and metabolically quiescent form of mature pollen is released from the anther which lands on the stigma. Pollen tube growth takes place followed by double fertilization...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Luca Ambrosino, Hamed Bostan, Valentino Ruggieri, Maria Luisa Chiusano
Bioinformatics for Pollen. Pollen plays a key role in crop production, and its development is the most delicate phase in reproduction. Different metabolic pathways are involved in pollen development, and changes in the level of some metabolites, as well as responses to stress, are correlated with the reduction in pollen viability, leading consequently to a decrease in the fruit production. However, studies on pollen may be hard because gamete development and fertilization are complex processes that occur during a short window of time...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Florian Müller, Ivo Rieu
Pollen heat acclimation. As a consequence of global warming, plants have to face more severe and more frequently occurring periods of high temperature stress. While this affects the whole plant, development of the male gametophyte, the pollen, seems to be the most sensitive process. Given the great importance of functioning pollen for the plant life cycle and for agricultural production, it is necessary to understand this sensitivity. While changes in temperature affect different components of all cells and require a cellular response and acclimation, high temperature effects and responses in developing pollen are distinct from vegetative tissues at several points...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Sotirios Fragkostefanakis, Anida Mesihovic, Yangjie Hu, Enrico Schleiff
Importance of the UPR for pollen. Pollen is particularly sensitive to environmental conditions that disturb protein homeostasis, such as higher temperatures. Their survival is dependent on subcellular stress response systems, one of which maintains protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Disturbance of ER proteostasis due to stress leads to the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) that mitigates stress damage mainly by increasing ER-folding capacity and reducing folding demands. The UPR is controlled by ER membrane-associated transcription factors and an RNA splicing factor...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Łukasz Łangowski, Nicola Stacey, Lars Østergaard
Diversity in fruit shape. Angiosperms (flowering plants) evolved during the Cretaceous Period more than 100 million years ago and quickly colonized all terrestrial habitats on the planet. A major reason for their success was the formation of fruits that would protect and nurture the developing seeds. Moreover, a massive range of diversity in fruit shape occurred during a relatively short time, which allowed for the development of ingenious ways of fertilization as well as strategies for efficient seed dispersal...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Anida Mesihovic, Rina Iannacone, Nurit Firon, Sotirios Fragkostefanakis
Pollen thermotolerance. Global warming is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather phenomena such as heat waves thereby posing a major threat for crop productivity and food security. The yield in case of most crop species is dependent on the success of reproductive development. Pollen development has been shown to be highly sensitive to elevated temperatures while the development of the female gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues might also be disturbed under mild or severe heat stress conditions...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Jhun-Chen Chen, Su-Chiung Fang
Pollen biology in P. aphrodite. Orchids have a distinct reproductive program. Pollination triggers ovule development and differentiation within flowers, and fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. It is unclear how pollen tubes travel through the developing ovaries during ovule development and when pollen tubes arrive at the mature embryo sac to achieve fertilization. Here, we report a robust staining protocol to image and record the timing of pollen germination, progressive growth of pollen tubes in ovaries, and arrival of pollen tubes at embryo sacs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
O G Silkova, D B Loginova
Unreduced gametes. The absence of a strict pachytene checkpoint in plants presents an opportunity to study meiosis in polyhaploid organisms. In the present study, we demonstrate that meiosis is coordinated in hybrids between disomic wheat-rye substitution lines 1Rv(1A), 2R(2D), 5R(5D), 6R(6A) and rye (Triticum aestivum L. × Secale cereale L., 4x = 28, ABDR). By using in situ hybridization with a centromere pAet6-09 probe and immunostaining with H3Ser10ph-, CENH3-, and α-tubulin-specific antibodies, we distinguished four chromosome behaviour types...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Chitose Honsho, Aisa Sakata, Hikaru Tanaka, Shuji Ishimura, Takuya Tetsumura
2n pollen formed by FDR in citrus. The Japanese local citrus cultivar, Nishiuchi Konatsu (Citrus tamurana hort. ex Tanaka; NK hereafter), has the ability to produce unreduced 2n pollen grains, allowing generation of polyploid progenies via sexual polyploidization. In this study, we developed a method of single-pollen genotyping for citrus and applied it to the analysis of transmission of heterozygosity in NK 2n pollen grains. Heterozygosity transmission was expressed as the percentage inheritance of a set of heterozygous alleles from the parent to the 2n gamete...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Nicky Driedonks, Ivo Rieu, Wim H Vriezen
Thermotolerant crop research. Global warming has become a serious worldwide threat. High temperature is a major environmental factor limiting crop productivity. Current adaptations to high temperature via alterations to technical and management systems are insufficient to sustain yield. For this reason, breeding for heat-tolerant crops is in high demand. This review provides an overview of the effects of high temperature on plant physiology, fertility and crop yield and discusses the strategies for breeding heat-tolerant cultivars...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Puneet Paul, Sascha Röth, Enrico Schleiff
Protein translocation. Cellular homeostasis strongly depends on proper distribution of proteins within cells and insertion of membrane proteins into the destined membranes. The latter is mediated by organellar protein translocation and the complex vesicle transport system. Considering the importance of protein transport machineries in general it is foreseen that these processes are essential for pollen function and development. However, the information available in this context is very scarce because of the current focus on deciphering the fundamental principles of protein transport at the molecular level...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Said Hafidh, Jan Fíla, David Honys
Overview of pollen development. Male gametophyte development of angiosperms is a complex process that requires coordinated activity of different cell types and tissues of both gametophytic and sporophytic origin and the appropriate specific gene expression. Pollen ontogeny is also an excellent model for the dissection of cellular networks that control cell growth, polarity, cellular differentiation and cell signaling. This article describes two sequential phases of angiosperm pollen ontogenesis-developmental phase leading to the formation of mature pollen grains, and a functional or progamic phase, beginning with the impact of the grains on the stigma surface and ending at double fertilization...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Rigel Salinas-Gamboa, Susan D Johnson, Nidia Sánchez-León, Anna M G Koltunow, Jean-Philippe Vielle-Calzada
Cowpea reproductive tools. Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (cowpea) is recognized as a major legume food crop in Africa, but seed yields remain low in most varieties adapted to local conditions. The development of hybrid cowpea seed that could be saved after each generation, enabling significant yield increases, will require manipulation of reproductive development from a sexual to an asexual mode. To develop new technologies that could support the biotechnological manipulation of reproductive development in cowpea, we examined gametogenesis and seed formation in two transformable, African-adapted, day-length-insensitive varieties...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
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