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Plant Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159588/arabidopsis-thaliana-mlo-genes-are-expressed-in-discrete-domains-during-reproductive-development
#1
Thomas C Davis, Daniel S Jones, Arianna J Dino, Nicholas I Cejda, Jing Yuan, Andrew C Willoughby, Sharon A Kessler
MLOs in Plant Reproduction. The MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS-O (MLO) protein family, comprised of 15 members, plays roles in diverse cell-cell communication processes such as powdery mildew susceptibility, root thigmomorphogenesis, and pollen tube reception. The NORTIA (NTA, AtMLO7) gene is expressed in the synergid cells of the female gametophyte where it functions in intercellular communication with the pollen tube. Discrepancies between previously published promoter::GUS and promoter::gene-GUS constructs expression patterns led us to explore the regulation of NTA expression...
November 20, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116403/style-morphology-and-pollen-tube-pathway
#2
REVIEW
M M Gotelli, E C Lattar, L M Zini, B G Galati
The style morphology and anatomy vary among different species. Three basic types are: open, closed, and semi-closed. Cells involved in the pollen tube pathway in the different types of styles present abundant endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes, mitochondria, and ribosomes. These secretory characteristics are related to the secretion where pollen tube grows. This secretion can be represented by the substances either in the canal or in the intercellular matrix or in the cell wall. Most studies suggest that pollen tubes only grow through the secretion of the canal in open styles...
November 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101473/tracking-maize-pollen-development-by-the-leaf-collar-method
#3
Kevin Begcy, Thomas Dresselhaus
An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant...
November 4, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094211/genetic-and-molecular-characterization-of-photoperiod-and-thermo-sensitive-male-sterility-in-rice
#4
REVIEW
Yourong Fan, Qifa Zhang
A review on photoperiod and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility in rice. Male sterility in plants, facilitating the development of hybrid crops, has made great contribution to crop productivity worldwide. Environment-sensitive genic male sterility (EGMS), including photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS), has provided a special class of germplasms for the breeding of "two-line" hybrids in several crops. In rice, the finding of the PGMS NK58S mutant in 1973 started the journey of research and breeding of two-line hybrids...
November 2, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988325/advances-in-understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-and-restoration-in-rice
#5
Huiwu Tang, Yongyao Xie, Yao-Guang Liu, Letian Chen
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants is a male reproductive defect determined by mitochondrial genes and inherited maternally. CMS can be suppressed by nuclear restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Therefore, CMS/Rf systems provide a classic model for the study of mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in plants. Moreover, CMS/Rf systems are economical, effective tools for the production of hybrid seeds. For example, CMS/Rf systems have been applied in over forty countries to breed hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L...
October 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900728/calcium-controls-the-formation-of-vacuoles-from-mitochondria-to-regulate-microspore-development-in-wheat
#6
Dong Xiao Li, Hai Yan Hu, Gan Li, Zhen Gang Ru, Hui Qiao Tian
Potassium antimonite was used to investigate the localisation of calcium in developing wheat anthers to examine the relationship between Ca(2+) and pollen development. During anther development, calcium precipitate formation increased in anther wall cells prior to microspore mother cell meiosis and appeared in microspores, suggesting the presence of a calcium influx from anther wall cells into the locule. Initially, the precipitates in microspore cytoplasm primarily accumulated in the mitochondria and destroyed their inner membranes (cisterns) to become small vacuoles, which expanded and fused, ultimately becoming a large vacuole during microspore vacuolisation...
September 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840335/developmental-landmarks-during-floral-ontogeny-of-jalape%C3%A3-o-chili-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-and-the-effect-of-gibberellin-on-ovary-growth
#7
R Sandoval-Oliveros, L Guevara-Olvera, J P Beltrán, C Gómez-Mena, G Acosta-García
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important horticultural crop in many regions of the world. The final shape and size of the fruit are known to be determined at a very early step of flower development. During flower development hormonal treatments using gibberellins seem to promote growth resulting in higher yield and fruit quality. However, the morphological changes that occur in the pepper flowers after these treatments are largely unknown. In the present study, we provide a description of floral development landmarks of jalapeño chili pepper (cultivar Huichol), divided in nine representative stages from its initiation until the opening of the bud...
September 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791484/loss-of-gcs1-hap2-does-not-affect-the-ovule-targeting-behavior-of-pollen-tubes
#8
Taro Takahashi, Ken Honda, Toshiyuki Mori, Tomoko Igawa
KEY MESSAGE : hap2-1 pollen tube ovule targeting. Upon pollination, a pollen grain germinates to produce a pollen tube, which grows through the style to deliver two immobile sperm cells to the female gametophyte. Double fertilization is completed after the pollen tube enters an ovule. GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1 (GCS1)/HAPLESS 2 (HAP2) contributes to the fusion of gametes at fertilization and has been suggested to affect pollen tube guidance. However, there is controversy over the role of GCS1/HAP2 in pollen tube guidance because of conflicting results from different studies...
September 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695277/molecular-movement-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-female-gametophyte
#9
Robert M Erdmann, Anja Hoffmann, Heidi-Kristin Walter, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht, Rita Groß-Hardt, Mary Gehring
Size limits on molecular movement among female gametes. Cellular decisions can be influenced by information communicated from neighboring cells. Communication can occur via signaling or through the direct transfer of molecules. Movement of RNAs and proteins has frequently been observed among symplastically connected plant cells. In flowering plants, the female gametes, the egg cell and central cell, are closely apposed within the female gametophyte. Here we investigated the ability of fluorescently labeled dyes and small RNAs to move from the Arabidopsis thaliana central cell to the egg apparatus following microinjection...
September 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795187/erratum-to-the-long-pollen-tube-journey-and-in-vitro-pollen-germination-of-phalaenopsis-orchids
#10
Jhun-Chen Chen, Su-Chiung Fang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597166/sex-allocation-in-gynodioecious-cyananthus-delavayi-differs-between-gender-morphs-and-soil-quality
#11
Jianguo Chen, Yang Niu, Zhimin Li, Yang Yang, Hang Sun
Sex allocation in Cyananthus delavayi. Gynodioecy, where females and hermaphrodites coexist in the same natural population, is particularly suitable for predicting the ecological pressures that drive the stability of gender polymorphism. Since females have a disadvantage in that they only contribute to the next generation via ovules, they should gain an advantage via other means, of which resource allocation is an important component. Thus, to study their sex allocation is very helpful to understand how the dimorphic sexual system is maintained in natural systems...
June 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526911/dynamics-of-post-translationally-modified-histones-during-barley-pollen-embryogenesis-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-the-epi-drug-trichostatin-a
#12
Pooja Pandey, Diaa S Daghma, Andreas Houben, Jochen Kumlehn, Michael Melzer, Twan Rutten
Improving pollen embryogenesis. Despite the agro-economic importance of pollen embryogenesis, the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. We describe the dynamics of chromatin modifications (histones H3K4me2, H3K9ac, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3) and chromatin marks (RNA polymerase II CDC phospho-Ser5, and CENH3) during barley pollen embryogenesis. Immunolabeling results show that, in reaction to stress, immature pollen rapidly starts reorganizing several important chromatin modifications indicative of a change in cell fate...
June 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508929/untargeted-metabolomic-analysis-of-tomato-pollen-development-and-heat-stress-response
#13
Marine J Paupière, Florian Müller, Hanjing Li, Ivo Rieu, Yury M Tikunov, Richard G F Visser, Arnaud G Bovy
Pollen development metabolomics. Developing pollen is among the plant structures most sensitive to high temperatures, and a decrease in pollen viability is often associated with an alteration of metabolite content. Most of the metabolic studies of pollen have focused on a specific group of compounds, which limits the identification of physiologically important metabolites. To get a better insight into pollen development and the pollen heat stress response, we used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform to detect secondary metabolites in pollen of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L...
June 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303339/evidence-for-post-zygotic-self-incompatibility-in-handroanthus-impetiginosus-bignoniaceae
#14
Nelson Sabino Bittencourt Júnior
Late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI) has been defined as a genetically controlled self-sterility mechanism that prevents seed set by selfing, despite normal pollen tube growth and ovule penetration in self-pollinated pistils. In species of the Bignoniaceae with LSI, such as Handroanthus impetiginosus, the selfed pistils are characterized by a marked delay in ovule penetration, fertilization, and endosperm initiation, followed by uniform pistil abscission. This highlights the contentious possibility of a post-zygotic self-incompatibility system...
June 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238020/haploid-embryo-production-in-rice-and-maize-induced-by-psasgr-bbml-transgenes
#15
Joann A Conner, Maricel Podio, Peggy Ozias-Akins
The PsASGR - BBML transgene, derived from a wild apomictic grass species, can induce parthenogenesis, embryo formation without fertilization, in rice and maize, leading to the formation of haploid plants. The ability to engineer apomictic crop plants using genes identified from naturally occurring apomicts will depend on the ability of those genes to function in crop plants. The PsASGR-BBML transgene, derived from the apomictic species Pennisetum squamulatum, promotes parthenogenesis in sexual pearl millet, a member of the same genus, leading to the formation of haploid embryos...
March 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229234/sequencing-the-genomic-regions-flanking-s-linked-pvglo-sequences-confirms-the-presence-of-two-glo-loci-one-of-which-lies-adjacent-to-the-style-length-determinant-gene-cyp734a50
#16
Benjamin A Burrows, Andrew G McCubbin
Primula vulgaris contains two GLOBOSA loci, one located adjacent to the style length determinant gene CYP734A50 which lies within the S -locus. Using a combination of BAC walking and PacBio sequencing, we have sequenced two substantial genomic contigs in and around the S-locus of Primula vulgaris. Using these data, we were able to demonstrate that two alleles of PvGlo (P) as well as PvGlo (T) can be present in the genome of a single plant, providing empirical evidence that these two forms of the MADS-box gene GLOBOSA are separate loci and not allelic as previously reported...
March 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176007/functional-characterization-of-agamous-subfamily-members-from-cotton-during-reproductive-development-and-in-response-to-plant-hormones
#17
Stéfanie Menezes de Moura, Sinara Artico, Cássio Lima, Sarah Muniz Nardeli, Ana Berbel, Osmundo Brilhante Oliveira-Neto, Maria Fátima Grossi-de-Sá, Cristina Ferrándiz, Francisco Madueño, Márcio Alves-Ferreira
Expression analysis of the AG -subfamily members from G. hirsutum during flower and fruit development. Reproductive development in cotton, including the fruit and fiber formation, is a complex process; it involves the coordinated action of gene expression regulators, and it is highly influenced by plant hormones. Several studies have reported the identification and expression of the transcription factor family MADS-box members in cotton ovules and fibers; however, their roles are still elusive during the reproductive development in cotton...
March 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896439/characterization-of-pollen-expressed-bzip-protein-interactions-and-the-role-of-atbzip18-in-the-male-gametophyte
#18
Antónia Gibalová, Lenka Steinbachová, Said Hafidh, Veronika Bláhová, Zuzana Gadiou, Christos Michailidis, Karel Műller, Roman Pleskot, Nikoleta Dupľáková, David Honys
KEY MESSAGE : bZIP TF network in pollen. Transcriptional control of gene expression represents an important mechanism guiding organisms through developmental processes and providing plasticity towards environmental stimuli. Because of their sessile nature, plants require effective gene regulation for rapid response to variation in environmental and developmental conditions. Transcription factors (TFs) provide such control ensuring correct gene expression in spatial and temporal manner. Our work reports the interaction network of six bZIP TFs expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen and highlights the potential functional role for AtbZIP18 in pollen...
March 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878597/the-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-flowering-locus-t-gene-is-expressed-during-floral-bud-determination-and-can-promote-flowering-in-a-winter-annual-arabidopsis-accession
#19
Antonia Yarur, Esteban Soto, Gabriel León, Andrea Miyasaka Almeida
FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858171/a-mutational-approach-for-the-detection-of-genetic-factors-affecting-seed-size-in-maize
#20
Stefano Sangiorgio, Laura Carabelli, Damiano Gabotti, Priscilla Sofia Manzotti, Martina Persico, Gabriella Consonni, Giuseppe Gavazzi
Genes influencing seed size. The designation emp (empty pericarp) refers to a group of defective kernel mutants that exhibit a drastic reduction in endosperm tissue production. They allow the isolation of genes controlling seed development and affecting seed size. Nine independently isolated emp mutants have been analyzed in this study and in all cases longitudinal sections of mature seeds revealed the absence of morphogenesis in the embryo proper, an observation that correlates with their failure to germinate...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
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