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Plant Reproduction

Julia Karmann, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes
Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004)...
March 16, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Na Li, Ran Xu, Penggen Duan, Yunhai Li
Summary of rice grain size. Rice is one of the most important crops in the world. Increasing rice yield has been an urgent need to support the rapid growth of global population. The size of grains is one of major components determining rice yield; thus, grain size has been an essential target during rice breeding. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms of grain size control can provide new strategies for yield improvement in rice. In general, the final size of rice grains is coordinately controlled by cell proliferation and cell expansion in the spikelet hull, which sets the storage capacity of the grain and limits grain filling...
March 10, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Takamasa Suzuki, Tsutae Kawai, Shunsuke Takemura, Marie Nishiwaki, Toshiya Suzuki, Kenzo Nakamura, Sumie Ishiguro, Tetsuya Higashiyama
Development of Mitsucal. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated whole-genome sequencing of mutants and variants. However, the analyses of large sequence datasets using a computer remain more difficult than operating a sequencer. Forward genetic approach is powerful even in sexual reproduction to identify key genes. Therefore, we developed the Mitsucal computer system for identifying causal genes of mutants, using whole-genome sequence data. Mitsucal includes a user-friendly web interface to configure analysis variables, such as background and crossed strains...
March 1, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Xiongbo Peng, Meng-Xiang Sun
The advances in the suspensor. During early embryogenesis, the proembryo consists of two domains, the embryo proper and the suspensor. Unlike the embryo proper, which has been investigated extensively, research on the suspensor has been limited in past decades. Recent studies have revealed that the suspensor plays an important role in early embryogenesis and the process of suspensor formation and degeneration may provide a unique model for studies on cell division pattern, cell fate determination, and cell death...
February 23, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Siqi Zhang, Mei Liang, Nan Wang, Qiang Xu, Xiuxin Deng, Lijun Chai
Review on citrus reproduction. Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crops. It possesses several special reproductive characteristics, such as nucellar embryony and self-incompatibility. The special phenomenon of nucellar embryony in citrus, also known as the polyembryony, is a kind of sporophytic apomixis. During the past decade, the emergence of novel technologies and the construction of multiple citrus reference genomes have facilitated rapid advances to our understanding of nucellar embryony...
February 19, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Hong-Ju Li, Jiang-Guo Meng, Wei-Cai Yang
Sexual reproductive success is essential for the survival of all higher organisms. As the most prosperous and diverse group of land plants on earth, flowering plants evolved highly sophisticated fertilization mechanisms. To adapt to the terrestrial environment, a tubular structure pollen tube has been evolved to deliver the immobile sperm cells to the egg and central cell enclosed within the ovule. The pollen tube is generated from the vegetative cell of the pollen (male gametophyte), where two sperm cells are hosted...
February 13, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Sébastien Baud
Studying seed oil metabolism. The seeds of higher plants represent valuable factories capable of converting photosynthetically derived sugars into a variety of storage compounds, including oils. Oils are the most energy-dense plant reserves and fatty acids composing these oils represent an excellent nutritional source. They supply humans with much of the calories and essential fatty acids required in their diet. These oils are then increasingly being utilized as renewable alternatives to petroleum for the chemical industry and for biofuels...
February 10, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Wenyi Wang, Mengyun Xu, Guoping Wang, Gad Galili
Aspartate-family amino acids. Aspartate (Asp)-family pathway, via several metabolic branches, leads to four key essential amino acids: Lys, Met, Thr, and Ile. Among these, Lys and Met have received the most attention, as they are the most limiting amino acid in cereals and legumes crops, respectively. The metabolic pathways of these four essential amino acids and their interactions with regulatory networks have been well characterized. Using this knowledge, extensive efforts have been devoted to augmenting the levels of these amino acids in various plant organs, especially seeds, which serve as the main source of human food and livestock feed...
February 5, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Yusuke Horinouchi, Tatsuya Togashi
Within-clutch gamete size variability in Monostroma angicava. In many organisms, it is unclear how the size variation in gametes is generated in each clutch (i.e., total gametes produced by a gametophyte for a single spawning) or how gamete size is adjusted. Within-clutch variation in gamete size has been explained as a result of either physiological/developmental constraints or bet hedging during gametogenesis. These two explanations have been assumed to be mutually exclusive, and related observations are conflicting...
February 1, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Ken-Ichi Nonomura
In angiosperms, germline precursors and germ cells are always attached to or engulfed within somatic companion cells until just before fertilization. This is because sperm and egg cells develop as part of the multicellular gametophyte. Thus, the non-cell-autonomous regulation by somatic companions plays important roles in efficient reproduction, in addition to the cell-autonomous regulation. Epigenetic silencing of transposable elements is one of the central events by which the germline transmits the error-free genome to the next generation...
January 19, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Wenguo Cai, Dabing Zhang
RLKs in anther development. The cell-to-cell communication is essential for specifying different cell types during plant growth, development and adaption to the ever-changing environment. Plant male reproduction, in particular, requires the exquisitely synchronized development of different cell layers within the male tissue, the anther. Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belong to a large group of kinases localized on the cell surfaces, perceiving extracellular signals and thereafter regulating intracellular processes...
March 2018: Plant Reproduction
Meng-Xiang Sun, Wei-Cai Yang, Tetsuya Higashiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Plant Reproduction
Shihao Su, Tetsuya Higashiyama
The arabinogalactan protein (AGP) family is one of the most complex protein families and is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to play various roles during plant reproduction. A typical AGP contains a hydroxyproline-rich core protein with high heterogeneity and varying numbers of polysaccharide side chains. However, the functions of the polysaccharide components (i.e. AG sugar chains) remain largely unknown due to the general difficulties associated with studying sugar chains in glycobiology...
March 2018: Plant Reproduction
Akira Uemura, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yifeng Xu, WanYi Wee, Yasunori Ichihashi, Takamasa Suzuki, Arisa Shibata, Ken Shirasu, Toshiro Ito
Floral meristem size is redundantly controlled by CLAVATA3, AGAMOUS , and SUPERMAN in Arabidopsis. The proper regulation of floral meristem activity is key to the formation of optimally sized flowers with a fixed number of organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple regulators determine this activity. A small secreted peptide, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), functions as an important negative regulator of stem cell activity. Two transcription factors, AGAMOUS (AG) and SUPERMAN (SUP), act in different pathways to regulate the termination of floral meristem activity...
March 2018: Plant Reproduction
Yumiko Sukawa, Takashi Okamoto
Rice egg is arrested at G1 phase probably by OsKRP2. After fusion with sperm, karyogamy, OsWEE1-mediated parental DNA integrity in zygote nucleus, zygote progresses cell cycle to produce two-celled embryo. In angiosperms, female and male gametes exist in gametophytes after the complementation of meiosis and the progression of nuclear/cell division of the haploid cell. Within the embryo sac, the egg cell is specially differentiated for fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis, and cellular programs for embryonic development, such as restarting the cell cycle and de novo gene expression, are halted...
December 21, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Andrew R G Plackett, Stephen J Powers, Andy L Phillips, Zoe A Wilson, Peter Hedden, Stephen G Thomas
Linear modelling approaches detected significant gradients in organ growth and patterning across early flowers of the Arabidopsis inflorescence and uncovered evidence of new roles for gibberellin in floral development. Most flowering plants, including the genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana, produce multiple flowers in sequence from a reproductive shoot apex to form a flower spike (inflorescence). The development of individual flowers on an Arabidopsis inflorescence has typically been considered as highly stereotypical and uniform, but this assumption is contradicted by the existence of mutants with phenotypes visible in early flowers only...
December 20, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Sota Fujii, Seiji Takayama
Epigenetic dominance modifier. In polymorphic loci, complex genetic dominance relationships between alleles are often observed. In plants, control of self-incompatibility (SI) expression via allelic interactions in the Brassicaceae is the best-known example of such mechanisms. Here, with emphasis on two recently published papers, we review the progress toward understanding the dominance regulatory mechanism of SI in the Brassicaceae. Multiple small RNA genes linked to the Self-incompatibility (S) locus were found in both Brassica and Arabidopsis genera...
December 16, 2017: Plant Reproduction
María Laura Barberini, Lorena Sigaut, Weijie Huang, Silvina Mangano, Silvina Paola Denita Juarez, Eliana Marzol, José Estevez, Mariana Obertello, Lía Pietrasanta, Weihua Tang, Jorge Muschietti
In vitro tomato pollen tubes show a cytoplasmic calcium gradient that oscillates with the same period as growth. Pollen tube growth requires coordination between the tip-focused cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]cyt ) gradient and the actin cytoskeleton. This [Ca2+ ]cyt gradient is necessary for exocytosis of small vesicles, which contributes to the delivery of new membrane and cell wall at the pollen tube tip. The mechanisms that generate and maintain this [Ca2+ ]cyt gradient are not completely understood...
December 13, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Natalia M Moreno-Pachon, Marie-Chantal Mutimawurugo, Eveline Heynen, Lidiya Sergeeva, Anne Benders, Ikram Blilou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Thomas C Davis, Daniel S Jones, Arianna J Dino, Nicholas I Cejda, Jing Yuan, Andrew C Willoughby, Sharon A Kessler
MLOs in Plant Reproduction. The MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS-O (MLO) protein family, comprised of 15 members, plays roles in diverse cell-cell communication processes such as powdery mildew susceptibility, root thigmomorphogenesis, and pollen tube reception. The NORTIA (NTA, AtMLO7) gene is expressed in the synergid cells of the female gametophyte where it functions in intercellular communication with the pollen tube. Discrepancies between previously published promoter::GUS and promoter::gene-GUS constructs expression patterns led us to explore the regulation of NTA expression...
December 2017: Plant Reproduction
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