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Jihua Wu, Zhiwei Tao, Yaoliang Deng, Quan Liu, Yunlong Liu, Xiaofeng Guan, Xiang Wang
Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) play an important role in kidney stone formation, but the mechanism(s) are unclear. CNPs were isolated and cultured from midstream urine of patients with kidney stones. CNP morphology and characteristics were examined by electron microscopy and electrophoresis analysis. Chemical composition was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and Western blotting. Human renal proximal convoluted tubule cell (HK-2) cultures were exposed to CNPs for 0, 12 and 72 h, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis levels were evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Urolithiasis
Muhammed A P Manzoor, M Mujeeburahiman, Punchappady-Devasya Rekha
Urinary stones are complex mineralogical formations in the urinary system often impairing the kidney function. Several studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms of stone formation and growth; however, it remains to be fully explored. Here, we present a detailed investigation on the morphological and mineralogical characterizations of urinary stones. Structural properties of different types of urinary stones were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analyses...
March 5, 2018: Urolithiasis
Daniel J Lama, Shoaib Safiullah, Albert Yang, Zhamshid Okhunov, Jaime Landman, Ralph V Clayman
The concept of adipose tissue as an organ unto itself represents a new medical construct; already differences in the volume of perirenal fat around a tumor-bearing kidney have been described. We hypothesized that renal calculi may have similar impact on perirenal fat or alternatively abnormalities in urinary metabolites may be the result of perirenal fat affecting renal metabolism and subsequent stone formation. Accordingly, we conducted a study utilizing three-dimensional imaging software to evaluate perirenal fat volume (PFV) in patients with nephrolithiasis...
March 2, 2018: Urolithiasis
Kehua Jiang, Hongbo Chen, Xiao Yu, Zhiqiang Chen, Zhangqun Ye, Huixing Yuan
The objectives of the study are to compare the safety and efficacy of "all-seeing needle" optical puncture system micro-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (micro-PCNL) and flexible ureterorenoscopy (FURS) for the treatment of lower calyceal stones of ≤ 2 cm and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each. 116 patients in total with lower calyceal stones of ≤ 2 cm were randomly divided into two equal groups, "all-seeing needle" optical puncture system micro-PCNL and FURS. In both groups, holmium laser was utilized for lithotripsy...
March 1, 2018: Urolithiasis
Ching-Chia Li, Tsu-Ming Chien, Wen-Jeng Wu, Chun-Nung Huang, Yii-Her Chou
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of uric acid stones and their potential risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 401 patients (196 with uric acid stone and 205 without) were enrolled from our database of patients with urolithiasis. We analyzed the clinical demographic features, stone location, urine chemistries, and renal function. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the two groups in terms of age, with the higher mean age in the uric acid group...
February 28, 2018: Urolithiasis
Mehmet Sarier, Ibrahim Duman, Yucel Yuksel, Sabri Tekin, Meltem Demir, Fatih Arslan, Osman Ergun, Alim Kosar, Asuman Havva Yavuz
Allograft lithiasis is a rare urologic complication of renal transplantation (RT). Our aim is to present our experience with minimally invasive surgical treatment of allograft lithiasis in our series of live-donor renal transplant recipients. In a retrospective analysis of 3758 consecutive live-donor RTs performed in our center between November 2009 and January 2017, the results of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of renal graft lithiasis diagnosed at follow-up were evaluated. Twenty-two (0.58%) patients underwent minimally invasive surgery for renal graft lithiasis...
February 26, 2018: Urolithiasis
Siavash Falahatkar, Mojtaba Teimoori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Urolithiasis
Ibrahim Halil Bozkurt, Ertugrul Sefik, Ismail Basmaci, Serkan Yarimoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Urolithiasis
Qing Wang, Weijie Hu, Yuchao Lu, Henglong Hu, Jiaqiao Zhang, Shaogang Wang
To study the impact of body mass index (BMI) on quantitative 24-h urine chemistries in stone forming patients and to explore how overweight and obesity contribute to urolithiasis. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was performed in July 2017 and updated in October 2017 to detect relevant studies. After that, we screened all the relevant articles in accordance with the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data of eligible studies were extracted, and then, a meta-analysis was conducted via RevMan 5...
February 8, 2018: Urolithiasis
Michel Daudon, Paul Jungers, Dominique Bazin, James C Williams
Few studies have examined the relative risk of recurrence of different stone types. The object of the present study was to evaluate the tendency for stone recurrence as a function of major mineral composition of the stones and morphological characteristics of the stones. This study was carried out using 38,274 stones for which we had data available to specify if the stone was from the first or a subsequent urinary stone episode. Stones were analyzed for morphology by stereomicroscope and for composition by infrared spectroscopy...
February 1, 2018: Urolithiasis
Ryan W Walker, Shijia Zhang, Joycelynn A Coleman-Barnett, L Lee Hamm, Kathleen S Hering-Smith
The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the distal nephron decreases the propensity for calcium stones. Here we investigate if the apical CaSR in the proximal tubule also prevents stone formation acting via regulation of apical dicarboxylate and citrate transport. Urinary citrate, partially reabsorbed as a dicarboxylate in the proximal tubule lumen, inhibits stone formation by complexing calcium. We previously demonstrated a novel apical calcium-sensitive dicarboxylate transport system in OK proximal tubule cells...
January 30, 2018: Urolithiasis
Yiwen Chen, Tuo Deng, Xiaolu Duan, Wei Zhu, Guohua Zeng
The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of the percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in surgical treatment of pediatric patients with upper urinary stones based on the published literature. A comprehensive literature search of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library and CNKI was conducted to identify studies comparing outcomes of PCNL and RIRS for treating pediatric patients with upper urinary stones before May 2017. A total of 11 studies, including one randomized controlled trial, four retrospective case-control studies and six case series studies, containing 822 children with upper urinary stones were included in this systematic review...
January 24, 2018: Urolithiasis
Masayuki Usami, Atsushi Okada, Kazumi Taguchi, Shuzo Hamamoto, Kenjiro Kohri, Takahiro Yasui
We previously established an experimental model of calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the mouse kidney using C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6J (B6J) and C57BL/6N (B6N) are two core substrains of C57BL/6 mice. B6J and B6N substrains have approximately the same genomic sequence. However, in whole-genome analyses, substrains have slight genetic differences in some genes. In this study, we used these substrains as kidney crystal formation models and compared their genetic backgrounds to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of kidney stone formation...
January 23, 2018: Urolithiasis
C Fernández-Baltar, D Pérez-Fentes, J F Sánchez-García, C García-Freire
In developed countries, the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing, therefore, anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs are a widespread treatment nowadays. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the first-line treatment for large or complex stones (> 2 cm) and remains an alternative for the smaller ones. The objective of this study is to analyze whether PNL surgery is a safe procedure in patients under a treatment discontinuation protocol for anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies. We retrospectively studied 301 patients who underwent PNL in our hospital between 2008 and 2016 and identified 46 patients on chronic antiplatelet or anticoagulation treatment...
January 22, 2018: Urolithiasis
Tadeusz Porowski, Jan K Kirejczyk, Piotr Mrozek, Piotr Protas, Agata Kozerska, Łukasz Łabieniec, Krzysztof Szymański, Anna Wasilewska
High fluid intake has been universally recommended for kidney stone prophylaxis. We evaluated 24-h urine osmolality regarded as the best biomarker of optimal hydration and upper metastable limit osmolality after water evaporation from urine sample to the onset of spontaneous crystallization and its usefulness as a new risk index that would describe an individual lithogenic potential. We collected 24-h urine from 257 pediatric patients with kidney stones and 270 controls. After volume and osmolality assessment, the urine samples were subjected to volume reduction in vacuum rotavapor continued to the onset of an induced urinary crystallization...
January 22, 2018: Urolithiasis
Jaime E Tierney, Siegfried G Schlunk, Rebecca Jones, Mark George, Pranav Karve, Ravindra Duddu, Brett C Byram, Ryan S Hsi
Ultrasound imaging for kidney stones suffers from poorer sensitivity, diminished specificity, and overestimation of stone size compared to computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate in vitro feasibility of novel ultrasound imaging methods comparing traditional B-mode to advanced beamforming techniques including plane wave synthetic focusing (PWSF), short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging, mid-lag spatial coherence (MLSC) imaging with incoherent compounding, and aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE)...
January 22, 2018: Urolithiasis
R Mager, M Kurosch, T Höfner, S Frees, A Haferkamp, A Neisius
The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical outcomes and costs of single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes in comparison with reusable flexible ureterorenoscopes in a tertiary referral center. Prospectively, 68 flexible ureterorenoscopies utilizing reusable (Flex-X2S, Flex-XC, Karl Storz) and 68 applying single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes (LithoVue, Boston Scientific) were collected. Clinical outcome parameters such as overall success rate, complication rates according to Clavien-Dindo, operation time and radiation exposure time were measured...
January 22, 2018: Urolithiasis
Ruiqiang Tang, Yonghua Jiang, Aihua Tan, Juan Ye, Xiaoying Xian, Yuanliang Xie, Qiuyan Wang, Ziting Yao, Zengnan Mo
Nephrolithiasis is a common urological disease with high prevalence and recurrence rates. Characterizing gut microbiome profiles of nephrolithiasis patients may provide valuable insights and potential biomarkers for the disease. Therefore, we explored the relation between gut microbiome and nephrolithiasis using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. 13 patients with multiple kidney stones and 13 matched healthy controls were recruited. A decreasing trend in number of observed species in nephrolithiasis patients was detected, although statistical significance was not reached (p = 0...
January 20, 2018: Urolithiasis
Xiaoming Cong, Luming Shen, Xiaojian Gu
Nephrolithiasis is a common urological disease and could be secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT is traditionally characterised with hypercalcaemia. Recently, a normocalcemic PHPT has been officially recognised at the International Workshops. Regarding this new phenotype, nephrolithiasis is frequently found in studies that evaluate low bone mass. However, until now, no study on aetiology of nephrolithiasis considered normocalcemic PHPT. Hypercalciuria related to PHPT is considered as an important risk factor of stone formation in hypercalcemic PHPT, but the precise relationships between hypercalcemic PHPT and nephrolithiasis and between normocalcemic PHPT and nephrolithiasis remain unclear...
January 19, 2018: Urolithiasis
Zhang Yu, Wu Yue, Li Jiuzhi, Jiang Youtao, Zhang Guofei, Guo Wenbin
The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between a history of urinary calculi (UC) and the risk of bladder cancer (BC). A literature search was performed from inception until July 2017. Studies that reported odds ratios (OR), relative risks or hazard ratios comparing the risk of BC in patients with the history of UC vs those without the history of UC were included. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect or fixed-effect method. Thirteen studies were included in our analysis to assess the association between a history of UC and risk of BC...
January 5, 2018: Urolithiasis
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