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Urolithiasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229197/minimally-invasive-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-vs-standard-pcnl-for-management-of-renal-stones-in-the-flank-free-modified-supine-position-single-center-experience
#1
Ahmed Sakr, Emad Salem, Mostafa Kamel, Esam Desoky, Ahmed Ragab, Mohamed Omran, Amr Fawzi, Ashraf Shahin
To assess the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) as compared to standard PCNL (sPCNL) for management of 2-3-cm renal stones in the flank-free modified supine position. Between September 2010 and December 2013, 150 patients (168 renal units) with 2-3-cm renal stones were prospectively randomized into two treatment groups; Group A (75 patients/87 renal units) treated by mPCNL and Group B (75 patients/81 renal units) treated by sPCNL. In both groups, the patients were placed in the flank-free modified supine position...
February 22, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229196/the-impact-of-ureteral-stent-indwelling-time-on-the-treatment-of-acute-infection-caused-by-ureteral-calculi
#2
Yun-Feng Shi, Wen-Long Ju, Yi-Ping Zhu, Shu-Jie Xia, Xiao-Wen Sun
Ureteric stenting is an effective drainage method in patients with acute urinary tract infection caused by ureteral calculi; however, the optimal ureteral stent indwelling time has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ureteric stent indwelling time on the treatment of acute infection secondary to urinary tract calculi. A total of 142 patients with acute infection caused by urinary tract calculi were identified retrospectively from January 2011 to August 2015 at our institution...
February 22, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229195/predictors-for-uroseptic-shock-in-patients-who-undergo-minimally-invasive-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#3
Junhong Fan, Shawpong Wan, Luhao Liu, Zhijian Zhao, Zanlin Mai, Dong Chen, Wei Zhu, Zhou Yang, Lili Ou, Wenqi Wu
To identify risk factors that can predict which patient is likely to progress from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to uroseptic shock after minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) for the upper urinary tract stones. We retrospectively reviewed 156 patients who suffered infectious complications after MPCNL from March 2014 to February 2016. Perioperative risk factors that could potentially contribute to uroseptic shock were compared to those of patients with only SIRS. 135 of the 156 patients developed to SIRS only, the remaining 21 patients progressed to uroseptic shock...
February 22, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074231/development-of-a-novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-acquisition-and-analysis-workflow-for-the-quantification-of-shock-wave-lithotripsy-induced-renal-hemorrhagic-injury
#4
Rajash K Handa, Paul R Territo, Philip M Blomgren, Scott A Persohn, Chen Lin, Cynthia D Johnson, Lei Jiang, Bret A Connors, Gary D Hutchins
The current accepted standard for quantifying shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)-induced tissue damage is based on morphometric detection of renal hemorrhage in serial tissue sections from fixed kidneys. This methodology is time and labor intensive and is tissue destructive. We have developed a non-destructive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that permits rapid assessment of SWL-induced hemorrhagic lesion volumes in post-mortem kidneys using native tissue contrast to reduce cycle time. Kidneys of anesthetized pigs were targeted with shock waves using the Dornier Compact S lithotripter...
January 10, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999875/outcomes-of-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients-as-compared-to-a-matched-cohort
#5
Kristin G Baldea, Robert H Blackwell, Srikanth Vedachalam, Anai N Kothari, Paul C Kuo, Gopal N Gupta, Thomas M T Turk
Spinal cord injury patients are at increased risk of developing nephrolithiasis and may require percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of large stone burdens. Our objective was to compare outcomes of PCNL in SCI patients as compared to a matched cohort of non-SCI patients. Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database for Florida and California were used to identify patients by ICD-9 codes who underwent PCNL between 2007 and 2011. SCI was identified by having a paralysis diagnosis on the chronic comorbidity indicator...
December 20, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981376/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-prevalent-among-idiopathic-stone-formers-but-does-correction-pose-any-risk
#6
Nikhil Johri, Philippe Jaeger, Pietro M Ferraro, Linda Shavit, Devaki Nair, William G Robertson, Giovanni Gambaro, Robert J Unwin
While vitamin D (vitD) deficiency is thought to contribute to poor health in a variety of ways and should be corrected, there is still concern about giving vitD supplements to patients with a history of nephrolithiasis. The aim is to study the prevalence of vitD deficiency and the effect on stone risk of cholecalciferol (vitD3) supplementation in a cohort of idiopathic stone formers (ISF). We screened for vitD deficiency and urinary measures of stone risk, comparing vitD deficient (serum 25-OH vitD ≤30 nmol/L; ≤12 ng/mL) with vitD insufficient (31-75 nmol/L; 13-30 ng/mL) or vitD replete (>75 nmol/L; >30 ng/mL); we investigated the effect of giving vitD3 (20,000 IU orally, weekly for 4 months) to 37 of the vitD deficients...
December 16, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942796/calcium-urolithiasis-course-in-young-stone-formers-is-influenced-by-the-strength-of-family-history-results-from-a-retrospective-study
#7
Angela Guerra, Andrea Ticinesi, Franca Allegri, Antonio Nouvenne, Silvana Pinelli, Fulvio Lauretani, Marcello Maggio, Gianfranco Cervellin, Loris Borghi, Tiziana Meschi
The role of the strength of family history of stones (FHS), i.e., degree of relatives with the disease, on the course of calcium urolithiasis (CU) is not fully understood, particularly in young patients where genetic background has the greatest influence on disease expression. Thus, with a retrospective cross-sectional design, we examined baseline clinical parameters and urinary chemistries of 369 subjects (196 M) with CU and 96 controls (41 M) aged between 15 and 25 at the time of the first visit at our stone clinic...
December 9, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921141/kidney-stones-diseases-and-glycaemic-statuses-focus-on-the-latest-clinical-evidences
#8
REVIEW
Leonardo Spatola, Claudio Angelini, Salvatore Badalamenti, Silvio Maringhini, Giovanni Gambaro
Diabetes and obesity are already recognized as potential risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially for uric acid stones. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia actively contribute to impaired ability to excrete an acid load and altered ammonium production, leading to a lower urinary pH compared to non-diabetic controls. All these electrolytic disorders play an important role in stone formation and aggregation, especially in uric acid stones. There are still missing points in scientific evidence if the increased risk in stone formation is already existing even in the prediabetic statuses (isolated impaired glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, and associated impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose) as well as it is worth to consider the same level of risk...
December 5, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915395/effect-of-potassium-citrate-supplement-on-stone-recurrence-before-or-after-lithotripsy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Maurício Carvalho, Bruna Olandoski Erbano, Eduardo Yukio Kuwaki, Halyson Pinheiro Pontes, Jonathan Wei Ting Wen Liu, Luis Henrique Boros, Marcelo Oliveira Asinelli, Cristina Pellegrino Baena
This meta-analysis summarizes the available evidence on the effectiveness of citrate supplement for preventing the recurrence of nephrolithiasis in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Electronic searches were conducted using Medline-PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, BVS (Scielo, Lilacs), and Google Scholar literature databases. The authors worked in pairs to select studies that met the following criteria: randomized controlled trials that were conducted in adults and assessed the effect of potassium citrate supplement before or after SWL therapy for urolithiasis...
December 3, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999876/preface-physicochemical-biochemical-and-biological-mechanisms-of-stone-formation
#10
REVIEW
Allen L Rodgers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928586/physicochemical-mechanisms-of-stone-formation
#11
REVIEW
Allen L Rodgers
In this article, the term "physicochemical mechanism" is defined as a sequential series of steps culminating in the formation of a renal stone. Distinctions are drawn between physicochemical prerequisites for urinary supersaturation, crystallization, and stone formation. In particular, attention is focussed on the transition from crystal to stone. Emphasis is laid on crystal retention being the fundamental mechanism by which stones are formed, and mention is made of the different ways in which it can be achieved...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915396/accurate-stone-analysis-the-impact-on-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Neil S Mandel, Ian C Mandel, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel
This manuscript reviews the requirements for acceptable compositional analysis of kidney stones using various biophysical methods. High-resolution X-ray powder diffraction crystallography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are the only acceptable methods in our labs for kidney stone analysis. The use of well-constructed spectral reference libraries is the basis for accurate and complete stone analysis. The literature included in this manuscript identify errors in most commercial laboratories and in some academic centers...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915394/timelines-of-the-free-particle-and-fixed-particle-models-of-stone-formation-theoretical-and-experimental-investigations
#13
REVIEW
D J Kok, W Boellaard, Y Ridwan, V A Levchenko
Two major theories on renal stone formation will be reviewed, the "free-particle" and "fixed-particle" mechanisms. These theories combine data on intrinsic factors (inborn metabolic errors), extrinsic factors (diet), renal cell responses and the physico-chemistry and biochemistry of urine into mechanisms of stone formation. This paper describes the specific role of time in both mechanisms. The timeline of crystal- and stone formation was deducted from literature data and was measured for two stones using radioisotope decay analysis...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913855/what-can-the-microstructure-of-stones-tell-us
#14
REVIEW
James C Williams, Elaine Worcester, James E Lingeman
How stones are retained within the kidney while small in size is still not fully understood. In this paper, we show two examples of how stones are retained during early growth: one is growth on Randall's (interstitial) plaque, and the other is growth on mineral that has formed as a luminal plug in a terminal collecting duct. These two mechanisms of stone retention during early growth have distinctive morphologic features that can be seen by methods that show the microscopic structure of the stones. Stones growing on Randall's plaque display an apatite region that is typically not large in size (<0...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913854/the-role-of-macromolecules-in-the-formation-of-kidney-stones
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Rimer, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Michael D Ward, Jeffrey A Wesson
The formation of crystal aggregates, one of the critical processes in kidney stone pathogenesis, involves interactions between crystals (predominantly calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM) and urinary constituents (e.g., proteins), which serve as an adhesive "glue" between crystals in stones. To develop a better understanding of the protein-crystal interactions that lead to crystal aggregation, we have measured the effect of model proteins on bulk COM crystal properties as well as their adsorption on crystal surfaces using three synthetic polyanions: poly(aspartic acid) (polyD), poly(glutamic acid) (polyE), and poly(acrylic acid) (polyAA)...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913853/the-role-of-intestinal-oxalate-transport-in-hyperoxaluria-and-the-formation-of-kidney-stones-in-animals-and-man
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The intestine exerts a considerable influence over urinary oxalate in two ways, through the absorption of dietary oxalate and by serving as an adaptive extra-renal pathway for elimination of this waste metabolite. Knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for oxalate absorption and secretion by the intestine therefore have significant implications for understanding the etiology of hyperoxaluria, as well as offering potential targets for future treatment strategies for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. In this review, we present the recent developments and advances in this area over the past 10 years, and put to the test some of the new ideas that have emerged during this time, using human and mouse models...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904915/studies-using-a-porcine-model-what-insights-into-human-calcium-oxalate-stone-formation-mechanisms-has-this-model-facilitated
#17
REVIEW
Kristina L Penniston, Sutchin R Patel, Denise J Schwahn, Stephen Y Nakada
Animal models are useful in the study of many human diseases. Our current understanding of the biological, physiological, and biochemical aspects of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been greatly informed by studies using animals. Recently, limitations in the extrapolation to humans of research results derived from laboratory rodents have been identified. The use in biomedical research of a variety of organisms, including large animals, is increasingly encouraged. The purpose of this article is to review the use of pigs in biomedical and stone research, to provide a rationale for using pigs in metabolic stone research, and to describe our 8-year experience in developing a porcine platform for studying hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900407/do-inhibitors-of-crystallisation-play-any-role-in-the-prevention-of-kidney-stones-a-critique
#18
REVIEW
William G Robertson
A critical examination of data in the literature and in as yet unpublished laboratory records on the possible role of so-called inhibitors of crystallisation in preventing the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones leads to the following conclusions. So-called inhibitors of spontaneous "self-nucleation" are unlikely to play any role in the initiation of the crystallisation of CaOx or CaP in urine because excessive urinary supersaturation of urine with respect to these salts dominates the onset of "self-nucleation" within the normal time frame of the transit of tubular fluid through the nephron (3-4 min)...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900406/what-does-the-crystallography-of-stones-tell-us-about-their-formation
#19
REVIEW
Peter Rez
The mineral phase makes up most of the mass of a kidney stone. Minerals all come in the form of crystals that are regular arrangements of atoms or molecular groupings at the atomic scale, bounded macroscopically by well-defined crystal faces. Pathologic nephroliths are a polycrystalline aggregate of submicron crystals. Organic macromolecules clearly have an important role in either promoting or preventing aggregation and in altering the morphology of individual submicron crystals by influencing the surface energies of different faces...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896392/tubular-and-genetic-disorders-associated-with-kidney-stones
#20
REVIEW
Nilufar Mohebbi, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Giovanni Gambaro, Robert Unwin
This concise review summarizes our current understanding and the recent developments in genetics and related renal tubular disorders that have been linked with, or have been shown to be causal in, renal stone disease. The aim is to provide a readily accessible quick and easy update for urologists, nephrologists and endocrine or metabolic physicians whose practice involves the diagnosis and management of nephrolithiasis. An important message is to always consider a seemingly rare, and usually genetic, cause of kidney stones, since some of these are emerging as more common than originally thought, especially in adult clinical practice in which a family history of stones is a common finding...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
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