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Drug Research

D Jeffery Liu, A Collaku, J S Dosik
Phase I, randomized, controlled patch studies were conducted to evaluate skin sensitization and irritation potential of a new gel formulation containing 1% diclofenac and 3% menthol as a fixed-combination product.In study A, healthy volunteers were exposed to 4 test patches containing 1% diclofenac+3% menthol, diclofenac, menthol, or placebo gels during an induction (nine 48 to 72-h applications) and challenge phase (one 48-h application). Some subjects were re-challenged to evaluate suspected sensitization...
November 25, 2016: Drug Research
Y Panahi, M Mohammadhosseini, K Nejati-Koshki, A J N Abadi, H F Moafi, A Akbarzadeh, M Farshbaf
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) due to their unique properties and manifold surface functionalities have been applied in bio-nanotechnology. The application of GNPs in recent medical and biological research is very extensive. Especially it involves applications such as detection and photothermalysis of microorganisms and cancer stem cells, biosensors; optical bio-imaging and observing of cells and these nanostructures also serve as practical platforms for therapeutic agents. In this review we studied all therapeutic applications of gold nanoparticles in biomedicine, synthesis methods, and surface properties...
November 7, 2016: Drug Research
B Khalandi, N Asadi, M Milani, S Davaran, A J N Abadi, E Abasi, A Akbarzadeh
The antimicrobial property of silver is associated to the quantity of silver and the grade of silver released. The ionized silver is extremely sensitive, as it binds to tissue proteins and gets operational alterations in the bacterial cell wall and nuclear membrane leading to cell modification and death.Silver nanoparticles have the talent to anchor to the bacterial cell wall and consequently infiltrate it, so causing physical modifications in the cell membrane like the absorptivity of the cell membrane and death of the cell...
November 7, 2016: Drug Research
T Kafshdooz, A Akbarzadeh, A Majdi Seghinsara, M Pourhassan, H T Nasrabadi, M Milani
Background:Helicobacter pylori is a prevalent pathogen which is considered as an etiological cause for gastroduodenal ulcers, and a substantial risk factor for gastric malignancies. The vital factor to take into account is that roughly half of the world's population is infected with this bacterium. However, most subjects colonized remain asymptomatic and do not require any treatment. Several antimicrobial agents such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole are used to eradicate the infection. However, these drug regiments do not eradicate H...
November 7, 2016: Drug Research
M B Pektas, G Yücel, H B Koca, G Sadi, O G Yıldırım, G Öztürk, F Akar
Purpose: Relatively little is known about gender-dependent susceptibility to hepatic injury induced by nutritional factors. In the current study, we investigated dietary fructose-induced hepatic degeneration and roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), insulin receptor (IRβ) and substrate-1 (IRS-1) expressions in association with inflammatory markers in male and female rats. Moreover, we examined potential effect of resveratrol on fructose-induced changes. Methods: Male and female rats were divided into 4 groups as control, resveratrol, fructose and resveratrol plus fructose...
November 7, 2016: Drug Research
S H Lone, Shakeel U Rehman, K A Bhat
Using a click chemistry approach, a series of gallic-acid-1-phenyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl esters was synthesized to develop more effective antioxidants. The results of DPPH screening indicate that few of the synthesized analogs display better antioxidant effect compared to the standards. Among all, compounds, 9 and 20 displayed highest DPPH radical scavenging effect with IC50 values as low as 6.4±0.2 and 7.9±0.4 µM respectively, compared to the standard ascorbic acid (IC50=12±0.8 µM) and gallic acid (IC50=9...
November 7, 2016: Drug Research
H Choudhury, B Gorain, A Paul, P Sarkar, S Dan, P Chakraborty, T K Pal
A sensitive, specific and reproducible liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the estimation of ciprofloxacin, an extensively used second-generation quinolone antibiotics, in human plasma. A liquid-liquid extraction of ciprofloxacin and the internal standard, ofloxacin, has been approached from the biological matrix using chloroform. Chromatographic separation was achieved in positive ion modes, isocratically on a 3.5 μm C18 analytical column (75 mm×4...
November 7, 2016: Drug Research
S K Bedada, R Appani, P K Boga
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a widely used antiepileptic drug with narrow therapeutic window and it may be prone to drug interactions. The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of PIP on metabolism and pharmacokinetics of CBZ in healthy volunteers. An open-label, 2 period, sequential study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers. PIP 20 mg was administered once daily for 10 days during treatment phase. A single dose of CBZ 200 mg was administered during control and after treatment phases under fasting conditions...
October 24, 2016: Drug Research
H Khan, N Akhtar, A Ali
The skin is fortified with a setup of lipophilic and hydrophilic, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) and sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) are reported as lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively used for skin care. Present study was aimed to assess the combined AP (in oil phase) and SAP (in aqueous phase) via multiple emulsion (ME1) for controlling sebum secretions in healthy human females. FTIR analysis of AP and SAP was performed for identification. Multiple emulsions (ME1 and control) were prepared and analyzed for physical stability...
October 18, 2016: Drug Research
M Ayyub, A K Najmi, M Akhtar
Objective: Oxidative stress and alternation of renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various cardio vascular, endocrine including mood and anxiety disorders. The present study evaluated the role of irbesartan in stress induced different models of depression. Materials and method: Mice were treated with irbesartan (40 mg/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg) alone in combination orally. Drugs treatment started after 2 weeks from the beginning of the unpredictable mild stress (UCMS) protocol...
October 18, 2016: Drug Research
A Goto, Y Moriya, T Mandai, T Wakabayashi, T Tsukamoto, Y Tagawa, T Kondo, S Asahi
The non-clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) of TAK-357, a highly lipophilic (clogP>6) potential agent for the amelioration of Alzheimer's disease, was investigated in rats and dogs. A long half-life (t1/2) in plasma was observed in animals and a low total body clearance with high distribution volume was consistent with the long t1/2. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies using radiolabeled TAK-357 revealed that the total radioactivity was highly distributed to the adipose tissues and sustained with high concentration for over 4 weeks after oral administration...
October 11, 2016: Drug Research
Y Panahi, M Mohammadhosseini, A J N Abadi, A Akbarzadeh, H Mellatyar
Approximately 35 million people worldwide suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cellular uptake and specific transport of drugs and imaging agents to brain are common issues in the diagnosis and therapy of AD. New advances in nanotechnology have supplied favorable solutions to this issue. Various nanocarriers such as polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles, dendrimers and nanogels have been studied for the delivery of drugs and imaging agents to brain. This review presents a succinct discussion of the applications of nanotechnology for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and therapy...
October 4, 2016: Drug Research
M Majidinia, E Alizadeh, B Yousefi, M Akbarzadeh, N Zarghami
Despite remarkable progress in cancer treatment, development of drug resistance is still a big burden to eliminate all tumor cells and a mean cause for tumor recurrence. Recent studies have been revealed the contribution of many signaling pathways in acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy. Because of its potential in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, Notch signaling pathway has mean relevance to various aspects of cancer biology, from cancer stem cells to tumor immunity to multidrug resistance...
October 4, 2016: Drug Research
M Wehling, C Ashton, E Ekpo, S Gwynn, M Laville, K Olsson, M Spring
Introduction: Causes of hyponatraemia in older patients are multivariate and in the case of SIADH may often be drug induced. Diagnostic and treatment algorithms are unclear for this important age group. Methods: The author group identified 6 broad themes for consensus and formulated 42 separate consensus statements within these 6 themes. Statements were then circulated to geriatricians, general practitioners and other doctors to test agreement at the European level. Results: 64 responses were evaluated from around Europe...
October 4, 2016: Drug Research
M Majidinia, E Alizadeh, B Yousefi, M Akbarzadeh, A Mihanfar, M Rahmati-Yamchi, N Zarghami
Background: Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies and numerous changes in signaling cascades are involved in the initiation and progression of ovarian cancerous cells. Here, we investigated the role of NF-κB and Notch pathways inhibition on human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells proliferation and IκB-α and Hes-1 expression as 2 key genes in these pathways regulation. Methods: The effects of Bay 11-7085 and DAPT, NF-κB and Notch pathways specific inhibitors, on cell proliferation were evaluated using MTT assay...
September 29, 2016: Drug Research
D K Ingawale, S S Patel
Hecogenin is a steroidal sapogenin plays important role in treatment of variety of inflammatory diseases. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Hecogenin (50 µg/animal) (HG), Fluticasone (50 µg/animal) (FC) and Hecogenin+Fluticasone (HG+FC) combination (25 µg/animal, each) on various inflammatory models. The anti-inflammatory effect of HG, FC and HG+FC combination was studied on % inhibition of dry weight of granuloma tissue, Δ ear weight, myeloperoxidase assay, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic lesions, adhesion score, diarrhoea score and histopathological analysis of ear and colon tissue on Cotton pellets induced granuloma in rats, Croton oil induced ear edema in mice and TNBS induced granuloma in rats...
September 29, 2016: Drug Research
K Soni, N Patel, K Singh, A Jha, H Patel, R Gupta, N R Srinivas
A valproic acid is primarily being used in the treatment of epilepsy is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and it is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancer indications. A specific, sensitive and fast bioanalytical LC-MS/MS method was developed with furosemide as an internal standard (IS) and thoroughly validated for the quantitation of valproic acid using turbo ion spray in negative ion mode. The analyte and IS was extracted using protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation of analytes from extracted matrix was achieved using a Chromolith RP 18e (2...
September 21, 2016: Drug Research
S Ueno, T Hamada, S Taniguchi, N Ohtani, S Miyazaki, E Mizuta, A Ohtahara, K Ogino, A Yoshida, M Kuwabara, K Yoshida, H Ninomiya, H Kotake, F Taufiq, K Yamamoto, I Hisatome
Background: Hypertension is a common complication in patients with gout and/or hyperuricemia. Besides, hyperuricemia is a risk factor of gout as well as ischemic heart disease in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the risk of gout is modified by antihypertensive drugs. However, it remains unclear how antihypertensive agents affect uric acid metabolism. Purpose: In the present study, we investigated the uric acid metabolism in treated hypertensive patients to find out whether any of them would influence serum levels of uric acid...
September 19, 2016: Drug Research
A Najibi, R Heidari, J Zarifi, A Jamshidzadeh, N Firoozabadi, H Niknahad
Background: Trazodone is an antidepressant agent widely administered for the treatment of depressive disorders. On the other hand, several cases of hepatic injury have been reported after Trazodone administration. Although the precise mechanism(s) of trazodone-induced liver injury is not known, some investigations proposed the role of reactive intermediates in this complication. This study was designed to investigate the role of reactive metabolites in hepatocytes injury induced by trazodone. Methods: Isolated rat hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via the portal vein...
September 19, 2016: Drug Research
K Suruga, W Hiruma, K Kadokura, T Tomita, A Miyata, Y Sekino, M Kimura, N Yamaguchi, T Murai, Y Komatsu, N Ono
The apoptotic effects of a novel antitumour agent (Rv-PEM01) prepared from 6 kinds of herbs, including Rhus verniciflua were investigated using flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Rv-PEM01 induced apoptosis but not necrosis in MOLT-3, KG-1, and K562 human leukaemia cell lines. Further, Rv-PEM01-treated cells showed significantly upregulated expression of caspase-3 and 9 and cleaved caspase-3 and 9 compared to the control cells. Taken together, the results suggest that Rv-PEM01 induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated pathway, and is a potential natural anticancer agent and/or a functional food material...
September 14, 2016: Drug Research
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