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Journal of Personalized Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236081/pharmacogenomics-guided-personalization-of-warfarin-and-tamoxifen
#1
REVIEW
Theodore J Wigle, Laura E Jansen, Wendy A Teft, Richard B Kim
The use of pharmacogenomics to personalize drug therapy has been a long-sought goal for warfarin and tamoxifen. However, conflicting evidence has created reason for hesitation in recommending pharmacogenomics-guided care for both drugs. This review will provide a summary of the evidence to date on the association between cytochrome P450 enzymes and the clinical end points of warfarin and tamoxifen therapy. Further, highlighting the clinical experiences that we have gained over the past ten years of running a personalized medicine program, we will offer our perspectives on the utility and the limitations of pharmacogenomics-guided care for warfarin and tamoxifen therapy...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207572/fixed-and-adaptive-parallel-subgroup-specific-design-for-survival-outcomes-power-and-sample-size
#2
Miranta Antoniou, Andrea L Jorgensen, Ruwanthi Kolamunnage-Dona
Biomarker-guided clinical trial designs, which focus on testing the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment in improving patient health, have drawn considerable attention in the era of stratified medicine with many different designs being proposed in the literature. However, planning such trials to ensure they have sufficient power to test the relevant hypotheses can be challenging and the literature often lacks guidance in this regard. In this study, we focus on the parallel subgroup-specific design, which allows the evaluation of separate treatment effects in the biomarker-positive subgroup and biomarker-negative subgroup simultaneously...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194389/variation-in-cyp2a6-activity-and-personalized-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Julie-Anne Tanner, Rachel F Tyndale
The cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme metabolizes several clinically relevant substrates, including nicotine-the primary psychoactive component in cigarette smoke. The gene that encodes the CYP2A6 enzyme is highly polymorphic, resulting in extensive interindividual variation in CYP2A6 enzyme activity and the rate of metabolism of nicotine and other CYP2A6 substrates including cotinine, tegafur, letrozole, efavirenz, valproic acid, pilocarpine, artemisinin, artesunate, SM-12502, caffeine, and tyrosol. CYP2A6 expression and activity are also impacted by non-genetic factors, including induction or inhibition by pharmacological, endogenous, and dietary substances, as well as age-related changes, or interactions with other hepatic enzymes, co-enzymes, and co-factors...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140263/access-to-guideline-recommended-pharmacogenomic-tests-for-cancer-treatments-experience-of-providers-and-patients
#4
Ann Chen Wu, Kathleen M Mazor, Rachel Ceccarelli, Stephanie Loomer, Christine Y Lu
Genomic tests are the fastest growing sector in medicine and medical science, yet there remains a dearth of research on access to pharmacogenomic tests and medications. The objective of this study is to explore providers' and patients' experiences and views on test access as well as strategies used for gaining access. We interviewed clinicians who prescribed medications that should be guided by pharmacogenomic testing and patients who received those prescriptions. We organized the themes into the four dimensions suggested by the World Health Organization framework on access to medications and health technologies...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137173/psychiatric-disorders-differently-correlate-with-physical-self-rated-health-across-ethnic-groups
#5
Shervin Assari
In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125573/tailoring-nutritional-advice-for-mexicans-based-on-prevalence-profiles-of-diet-related-adaptive-gene-polymorphisms
#6
Claudia Ojeda-Granados, Arturo Panduro, Karina Gonzalez-Aldaco, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Sonia Roman
Diet-related adaptive gene (DRAG) polymorphisms identified in specific populations are associated with chronic disorders in carriers of the adaptive alleles due to changes in dietary and lifestyle patterns in recent times. Mexico's population is comprised of Amerindians (AM) and Mestizos who have variable AM, European (EUR) and African genetic ancestry and an increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Nutritional advice based on the Mexican genome and the traditional food culture is needed to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113108/polymorphisms-in-ffar4-gpr120-gene-modulate-insulin-levels-and-sensitivity-after-fish-oil-supplementation
#7
Bastien Vallée Marcotte, Hubert Cormier, Iwona Rudkowska, Simone Lemieux, Patrick Couture, Marie-Claude Vohl
The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) (1.9-2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099060/clinical-pharmacogenetics-of-cytochrome-p450-associated-drugs-in-children
#8
Ida Aka, Christiana J Bernal, Robert Carroll, Angela Maxwell-Horn, Kazeem A Oshikoya, Sara L Van Driest
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are commonly involved in drug metabolism, and genetic variation in the genes encoding CYPs are associated with variable drug response. While genotype-guided therapy has been clinically implemented in adults, these associations are less well established for pediatric patients. In order to understand the frequency of pediatric exposures to drugs with known CYP interactions, we compiled all actionable drug-CYP interactions with a high level of evidence using Clinical Pharmacogenomic Implementation Consortium (CPIC) data and surveyed 10 years of electronic health records (EHR) data for the number of children exposed to CYP-associated drugs...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035327/immortalized-muscle-cell-model-to-test-the-exon-skipping-efficacy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#9
REVIEW
Quynh Nguyen, Toshifumi Yokota
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal genetic disorder that most commonly results from mutations disrupting the reading frame of the dystrophin (DMD) gene. Among the therapeutic approaches employed, exon skipping using antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) is one of the most promising strategies. This strategy aims to restore the reading frame, thus producing a truncated, yet functioning dystrophin protein. In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conditionally approved the first AO-based drug, eteplirsen (Exondys 51), developed for DMD exon 51 skipping...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035320/personomics-the-missing-link-in-the-evolution-from-precision-medicine-to-personalized-medicine
#10
Roy C Ziegelstein
Clinical practice guidelines have been developed for many common conditions based on data from randomized controlled trials. When medicine is informed solely by clinical practice guidelines, however, the patient is not treated as an individual, but rather a member of a group. Precision medicine, as defined herein, characterizes unique biological characteristics of the individual or of specimens obtained from an individual to tailor diagnostics and therapeutics to a specific patient. These unique biological characteristics are defined by the tools of precision medicine: genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, pharmacogenomics, and other "-omics...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023366/personalized-nanomedicine-a-revolution-at-the-nanoscale
#11
REVIEW
Cristina Fornaguera, Maria José García-Celma
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary research field that results from the application of nanotechnology to medicine and has the potential to significantly improve some current treatments. Specifically, in the field of personalized medicine, it is expected to have a great impact in the near future due to its multiple advantages, namely its versatility to adapt a drug to a cohort of patients. In the present review, the properties and requirements of pharmaceutical dosage forms at the nanoscale, so-called nanomedicines, are been highlighted...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869571/value-based-pricing-and-reimbursement-in-personalised-healthcare-introduction-to-the-basic-health-economics
#12
REVIEW
Louis P Garrison, Adrian Towse
'Value-based' outcomes, pricing, and reimbursement are widely discussed as health sector reforms these days. In this paper, we discuss their meaning and relationship in the context of personalized healthcare, defined as receipt of care conditional on the results of a biomarker-based diagnostic test. We address the question: "What kinds of pricing and reimbursement models should be applied in personalized healthcare?" The simple answer is that competing innovators and technology adopters should have incentives that promote long-term dynamic efficiency...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862657/personalized-computational-models-as-biomarkers
#13
Walter Kolch, Dirk Fey
Biomarkers are cornerstones of clinical medicine, and personalized medicine, in particular, is highly dependent on reliable and highly accurate biomarkers for individualized diagnosis and treatment choice. Modern omics technologies, such as genome sequencing, allow molecular profiling of individual patients with unprecedented resolution, but biomarkers based on these technologies often lack the dynamic element to follow the progression of a disease or response to therapy. Here, we discuss computational models as a new conceptual approach to biomarker discovery and design...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867816/dairy-product-consumption-interacts-with-glucokinase-gck-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#14
Marine S Da Silva, Dominic Chartrand, Marie-Claude Vohl, Olivier Barbier, Iwona Rudkowska
Dairy product intake and a person's genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK) genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829408/empowering-mayo-clinic-individualized-medicine-with-genomic-data-warehousing
#15
REVIEW
Iain Horton, Yaxiong Lin, Gay Reed, Mathieu Wiepert, Steven Hart
Individualized medicine enables better diagnoses and treatment decisions for patients and promotes research in understanding the molecular underpinnings of disease. Linking individual patient's genomic and molecular information with their clinical phenotypes is crucial to these efforts. To address this need, the Center for Individualized Medicine at Mayo Clinic has implemented a genomic data warehouse and a workflow management system to bring data from institutional electronic health records and genomic sequencing data from both clinical and research bioinformatics sources into the warehouse...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657610/the-clinical-and-economic-impact-of-inaccurate-egfr-mutation-tests-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Mindy M Cheng, John F Palma, Sidney Scudder, Nick Poulios, Oliver Liesenfeld
Advances in personalized medicine are supported by companion diagnostic molecular tests. Testing accuracy is critical for selecting patients for optimal therapy and reducing treatment-related toxicity. We assessed the clinical and economic impact of inaccurate test results between laboratory developed tests (LDTs) and a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved test for detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Using a hypothetical US cohort of newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and EURTAC (erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer) clinical trial data, we developed a decision analytic model to estimate the probability of misclassification with LDTs compared to a FDA-approved test...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587070/development-and-initial-assessment-of-a-patient-education-video-about-pharmacogenetics
#17
Rachel Mills, Megan Ensinger, Nancy Callanan, Susanne B Haga
As few patient-friendly resources about pharmacogenetics are currently available, we aimed to create and assess a patient educational video on pharmacogenetic testing. A primary literature and resources review was conducted to inform the content and the format of the video. The educational video was then created using a commercially available animation program and pilot tested in focus groups of the general public and by an online survey of pharmacists. Emerging themes from the focus groups and survey indicate a desire for appropriate risk contextualization and specific examples when pharmacogenetic testing may be beneficial...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538708/accuracy-in-wrist-worn-sensor-based-measurements-of-heart-rate-and-energy-expenditure-in-a-diverse-cohort
#18
Anna Shcherbina, C Mikael Mattsson, Daryl Waggott, Heidi Salisbury, Jeffrey W Christle, Trevor Hastie, Matthew T Wheeler, Euan A Ashley
The ability to measure physical activity through wrist-worn devices provides an opportunity for cardiovascular medicine. However, the accuracy of commercial devices is largely unknown. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of seven commercially available wrist-worn devices in estimating heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) and to propose a wearable sensor evaluation framework. We evaluated the Apple Watch, Basis Peak, Fitbit Surge, Microsoft Band, Mio Alpha 2, PulseOn, and Samsung Gear S2. Participants wore devices while being simultaneously assessed with continuous telemetry and indirect calorimetry while sitting, walking, running, and cycling...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134833/methods-for-the-in-vitro-characterization-of-nanomedicines-biological-component-interaction
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Fornaguera, Conxita Solans
The design of colloidal nanosystems intended for biomedical applications, specifically in the field of personalized medicine, has increased notably in the last years. Consequently, a variety of characterization techniques devoted to studying nanomedicine interactions with proteins and cells have been developed, since a deep characterization of nanosystems is required before starting preclinical and clinical studies. In this context, this review aims to summarize the main techniques used to assess the interaction of nanomedicines with biological systems, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125057/biomarker-guided-non-adaptive-trial-designs-in-phase-ii-and-phase-iii-a-methodological-review
#20
REVIEW
Miranta Antoniou, Ruwanthi Kolamunnage-Dona, Andrea L Jorgensen
Biomarker-guided treatment is a rapidly developing area of medicine, where treatment choice is personalised according to one or more of an individual's biomarker measurements. A number of biomarker-guided trial designs have been proposed in the past decade, including both adaptive and non-adaptive trial designs which test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment with the aim of improving patient health. A better understanding of them is needed as challenges occur both in terms of trial design and analysis...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
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