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Clinical Psychological Science

Erin K Moran, Adam J Culbreth, Deanna M Barch
While recent evidence has pointed to disturbances in emotion regulation strategy use in schizophrenia, few studies have examined how these regulation strategies relate to emotionality and social behavior in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we investigated the relationship between emotion regulation, emotional experience and social interaction in the daily lives of individuals with schizophrenia. Participants (N=30) used mobile phones to complete online questionnaires reporting their daily emotional experience and social interaction...
March 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Leontien de Kwaadsteniet, York Hagmayer
Evidence-based psychotherapy requires clinicians to consider theories of psychopathology and evidence about effectiveness, and their experience when choosing interventions. Research on clinical decision making indicates that clinicians' theories of disorders might be personal and inform judgments and choices beyond current scientific theory and evidence. We asked 20 child therapists to draw models of how they believed that biological, psychological, environmental, and behavioral factors interact to cause and maintain four common developmental disorders...
March 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Alta du Pont, Soo Hyun Rhee, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Existing literature on rumination has predominately focused on depressive rumination; thus, there is little research directly comparing different forms of rumination as correlates of psychopathological outcomes. The present study investigated anger and depressive rumination as correlates of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cross-sectional confirmatory factor analyses on data from 764 young adults from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study indicated that anger and depressive rumination were separable at the latent variable level, and were both associated with lifetime symptoms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology...
February 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Elisabeth M Whyte, K Suzanne Scherf
The search for a female autism phenotype is difficult, given the low diagnostic rates in females. Here, we studied potential sex differences in a core feature of autism, difficulty with eye gaze processing, among typically developing individuals who vary in the broad autism phenotype, which includes autistic-like traits that are common, continuously distributed, and similarly heritable in males and females. Participants viewed complex images of an actor in a naturalistic scene looking at one of many possible objects and had to identify the target gazed-at object...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Erin K Moran, Ann M Kring
While people with schizophrenia report experiencing as much emotion in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli as do people without schizophrenia, evidence suggests that they have deficits in the anticipation of positive emotion. However, little is known about the anticipation of negative emotion in schizophrenia, thus leaving open whether anticipation deficits are more general. We sought to assess anticipation of positive and negative stimuli across multiple methods of measurement. We measured reported experience and emotion modulated startle response in people with ( n = 27) and without ( n = 27) schizophrenia as they anticipated and subsequently viewed evocative pictures...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Samantha L Connolly, Lauren B Alloy
The current research utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology to test the hypotheses that: 1) engaging in greater rumination following stress (stress-reactive rumination; SRR) would lead to improved stressor recall, and 2) this improved memory for stress would predict increases in depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-one participants received smartphone alerts in which they reported on their experience of negative life events (NLEs) as well as SRR and depressed mood after event occurrence...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Frances L Wang, Laurie Chassin
Serotonin (5-HT) functioning is associated with alcohol problems. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. The current study tested whether five separate dimensions of impulsivity (UPPS-P) mediated the relation between a polygenic score indexing 5-HT functioning and alcohol problems and whether any of these paths were moderated by age. Results showed that a 5-HT polygenic score predicted alcohol problems indirectly through negative urgency, but not any other facet of impulsivity. The 5-HT polygenic score also directly predicted alcohol problems...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Matthew R Lee, Cassandra L Boness, Yoanna E McDowell, Alvaro Verg├ęs, Douglas L Steinley, Kenneth J Sher
Key to an understanding of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are the drinking-related reductions that begin in young adulthood and continue throughout the adult lifespan. Research is needed to precisely characterize the form of these reductions, including possible developmental differences across the lifespan. Using U.S.-representative data, we estimated multiple-group Markov models characterizing longitudinal transitions among five drinking statuses and differences in transition patterns across six adult age periods...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Hannah R Snyder, Benjamin L Hankin, Curt A Sandman, Kevin Head, Elysia P Davis
Reduced grey matter volume (GMV) is widely implicated in psychopathology, but studies have found mostly overlapping areas of GMV reduction across disorders rather than unique neural signatures, potentially due to pervasive comorbidity. GMV reductions may be associated with broader psychopathology dimensions rather than specific disorders. We used an empirically supported bifactor model consisting of common psychopathology and internalizing- and externalizing-specific factors to evaluate whether latent psychopathology dimensions yield a clearer, more parsimonious pattern of GMV reduction in prefrontal and limbic/paralimbic areas implicated in individual disorders...
November 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Henry Otgaar, Peter Muris, Mark L Howe, Harald Merckelbach
In clinical and court settings, it is imperative to know whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression may make people susceptible to false memories. We conducted a review of the literature on false memory effects in participants with PTSD, a history of trauma, or depression. When emotional associative material was presented to these groups, their levels of false memory were raised relative to those in relevant comparison groups. This difference did not consistently emerge when neutral or nonassociative material was presented...
November 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Daniel E Gustavson, Alta du Pont, Alexander S Hatoum, Soo Hyun Rhee, William S Kremen, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Recent work on procrastination has begun to unravel the genetic and environmental correlates of this problematic behavior. However, little is known about how strongly procrastination is associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, and the extent to which shared genetic/environmental factors or relevant personality constructs (e.g., fear of failure, impulsivity, and neuroticism) can inform the structure of these associations. The current study examined data from 764 young adult twins who completed questionnaires assessing procrastination and personality and structured interviews regarding psychopathology symptoms...
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Vaughan Bell, Kathryn L Mills, Gemma Modinos, Sam Wilkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Alazne Aizpitarte, Olivia E Atherton, Richard W Robins
Researchers have debated whether relational aggression is a developmentally-normative behavior or a sign of some underlying psychopathology. However, due to the dearth of longitudinal studies, we know little about how relational aggression and more severe forms of disruptive behavior co-develop. The present study examined bidirectional associations between relational aggression and two psychiatric disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth followed from age 10 to 16...
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Matteo Malgaroli, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, George A Bonanno
Divorce is a common stressful event associated with both increased rates of depression and mortality. Given evidence of significant individual differences in depression following major life stressors, we examined if heterogeneous depression responses confer differential risk for mortality. Data from a population based longitudinal study was utilized to identify individuals who experienced divorce (n=559). Prospective trajectories of depression severity from before to after divorce were identified using latent growth mixture modeling, and rates of mortality between trajectories were compared as a distal outcome...
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Kimberly B Schauder, Woon Ju Park, Duje Tadin, Loisa Bennetto
Atypical visual motion perception has been widely observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The pattern of results, however, has been inconsistent. Emerging mechanistic hypotheses seek to explain these variable patterns of atypical motion sensitivity, each uniquely predicting specific patterns of performance across varying stimulus conditions. Here, we investigated the integrity of two such fundamental mechanisms-response gain control and receptive field size. Twenty children and adolescents with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) age- and IQ-matched controls performed a motion discrimination task...
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Yan Yan Sze, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel, Rocco A Paluch, Leonard H Epstein
Obesity is associated with steep discounting of the future and increased food reinforcement. Episodic future thinking (EFT), a type of prospective thinking, has been observed to reduce delay discounting (DD) and improve dietary decision making. In contrast, negative income shock (i.e., abrupt transitions to poverty) has been shown to increase discounting and may worsen dietary decision-making. Scalability of EFT training and protective effects of EFT against simulated negative income shock on DD and demand for food were assessed...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Christopher C Conway, Alison E Hipwell, Stephanie D Stepp
Borderline personality disorder (PD) historically is construed as an unremitting condition with poor prognosis. The present study takes a new approach to examining stability and change in borderline PD by explaining symptom expression in terms of an unchanging foundation-termed borderline proneness-on one hand, and transitory influences on the other. We monitored borderline PD symptoms annually in a large sample of high-risk adolescent girls ( N = 2,450) from ages 14 to 20. Trait-state-occasion modeling revealed that just over half (52-57%) of borderline PD symptom variation was attributable to fixed borderline proneness, whereas the remainder was subject to change across yearly measurement occasions...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Karin Mogg, Allison M Waters, Brendan P Bradley
Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce anxiety by reducing attention bias (AB) to threat; however, effects on anxiety and AB are variable. This review examines 34 studies assessing effects of multisession-ABM on both anxiety and AB in high-anxious individuals. Methods include ABM-threat-avoidance (promoting attention-orienting away from threat), ABM-positive-search (promoting explicit, goal-directed attention-search for positive/nonthreat targets among negative/threat distractors), and comparison conditions (e...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Roberta A Schriber, Zainab Anbari, Richard W Robins, Rand D Conger, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Recent models have focused on how brain-based individual differences in social sensitivity shape affective development in adolescence, when rates of depression escalate. Given the importance of the hippocampus in binding contextual and affective elements of experience, as well as its putative role in depression, we examined hippocampal volume as a moderator of the effects of social context on depressive symptoms in a sample of 209 Mexican-origin adolescents. Adolescents with larger versus smaller hippocampal volumes showed heightened sensitivity in their depressive symptoms to a protective factor inside the home (sense of family connectedness) and a risk factor outside of it (community crime exposure)...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
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