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Clinical Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083448/a-network-analysis-of-developmental-change-in-adhd-symptom-structure-from-preschool-to-adulthood
#1
Michelle M Martel, Cheri A Levinson, Julia K Langer, Joel T Nigg
Although there is substantial support for the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD, there is considerable disagreement about how to best capture developmental changes in the expression of ADHD symptomatology. The current paper examines the associations among the 18 individual ADHD symptoms using a novel network analysis approach, from preschool to adulthood. The 1,420 participants were grouped into four age brackets: Preschool (age 3-6, n = 109), childhood (age 6-12, n = 548), adolescence (age 13-17, n = 357), and young adulthood (age 18-36, n = 406)...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070452/dietary-inflammatory-index-and-recurrence-of-depressive-symptoms-results-from-the-whitehall-ii-study
#2
Tasnime Akbaraly, Clarisse Kerlau, Marilyn Wyart, Nathalie Chevallier, Louise Ndiaye, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Mika Kivimäki
There is a growing interest in understanding the role of inflammation in diet-depression relationship. The present study examined whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII, a measure of the inflammatory potential of individuals' diets) is associated with recurrent depressive symptoms (DepS) (CES-D score>16 or taking antidepressants both at baseline and follow-up) assessed over 5 years in middle-aged men (n=3178) and women (n=1068) from the Whitehall II Study. For each increment of 1 SD of DII score, odds of recurrent DepS increased by 66% (95 % CI:1...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008372/persistent-cannabis-dependence-and-alcohol-dependence-represent-risks-for-midlife-economic-and-social-problems-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#3
Magdalena Cerdá, Terrie E Moffitt, Madeline H Meier, HonaLee Harrington, Renate Houts, Sandhya Ramrakha, Sean Hogan, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840778/spiraling-out-of-control-stress-generation-and-subsequent-rumination-mediate-the-link-between-poorer-cognitive-control-and-internalizing-psychopathology
#4
Hannah R Snyder, Benjamin L Hankin
Poor cognitive control is associated with nearly every mental disorder and has been proposed as a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, including depression and anxiety. What specific mechanisms might cause individuals with poor cognitive control to experience higher levels of psychopathology? The current research tests a new process model linking poor cognitive control to depression and anxiety symptoms via increased dependent stress (i.e., self-generated stressors) and subsequent rumination. This model was supported across two studies in youth during the key period for emergence of internalizing psychopathology...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042520/alcohol-craving-and-consumption-in-borderline-personality-disorder-when-where-and-with-whom
#5
Sean P Lane, Ryan W Carpenter, Kenneth J Sher, Timothy J Trull
Substance use is highly prevalent in our society, and substance use disorders are comorbid with most psychiatric disorders, including borderline personality disorder (BPD; Grant et al., 2006, 2008). Craving is a fundamental feature of addiction and disorder, yet the contexts in which craving occurs and is associated with substance use is still under-researched. We examined alcohol craving and consumption in a sample of 56 BPD individuals and a comparison group of community drinkers (COM; n = 60) who carried electronic diaries for approximately 21 days...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867758/naturally-occurring-changes-in-estradiol-concentrations-in-the-menopause-transition-predict-morning-cortisol-and-negative-mood-in-perimenopausal-depression
#6
Jennifer L Gordon, Tory A Eisenlohr-Moul, David R Rubinow, Leah Schrubbe, Susan S Girdler
Risk of depression increases considerably during the menopause transition (or perimenopause) - the 5-6 years surrounding the last menstrual period. While the mechanisms underlying this increased risk are unknown, we have hypothesized that excessive estradiol (E2) fluctuation, which accompanies the perimenopause, may be implicated. We have furthermore proposed that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may underlie E2 fluctuation's effect on mood. This study examined the relationship between weekly changes in salivary E2, salivary cortisol levels and weekly mood in 30 perimenopausal women recruited to achieve equal numbers of women with current depression, past depression, and no history of depression...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833791/postpartum-depressive-symptoms-following-consecutive-pregnancies-stability-change-and-mechanisms
#7
Christine Dunkel Schetter, Darby Saxbe, Alyssa Cheadle, Christine Guardino
Postpartum depression is a major mental health issue for women and society. We examined stability and change in symptoms of depression over two consecutive pregnancies and tested life stress as a potential mechanism. The Community Child Health Network followed an ethnically/racially diverse sample from one month after a birth for two years. A subset of 228 women had a second birth. Interview measures of depression symptoms (EPDS) and life stress (life events, perceived stress, chronic stress, interpersonal aggression) were obtained during home visits...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833790/striatal-dopamine-externalizing-proneness-and-substance-abuse-effects-on-wanting-and-learning-during-reward-based-decision-making
#8
Kaileigh A Byrne, Christopher J Patrick, Darrell A Worthy
We examined whether striatal dopamine moderates the impact of externalizing proneness (disinhibition) on reward-based decision-making. Participants completed disinhibition and substance abuse subscales of the brief form Externalizing Spectrum Inventory, and then performed a delay discounting task to assess preference for immediate rewards along with a dynamic decision-making task that assessed long-term reward learning (i.e., inclination to choose larger delayed versus smaller immediate rewards). Striatal tonic dopamine levels were operationalized using spontaneous eyeblink rate...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747142/differential-effects-of-estrogen-and-progesterone-on-genetic-and-environmental-risk-for-emotional-eating-in-women
#9
Kelly L Klump, Shannon M O'Connor, Britny A Hildebrandt, Pamela K Keel, Michael Neale, Cheryl L Sisk, Steven Boker, S Alexandra Burt
Recent data show shifts in genetic and environmental influences on emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with significant shared environmental influences during pre-ovulation, and primarily genetic effects during post-ovulation. Factors driving differential effects are unknown, although increased estradiol during pre-ovulation and increased progesterone during post-ovulation are thought to play a role. We indirectly investigated this possibility by examining whether overall levels of estradiol and progesterone differentially impact genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in adult female twins (N = 571) drawn from the MSU Twin Registry...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747141/pubertal-development-emotion-regulatory-styles-and-the-emergence-of-sex-differences-in-internalizing-disorders-and-symptoms-in-adolescence
#10
Lauren B Alloy, Jessica L Hamilton, Elissa J Hamlat, Lyn Y Abramson
Adolescence marks the emergence of sex differences in internalizing symptoms and disorders, with girls at increased risk for depression and anxiety during the pubertal transition. However, the mechanisms through which puberty confers risk for internalizing psychopathology for girls, but not boys, remain unclear. We examined two pubertal indicators (pubertal status and timing) as predictors of the development of emotion regulation styles (rumination and emotional clarity) and depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in a three-wave study of 314 adolescents...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090404/adolescents-stigma-attitudes-toward-internalizing-and-externalizing-disorders-cultural-influences-and-implications-for-distress-manifestations
#11
Anna S Lau, Sisi Guo, William Tsai, D Julie Nguyen, Hannah T Nguyen, Victoria Ngo, Bahr Weiss
OBJECTIVE: This study examined predictors of stigma attitudes toward common youth emotional behavioral problems to test the hypothesis that interdependent cultural values would be associated with differential stigma towards externalizing versus internalizing disorders. Furthermore, we examined whether problem-specific stigma attitudes would predict adolescent's own self-reported manifestations of distress. METHOD: 1224 Vietnamese American and European American adolescents completed measures of social distance stigma attitudes in response to vignettes depicting youth with internalizing (depression, social anxiety, somatization) and externalizing (alcohol use, aggressive behaviors, delinquency) disorders...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833789/impaired-visual-cortical-processing-of-affective-facial-information-in-schizophrenia
#12
S Maher, T Ekstrom, Y Chen
Facial emotion perception impairment in schizophrenia is currently viewed as abnormal affective processing. Facial emotion perception also relies on visual processing. Yet, visual cortical processing of facial emotion is not well understood in this disorder. We measured perceptual thresholds for detecting facial fear and happiness in patients (n=23) and controls (n=23), and adjusted emotion intensity of facial stimuli (via morphing between images of neutral and emotive expressions) for each subject. We then evaluated activations of the visual cortex and amygdala during the performance of perceptually-equated facial emotion detection tasks...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747140/what-can-parents-do-examining-the-role-of-parental-support-on-the-negative-relationship-between-racial-discrimination-depression-and-drug-use-among-african-american-youth
#13
Tamika C B Zapolski, Sycarah Fisher, Wei-Wen Hsu, Jessica Barnes
African American youth who experience racial discrimination are at heightened risk to use drugs as a coping response to distress. Based on the buffer-stress hypothesis, we proposed that parental support would attenuate this effect. Participants were 1,521 African American youth between 4(th) and 12(th) grade. As hypothesized, a mediation pathway was observed between racial discrimination, depression symptoms, and drug use. This effect was observed for both genders, although the pathway was partially mediated for males...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747139/positive-affectivity-is-dampened-in-youths-with-histories-of-major-depression-and-their-never-depressed-adolescent-siblings
#14
Maria Kovacs, Lauren M Bylsma, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Jonathan Rottenberg, Charles J George, Enikő Kiss, Kitti Halas, István Benák, Ildiko Baji, Ágnes Vetro, Krisztina Kapornai
While hedonic capacity is diminished during clinical depression, it is unclear whether that deficit constitutes a risk factor and/or persists after depression episodes remit. To examine these issues, adolescents with current/past major depression (probands; n=218), never depressed biological siblings of probands (n=207), and emotionally-well controls (n=183) were exposed to several positively valenced probes. Across baseline and hedonic probe conditions, controls consistently reported higher levels of positive affect than high-risk siblings, and siblings reported higher levels of positive affect than probands (remitted and depressed probands' reports were similar)...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642544/daily-actigraphy-profiles-distinguish-depressive-and-interepisode-states-in-bipolar-disorder
#15
Anda Gershon, Nilam Ram, Sheri L Johnson, Allison G Harvey, Jamie M Zeitzer
Disruptions in activity are core features of mood states in bipolar disorder (BD). This study sought to identify activity patterns that discriminate between mood states in BD. Locomotor activity was collected using actigraphy for six weeks in participants with inter-episode BD type I (n=37) or participants with no lifetime mood disorders (n=39). The 24-hour activity pattern of each participant-day was characterized and within-person differences in activity patterns were examined across mood states. Results show that among participants with BD, depressive days are distinguished from other mood states by an overall lower activity level, and a pattern of later activity onset, a midday elevation of activity, and low evening activity...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617183/self-distancing-buffers-high-trait-anxious-pediatric-cancer-caregivers-against-short-and-longer-term-distress
#16
Louis A Penner, Darwin A Guevarra, Felicity W K Harper, Jeffrey Taub, Sean Phipps, Terrance L Albrecht, Ethan Kross
Pediatric cancer caregivers are typically present at their child's frequent, invasive treatments, and such treatments elicit substantial distress. Yet, variability exists in how even the most anxious caregivers cope. Here we examined one potential source of this variability: caregivers' tendencies to self-distance when reflecting on their feelings surrounding their child's treatments. We measured caregivers' self-distancing and trait anxiety at baseline, anticipatory anxiety during their child's treatment procedures, and psychological distress and avoidance three months later...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595052/revisiting-depression-contagion-as-a-mediator-of-the-relation-between-depression-and-rejection-a-speed-dating-study
#17
Madeline L Pe, Ian H Gotlib, Wim Van den Noortgate, Peter Kuppens
Interpersonal theories of depression postulate that depressed individuals' experience of social isolation is attributable, in part, to their tendency to behave in ways that elicit rejection from others. Depression contagion has been implicated as a factor that may account for the rejection of depressed individuals. The current study revisits this hypothesis using a controlled, but realistically motivated setting: speed-dating. Approximately two weeks before the speed-dating event, participants' depression levels were assessed...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500075/prosocial-behavior-mitigates-the-negative-effects-of-stress-in-everyday-life
#18
Elizabeth B Raposa, Holly B Laws, Emily B Ansell
Recent theories of stress reactivity posit that, when stressed, individuals tend to seek out opportunities to affiliate with and nurture others in order to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of stress. However, few studies have tested empirically the role of prosocial behavior in reducing negative emotional responses to stress. The current analyses used daily diary data to investigate whether engaging in prosocial behavior buffered the negative effects of naturally-occurring stressors on emotional well-being...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453803/selective-mapping-of-psychopathy-and-externalizing-to-dissociable-circuits-for-inhibitory-self-control
#19
Alexandra M Rodman, Erik Kastman, Hayley M Dorfman, Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Kent A Kiehl, Joseph P Newman, Joshua W Buckholtz
Antisociality is commonly conceptualized as a unitary construct, but there is considerable evidence for multidimensionality. In particular, two partially dissociable symptom clusters - psychopathy and externalizing - have divergent associations to clinical and forensic outcomes and are linked to unique patterns executive dysfunction. Here, we used fMRI in a sample of incarcerated offenders to map these dimensions of antisocial behavior to brain circuits underlying two aspects of inhibitory self-control: interference suppression and response inhibition...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453802/polygenic-risk-for-externalizing-psychopathology-and-executive-dysfunction-in-trauma-exposed-veterans
#20
Naomi Sadeh, Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Joanna Lusk, Jasmeet P Hayes, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
The frequent co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and other disinhibited phenotypes reflects a highly heritable externalizing spectrum. We examined the molecular genetic basis of this spectrum by testing polygenic associations with psychopathology symptoms, impulsive traits, and cognitive functions in two samples of primarily military veterans (n =537, n =194). We also investigated whether polygenic risk for externalizing moderated the effects of trauma on these phenotypes. As hypothesized, polygenic risk positively predicted externalizing psychopathology and negatively predicted performance on inhibitory control tasks...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
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