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Clinical Psychological Science

Kelly L Klump, Shannon M O'Connor, Britny A Hildebrandt, Pamela K Keel, Michael Neale, Cheryl L Sisk, Steven Boker, S Alexandra Burt
Recent data show shifts in genetic and environmental influences on emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with significant shared environmental influences during pre-ovulation, and primarily genetic effects during post-ovulation. Factors driving differential effects are unknown, although increased estradiol during pre-ovulation and increased progesterone during post-ovulation are thought to play a role. We indirectly investigated this possibility by examining whether overall levels of estradiol and progesterone differentially impact genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in adult female twins (N = 571) drawn from the MSU Twin Registry...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Lauren B Alloy, Jessica L Hamilton, Elissa J Hamlat, Lyn Y Abramson
Adolescence marks the emergence of sex differences in internalizing symptoms and disorders, with girls at increased risk for depression and anxiety during the pubertal transition. However, the mechanisms through which puberty confers risk for internalizing psychopathology for girls, but not boys, remain unclear. We examined two pubertal indicators (pubertal status and timing) as predictors of the development of emotion regulation styles (rumination and emotional clarity) and depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in a three-wave study of 314 adolescents...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Tamika C B Zapolski, Sycarah Fisher, Wei-Wen Hsu, Jessica Barnes
African American youth who experience racial discrimination are at heightened risk to use drugs as a coping response to distress. Based on the buffer-stress hypothesis, we proposed that parental support would attenuate this effect. Participants were 1,521 African American youth between 4(th) and 12(th) grade. As hypothesized, a mediation pathway was observed between racial discrimination, depression symptoms, and drug use. This effect was observed for both genders, although the pathway was partially mediated for males...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Maria Kovacs, Lauren M Bylsma, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Jonathan Rottenberg, Charles J George, Enikő Kiss, Kitti Halas, István Benák, Ildiko Baji, Ágnes Vetro, Krisztina Kapornai
While hedonic capacity is diminished during clinical depression, it is unclear whether that deficit constitutes a risk factor and/or persists after depression episodes remit. To examine these issues, adolescents with current/past major depression (probands; n=218), never depressed biological siblings of probands (n=207), and emotionally-well controls (n=183) were exposed to several positively valenced probes. Across baseline and hedonic probe conditions, controls consistently reported higher levels of positive affect than high-risk siblings, and siblings reported higher levels of positive affect than probands (remitted and depressed probands' reports were similar)...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Anda Gershon, Nilam Ram, Sheri L Johnson, Allison G Harvey, Jamie M Zeitzer
Disruptions in activity are core features of mood states in bipolar disorder (BD). This study sought to identify activity patterns that discriminate between mood states in BD. Locomotor activity was collected using actigraphy for six weeks in participants with inter-episode BD type I (n=37) or participants with no lifetime mood disorders (n=39). The 24-hour activity pattern of each participant-day was characterized and within-person differences in activity patterns were examined across mood states. Results show that among participants with BD, depressive days are distinguished from other mood states by an overall lower activity level, and a pattern of later activity onset, a midday elevation of activity, and low evening activity...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Louis A Penner, Darwin A Guevarra, Felicity W K Harper, Jeffrey Taub, Sean Phipps, Terrance L Albrecht, Ethan Kross
Pediatric cancer caregivers are typically present at their child's frequent, invasive treatments, and such treatments elicit substantial distress. Yet, variability exists in how even the most anxious caregivers cope. Here we examined one potential source of this variability: caregivers' tendencies to self-distance when reflecting on their feelings surrounding their child's treatments. We measured caregivers' self-distancing and trait anxiety at baseline, anticipatory anxiety during their child's treatment procedures, and psychological distress and avoidance three months later...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Madeline L Pe, Ian H Gotlib, Wim Van den Noortgate, Peter Kuppens
Interpersonal theories of depression postulate that depressed individuals' experience of social isolation is attributable, in part, to their tendency to behave in ways that elicit rejection from others. Depression contagion has been implicated as a factor that may account for the rejection of depressed individuals. The current study revisits this hypothesis using a controlled, but realistically motivated setting: speed-dating. Approximately two weeks before the speed-dating event, participants' depression levels were assessed...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Elizabeth B Raposa, Holly B Laws, Emily B Ansell
Recent theories of stress reactivity posit that, when stressed, individuals tend to seek out opportunities to affiliate with and nurture others in order to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of stress. However, few studies have tested empirically the role of prosocial behavior in reducing negative emotional responses to stress. The current analyses used daily diary data to investigate whether engaging in prosocial behavior buffered the negative effects of naturally-occurring stressors on emotional well-being...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Alexandra M Rodman, Erik Kastman, Hayley M Dorfman, Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Kent A Kiehl, Joseph P Newman, Joshua W Buckholtz
Antisociality is commonly conceptualized as a unitary construct, but there is considerable evidence for multidimensionality. In particular, two partially dissociable symptom clusters - psychopathy and externalizing - have divergent associations to clinical and forensic outcomes and are linked to unique patterns executive dysfunction. Here, we used fMRI in a sample of incarcerated offenders to map these dimensions of antisocial behavior to brain circuits underlying two aspects of inhibitory self-control: interference suppression and response inhibition...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Naomi Sadeh, Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Joanna Lusk, Jasmeet P Hayes, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
The frequent co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and other disinhibited phenotypes reflects a highly heritable externalizing spectrum. We examined the molecular genetic basis of this spectrum by testing polygenic associations with psychopathology symptoms, impulsive traits, and cognitive functions in two samples of primarily military veterans (n =537, n =194). We also investigated whether polygenic risk for externalizing moderated the effects of trauma on these phenotypes. As hypothesized, polygenic risk positively predicted externalizing psychopathology and negatively predicted performance on inhibitory control tasks...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Luke W Hyde, Daniel S Shaw, Laura Murray, Arianna Gard, Ahmad R Hariri, Erika E Forbes
Neuroimaging has suggested that amygdala reactivity to emotional facial expressions is associated with antisocial behavior (AB), particularly among those high on callous-unemotional (CU) traits. To investigate this association and potential moderators of this relationship, including task/stimuli effects, subregional anatomy of the amygdala, and participant race, we used fMRI in a sample of 167 racially diverse, 20 year-old men from low-income families. We found that AB, but not CU traits, was negatively related to amygdala reactivity to fearful faces...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Elaine M Boland, Jonathan P Stange, Denise R Labelle, Benjamin G Shapero, Rachel B Weiss, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
The Behavioral Approach System (BAS)/Reward Hypersensitivity Theory and the Social Zeitgeber Theory are two biopsychosocial theories of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD) that may work together to explain affective dysregulation. The present study examined whether BAS sensitivity is associated with affective symptoms via a) increased social rhythm disruption in response to BAS-relevant life events, or b) greater exposure to BAS events leading to social rhythm disruption and subsequent symptoms. Results indicated that high BAS individuals were more likely to experience social rhythm disruption following BAS-relevant events...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Jessica L Jenness, Benjamin L Hankin, Jami F Young, Andrew Smolen
Attention bias to emotion may be an intermediate trait for stress-reactive psychopathology associated with biologically plausible candidate genes, yet the precise direction of effects within the youth literature remains unclear. The present study investigated whether stressful life events (SLEs) moderate the link between genetic risk (5-HTTLPR and COMT) and attention bias to emotion among youth (n= 467). Analyses revealed a differential effect of gene. Among youth who had experienced more recent SLEs, those homozygous for the low expressing allele of 5-HTTLPR (S/S) demonstrated preferential attention toward negative emotional expressions, whereas youth homozygous for the high expressing COMT genotype (Val/Val) showed attentional avoidance of positive facial expressions...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Colin E Vize, Donald R Lynam, Joanna Lamkin, Joshua D Miller, Dustin Pardini
Despite years of research, and inclusion of psychopathy DSM-5, there remains debate over the fundamental components of psychopathy. Although there is agreement about traits related to Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, there is less agreement about traits related to Fearless Dominance (FD) or Boldness. The present paper uses proxies of FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (SCI) to examine the contribution of FD-related traits to the predictive utility of psychopathy in a large, longitudinal, sample of boys to test four possibilities: FD 1...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Deborah Gorman-Smith, Jenae M Neiderhiser
Neighborhood disadvantage plays a pivotal role in child mental health, including child antisocial behavior (e.g., lying, theft, vandalism; assault, cruelty). Prior studies have indicated that shared environmental influences on youth antisocial behavior increase with increasing disadvantage, but have been unable to confirm that these findings persist once various selection confounds are considered. The current study sought to fill this gap in the literature, examining whether and how neighborhood disadvantage alters the genetic and environmental origins of child antisocial behavior...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
Extensive research supports the role of striatal dopamine in pursuing and responding to reward, and that eye-blink rate is a valid indicator of striatal dopamine. This study tested whether phasic changes in blink rate could provide an index of reward pursuit. This hypothesis was tested in people with bipolar I disorder (BD; a population with aberrations in reward responsivity), and in those without BD. Thirty-one adults with BD and 28 control participants completed a laboratory task involving effort towards monetary reward...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Erika M Manczak, Devika Basu, Edith Chen
Parental empathy is generally held as a positive characteristic; however, might there be contexts in which parental empathy is actually harmful? The present study examined whether adolescents' depressive symptoms might have immunologic costs for more empathic parents. One hundred forty three parents and their children completed self-report measures of empathy and depressive symptoms, respectively. One year later, production of four pro-inflammatory cytokines in parents' blood was measured in response to in vitro exposure to a bacterial product...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Lisa M Jaremka, Martha A Belury, Rebecca R Andridge, Monica E Lindgren, Diane Habash, William B Malarkey, Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser
Distressed marriages enhance risk for health problems; appetite dysregulation is one potential mechanistic pathway. Research suggests that ghrelin and leptin, appetite-relevant hormones connected to shorter and longer-term energy balance, may differentially affect people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, both members of a couple (N=86 participants) ate a standardized meal at the beginning of two visits. Observational recordings of a marital conflict assessed marital distress...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Daniela J Palombo, Margaret C McKinnon, Anthony R McIntosh, Adam K Anderson, Rebecca M Todd, Brian Levine
We investigated the neural correlates of remote traumatic reexperiencing in survivors of a life-threatening incident: the near crash of Air Transat (AT) Flight 236. Survivors' brain activity was monitored during video-cued recollection of the AT disaster, September 11(th), 2001 (9/11), and a comparatively non-emotional (neutral) event. Passengers showed a robust memory enhancement effect for the AT incident relative to the 9/11 and neutral events. This traumatic memory enhancement was associated with activation in the amygdala, medial temporal lobe, anterior and posterior midline, and visual cortex in passengers...
March 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Mary L Woody, Max Owens, Katie L Burkhouse, Brandon E Gibb
The current study examined selective attention toward emotional images as a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). Using multiple indices of attention in a dot-probe task (i.e., reaction time [RT] and eye-tracking-based measures) in a retrospective, high-risk design, we found that women with remitted MDD, compared to controls, exhibited greater selective attention toward angry faces across RT and eye-tracking indices and greater attention toward sad faces for RT measures. Second, we followed women with remitted MDD prospectively to determine if the attentional biases retrospectively associated with MDD history would predict MDD recurrence across a two-year follow-up...
March 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
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