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Clinical Psychological Science

Anna Weinberg, Stewart A Shankman
Blunted reward response appears to be a trait-like marker of vulnerability for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). As such, it should be present in remitted individuals; however, depression is a heterogeneous syndrome. Reward-related impairments may be more pronounced in individuals with melancholic depression. The present study examined neural responses to rewards in remitted melancholic depression (rMD; N = 29), remitted non-melancholic depression (rNMD; N = 56), and healthy controls (HC; N = 81). Event-related potentials to monetary gain and loss were recorded during a simple gambling paradigm...
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Christin M Ogle, David C Rubin, Ilene C Siegler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Elizabeth N Riley, Gregory T Smith
Personality traits in children predict numerous life outcomes. Although traits are generally stable, if there is personality change in youth, it could affect subsequent behavior in important ways. We found that the trait of urgency, the tendency to act impulsively when highly emotional, increases for some youth in early adolescence. This increase can be predicted from the behavior of young children: alcohol consumption and depressive symptom level in elementary school children (5th grade) predicted increases in urgency 18 months later...
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Rohan H C Palmer, Christopher G Beevers, John E McGeary, Leslie A Brick, Valerie S Knopik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Hannah R Snyder, Benjamin L Hankin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Joelle LeMoult, Katharina Kircanski, Gautam Prasad, Ian H Gotlib
Most individuals who develop Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will experience a recurrent depressive episode; we know little, however, about cognitive mechanisms that increase the likelihood of recurrence. In the current study we examined whether negatively biased self-referential processing, negative life events, baseline depressive symptoms, and psychotropic medication use predicted the onset of a subsequent depressive episode in a longitudinal study of women with a history of recurrent MDD. Higher levels of depressive symptoms at baseline predicted experiencing a greater number of negative life events which, in turn, tended to predict recurrence of depression...
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Hannah R Snyder, Jami F Young, Benjamin L Hankin
Dimensional models of psychopathology have recently gained prominence that posit a general psychopathology factor (i.e., p factor), in addition to specific internalizing and externalizing factors. However, the stability of these factors, and the specificity with which they are related to one another over time (e.g., homotypic or heterotypic continuity), have not been investigated. The current study addressed these questions. We estimated bifactor models, with p, internalizing-specific and externalizing-specific factors, with youth and caretaker report of symptoms at two time points (18 months apart), in a large community sample of adolescents...
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Matthew A Scult, Annchen R Knodt, Johnna R Swartz, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Calculating math problems from memory may seem unrelated to everyday processing of emotions, but they have more in common than one might think. Prior research highlights the importance of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in executive control, intentional emotion regulation, and experience of dysfunctional mood and anxiety. While it has been hypothesized that emotion regulation may be related to 'cold' (ie. not emotion-related) executive control, this assertion has not been tested. We address this gap by providing evidence that greater dlPFC activity during 'cold' executive control is associated with increased use of cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions in everyday life...
2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Lynne Lieberman, Stephanie M Gorka, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan
Exaggerated anxious responding to unpredictable threat (U-threat) is a core feature of panic disorder (PD). However, it is unknown whether this abnormality is specific to the diagnosis of PD or would manifest along a continuum of panic symptomatology (PS). Additionally, little is known about the neural processes underlying this abnormality among those high in PS. Finally, no studies have tested whether startle potentiation and limbic neural reactivity - commonly used indices of U-threat responsivity - are associated and therefore reflect common abnormalities...
2017: Clinical Psychological Science
Daniel P Johnson, Soo Hyun Rhee, Naomi P Friedman, Robin P Corley, Melissa A Munn-Chernoff, John K Hewitt, Mark A Whisman
This study examined the genetic and environmental influences on rumination and its associations with several forms of psychopathology in a sample of adult twins (N = 744). Rumination was significantly associated with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety disorder, eating pathology, and substance dependence symptoms. There were distinct patterns of etiological overlap between rumination and each form of psychopathology; rumination had considerable genetic overlap with depression, modest genetic overlap with eating pathology, and almost no genetic overlap with substance dependence...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Michelle M Martel, Cheri A Levinson, Julia K Langer, Joel T Nigg
Although there is substantial support for the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD, there is considerable disagreement about how to best capture developmental changes in the expression of ADHD symptomatology. The current paper examines the associations among the 18 individual ADHD symptoms using a novel network analysis approach, from preschool to adulthood. The 1,420 participants were grouped into four age brackets: Preschool (age 3-6, n = 109), childhood (age 6-12, n = 548), adolescence (age 13-17, n = 357), and young adulthood (age 18-36, n = 406)...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Tasnime Akbaraly, Clarisse Kerlau, Marilyn Wyart, Nathalie Chevallier, Louise Ndiaye, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Mika Kivimäki
There is a growing interest in understanding the role of inflammation in diet-depression relationship. The present study examined whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII, a measure of the inflammatory potential of individuals' diets) is associated with recurrent depressive symptoms (DepS) (CES-D score>16 or taking antidepressants both at baseline and follow-up) assessed over 5 years in middle-aged men (n=3178) and women (n=1068) from the Whitehall II Study. For each increment of 1 SD of DII score, odds of recurrent DepS increased by 66% (95 % CI:1...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Magdalena Cerdá, Terrie E Moffitt, Madeline H Meier, HonaLee Harrington, Renate Houts, Sandhya Ramrakha, Sean Hogan, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Hannah R Snyder, Benjamin L Hankin
Poor cognitive control is associated with nearly every mental disorder and has been proposed as a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, including depression and anxiety. What specific mechanisms might cause individuals with poor cognitive control to experience higher levels of psychopathology? The current research tests a new process model linking poor cognitive control to depression and anxiety symptoms via increased dependent stress (i.e., self-generated stressors) and subsequent rumination. This model was supported across two studies in youth during the key period for emergence of internalizing psychopathology...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Sean P Lane, Ryan W Carpenter, Kenneth J Sher, Timothy J Trull
Substance use is highly prevalent in our society, and substance use disorders are comorbid with most psychiatric disorders, including borderline personality disorder (BPD; Grant et al., 2006, 2008). Craving is a fundamental feature of addiction and disorder, yet the contexts in which craving occurs and is associated with substance use is still under-researched. We examined alcohol craving and consumption in a sample of 56 BPD individuals and a comparison group of community drinkers (COM; n = 60) who carried electronic diaries for approximately 21 days...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Jennifer L Gordon, Tory A Eisenlohr-Moul, David R Rubinow, Leah Schrubbe, Susan S Girdler
Risk of depression increases considerably during the menopause transition (or perimenopause) - the 5-6 years surrounding the last menstrual period. While the mechanisms underlying this increased risk are unknown, we have hypothesized that excessive estradiol (E2) fluctuation, which accompanies the perimenopause, may be implicated. We have furthermore proposed that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may underlie E2 fluctuation's effect on mood. This study examined the relationship between weekly changes in salivary E2, salivary cortisol levels and weekly mood in 30 perimenopausal women recruited to achieve equal numbers of women with current depression, past depression, and no history of depression...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Christine Dunkel Schetter, Darby Saxbe, Alyssa Cheadle, Christine Guardino
Postpartum depression is a major mental health issue for women and society. We examined stability and change in symptoms of depression over two consecutive pregnancies and tested life stress as a potential mechanism. The Community Child Health Network followed an ethnically/racially diverse sample from one month after a birth for two years. A subset of 228 women had a second birth. Interview measures of depression symptoms (EPDS) and life stress (life events, perceived stress, chronic stress, interpersonal aggression) were obtained during home visits...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Kaileigh A Byrne, Christopher J Patrick, Darrell A Worthy
We examined whether striatal dopamine moderates the impact of externalizing proneness (disinhibition) on reward-based decision-making. Participants completed disinhibition and substance abuse subscales of the brief form Externalizing Spectrum Inventory, and then performed a delay discounting task to assess preference for immediate rewards along with a dynamic decision-making task that assessed long-term reward learning (i.e., inclination to choose larger delayed versus smaller immediate rewards). Striatal tonic dopamine levels were operationalized using spontaneous eyeblink rate...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Kelly L Klump, Shannon M O'Connor, Britny A Hildebrandt, Pamela K Keel, Michael Neale, Cheryl L Sisk, Steven Boker, S Alexandra Burt
Recent data show shifts in genetic and environmental influences on emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with significant shared environmental influences during pre-ovulation, and primarily genetic effects during post-ovulation. Factors driving differential effects are unknown, although increased estradiol during pre-ovulation and increased progesterone during post-ovulation are thought to play a role. We indirectly investigated this possibility by examining whether overall levels of estradiol and progesterone differentially impact genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in adult female twins (N = 571) drawn from the MSU Twin Registry...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Lauren B Alloy, Jessica L Hamilton, Elissa J Hamlat, Lyn Y Abramson
Adolescence marks the emergence of sex differences in internalizing symptoms and disorders, with girls at increased risk for depression and anxiety during the pubertal transition. However, the mechanisms through which puberty confers risk for internalizing psychopathology for girls, but not boys, remain unclear. We examined two pubertal indicators (pubertal status and timing) as predictors of the development of emotion regulation styles (rumination and emotional clarity) and depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in a three-wave study of 314 adolescents...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
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