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Clinical Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603665/putative-brain-networks-underlying-repetitive-negative-thinking-and-comorbid-internalizing-problems-in-autism
#1
Catherine A Burrows, Kiara R Timpano, Lucina Q Uddin
Many high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also experience depression and anxiety, yet little is known about mechanisms underlying this comorbidity. Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) about self-referential information is a transdiagnostic cognitive vulnerability factor that may account for the relationship between these two classes of symptoms. We propose a model where self-referential processing and cognitive inflexibility interact to increase risk for RNT, leading to internalizing problems in ASD...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533946/rethinking-social-cognition-in-light-of-psychosis-reciprocal-implications-for-cognition-and-psychopathology
#2
Vaughan Bell, Kathryn L Mills, Gemma Modinos, Sam Wilkinson
The positive symptoms of psychosis largely involve the experience of illusory social actors and yet our current measures of social cognition, at best, only weakly predict their presence. We review evidence to suggest that the range of current approaches in social cognition is not sufficient to explain the fundamentally social nature of these experiences. We argue that social agent representation is an important organising principle for understanding social cognition and that alterations in social agent representation may be a factor in the formation of delusions and hallucination in psychosis...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529826/interpersonal-problems-and-negative-affect-in-borderline-personality-and-depressive-disorders-in-daily-life
#3
Johanna Hepp, Sean P Lane, Ryan W Carpenter, Inga Niedtfeld, Whitney C Brown, Timothy J Trull
Theories of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that interpersonal problems in BPD act as triggers for negative affect and, at the same time, are a possible result of affective dysregulation. Therefore, we assessed the relations between momentary negative affect (hostility, sadness, fear) and interpersonal problems (rejection, disagreement) in a sample of 80 BPD and 51 depressed outpatients at 6 time-points over 28 days. Data were analyzed using multivariate multi-level modeling to separate momentary-, day-, and person-level effects...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533945/the-role-of-speed-in-adhd-related-working-memory-deficits-a-time-based-resource-sharing-and-diffusion-model-account
#4
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock
Several recent commentaries suggest that, for psychological science to move beyond "homuncular" explanations for cognitive control, it is critically important to examine the role of basic and computationally well-defined processes (e.g. cognitive processing speed). Correlational evidence has previously linked slow speed to working memory (WM) deficits in ADHD, but the directionality of this relationship has not been investigated experimentally and the mechanisms through which speed may influence WM are unclear...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503367/etiology-of-triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#5
Robert D Latzman, Christopher J Patrick, Hani J Freeman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
The current study undertook analyses of genealogical data from a sample of 178 socially-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with well-documented pedigrees, to clarify the etiologic bases of triarchic psychopathy dimensions and the influence of early social rearing experiences. Whereas biometric analyses for the full sample indicated significant heritability for the boldness dimension of psychopathy only, heritability estimates varied by early rearing, with all three triarchic dimensions showing significant heritabilities among mother-reared but not nursery-reared apes...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503366/is-trauma-memory-special-trauma-narrative-fragmentation-in-ptsd-effects-of-treatment-and-response
#6
Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Lori A Zoellner, Norah C Feeny
Seminal theories posit that fragmented trauma memories are critical to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; van der Kolk & Fisler, 1995; Brewin, 2014) and that elaboration of the trauma narrative is necessary for recovery (e.g., Foa, Huppert, & Cahill, 2006). According to fragmentation theories, trauma narrative changes, particularly for those receiving trauma-focused treatment, should accompany symptom reduction. Trauma and control narratives in 77 men and women with chronic PTSD were examined pre- and post-treatment, comparing prolonged exposure (PE) and sertraline...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497008/the-positivity-offset-theory-of-anhedonia-in-schizophrenia
#7
Gregory P Strauss, Katherine H Frost, Bern G Lee, James M Gold
Prior studies have concluded that schizophrenia patients are not anhedonic because they do not report reduced experience of positive emotion to pleasant stimuli. The current study challenged this view by applying quantitative methods validated in the Evaluative Space Model of emotional experience to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients evidence a reduction in the normative "positivity offset" (i.e., the tendency to experience higher levels of positive than negative emotional output when stimulus input is absent or weak)...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451473/blunted-reward-processing-in-remitted-melancholic-depression
#8
Anna Weinberg, Stewart A Shankman
Blunted reward response appears to be a trait-like marker of vulnerability for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). As such, it should be present in remitted individuals; however, depression is a heterogeneous syndrome. Reward-related impairments may be more pronounced in individuals with melancholic depression. The present study examined neural responses to rewards in remitted melancholic depression (rMD; N = 29), remitted non-melancholic depression (rNMD; N = 56), and healthy controls (HC; N = 81). Event-related potentials to monetary gain and loss were recorded during a simple gambling paradigm...
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396822/commentary-pre-and-posttrauma-predictors-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptom-severity-reply-to-van-der-velden-and-van-der-knaap-2017
#9
COMMENT
Christin M Ogle, David C Rubin, Ilene C Siegler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392979/childhood-drinking-and-depressive-symptom-level-predict-harmful-personality-change
#10
Elizabeth N Riley, Gregory T Smith
Personality traits in children predict numerous life outcomes. Although traits are generally stable, if there is personality change in youth, it could affect subsequent behavior in important ways. We found that the trait of urgency, the tendency to act impulsively when highly emotional, increases for some youth in early adolescence. This increase can be predicted from the behavior of young children: alcohol consumption and depressive symptom level in elementary school children (5th grade) predicted increases in urgency 18 months later...
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316879/a-preliminary-study-of-genetic-variation-in-the-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-systems-and-genome-wide-additive-genetic-effects-on-depression-severity-and-treatment-response
#11
Rohan H C Palmer, Christopher G Beevers, John E McGeary, Leslie A Brick, Valerie S Knopik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286706/all-models-are-wrong-but-the-p-factor-model-is-useful-reply-to-widiger-and-oltmanns-2017-and-bonifay-lane-and-reise-2017
#12
Hannah R Snyder, Benjamin L Hankin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286705/negative-self-referential-processing-predicts-the-recurrence-of-major-depressive-episodes
#13
Joelle LeMoult, Katharina Kircanski, Gautam Prasad, Ian H Gotlib
Most individuals who develop Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will experience a recurrent depressive episode; we know little, however, about cognitive mechanisms that increase the likelihood of recurrence. In the current study we examined whether negatively biased self-referential processing, negative life events, baseline depressive symptoms, and psychotropic medication use predicted the onset of a subsequent depressive episode in a longitudinal study of women with a history of recurrent MDD. Higher levels of depressive symptoms at baseline predicted experiencing a greater number of negative life events which, in turn, tended to predict recurrence of depression...
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239532/strong-homotypic-continuity-in-common-psychopathology-internalizing-and-externalizing-specific-factors-over-time-in-adolescents
#14
Hannah R Snyder, Jami F Young, Benjamin L Hankin
Dimensional models of psychopathology have recently gained prominence that posit a general psychopathology factor (i.e., p factor), in addition to specific internalizing and externalizing factors. However, the stability of these factors, and the specificity with which they are related to one another over time (e.g., homotypic or heterotypic continuity), have not been investigated. The current study addressed these questions. We estimated bifactor models, with p, internalizing-specific and externalizing-specific factors, with youth and caretaker report of symptoms at two time points (18 months apart), in a large community sample of adolescents...
January 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191365/thinking-and-feeling-individual-differences-in-habitual-emotion-regulation-and-stress-related-mood-are-associated-with-prefrontal-executive-control
#15
Matthew A Scult, Annchen R Knodt, Johnna R Swartz, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Calculating math problems from memory may seem unrelated to everyday processing of emotions, but they have more in common than one might think. Prior research highlights the importance of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in executive control, intentional emotion regulation, and experience of dysfunctional mood and anxiety. While it has been hypothesized that emotion regulation may be related to 'cold' (ie. not emotion-related) executive control, this assertion has not been tested. We address this gap by providing evidence that greater dlPFC activity during 'cold' executive control is associated with increased use of cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions in everyday life...
2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138418/impact-of-panic-on-psychophysiological-and-neural-reactivity-to-unpredictable-threat-in-depression-and-anxiety
#16
Lynne Lieberman, Stephanie M Gorka, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan
Exaggerated anxious responding to unpredictable threat (U-threat) is a core feature of panic disorder (PD). However, it is unknown whether this abnormality is specific to the diagnosis of PD or would manifest along a continuum of panic symptomatology (PS). Additionally, little is known about the neural processes underlying this abnormality among those high in PS. Finally, no studies have tested whether startle potentiation and limbic neural reactivity - commonly used indices of U-threat responsivity - are associated and therefore reflect common abnormalities...
2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111610/a-twin-study-examining-rumination-as-a-transdiagnostic-correlate-of-psychopathology
#17
Daniel P Johnson, Soo Hyun Rhee, Naomi P Friedman, Robin P Corley, Melissa A Munn-Chernoff, John K Hewitt, Mark A Whisman
This study examined the genetic and environmental influences on rumination and its associations with several forms of psychopathology in a sample of adult twins (N = 744). Rumination was significantly associated with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety disorder, eating pathology, and substance dependence symptoms. There were distinct patterns of etiological overlap between rumination and each form of psychopathology; rumination had considerable genetic overlap with depression, modest genetic overlap with eating pathology, and almost no genetic overlap with substance dependence...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083448/a-network-analysis-of-developmental-change-in-adhd-symptom-structure-from-preschool-to-adulthood
#18
Michelle M Martel, Cheri A Levinson, Julia K Langer, Joel T Nigg
Although there is substantial support for the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD, there is considerable disagreement about how to best capture developmental changes in the expression of ADHD symptomatology. The current paper examines the associations among the 18 individual ADHD symptoms using a novel network analysis approach, from preschool to adulthood. The 1,420 participants were grouped into four age brackets: Preschool (age 3-6, n = 109), childhood (age 6-12, n = 548), adolescence (age 13-17, n = 357), and young adulthood (age 18-36, n = 406)...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070452/dietary-inflammatory-index-and-recurrence-of-depressive-symptoms-results-from-the-whitehall-ii-study
#19
Tasnime Akbaraly, Clarisse Kerlau, Marilyn Wyart, Nathalie Chevallier, Louise Ndiaye, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Mika Kivimäki
There is a growing interest in understanding the role of inflammation in diet-depression relationship. The present study examined whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII, a measure of the inflammatory potential of individuals' diets) is associated with recurrent depressive symptoms (DepS) (CES-D score>16 or taking antidepressants both at baseline and follow-up) assessed over 5 years in middle-aged men (n=3178) and women (n=1068) from the Whitehall II Study. For each increment of 1 SD of DII score, odds of recurrent DepS increased by 66% (95 % CI:1...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008372/persistent-cannabis-dependence-and-alcohol-dependence-represent-risks-for-midlife-economic-and-social-problems-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#20
Magdalena Cerdá, Terrie E Moffitt, Madeline H Meier, HonaLee Harrington, Renate Houts, Sandhya Ramrakha, Sean Hogan, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife...
November 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
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