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Clinical Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170722/what-drives-false-memories-in-psychopathology-a-case-for-associative-activation
#1
REVIEW
Henry Otgaar, Peter Muris, Mark L Howe, Harald Merckelbach
In clinical and court settings, it is imperative to know whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression may make people susceptible to false memories. We conducted a review of the literature on false memory effects in participants with PTSD, a history of trauma, or depression. When emotional associative material was presented to these groups, their levels of false memory were raised relative to those in relevant comparison groups. This difference did not consistently emerge when neutral or nonassociative material was presented...
November 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062595/phenomenology-and-social-agent-representation-in-psychosis-a-welcome-integration
#2
Vaughan Bell, Kathryn L Mills, Gemma Modinos, Sam Wilkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057169/the-co-development-of-relational-aggression-and-disruptive-behavior-symptoms-from-late-childhood-through-adolescence
#3
Alazne Aizpitarte, Olivia E Atherton, Richard W Robins
Researchers have debated whether relational aggression is a developmentally-normative behavior or a sign of some underlying psychopathology. However, due to the dearth of longitudinal studies, we know little about how relational aggression and more severe forms of disruptive behavior co-develop. The present study examined bidirectional associations between relational aggression and two psychiatric disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth followed from age 10 to 16...
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034135/heterogeneity-in-trajectories-of-depression-in-response-to-divorce-is-associated-with-differential-risk-for-mortality
#4
Matteo Malgaroli, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, George A Bonanno
Divorce is a common stressful event associated with both increased rates of depression and mortality. Given evidence of significant individual differences in depression following major life stressors, we examined if heterogeneous depression responses confer differential risk for mortality. Data from a population based longitudinal study was utilized to identify individuals who experienced divorce (n=559). Prospective trajectories of depression severity from before to after divorce were identified using latent growth mixture modeling, and rates of mortality between trajectories were compared as a distal outcome...
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989818/larger-receptive-field-size-as-a-mechanism-underlying-atypical-motion-perception-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Kimberly B Schauder, Woon Ju Park, Duje Tadin, Loisa Bennetto
Atypical visual motion perception has been widely observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The pattern of results, however, has been inconsistent. Emerging mechanistic hypotheses seek to explain these variable patterns of atypical motion sensitivity, each uniquely predicting specific patterns of performance across varying stimulus conditions. Here, we investigated the integrity of two such fundamental mechanisms-response gain control and receptive field size. Twenty children and adolescents with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) age- and IQ-matched controls performed a motion discrimination task...
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966885/bleak-present-bright-future-online-episodic-future-thinking-scarcity-delay-discounting-and-food-demand
#6
Yan Yan Sze, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel, Rocco A Paluch, Leonard H Epstein
Obesity is associated with steep discounting of the future and increased food reinforcement. Episodic future thinking (EFT), a type of prospective thinking, has been observed to reduce delay discounting (DD) and improve dietary decision making. In contrast, negative income shock (i.e., abrupt transitions to poverty) has been shown to increase discounting and may worsen dietary decision-making. Scalability of EFT training and protective effects of EFT against simulated negative income shock on DD and demand for food were assessed...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920008/seven-year-course-of-borderline-personality-disorder-features-borderline-pathology-is-as-unstable-as-depression-during-adolescence
#7
Christopher C Conway, Alison E Hipwell, Stephanie D Stepp
Borderline personality disorder (PD) historically is construed as an unremitting condition with poor prognosis. The present study takes a new approach to examining stability and change in borderline PD by explaining symptom expression in terms of an unchanging foundation-termed borderline proneness-on one hand, and transitory influences on the other. We monitored borderline PD symptoms annually in a large sample of high-risk adolescent girls (N = 2,450) from ages 14 to 20. Trait-state-occasion modeling revealed that just over half (52-57%) of borderline PD symptom variation was attributable to fixed borderline proneness, whereas the remainder was subject to change across yearly measurement occasions...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752017/attention-bias-modification-abm-review-of-effects-of-multisession-abm-training-on-anxiety-and-threat-related-attention-in-high-anxious-individuals
#8
REVIEW
Karin Mogg, Allison M Waters, Brendan P Bradley
Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce anxiety by reducing attention bias (AB) to threat; however, effects on anxiety and AB are variable. This review examines 34 studies assessing effects of multisession-ABM on both anxiety and AB in high-anxious individuals. Methods include ABM-threat-avoidance (promoting attention-orienting away from threat), ABM-positive-search (promoting explicit, goal-directed attention-search for positive/nonthreat targets among negative/threat distractors), and comparison conditions (e...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740744/hippocampal-volume-as-an-amplifier-of-the-effect-of-social-context-on-adolescent-depression
#9
Roberta A Schriber, Zainab Anbari, Richard W Robins, Rand D Conger, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Recent models have focused on how brain-based individual differences in social sensitivity shape affective development in adolescence, when rates of depression escalate. Given the importance of the hippocampus in binding contextual and affective elements of experience, as well as its putative role in depression, we examined hippocampal volume as a moderator of the effects of social context on depressive symptoms in a sample of 209 Mexican-origin adolescents. Adolescents with larger versus smaller hippocampal volumes showed heightened sensitivity in their depressive symptoms to a protective factor inside the home (sense of family connectedness) and a risk factor outside of it (community crime exposure)...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690925/the-role-of-ptsd-depression-and-alcohol-misuse-symptom-severity-in-linking-deployment-stressor-exposure-and-post-military-work-and-family-outcomes-in-male-and-female-veterans
#10
Brian N Smith, Emily C Taverna, Annie B Fox, Paula P Schnurr, Rebecca A Matteo, Dawne Vogt
Exposure to stressors during military deployment puts veterans at risk for reduced post-military quality of life. Stress-related mental health problems may lead to decreased well-being within work and family domains, yet few studies have explored associations in the context of gender. We examined relationships between deployment stressors and post-military functioning and satisfaction in the domains of work and family, with a focus on PTSD, depression, and alcohol misuse symptomatology as potential mediators...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785511/an-experimental-investigation-of-drunk-personality-using-self-and-observer-reports
#11
Rachel P Winograd, Douglas Steinley, Sean P Lane, Kenneth J Sher
Across various cultures there are robust stereotypes regarding how alcohol intoxication alters individuals' normative personalities. However, whether these stereotypes are rooted in genuine average effects or in salient, socially-proliferated exemplars remain unclear. The current study tested if differences between sober and intoxicated personality expression can be observed reliably by trained raters during a drinking episode. Participants (N = 156), half of whom received alcohol, attended laboratory sessions in same-gender friend groups and engaged in activities designed to elicit a range of personality expression...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670505/understanding-suicide-risk-within-the-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-framework-insights-challenges-and-future-research-considerations
#12
Catherine R Glenn, Christine B Cha, Evan M Kleiman, Matthew K Nock
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Prior research has focused primarily on sociodemographic and psychiatric risk factors with little improvement in the prediction or prevention of suicidal behavior over time. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) may be an especially useful framework for advancing research in this area. This paper provides a brief and broad overview of research on suicidal behavior relating to each of the RDoC domains-highlighting the RDoC construct(s) where research has focused, construct(s) where research is lacking, and suggestions for future research directions...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603665/putative-brain-networks-underlying-repetitive-negative-thinking-and-comorbid-internalizing-problems-in-autism
#13
Catherine A Burrows, Kiara R Timpano, Lucina Q Uddin
Many high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also experience depression and anxiety, yet little is known about mechanisms underlying this comorbidity. Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) about self-referential information is a transdiagnostic cognitive vulnerability factor that may account for the relationship between these two classes of symptoms. We propose a model where self-referential processing and cognitive inflexibility interact to increase risk for RNT, leading to internalizing problems in ASD...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533946/rethinking-social-cognition-in-light-of-psychosis-reciprocal-implications-for-cognition-and-psychopathology
#14
Vaughan Bell, Kathryn L Mills, Gemma Modinos, Sam Wilkinson
The positive symptoms of psychosis largely involve the experience of illusory social actors and yet our current measures of social cognition, at best, only weakly predict their presence. We review evidence to suggest that the range of current approaches in social cognition is not sufficient to explain the fundamentally social nature of these experiences. We argue that social agent representation is an important organising principle for understanding social cognition and that alterations in social agent representation may be a factor in the formation of delusions and hallucination in psychosis...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529826/interpersonal-problems-and-negative-affect-in-borderline-personality-and-depressive-disorders-in-daily-life
#15
Johanna Hepp, Sean P Lane, Ryan W Carpenter, Inga Niedtfeld, Whitney C Brown, Timothy J Trull
Theories of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that interpersonal problems in BPD act as triggers for negative affect and, at the same time, are a possible result of affective dysregulation. Therefore, we assessed the relations between momentary negative affect (hostility, sadness, fear) and interpersonal problems (rejection, disagreement) in a sample of 80 BPD and 51 depressed outpatients at 6 time-points over 28 days. Data were analyzed using multivariate multi-level modeling to separate momentary-, day-, and person-level effects...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924493/evaluating-emotional-and-biological-sensitivity-to-maternal-behavior-among-self-injuring-and-depressed-adolescent-girls-using-nonlinear-dynamics
#16
Sheila E Crowell, Jonathan E Butner, Travis J Wiltshire, Ascher K Munion, Mona Yaptangco, Theodore P Beauchaine
High sensitivity and reactivity to behaviors of family members characterizes several forms of psychopathology, including self-inflicted injury (SII). We examined mother-daughter behavioral and psychophysiological reactivity during a conflict discussion using nonlinear dynamics to assess asymmetrical associations within time-series data. Depressed, SII, and control adolescents and their mothers participated (n=76 dyads). We expected that (1) mothers' evocative behaviors would affect behavioral and psychophysiological reactivity among depressed and, especially, SII adolescents, (2) adolescents' behaviors would not evoke mothers' behavioral or physiological reactivity, and (3) control teens and mothers would be less reactive, with no dynamic associations in either direction...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781928/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-autobiographical-memories-in-everyday-life
#17
Sabine Schönfeld, Anke Ehlers
Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD (N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670504/does-context-matter-a-multi-method-assessment-of-affect-in-adolescent-depression-across-multiple-affective-interaction-contexts
#18
Benjamin W Nelson, Michelle L Byrne, Lisa Sheeber, Nicholas B Allen
This study utilized a multi-method approach (self-reported affect, observed behavior, and psychophysiology) to investigate differences between clinically depressed and non-depressed adolescents across three different affective interaction contexts with their parents. 152 adolescents (52 males, 14-18 y.o.), and their parents, participated in a laboratory session in which they discussed positive and negative aspects of their relationship, and reminisced on positive and negative memories. We found that across contexts depressed adolescents exhibited higher negative affect and behaviors, lower positive behaviors, and greater autonomic and sympathetic activity...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533945/the-role-of-speed-in-adhd-related-working-memory-deficits-a-time-based-resource-sharing-and-diffusion-model-account
#19
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock
Several recent commentaries suggest that, for psychological science to move beyond "homuncular" explanations for cognitive control, it is critically important to examine the role of basic and computationally well-defined processes (e.g. cognitive processing speed). Correlational evidence has previously linked slow speed to working memory (WM) deficits in ADHD, but the directionality of this relationship has not been investigated experimentally and the mechanisms through which speed may influence WM are unclear...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503367/etiology-of-triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#20
Robert D Latzman, Christopher J Patrick, Hani J Freeman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
The current study undertook analyses of genealogical data from a sample of 178 socially-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with well-documented pedigrees, to clarify the etiologic bases of triarchic psychopathy dimensions and the influence of early social rearing experiences. Whereas biometric analyses for the full sample indicated significant heritability for the boldness dimension of psychopathy only, heritability estimates varied by early rearing, with all three triarchic dimensions showing significant heritabilities among mother-reared but not nursery-reared apes...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
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