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Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts

Yulu Tang, Bifeng Zhong, Bing Qu, Shujin Feng, Sanglan Ding, Shijun Su, Zhi Li, Zhiwei Gan
A total of 28 groundwater, paired farmland soil, lettuce, and its rhizosphere soil samples were collected from Chengdu, China to detect perchlorate levels and to evaluate the relationships of perchlorate concentrations among these matrices. The perchlorate concentrations in the groundwater, farmland soil, lettuce, and rhizosphere soil samples ranged from below detection limit to 60.2 μg L(-1), from below detection limit to 249 μg kg(-1) dry weight (dw), from 2.07 to 1010 μg kg(-1) wet weight, and from below detection limit to 314 μg kg(-1) dw, respectively...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Amir Houshang Shiva, Peter R Teasdale, David T Welsh, William W Bennett
The performance of DGT-Chelex, DGT-Metsorb and DGT-MBL (Chelex-Metsorb mixed binding layer) with open and restricted diffusive layers for trace metal (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and oxyanion (As, Mo, Sb, V) measurements, was evaluated in four natural waters with different pH (range 3.29-7.81). In moderately acidic (pH ≈ 5) and circumneutral (pH ≈ 6.3) waters, all three binding layers measured relatively similar concentrations of Al, while in more alkaline waters (pH ≈ 8) DGT-MBL measured higher concentrations than the other two binding layers...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Evert Nieboer, Ian D Martin, Eric N Liberda, Eric Dewailly, Elizabeth Robinson, Leonard J S Tsuji
BACKGROUND: this article constitutes a report on the comprehensive Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii multi-community environment-and-health study conducted among the Cree peoples (Eeyouch) of northern Quebec, Canada. OBJECTIVES: to interpret observed concentrations of a suite of chemical elements in a multi-media biological monitoring study in terms of sources and predictors. METHODS: the concentrations of 5 essential and 6 toxic chemical elements were measured in whole blood, and/or in urine or hair by ICP-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Louis A Tremblay, Dana Clark, Jim Sinner, Joanne I Ellis
The sustainable management of estuarine and coastal ecosystems requires robust frameworks due to the presence of multiple physical and chemical stressors. In this study, we assessed whether ecological health decline, based on community structure composition changes along a pollution gradient, occurred at levels below guideline threshold values for copper, zinc and lead. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) was used to characterise benthic communities along a metal contamination gradient. The analysis revealed changes in benthic community distribution at levels below the individual guideline values for the three metals...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Jing Li, Lu Liu, Dong Yang, Wei-Li Liu, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Hong-Mei Qu, Zhi-Gang Qiu, Ai-Ming Hou, Da-Ning Wang, Chen-Shi Ding, Jun-Wen Li, Jian-Hua Guo, Min Jin
Underestimation of Escherichia coli in drinking water, an indicator microorganism of sanitary risk, may result in potential risks of waterborne diseases. However, the detection of disinfectant-injured or genetically modified (GM) E. coli has been largely overlooked so far. To evaluate the accuracy of culture-dependent enumeration with regard to disinfectant-injured and GM E. coli, chlorine- or ozone-injured wild-type (WT) and GM E. coli were prepared and characterized. Then, water samples contaminated with these E...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Caroline A Davis, Paul R Erickson, Kristopher McNeill, Elisabeth M L Janssen
Fenamates are a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are not fully removed during wastewater treatment and can be released to surface waters. Here, near-surface photochemical half-lives were evaluated to range from minutes to hours of four fenamates and the closely related diclofenac. While quantum yields for direct photochemical reactions at the water surface vary widely from 0.071 for diclofenac to <0.001 for mefenamic acid, all fenamates showed significant reactivity towards singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical with bimolecular reaction rate constants of 1...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Seok-Young Oh, Yong-Deuk Seo, Kwang-Sun Ryu, Da-Jeong Park, Seung-Hun Lee
A novel biochar-coated zero-valent iron [Fe(0)], which was synthesized with rice straw and Fe(0), was applied to remove nitro explosives (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and halogenated phenols (2,4-dibromophenol and 2,4-difluorophenol) from contaminated waters. Due to the presence of biochar on the outside, the removal of nitro explosives and halogenated phenols was significantly enhanced via sorption. The sorbed contaminants were further transformed into reductive products, indicating that the inner Fe(0) played the role of a reductant in the biochar-coated Fe(0)...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
H Plaisance, J Vignau-Laulhere, P Mocho, N Sauvat, K Raulin, V Desauziers
Building and furniture materials are known to be major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indoors. During the construction process, an introduced material can have a more or less long-term impact on the indoor air quality according to the building characteristics. In this study, field measurements were carried out at six construction stages in three energy-efficient timber-frame houses. Data analysis focused on the ten most abundant compounds found among an initial list of fifteen target VOCs, namely formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, hexanal, toluene, m/p-xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene, α-pinene, 3-carene and d-limonene...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
P Dranguet, C Cosio, S Le Faucheur, D Hug Peter, J-L Loizeau, V-Gh Ungureanu, V I Slaveykova
Freshwater biofilms can be useful indicators of water quality and offer the possibility to assess contaminant effects at the community level. The present field study examines the effects of chlor-alkali plant effluents on the community composition of biofilms grown in the Olt River (Romania) reservoirs. The relationship between ambient water quality variables and community composition alterations was explored. Amplicon sequencing revealed a significant modification of the composition of microalgal, bacterial and fungal communities in the biofilms collected in the impacted reservoirs in comparison with those living in the uncontaminated control reservoir...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Vesta Kohlmeier, George C Dragan, Erwin W Karg, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Dietmar Breuer, Patricia B C Forbes, Egmont R Rohwer, Ralf Zimmermann
During many measurements it is important to account for possible changes in the gas-particle distribution of aerosols containing semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). If denuders are combined with currently used personal air samplers, a simultaneous differential sampling of the gas and particle phase is possible. Here we analysed the transmission efficiency of denuders based on multi-channel silicone rubber traps (setup: 9 cm long glass liner (ID 4 mm), containing 22 parallel silicone rubber tubes (55 mm long, ID 0...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Shi-Jie Cao, Xiang-Ri Kong, Linyan Li, Weirong Zhang, Zi-Ping Ye, Yelin Deng
This study measured the particle concentrations with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and relative humidity (RH) at five metro subway stations in Suzhou's subway system (Lines 1 and 2). The real-time monitoring campaign was conducted from March 30(th) to April 10(th) and August 4(th) to August 21(st), 2015. The monitoring practice was carried out during rush (7:00-9:00 AM and 17:00-19:00 PM) and regular hours (other times) at the ground and underground levels under different weather conditions with a purpose of obtaining representative data...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Tom M Nolte, Ad M J Ragas
Many organic chemicals are ionizable by nature. After use and release into the environment, various fate processes determine their concentrations, and hence exposure to aquatic organisms. In the absence of suitable data, such fate processes can be estimated using Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPRs). In this review we compiled available QSPRs from the open literature and assessed their applicability towards ionizable organic chemicals. Using quantitative and qualitative criteria we selected the 'best' QSPRs for sorption, (a)biotic degradation, and bioconcentration...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Kathrin Fenner, Paul G Tratnyek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Marcella L Card, Vicente Gomez-Alvarez, Wen-Hsiung Lee, David G Lynch, Nerija S Orentas, Mari Titcombe Lee, Edmund M Wong, Robert S Boethling
Chemical property estimation is a key component in many industrial, academic, and regulatory activities, including in the risk assessment associated with the approximately 1000 new chemical pre-manufacture notices the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) receives annually. The US EPA evaluates fate, exposure and toxicity under the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (amended by the 2016 Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21(st) Century Act), which does not require test data with new chemical applications...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Paul G Tratnyek, Eric J Bylaska, Eric J Weber
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with "in silico" results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Hassan Waseem, Maggie R Williams, Tiffany Stedtfeld, Benli Chai, Robert D Stedtfeld, James R Cole, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
Virulence factor activity relationships (VFARs) - a concept loosely based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for chemicals was proposed as a predictive tool for ranking risks due to microorganisms relevant to water safety. A rapid increase in sequencing capabilities and bioinformatics tools has significantly increased the potential for VFAR-based analyses. This review summarizes more than 20 bioinformatics databases and tools, developed over the last decade, along with their virulence and antimicrobial resistance prediction capabilities...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Xiang Luo, Xianhai Yang, Xianliang Qiao, Ya Wang, Jingwen Chen, Xiaoxuan Wei, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
Reaction with hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) is an important removal pathway for organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. The aqueous reaction rate constant (kOH) is therefore an important parameter for fate assessment of aquatic pollutants. Since experimental determination fails to meet the requirement of being able to efficiently handle numerous organic chemicals at limited cost and within a relatively short period of time, in silico methods such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are needed to predict kOH...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mark T D Cronin
The current state of the art of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships ((Q)SARs) to predict environmental toxicity is assessed along with recommendations to develop these models further. The acute toxicity of compounds acting by the non-polar narcotic mechanism of action can be well predicted, however other approaches, including read-across, may be required for compounds acting by specific mechanisms of action. The chronic toxicity of compounds to environmental species is more difficult to predict from (Q)SARs, with robust data sets and more mechanistic information required...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Reza Aalizadeh, Peter C von der Ohe, Nikolaos S Thomaidis
According to the European REACH Directive, the acute toxicity towards Daphnia magna should be assessed for any industrial chemical with a market volume of more than 1 t/a. Therefore, it is highly recommended to determine the toxicity at a certain confidence level, either experimentally or by applying reliable prediction models. To this end, a large dataset was compiled, with the experimental acute toxicity values (pLC50) of 1353 compounds in Daphnia magna after 48 h of exposure. A novel quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) model was developed, using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) to select the most relevant set of molecular descriptors, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to correlate the selected descriptors with the toxicity data...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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