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Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts

K Kristensen, L N Jensen, M Glasius, M Bilde
This study presents a newly constructed temperature controlled cold-room smog chamber at Aarhus University, Denmark. The chamber is herein utilized to study the effect of sub-zero temperature on the formation and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from ozone initiated oxidation of α-pinene. The chemical composition of α-pinene SOA formed from dark ozonolysis of α-pinene at 293 K and 258 K was investigated using High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-qToF-MS)...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Peter Molnár, Lin Tang, Karin Sjöberg, Janine Wichmann
Source apportionment studies of particulate matter are common and have been performed either as source region analyses using air mass back trajectories or by source type using source apportionment techniques. By combining the two approaches, it is possible to estimate the relative importance of emitters in different regions. PM2.5 samples were collected in Gothenburg between September 2008 and September 2009. The mean daily PM2.5 level was 6.1 μg m(-3) (range 0.79-30.91 μg m(-3)). Elemental analyses were done using Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Sangwoo Lee, Seongjin Hong, Xiaoshan Liu, Cheolmin Kim, Dawoon Jung, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, Jong Seong Khim, John P Giesy, Kyungho Choi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs are known to be major toxic contaminants in spills of petroleum hydrocarbons (oil). Spilled oil undergoes weathering and over time, PAHs go through a series of compositional changes. PAHs can disrupt endocrine functions, and the type of functions affected and associated potencies vary with the type and alkylation status of PAH. In this study, the potential of five major PAHs of crude oil, i.e., naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, and chrysene, and their alkylated analogues (n = 25), to disrupt endocrine functions was evaluated by use of MVLN-luc and H295R cell lines...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Joorim Na, Jisu Yoo, Gwiwoong Nam, Jinho Jung
Correction for 'Effect of low-purity Fenton reagents on toxicity of textile dyeing effluent to Daphnia magna' by Joorim Na et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c7em00078b.
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Yingfei Wang, Wen Deng, Fengliang Wang, Yuehan Su, Yiping Feng, Ping Chen, Jingshuai Ma, Haiying Su, Kun Yao, Yang Liu, Wenying Lv, Guoguang Liu
The aim of this study was to investigate the photolysis mechanism of ketoprofen (KET) under simulated sunlight. The results demonstrated that the photolysis of KET aligned well with pseudo first-order kinetics. Radical scavenging experiments and dissolved oxygen experiments revealed that the superoxide anion radical (O2˙(-)) played a primary role in the photolytic process in pure water. Bicarbonate slightly increased the photodegradation of KET through generating carbonate radicals, while DOM inhibited the photolysis via both attenuating light and competing radicals...
July 26, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Andrew C Maizel, Christina K Remucal
Excited triplet states of dissolved organic matter ((3)DOM) are quantified directly with the species-specific probes trans,trans-hexadienoic acid (HDA) and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP), and indirectly with the singlet oxygen ((1)O2) probe furfuryl alcohol (FFA). Although previous work suggests that these probe compounds may be sensitive to solution conditions, including dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) and pH, and may quantify different (3)DOM subpopulations, the probes have not been systematically compared...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Antoine Gosset, Claude Durrieu, Frédéric Orias, Rémy Bayard, Yves Perrodin
Urbanization has led to considerable pressure on urban/suburban aquatic ecosystems. Urban Wet Weather Discharges (UWWD) during rainfall events are a major source of pollutants leached onto and into urban surfaces and sewers, which in turn affect aquatic ecosystems. We assessed the ecotoxicity of the different compounds identified in UWWD and identified the hazard represented by each of them. To this end, hazard quotient (HQ) values were calculated for each compound detected in UWWD based on their predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) values and their maximum measured effluent concentrations (MECmax) found in the dissolved part of UWWD...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
A C Mehinto, D R VanDervort, W Lao, G He, M S Denison, S M Vliet, D C Volz, R D Mazor, K A Maruya
The impact of unmonitored contaminants, also known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), on freshwater streams remains largely uncharacterized. Water samples from 31 streams representing urban, agricultural and undeveloped (i.e., open space) land use in Southern California (USA) were analyzed for in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The extent and magnitude of bioactivity screened using endocrine-responsive cell bioassays and a fish embryo screening assay were low. In contrast, a wider gradient of responses for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) assay was observed, which was negatively correlated with a measure of benthic community structure...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Michael Schindler, Michael F Hochella
Nanoparticles (NPs) often play significant roles in dictating the transport, distribution, bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in the environment. Incidental NPs (i.e. NPs of anthropogenic origin but not purposely engineered) are often overlooked in contaminant transport and fate studies; yet in many systems they dominate contaminant transport processes. Using surficial contaminated regosols from Trail, British Columbia, Canada, a metal smelting and refining area along the banks of the Columbia River, we show that sequestration of Pb-, Zn-, Sb-, and As-bearing incidental NPs is strongly influenced by their aggregation, crystal growth, and/or particle attachment to mineral surface coatings (MSC) and in mineralized organic matter (MOM)...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Nooshin Peyman, Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Mohammad Tajfard, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, David J Karlen
A set of methodological tools was tested to assess the sensitivity of several ecological and biological indices to eutrophication while at the same time attempting to explore a linkage among pressures, classification assessment and drivers. Industrial discharges, harbor activities, natural interactions and river discharges are the pressures most related to the eutrophication process in tropical coastal water bodies. Among the eutrophication indices used, TRIX and operational indicators overestimated the eutrophication status in the study area, but EI and chl-a seems to be a rather responsive index to reflect the first stage of eutrophication...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mikolaj Jan Jankowski, Raymond Olsen, Yngvar Thomassen, Paal Molander
Isocyanic acid (ICA) is one of the most abundant isocyanates formed during thermal decomposition of polyurethane (PUR), and other nitrogen containing polymers. Hot-work, such as flame cutting, forging, grinding, turning and welding may give rise to thermal decomposition of said polymers potentially forming significant amounts of ICA. A newly launched dry denuder sampler for airborne isocyanates using di-n-butylamine (DBA) demonstrated build-up of background ICA-DBA over time. Build-up of background ICA-DBA was not observed when stored at inert conditions (Ar atmosphere) for 84 days...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Matthew J Binnington, Ying D Lei, Lucky Pokiak, James Pokiak, Sonja K Ostertag, Lisa L Loseto, Hing M Chan, Leo W Y Yeung, Haiyong Huang, Frank Wania
For Canadian Arctic indigenous populations, marine mammal (MM) traditional foods (TFs) represent sources of both important nutrients and hazardous environmental contaminants. Food preparation is known to impact the nutrient and environmental contaminant content of processed items, yet the impacts of preparation on indigenous Arctic MM TFs remain poorly characterized. In order to determine how the various processes involved in preparing beluga blubber TFs affect their levels of nutrients and environmental contaminants, we collected blubber samples from 2 male beluga whales, aged 24 and 37 years, captured during the 2014 summer hunting season in Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, and processed them according to local TF preparation methods...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Magaly Valencia-Avellan, Rebecca Slack, Anthony Stockdale, Robert John George Mortimer
Point and diffuse pollution from metal mining has led to severe environmental damage worldwide. Mine drainage is a significant problem for riverine ecosystems, it is commonly acidic (AMD), but neutral mine drainage (NMD) can also occur. A representative environment for studying metal pollution from NMD is provided by carboniferous catchments characterised by a circumneutral pH and high concentrations of carbonates, supporting the formation of secondary metal-minerals as potential sinks of metals. The present study focuses on understanding the mobility of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Pu Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Yingming Li, Julius Matsiko, Ya Zhang, Guibin Jiang
In recent years, China suffered from extensive air pollution due to the rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments. Its severe impact on human health has raised great concern currently. Persistent toxic substances (PTSs), a large group of environmental pollutants, have also received much attention due to their adverse effects on both the ecosystem and public health. However, limited studies have been conducted to reveal the airborne PTSs associated with air pollution at the national scale in China...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Puneet Kumar Verma, Dinesh Sah, K Maharaj Kumari, Anita Lakhani
Aerosol samples in the dual-phase (gaseous and particulate) were collected simultaneously for the first time in Agra at a rural and a traffic dominated site during post-monsoon and winter seasons to investigate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples were collected using a high volume sampler on quartz micro-fiber filter papers and polyurethane foam plugs for particulate and gas phases respectively. The samples were extracted in a mixture of DCM and n-hexane. 16 priority PAHs and two nitro-PAHs were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Megan B McConville, Stephen P Mezyk, Christina K Remucal
3-Trifluromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) are lampricides used in tributaries of the Great Lakes to kill the invasive parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Although the lampricides have been applied since the late 1950s, their photochemical behavior in natural environments is still not well understood. This study examines the indirect photodegradation of these two compounds and the resulting yields of organic and inorganic photoproducts in water samples collected from five tributaries of Lake Michigan...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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