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Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts

Yu-Mei Tan, Jeremy A Leonard, Stephen Edwards, Justin Teeguarden, Peter Egeghy
Advancements in measurement technologies and modeling capabilities continue to result in an abundance of exposure information, adding to that currently in existence. However, fragmentation within the exposure science community acts as an obstacle for realizing the vision set forth in the National Research Council's report on Exposure Science in the 21st century to consider exposures from source to dose, on multiple levels of integration, and to multiple stressors. The concept of an Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) was proposed as a framework for organizing and integrating diverse exposure information that exists across numerous repositories and among multiple scientific fields...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Chubashini Shunthirasingham, Nick Alexandrou, Kenneth A Brice, Helena Dryfhout-Clark, Ky Su, Cecilia Shin, Richard Park, Artur Pajda, Ronald Noronha, Hayley Hung
Organic pollutants have been monitored in the atmosphere of the Great Lake Basin (GLB) since the 1990s in support of the Canada-US Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and to determine the effectiveness of source reduction measures and factors influencing air concentrations. Air samples were collected between 2005 and 2014 at three sites with different geographical characteristics (Burnt Island, Egbert and Point Petre) in the Canadian GLB using high-volume air samplers and the air samples were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and several other non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants (HFRs)...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Bo Zhang, Ju-Jun Ruan, Lei Xie, Ming-Wei Gui, Xue-Yuan Bai, Tao Zhang
Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters are widely used in sunscreen products to protect human skin from UV radiation. However, only a few studies have been conducted to determine the level of human exposure to BPs in rural areas of China. In this study, we evaluated the exposure levels of people living in three villages and a city in South China to five major BPs (BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4-OH-BP). The detection rates of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 66%, 72%, and 75%, respectively, in rural areas and 85%, 75%, and 80%, correspondingly, in urban areas...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Anteneh Assefa, Mats Tysklind, Jana Klanova, Karin Wiberg
The atmosphere is the major contributor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea environment. In this study, we investigated the potential of using metals along with PCDD/Fs as markers of important emission sources of PCDD/Fs in air. The air concentrations of PCDD/F congeners (n = 17), other persistent organic pollutants (n = 8) and metals (n = 16) were determined in summer and winter air using high volume samplers at a rural field station (Aspvreten, Sweden) located close to the Baltic Sea coast...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Xing Chen, Xinran Liu, Min Liu, Yi Yang, Shixue Wu, Chong Wang
Spatial-temporal distributions, source identification, and possible effects of land use patterns on PAHs were studied in overlying water and surface sediments in Yangtze estuarine and nearby coastal areas. The concentrations of PAHs ranged from 172.6 ± 9.3 to 5603.7 ± 548.7 ng L-1, 841.0 ± 36.6 to 31 190.5 ± 3711.5 ng g-1and 312.3 ± 7.6 to 9081.1 ± 862.3 ng g-1, with mean contents of 1042.9 ng L-1, 8922.9 ng g-1and 2400.2 ng g-1in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. PAH concentrations in three phases were higher in dry seasons (January and April) than in rainy seasons (July and October), and showed a distribution pattern as freshwater area > transition area > seawater area...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
(no author information available yet)
2017 was another successful year for Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts (ESPI); it saw the expansion of our Editorial team and publication of two excellent Themed Issues, all while maintaining our commitment to provide our authors with exceptional customer service and fast times to publication. Through this Editorial, we wish to reflect upon some of the highlights from 2017 and also take this opportunity to reveal further new additions to the ESPI team and our plans for 2018.
February 12, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mikolaj Jan Jankowski, Raymond Olsen, Yngvar Thomassen, Paal Molander
Correction for 'Comparison of air samplers for determination of isocyanic acid and applicability for work environment exposure assessment' by Mikolaj Jan Jankowski et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2017, 19, 1075-1085.
February 7, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mikolaj Jan Jankowski, Raymond Olsen, Yngvar Thomassen, Paal Molander
Correction for 'The stability and generation pattern of thermally formed isocyanic acid (ICA) in air - potential and limitations of proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for real-time workroom atmosphere measurements' by Mikolaj Jan Jankowski et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2016, 18, 810-818.
February 7, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mikolaj Jan Jankowski, Raymond Olsen, Claus Jørgen Nielsen, Yngvar Thomassen, Paal Molander
Correction for 'The applicability of proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for determination of isocyanic acid (ICA) in work room atmospheres' by Mikolaj Jan Jankowski et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014, 16, 2423-2431.
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Adrian C Heggie, Bill Stavropoulos
A new instrumental method (a passive flux chamber) to quantify emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from natural ground surfaces and floors or pavements was developed and tested against the traditional emission isolation flux chamber (the dynamic flux chamber). Dynamic flux chambers have been used for some decades to measure diffusive mass flux of VOCs at contaminated sites thereby providing quantitative estimates of the contribution of contaminant vapour fluxes to indoor air concentrations for human health risk assessments...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Wiley C Jennings, Eunice C Chern, Diane O'Donohue, Michael G Kellogg, Alexandria B Boehm
Fecal pollution of surface waters presents a global human health threat. New molecular indicators of fecal pollution have been developed to address shortcomings of traditional culturable fecal indicators. However, there is still little information on their fate and transport in the environment. The present study uses spatially and temporally extensive data on traditional (culturable enterococci, cENT) and molecular (qPCR-enterococci, qENT and human-associated marker, HF183/BacR287) indicator concentrations in marine water surrounding highly-urbanized San Francisco, California, USA to investigate environmental and anthropogenic processes that impact fecal pollution...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Yingjie Li, Xiangliang Liu, Biaojun Zhang, Qun Zhao, Ping Ning, Senlin Tian
The ubiquity of sulfonamides (SAs) in natural waters requires insight into their environmental fate for ecological risk assessment. Extensive studies focused on the effect of univariate water constituents on the photochemical fate of SAs, yet the multivariate effects of water constituents in environmentally relevant concentrations on SA photodegradation are poorly understood. Here, response surface methodology was employed to explore the integrative effects of main water constituents (dissolved organic matter (DOM), NO3-, HCO3-, Cu2+) on the photodegradation of a representative SA (sulfamethazine)...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
J Oltmanns, O Licht, A Bitsch, M-L Bohlen, S E Escher, V Silano, M MacLeod, R Serafimova, G E N Kass, C Merten
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for risk assessment of all aspects of food safety, including the establishment of procedures aimed at the identification of emerging risks to food safety. Here, a scoring system was developed for identifying chemicals registered under the European REACH Regulation that could be of potential concern in the food chain using the following parameters: (i) environmental release based on maximum aggregated tonnages and environmental release categories; (ii) biodegradation in the environment; (iii) bioaccumulation and in vivo and in vitro toxicity...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Charlotte R Kanzler, Peng Lian, Emma Leverich Trainer, Xiaoxuan Yang, Niranjan Govind, Jerry M Parks, Andrew M Graham
Alkylated mercury species (monomethylmercury, MeHg, and dimethylmercury, DMeHg) exhibit significant bioaccumulation, and pose significant risks to ecosystems and human health. Although decades of research have been devoted to understanding MeHg formation and degradation, little is known about the DMeHg formation in aquatic systems. Here, we combine complementary experimental and computational approaches to examine MeHg speciation and DMeHg formation in sulfidic aqueous solutions, with an emphasis on the formation and decomposition of the binuclear bis(methylmercuric(ii)) sulfide complex (CH3Hg)2S...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Carluvy Baptista-Salazar, Holger Hintelmann, Harald Biester
Mercury (Hg) released by mining activities can be dispersed in the environment, where it is subject to species transformations. Hg isotope ratios have been used to track sources in Hg contaminated areas, although it is unclear to what extent variations in δ-values are attributed to distinct Hg species. Hg was mined as Hg sulphide (cinnabar) in Idrija, Slovenia for centuries. Sediments are loaded with mining-residues (cinnabar and calcine), whereas contaminated soils mainly contain Hg bound to natural organic matter (NOM-Hg) related to atmospheric Hg deposition...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
D R S Middleton, M J Watts, E M Hamilton, J D Coe, T Fletcher, H Crabbe, R Close, G S Leonardi, D A Polya
Dust elemental levels can be expressed as concentrations (bulk samples) or surface loadings (wipe samples). Wipe sampling has not been widely adopted for elements other than lead (Pb). In this study, 433 wipe samples from 130 households in south west England - a region of widespread, natural and anthropogenic arsenic contamination linked with previous mining activities-were analysed to (i) quantify loadings of arsenic (As); (ii) assess the quality of wipe data using QA/QC criteria; (iii) estimate, using published ingestion rates, human exposure to As in dust using loadings and concentrations from 97 bulk samples and (iv) comparatively assess the performance of wipe and bulk sampling using associations with As biomonitoring data (urine, toenails and hair)...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
R J Strickman, C P J Mitchell
Stormwater retention ponds effectively manage erosion, flooding, and pollutant loadings, but are also sources of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin which is produced by anaerobic aquatic microorganisms. Stormwater retention ponds have a 10-15 year working life, after which they are dredged and reflooded. In this study, we related MeHg biogeochemistry to the different stages of the management lifecycle. In a new, a dredged, and a mature stormwater retention pond, we measured MeHg and inorganic mercury (IHg) concentrations, and the potential for MeHg formation (Kmeth), during the early summer, peak summer, and fall of 2013...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Geoffrey D Millard, Charles T Driscoll, Douglas A Burns, Mario R Montesdeoca, Karen Riva-Murray
Surface waters in Europe and North America previously impacted by acid deposition are recovering in conjunction with declining precursor emissions since the 1980s. Lime has been applied to some impacted watersheds to accelerate recovery. The response to liming can be considered a proxy for future recovery from acid deposition. Increases in dissolved organic carbon concentrations have been observed in surface waters in response to increased pH associated with recovery from acid deposition. Although not previously described, recovery-related increases in dissolved organic carbon could drive increases in mercury concentrations and loads because of the affinity of mercury for dissolved organic matter...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
J A Perlinger, N R Urban, A Giang, N E Selin, A N Hendricks, H Zhang, A Kumar, S Wu, V S Gagnon, H S Gorman, E S Norman
Mercury (Hg) emissions pose a global problem that requires global cooperation for a solution. However, neither emissions nor regulations are uniform world-wide, and hence the impacts of regulations are also likely to vary regionally. We report here an approach to model the effectiveness of regulations at different scales (local, regional, global) in reducing Hg deposition and fish Hg concentrations in the Laurentian Great Lakes (GL) region. The potential effects of global change on deposition are also modeled...
January 23, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Matthew MacLeod, Todd Gouin, Thomas E McKone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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