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Annals of the American Thoracic Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345970/the-prevalence-and-significance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-patients-with-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#1
Mark L Metersky, Timothy R Aksamit, Alan Barker, Radmila Choate, Charles L Daley, Leigh A Daniels, Angela DiMango, Edward Eden, David Griffith, Margaret Johnson, Michael Knowles, Anne E O'Donnell, Kenneth Olivier, Matthias Salathe, Byron Thomashow, Gregory Tino, Gerard Turino, Kevin L Winthrop, David Mannino
RATIONALE: Staphylococcus aureus is commonly cultured from the sputum of patients with bronchiectasis, however little is known about the prevalence of the organism in these patients, the characteristics of patients who have grown the organism or its implications. OBJECTIVES: Determine the relationship between S. aureus and pulmonary function, frequency of exacerbations and frequency of hospitalization in patients with bronchiectasis Methods: The Bronchiectasis Research Registry is a database of adults with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis identified from 13 sites within the United States...
January 18, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342367/cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-guidelines-use-of-cftr-modulator-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Clement L Ren, Rebecca L Morgan, Christopher Oermann, Helaine E Resnick, Cynthia Brady, Annette Campbell, Richard DeNagel, Margaret Guill, Jeffrey Hoag, Andrew Lipton, Thomas Newton, Stacy Peters, Donna Beth Willey-Courand, Edward T Naureckas
BACKGROUND: CFTR modulators are a new class of medications that target the underlying defect in in cystic fibrosis (CF). Ivacaftor (IVA) and IVA combined with lumacaftor (IVA/LUM) have been approved by the FDA for use in CF patients. However, the FDA label for these medications encompasses patient groups that were not studied as part of the drug approval process. CF clinicians, patients, and their families have recognized a need for recommendations to guide the use of these medications...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328889/respiratory-phenotypes-for-preterm-infants-children-and-adults-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-more
#3
Joseph M Collaco, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow
Ongoing advancements in neonatal care since the late 1980's have led to increased numbers of premature infants surviving well beyond the neonatal period. As a result of increased survival, many individuals born preterm manifest chronic respiratory symptoms throughout infancy, childhood and adult life. The archetypical respiratory disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is the second most common chronic pediatric respiratory disease after asthma. However, there are several commonly held misconceptions...
January 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328885/radiographic-emphysema-circulating-bone-biomarkers-and-progressive-bone-mineral-density-loss-in-smokers
#4
Jessica Bon, Yingze Zhang, Joseph K Leader, Carl Fuhrman, Subashan Perera, Divay Chandra, Marnie Bertolet, Brenda Diergaarde, Susan L Greenspan, Frank C Sciurba
RATIONALE: Osteoporosis is common in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lung-specific factors, including radiographic emphysema, independently associate with low bone mineral density (BMD) in cross-sectional smoking cohorts. However, factors associated with progressive bone loss in smokers are under-studied and largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between radiographic emphysema, circulating bone metabolism markers, and pulmonary function and accelerated BMD loss in smokers...
January 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323930/the-economic-burden-of-asthma-in-the-united-states-2008-2013
#5
Tursynbek Nurmagambetov, Robin Kuwahara, Paul Garbe
RATIONALE: Asthma is a chronic disease that affects quality of life, productivity at work and school, healthcare use, and can result in death. Measuring the current economic burden of asthma provides important information on the impact of asthma on society. This information can be used to make informed decisions about allocation of limited public health resources. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we provide a comprehensive approach to estimate current prevalence, medical costs, cost of absenteeism (missed work and schooldays) and mortality attributable to asthma from a national perspective...
January 11, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323929/variation-in-cilia-protein-genes-and-progression-of-lung-disease-in-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Elizabeth Blue, Tin L Louie, Jessica X Chong, Scott J Hebbring, Kathleen C Barnes, Nicholas M Rafaels, Michael R Knowles, Ronald L Gibson, Michael J Bamshad, Mary J Emond
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis, like primary ciliary dyskinesia, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal mucociliary clearance and obstructive lung disease. We hypothesized that genes underlying the development or function of cilia may modify lung disease severity in persons with cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To test this hypothesis, we compared variants in 93 candidate genes in both upper and lower tertiles of lung function in a large cohort of children and adults with cystic fibrosis to a population control data set...
January 11, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313714/decreased-lung-function-and-all-cause-mortality-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#7
Matthew R Gingo, Mehdi Nouraie, Cathy J Kessinger, Ruth M Greenblatt, Laurence Huang, Eric C Kleerup, Lawrence Kingsley, Deborah K McMahon, Alison Morris
RATIONALE: HIV infection is associated with pulmonary disease and worse lung function, but the relationship of lung function with survival in HIV is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if lung function is associated with all-cause mortality in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected participants. RESULTS: HIV-infected pParticipants from cohorts in three locations underwent pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry and single-breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in 2008-2009, computed tomography (CT) of the chest for quantitative emphysema and airway measures, and echocardiogram for estimated left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and tricuspid regurgitant velocity...
January 9, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313709/association-of-high-dose-ibuprofen-use-lung-function-decline-and-long-term-survival-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Michael W Konstan, Donald R VanDevanter, Gregory S Sawicki, David J Pasta, Aimee J Foreman, Evgueni A Neiman, Wayne J Morgan
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) deaths result primarily from lung function loss, so chronic respiratory therapies intended to preserve lung function are cornerstones of CF care. Although treatment-associated reduction in rate of lung function loss should ultimately improve CF survival, no such relationship has been described for any chronic CF therapy. In part, this is because the ages of most rapid lung function decline -- early adolescence -- precede the median age of CF deaths by more than a decade...
January 9, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298090/variation-in-the-diagnosis-of-aspiration-pneumonia-and-association-with-hospital-pneumonia-outcomes
#9
Peter K Lindenauer, Kelly M Strait, Jacqueline N Grady, Chi K Ngo, Madeline L Parisi, Mark Metersky, Joseph S Ross, Susannah M Bernheim, Karen Dorsey
Rationale National efforts to compare hospital outcomes for patients with pneumonia may be biased by hospital differences in diagnosis and coding of aspiration pneumonia, a condition that has traditionally been excluded from pneumonia outcome measures. Objectives To evaluate the rationale and impact of including aspiration pneumonia patients in hospital mortality and readmission measures. Methods Using Medicare fee-for-service claims for patients > 65 years from July 2012 - June 2015, we characterized the proportion of hospitals' pneumonia patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia, calculated hospital-specific risk-standardized rates of 30-day mortality and readmission for pneumonia patients, analyzed the association between aspiration pneumonia coding frequency and these rates, and re-calculated these rates including aspiration pneumonia patients...
January 3, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298089/integrating-geriatric-principles-into-critical-care-medicine-the-time-is-now
#10
Nathan E Brummel, Lauren E Ferrante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298088/echocardiogram-in-the-evaluation-of-hemodynamically-stable-acute-pulmonary-embolism-national-practices-and-clinical-outcomes
#11
David M Cohen, Michael Winter, Peter K Lindenauer, Allan J Walkey
RATIONALE: Societal guideline recommendations vary with regard to the role of routine trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) to screen for right ventricular strain in patients with hemodynamically-stable, acute pulmonary embolism (PE). OBJECTIVE: To characterize national patterns in use of early TTE for the evaluation of patients with hemodynamically-stable, acute PE, and determine associations between TTE use and patient outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using Premier, Inc...
January 3, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298081/paratracheal-paraseptal-emphysema-and-expiratory-central-airway-collapse-in-smokers
#12
Carla R Copeland, Hrudaya Nath, Nina L J Terry, Carla G Wilson, Young-Il Kim, David A Lynch, Sandeep Bodduluri, J Michael Wells, Mark T Dransfield, Alejandro A Díaz, George R Washko, Marilyn G Foreman, Surya P Bhatt
RATIONALE: Expiratory central airway collapse (ECAC) is associated with respiratory morbidity independent of underlying lung disease. However, not all smokers develop ECAC and the etiology of ECAC in adult smokers is unclear. Paraseptal emphysema in the paratracheal location, by untethering airway walls, may predispose smokers to developing ECAC. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether paratracheal paraseptal emphysema (paratracheal PSE) is associated with ECAC. METHODS: We analyzed paired inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography scans from participants enrolled in a multicenter study (COPDGene) of smokers aged 45-80 years...
January 3, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283700/relapsing-polychondritis-is-a-lung-disease-my-story
#13
Marcela A Ferrada
Relapsing polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disease that can be fatal. This systemic condition with a predilection for cartilage can inflame the trachea, the distal airways, ear and nose, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and brain. If relapsing polychondritis is not diagnosed early and treated effectively, there can be irreversible damage to the cartilage that can lead to tracheal or bronchial collapse, blindness, and deafness. I am a physician and a clinical investigator. I have severe relapsing polychondritis with prominent involvement of my airways...
December 28, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283699/physician-level-variation-in-outcomes-of-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#14
Meeta Prasad Kerlin, Andrew Epstein, Jeremy M Kahn, Theodore J Iwashyna, David A Asch, Michael O Harhay, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Scott D Halpern
RATIONALE: Physicians are increasingly being held accountable for patient outcomes. Yet their specific contribution to the outcomes remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine variation in outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients among intensivists, as well as associations between intensivist experience and patient outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated Medicare fee-for-service patients in acute care hospitals in Pennsylvania, using administrative, clinical, and physician data from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the American Medical Association from 2008 and 2009...
December 28, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283698/transitions-to-home-mechanical-ventilation-the-experiences-of-canadian-ventilator-assisted-adults-and-their-family-caregivers
#15
Craig M Dale, Judy King, Mika Nonoyama, Sarah Carbone, Douglas McKim, Jeremy Road, Louise Rose
RATIONALE: Several studies have explored the experience of ventilator-assisted individual (VAIs) living at home with family caregivers. However, few explore the experiences of these individuals as they transition from a hospital setting to living at home with a view to identifying modifiable processes that could optimize transition. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive, qualitative study sought to elucidate barriers to, and facilitators of, transition to home mechanical ventilation (HMV) from the perspective of Canadian VAIs and their family caregivers...
December 28, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283682/domiciliary-high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-therapy-for-stable-hypercapnic-copd-patients-a-multicenter-randomized-crossover-trial
#16
Kazuma Nagata, Takashi Kikuchi, Takeo Horie, Akira Shiraki, Takamasa Kitajima, Toru Kadowaki, Fumiaki Tokioka, Naohiko Chohnabayashi, Akira Watanabe, Susumu Sato, Keisuke Tomii
RATIONALE: A growing evidence base suggests a benefit of using high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) in the acute setting. However, the clinical benefit of domiciliary use of HFNC in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of HFNC use in stable COPD patients. METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized crossover trial comparing HFNC plus long-term oxygen therapy (HFNC/LTOT) with LTOT-only in 32 adults with stable hypercapnic COPD...
December 28, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283681/short-term-air-pollution-and-incident-pneumonia-a-case-crossover-study
#17
Cheryl S Pirozzi, Barbara E Jones, James A VanDerslice, Yue Zhang, Robert Paine, Nathan C Dean
RATIONALE: The relationship between air pollution and pneumonia is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To examine relationships between short-term air pollution exposure and number and severity of pneumonia cases along the Wasatch Front in Utah, USA, a region with periodic high levels of outdoor air pollution. METHODS: We applied time-stratified case-crossover analyses with distributed lag to patients presenting to 7 emergency departments (EDs) with pneumonia over 2 years...
December 28, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283670/home-based-physical-activity-coaching-physical-activity-and-healthcare-utilization-in-copd-copd-smart-secondary-outcomes
#18
David B Coultas, Bradford E Jackson, Rennie Russo, Jennifer Peoples, Karan P Singh, John Sloan, Minyong Uhm, Jamile A Ashmore, Steven N Blair, Sejong Bae
RATIONALE: Physical inactivity among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with exacerbations requiring high-cost healthcare utilization including urgent, emergent, and hospital care. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of a behavioral lifestyle physical activity intervention combined with COPD self-management education to prevent high-cost healthcare utilization. METHODS: This was an analysis of secondary outcomes of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Self-Management Activation Research Trial, a two-arm randomized trial of stable adult outpatients with COPD recruited from primary care and pulmonary clinics...
December 28, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266966/cardiovascular-outcomes-following-a-respiratory-tract-infection-among-adults-with-non-cf-bronchiectasis-a-general-population-based-study
#19
Vidya Navaratnam, Adrian A Root, Ian Douglas, Liam Smeeth, Richard B Hubbard, Jennifer K Quint
RATIONALE: Studies suggest that people with bronchiectasis are at increased risk of cardiovascular co-morbidities. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify the relative risk of incident cardiovascular events following a respiratory tract infection amongst people with bronchiectasis. METHODS: Using UK electronic primary care records, we conducted a within-person comparison using the self-controlled case series method. We calculated the relative risk of first time cardiovascular events (either first myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke) following a respiratory tract infection compared with the individual's baseline risk...
December 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262268/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-defining-the-indefinable
#20
Spyridon Fortis
NA.
December 20, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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