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Annals of the American Thoracic Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144886/comparative-effectiveness-of-proactive-tobacco-treatment-among-smokers-with-and-without-chronic-lower-respiratory-disease
#1
Anne C Melzer, Barbara Clothier, Sandra J Japuntich, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Patrick Hammett, Diana J Burgess, Anne M Joseph, Steven S Fu
RATIONALE: Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) differ in their barriers to smoking cessation, but also suffer from tobacco related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without CLRD. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without CLRD. METHODS: Subgroup analysis of the Veterans VICTORY Over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared to usual care...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144884/adiposity-and-asthma-in-a-nationwide-study-of-children-and-adults-in-the-united-states
#2
Erick Forno, Yueh-Ying Han, Ingrid M Libman, Radhika H Muzumdar, Juan C Celedón
RATIONALE: While obesity has been associated with asthma, body mass index (BMI) is suboptimal to fully characterize adiposity. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation between adiposity and asthma in a large sample of the U.S. population, using indices defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). METHODS: We analyzed data from 8,886 children (aged 8-19 years) and 12,795 adults (aged 20-69 years) from the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144160/high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-in-adults-an-evidence-based-assessment
#3
Matthew G Drake
High flow nasal cannula oxygenation has distinct advantages over other oxygen devices due to its unique effects on respiratory physiology. In particular, adjustable oxygen delivery and flow-dependent carbon dioxide clearance from the upper airway reduce work of breathing and can better match inspiratory demand during respiratory distress. Historically, few studies had evaluated whether the physiologic effects of these devices translated into clinical benefit. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140739/cftr-genotype-and-maximal-exercise-capacity-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Thomas Radtke, Helge Hebestreit, Sabina Gallati, Jane E Schneiderman, Julia Braun, Daniel Stevens, Erik Hj Hulzebos, Tim Takken, Steven R Boas, Don S Urquhart, Larry C Lands, Sergio Tejero, Aleksandar Sovtic, Tiffany Dwyer, Milos Petrovic, Ryan A Harris, Chantal Karila, Daniela Savi, Jakob Usemann, Meir Mei-Zahav, Elpis Hatziagorou, Felix Ratjen, Susi Kriemler
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with CF may present an important determinant of aerobic exercise capacity in CF. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and aerobic exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to explore factors influencing aerobic exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with CF...
November 15, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140726/treatment-setting-and-outcomes-of-cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-exacerbations
#5
Michael S Schechter, Donald R VanDevanter, David J Pasta, Sarah A Short, Wayne J Morgan, Michael W Konstan
RATIONALE: There are important gaps in our knowledge of the optimal treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary exacerbations. Previous observational studies comparing inpatient to outpatient treatment have suffered from methodological weaknesses, especially indication bias. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed data from the Epidemiologic Study of CF using techniques to control for indication bias to determine whether there is an advantage to inpatient treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbations...
November 15, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140104/corrective-statements-from-the-tobacco-industry-more-evidence-for-why-we-need-effective-tobacco-control
#6
Harold J Farber, Enid R Neptune, Gary W Ewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131662/isoniazid-monoresistance-and-rate-of-culture-conversion-among-confirmed-tuberculosis-patients-in-the-state-of-georgia-2009-2014
#7
Argita D Salindri, Rose-Marie F Sales, Lauren DiMiceli, Marcos C Schechter, Russell R Kempker, Matthew J Magee
RATIONALE: Isoniazid-monoresistant tuberculosis (INH-monoresistant TB) is the most common drug-resistant TB type in the US; however, its impact on TB treatment outcomes is not clear. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to understand: 1) factors associated with INH-monoresistant TB and 2) the association between INH-monoresistance and response to TB treatment. METHODS: We studied all patients with TB aged ≥15 years reported to the Georgia State Electronic Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (SENDSS) from 2009-2014...
November 13, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121480/palliative-care-planner-pcplanner-a-pilot-study-to-evaluate-acceptability-and-usability-of-an-electronic-health-records-system-integrated-needs-targeted-app-platform
#8
Christopher E Cox, Derek M Jones, Wen Reagan, Mary D Key, Vinca Chow, Jessica McFarlin, David Casarett, Claire J Creutzfeldt, Sharron L Docherty
RATIONALE: The quality and patient-centeredness of intensive care unit (ICU)-based palliative care delivery is highly variable. OBJECTIVE: To develop and pilot an app platform for clinicians, ICU patients, and their family members that enhances the delivery of needs-targeted palliative care. METHODS: In the Development Phase of the study, we developed an electronic health record (EHR) system-integrated mobile web app system prototype, PCplanner (Palliative Care Planner)...
November 9, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121474/outcomes-following-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-lobectomy-versus-open-lobectomy-for-early-stage-lung-cancer-in-older-adults
#9
Nicole Ezer, Minal Kale, Keith Sigel, Sameer Lakha, Grace Mhango, Emily Goodman, Daniel Nicastri, Scott Swanson, Alfred Neugut, Juan P Wisnivesky
RATIONALE: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and open lobectomy are both standard of care for treatment of early stage NSCLC because of equivalent long-term survival. OBJECTIVE: To evaluated whether the improved peri-operative outcomes associated with VATS are explained by differences in case volume and specialty training. METHODS: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked registry to identify stage I-II NSCLC in patients above 65 years of age...
November 9, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112479/a-new-era-in-critical-care-ultrasound-professionalization
#10
Samuel M Brown, Hiroshi Sekiguchi, Michael R Pinsky
NA.
November 7, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099614/blood-leukocyte-concentrations-fev1-decline-and-airflow-limitation-a-15-year-longitudinal-study-of-wtc-exposed-firefighters
#11
Rachel Zeig-Owens, Ankura Singh, Thomas K Aldrich, Charles B Hall, Theresa Schwartz, Mayris P Webber, Hillel W Cohen, Kerry J Kelly, Anna Nolan, David J Prezant, Michael D Weiden
RATIONALE: Rescue/recovery work at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site caused a proximate decline in lung function in Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) firefighters. A subset of this cohort experienced an accelerated rate of lung function decline over 15 years of post-9/11 follow-up. OBJECTIVES: To determine if post-exposure inflammatory cell concentrations are biomarkers for subsequent forced expiratory volume (FEV1) decline and incident airflow limitation...
November 3, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099239/physician-approaches-to-conflict-with-families-surrounding-end-of-life-decision-making-in-the-icu-a-qualitative-study
#12
Hashim M Mehter, Jessica B McCannon, Jack A Clark, Renda Soylemez Wiener
RATIONALE: Families of critically ill patients are often asked to make difficult decisions to pursue, withhold or withdraw aggressive care or resuscitative measures, exercising "substituted judgment" from the imagined standpoint of the patient. Conflict may arise between intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and family members regarding the optimal course of care. OBJECTIVES: To characterize how ICU physicians approach and manage conflict with surrogates regarding end-of-life decision-making...
November 3, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087741/the-long-term-oxygen-treatment-trial-lott-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-rationale-design-and-lessons-learned
#13
Roger D Yusen, Gerard J Criner, Alice L Sternberg, David H Au, Anne L Fuhlbrigge, Richard K Albert, Richard Casaburi, James K Stoller, Kathleen F Harrington, J Allen D Cooper, Philip Diaz, Steven Gay, Richard Kanner, Neil MacIntyre, Fernando J Martinez, Steven Piantadosi, Frank Sciurba, David Shade, Thomas Stibolt, James Tonascia, Robert Wise, William C Bailey
The Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial (LOTT) demonstrated that long-term supplemental oxygen did not reduce time to hospital admission or death for patients who have stable COPD and resting and/or exercise-induced moderate oxyhemoglobin desaturation, nor did it provide benefit for any other outcome measured in the trial. Nine months after initiation of patient screening, after randomization of 34 patients to treatment, a trial design amendment broadened the eligible population, expanded the primary outcome, and reduced the goal sample size...
October 31, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087725/disease-burden-and-variability-in-sarcoidosis
#14
Alicia K Gerke, Marc A Judson, Yvette C Cozier, Daniel A Culver, Laura L Koth
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with substantial morbidity and increasing mortality. As a part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's workshop to better understand this disease and improve the outcomes of sarcoidosis patients, we reviewed the available data on health care burden and outcomes of this disease in the United States (U.S.). Disparities in outcomes exist by race, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic groups, with African Americans having disproportionately more severe disease...
October 31, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073366/catheter-directed-thrombolysis-for-intermediate-risk-pulmonary-embolism
#15
David Furfaro, R Scott Stephens, Michael B Streiff, Roy Brower
Intermediate risk pulmonary embolism is common and carries a risk of progression to hemodynamic collapse and death. Catheter directed thrombolysis is an increasingly utilized treatment option, based largely on the assumptions that it is more efficacious than anticoagulation alone, and safer than systemic thrombolysis. In this review, we critically analyze the published data regarding catheter directed thrombolysis for the treatment of intermediate risk pulmonary embolism. Catheter directed thrombolysis reduces right heart strain and lowers pulmonary artery pressures more quickly than anticoagulation alone...
October 26, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073364/genetic-immunological-and-environmental-basis-of-sarcoidosis
#16
David R Moller, Ben A Rybicki, Nabeel Y Hamzeh, Courtney G Montgomery, Edward S Chen, Wonder Drake, Andrew Fontenot
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease with tremendous heterogeneity in disease manifestations, severity and clinical course that varies among different ethnic and racial groups. To better understand this disease and to improve the outcomes of patients, an NHLBI workshop was convened to assess the current state of knowledge, gaps and research needs across the clinical, genetic, environmental and immunologic arenas. We also explored to what extent the interplay of the genetic, environmental and immunologic factors could explain the different phenotypes and outcomes of sarcoidosis patients, including the chronic phenotypes that have the greatest health care burden...
October 26, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073361/high-risk-sarcoidosis-current-concepts-and-research-imperatives
#17
William H Sauer, Barney J Stern, Robert Baughman, Daniel A Culver, Walter Royal
Sarcoidosis is a disease with heterogeneous manifestations and outcomes, varying in part based on organ involvement. Specifically, sarcoidosis patients at risk for poor outcomes include individuals with treatment-resistant pulmonary sarcoidosis, including fibrotic pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension, as well as those with cardiac, neurologic and multi-organ disease. The limited but available data relating to these high-risk sarcoidosis patients, defined as those patients with presentations requiring medical intervention to avoid progressive disability or premature death, was evaluated as part of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) workshop to improve understanding of these disease manifestations...
October 26, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058451/reply-improving-care-for-patients-with-interstitial-lung-disease-using-machine-learning-requires-transparency-and-reproducibility
#18
Giulia C Kennedy, Neil M Barth, P Sean Walsh, Jing Huang, Daniel G Pankratz, Yoonha Choi, Grażyna M Fedorowicz, Jessica D Anderson, Ganesh Raghu, Fernando J Martinez, Thomas V Colby, David A Lynch, Kevin K Brown, Steve D Groshong, Jeffrey L Myers, Kevin R Flaherty, Mark P Steele
NA.
October 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058448/improving-care-for-patients-with-interstitial-lung-disease-using-machine-learning-requires-transparency-and-reproducibility
#19
Gary E Weissman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053940/reply-comments-on-stressing-the-brain%C3%A2-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#20
Joanna L Spencer-Segal, Theodore J Standiford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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