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Annals of the American Thoracic Society

Kerry A Spitzer, Mihaela S Stefan, Aruna Priya, Quinn R Pack, Penelope S Pekow, Tara Lagu, Victor M Pinto-Plata, Richard L ZuWallack, Peter K Lindenauer
RATIONALE: Current guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) after hospitalization for a COPD exacerbation, but little is known about its adoption or factors associated with participation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate receipt of PR after a hospitalization for COPD exacerbation among Medicare beneficiaries and identify individual- and hospital-level predictors of PR receipt and adherence. METHODS: We identified individuals hospitalized for COPD during 2012 and recorded receipt, timing, and number of PR visits...
November 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Michael J Lanspa, Michelle Ng Gong, David A Schoenfeld, Kathleen Tiffany Lee, Colin K Grissom, Peter C Hou, Ary Serpa-Neto, Samuel M Brown, Theodore J Iwashyna, Donald M Yealy, Catherine L Hough, Roy G Brower, Carolyn S Calfee, Robert C Hyzy, Michael A Matthay, Russell R Miller, Jay S Steingrub, B Taylor Thompson, Chadwick D Miller, Terry P Clemmer, Gregory W Hendey, David T Huang, Kusum S Mathews, Nida Qadir, Mark Tidswell
RATIONALE: Low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV, 6 mL/kg) benefits patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may aid those with other causes of respiratory failure. Current early ventilation practices are poorly defined. OBJECTIVES: We observed patients with acute respiratory failure to assess feasibility of a pragmatic trial of LTVV and to guide experimental design. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with acute respiratory failure admitted to intensive care units expected to participate in the proposed trial...
November 8, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Rachel Kohn, Michael O Harhay, Gary E Weissman, George L Anesi, Brian Bayes, S Ryan Greysen, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Scott D Halpern, Meeta Prasad Kerlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Harold J Farber, Enid Neptune, Gary Ewart
The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate all tobacco products and to adopt evidence-based tobacco product standards appropriate for the protection of the public health. Although the FDA acknowledges the importance of protecting young people from tobacco and nicotine and has taken some initial steps to do so, there is much that the FDA is charged with doing but has not done yet. This article describes the rationale and evidence base for what the FDA can do and needs to do in order to protect kids from tobacco and nicotine use initiation and addiction...
November 8, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Daniel P Croft, Wangjian Zhang, Shao Lin, Sally W Thurston, Philip K Hopke, Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Mark J Utell, David Q Rich
RATIONALE: Fine particulate air pollution (≤2.5µm; PM2.5) has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory disease, but assessments of specific respiratory infections in adults are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of respiratory infection healthcare encounters in adults associated with acute increases in PM2.5 concentrations. METHODS: Using case-crossover methods, we studied 498,118 adult New York State residents with a primary diagnosis of influenza, bacterial pneumonia, or culture negative pneumonia upon hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit (2005-2016)...
November 6, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Dhenuka Radhakrishnan, Astrid Guttmann, Teresa To, John Joseph Reisman, Braden D Knight, Nassim Mojaverian, Douglas G Manuel, Jennifer L Gommerman, Kenneth Croitoru, Eric I Benchimol
RATIONALE: Canada, an industrialized country with high endemic asthma rates is characterized by a large immigrant population. OBJECTIVES: Comparing asthma rates among recent immigrants relative to long term residents of Canada may provide insight into the relative contribution of environmental exposure to asthma risk. METHODS: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study performed using provincial health administrative data for all residents of Ontario, Canada...
November 5, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Khushboo Goel, Morgan Bailey, Mark Borgstrom, Sairam Parthasarathy, Bhupinder Natt, Cristine Berry, Christian Bime
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Tetyana Kendzerska, Richard S Leung, Shawn D Aaron, Najib Ayas, Jacqueline S Sandoz, Andrea S Gershon
RATIONALE: The combined impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on cardiovascular outcomes remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: We determined whether the combined presence of COPD and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) or degree of nocturnal hypoxemia is associated with increased hazard of cardiovascular events and mortality. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from adults with suspected OSA who underwent sleep study between 1994 and 2010 were linked to provincial administrative data-to determine a presence of COPD and composite outcome...
October 29, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Roberta M Kato, Yoon-Chul Kim, Biswas Joshi, Shirleen Loloyan, Choo Phei Wee, Ziyue Wu, Winston Tran, Thomas G Keens, Michael C K Khoo, Krishna S Nayak, Sally L Davidson Ward
RATIONALE: The use of real-time magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation during sleep related respiratory events can lead to better understanding of airway dynamics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dynamic anatomy of the upper airway during central apnea. METHODS: The study included obese adolescents who snore and were otherwise healthy. Subjects underwent an overnight baseline polysomnogram. Subjects slept during a 24-minute real-time upper airway MRI scan wearing a full facemask attached to a pneumotach...
October 29, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Nadia N Hansel, Karina M Romero, Suzanne L Pollard, Sonali Bose, Kevin J Psoter, Lindsay Underhill, Caroline Johnson, D'Ann Williams, Frank C Curriero, Patrick Breysse, Kirsten Koehler, William Checkley
RATIONALE: A large portion of asthma morbidity occurs in low and middle-income countries and Peru suffers particularly high asthma prevalence. Ambient air exposures are also high and likely play a role. Most studies of environmental exposures focus on understanding contributors to health care utilization or mortality risk; however, less severe outcomes may still impact quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between multiple pollutants and several asthma domains in Peruvian children...
October 26, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
David Furfaro, Javad Azadi, Traci Housten, Todd M Kolb, Rachel L Damico, Paul M Hassoun, Kelly Chin, Stephen C Mathai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Laura M Paulin, Benjamin M Smith, Abby Koch, MeiLan Han, Eric A Hoffman, Carlos Martinez, Chinedu Ejike, Paul D Blanc, Jennifer Rous, R Graham Barr, Stephen P Peters, Robert Paine, Cheryl Pirozzi, Christopher B Cooper, Mark T Dransfield, Alejandro P Comellas, Richard E Kanner, M Brad Drummond, Nirupama Putcha, Nadia N Hansel
RATIONALE: Quantitative computed tomography (CT) imaging can aid in COPD phenotyping. Few studies have identified whether occupational exposures are associated with distinct CT imaging characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between occupational exposures and CT-measured patterns of disease in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS). METHODS: Participants underwent whole-lung multidetector helical CT at full inspiration and expiration...
October 19, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Anna Abram, Mitch Zeller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kiyohiko Izumi, Kozo Morimoto, Naoki Hasegawa, Kazuhiro Uchimura, Lisa Kawatsu, Manabu Ato, Satoshi Mitarai
RATIONALE: The epidemiological status of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) remains unclear in the majority of countries, including Japan. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the nationwide incidence and prevalence of NTM-PD in Japan and to describe the patient characteristics and geographical variation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from all health insurance claims made for NTM-PD collected from the National Database in Japan between 2009 and 2014...
October 19, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Michael W Sjoding, Timothy P Hofer, Ivan Co, Jakob I McSparron, Theodore J Iwashyna
RATIONALE: Because the Berlin ARDS definition has only moderate reliability, physicians disagree about the diagnosis of ARDS in some patients. Understanding the clinical differences between patients with agreement and disagreement in the diagnosis of ARDS may provide insight into the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this syndrome, and inform strategies to improve reliability of ARDS diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To characterize patients with diagnostic disagreement in ARDS among critical care trained physicians and compare them to patients with a consensus that ARDS developed...
October 15, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Hussain S Lalani, Wangari Waweru-Siika, Peter S Kussin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Sunkaru Touray, Baboucarr Sanyang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Lucas M Donovan, Carol A Malte, Laura J Spece, Matthew F Griffith, Laura C Feemster, Ruth A Engelberg, David H Au, Eric J Hawkins
RATIONALE: Benzodiazepines are associated with mortality and poor outcomes among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but use of benzodiazepines for dyspnea among patients with end-stage disease may confound this relationship. OBJECTIVE: Assess the mortality risks of long-term benzodiazepine exposure among patients with COPD and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients with chronic non-respiratory indications for benzodiazepines...
October 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Sylvia Nyilas, Grzegorz Bauman, Orso Pusterla, Gregor Sommer, Florian Singer, Enno Stranzinger, Christoph Heyer, Kathryn Ramsey, Anne Schlegtendal, Stefanie Benzrath, Carmen Casaulta, Myrofora Goutaki, Claudia E Kuehni, Oliver Bieri, Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Philipp Latzin
RATIONALE: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by heterogeneous airway disease. Traditional lung function techniques (e.g. spirometry) may underestimate severity and complexity of PCD. OBJECTIVES: We assessed lung impairment in individuals with PCD using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and different lung function techniques. METHODS: Thirty study participants with PCD (median 13...
October 5, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Michael O Harhay, Andrea B Troxel, Christine Brophy, Kathryn Saulsgiver, Kevin G Volpp, Scott D Halpern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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