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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B

Xiangming Guan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Sung-Joon Cho, Miaoran Ning, Yanyan Zhang, Leah H Rubin, Hyunyoung Jeong
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9) is a major phase II enzyme responsible for elimination of drugs and endogenous molecules. Clinical data have shown increased elimination of UGT1A9 substrates in pregnant women or oral contraceptive users, but the role of estrogen in the regulation of UGT1A9 expression remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on UGT1A9 expression and the role of ERα in the transcriptional regulation of UGT1A9. E2 significantly increased UGT1A9 promoter activity in HepG2 cells in the presence of ERα...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Xi-Ling Jiang, Hong-Wu Shen, Donald E Mager, Stephan Schmidt, Ai-Ming Yu
We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI), potentiates serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Shinhee Park, Sunny Lihua Cheng, Julia Yue Cui
Intestine is responsible for the biotransformation of many orally-exposed chemicals. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3) is known to up-regulate many genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (drug-processing genes/DPGs) in liver, but less is known regarding its effect in intestine. Sixty-day-old wild-type and Car(-/-) mice were administered the CAR-ligand TCPOBOP or vehicle once daily for 4 days. In wild-type mice, Car mRNA was down-regulated by TCPOBOP in liver and duodenum. Car(-/-) mice had altered basal intestinal expression of many DPGs in a section-specific manner...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Wenli Liu, Xiaona Wang, Ruilian Chen, Kaixuan Zhang, Yao Li, Yi Li, Duanyun Si, Junbo Gong, Dianshu Yin, Yongli Wang, Zhenping Wei, Mingshi Yang
The previous investigation has proved that their existed pharmacokinetic difference between the different crystal forms of the polymorphic drugs after oral administration. However, no systemic investigations have been made on the change of this pharmacokinetic difference, resulted either from the physiological or from the pathological factors. In this paper, we used polymorphic nimodipine (Nim) as a model drug and investigated the effect of age difference (2- and 9-month old) on the pharmacokinetics after oral delivery in rats...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Hong Shen, Lifei Wang, Weiqi Chen, Krista Menard, Yang Hong, Yuan Tian, Samuel J Bonacorsi, W Griffith Humphreys, Francis Y Lee, Jinping Gan
To assess targeting of an epothilone folate conjugate (BMS-753493) to the folate receptor (FR)-overexpressed tumor in mice bearing both FR+ and FR- tumors, a series of experiments were conducted by quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) and LC-MS/MS following i.v. administration of BMS-753493 or its active moiety, BMS-748285 in mice bearing FR+ (98M109) and FR- (M109) tumors. QWBA showed [(3)H]BMS-753493-derived radioactivity was extensively distributed to various tissues. The FR over-expressing 98M109 tumors showed consistently higher level of radioactivity than FR-negative tumors (i...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Lai Peng, Stephanie Piekos, Grace L Guo, Xiao-Bo Zhong
The expression of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes in liver changes dramatically during postnatal liver maturation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is critical for bile acid and lipid homeostasis in liver. However, the role of FXR in regulating ontogeny of phase-I drug metabolizing genes is not clear. Hence, we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify the developmental expression of phase-I genes in both Fxr-null and control (C57BL/6) mouse livers during development. Liver samples of male C57BL/6 and Fxr-null mice at 6 different ages from prenatal to adult were used...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Jiong Yan, Wen Xie
The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) were cloned and/or established as xenobiotic receptors in 1998. Due to their activities in the transcriptional regulation of phase I and phase II enzymes as well as drug transporters, PXR and CAR have been defined as the master regulators of xenobiotic responses. The discovery of PXR and CAR provides the essential molecular basis by which drugs and other xenobiotic compounds regulate the expression of xenobiotic enzymes and transporters...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
C Trent Brewer, Taosheng Chen
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays an important and diverse role in mediating xenobiotic induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Several protein isoforms of PXR exist, and they have differential transcriptional activity upon target genes; transcript variants 3 (PXR3) and 4 (PXR4) do not induce target gene expression, whereas transcript variants 1 (PXR1) and 2 (PXR2) respond to agonist by activating target gene expression. PXR protein variants also display differences in protein-protein interactions; PXR1 interacts with p53, whereas PXR3 does not...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Jonathan Choiniere, Li Wang
Arsenic is a carcinogenic environmental factor found in food and drinking water around the world. The mechanisms in which arsenic alters homeostasis are not fully understood. Over the past few decades, light has been shed on varying mechanisms in which arsenic induces cancer. Such mechanisms include gut microbe perturbations, genotoxic effects, and epigenetic modification. Gut microbe perturbations have been shown to increase the level of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leading to uncontained inflammation...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
William D Hedrich, Hazem E Hassan, Hongbing Wang
Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Yan Zhu, Hongxia Liu, Min Zhang, Grace L Guo
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide has increased at an alarming rate, which will likely result in enormous medical and economic burden. NAFLD presents as a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism(s) of NAFLD-to-NASH transition remains elusive with various genetic and environmental susceptibility factors possibly involved...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Hong Lu
The liver is essential for survival due to its critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. Metabolism of xenobiotics, such as environmental chemicals and drugs by the liver protects us from toxic effects of these xenobiotics, whereas metabolism of cholesterol, bile acids (BAs), lipids, and glucose provide key building blocks and nutrients to promote the growth or maintain the survival of the organism. As a well-established master regulator of liver development and function, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays a critical role in regulating a large number of key genes essential for the metabolism of xenobiotics, metabolic wastes, and nutrients...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Pengcheng Wang, Komal Pradhan, Xiao-Bo Zhong, Xiaochao Ma
Isoniazid (INH) is highly effective for the management of tuberculosis. However, it can cause liver injury and even liver failure. INH metabolism has been thought to be associated with INH-induced liver injury. This review summarized the metabolic pathways of INH and discussed their associations with INH-induced liver injury.
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Fang Xie, Xinxin Ding, Qing-Yu Zhang
Oral administration is the most commonly used route for drug treatment. Intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism can eliminate a large proportion of some orally administered drugs before they reach systemic circulation, while leaving the passage of other drugs unimpeded. A better understanding of the ability of intestinal P450 enzymes to metabolize various clinical drugs in both humans and preclinical animal species, including the identification of the CYP enzymes expressed, their regulation, and the relative importance of intestinal metabolism compared to hepatic metabolism, is important for improving bioavailability of current drugs and new drugs in development...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Jia Yin, Joanne Wang
The kidney is a vital organ for the elimination of therapeutic drugs and their metabolites. Renal drug transporters, which are primarily located in the renal proximal tubules, play an important role in tubular secretion and reabsorption of drug molecules in the kidney. Tubular secretion is characterized by high clearance capacities, broad substrate specificities, and distinct charge selectivity for organic cations and anions. In the past two decades, substantial progress has been made in understanding the roles of transporters in drug disposition, efficacy, toxicity and drug-drug interactions (DDIs)...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Ai-Ming Yu, Xiao-Bo Zhong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Xiaobo Zhong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Tingting Lin, Ergang Liu, Huining He, Meong Cheol Shin, Cheol Moon, Victor C Yang, Yongzhuo Huang
Brain delivery of macromolecular therapeutics (e.g., proteins) remains an unsolved problem because of the formidable blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although a direct pathway of nose-to-brain transfer provides an answer to circumventing the BBB and has already been intensively investigated for brain delivery of small drugs, new challenges arise for intranasal delivery of proteins because of their larger size and hydrophilicity. In order to overcome the barriers and take advantage of available pathways (e.g., epithelial tight junctions, uptake by olfactory neurons, transport into brain tissues, and intra-brain diffusion), a low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) cell-penetrating peptide was utilized to facilitate nose-to-brain transport...
July 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Zhuo Li, Haiyan Li, Caifen Wang, Jianghui Xu, Vikramjeet Singh, Dawei Chen, Jiwen Zhang
In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated...
July 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
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