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Dan N Simon, Amanda Wriston, Qiong Fan, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Alyssa Florwick, Tejas Dharmaraj, Sherket B Peterson, Yosef Gruenbaum, Cathrine R Carlson, Line M Grønning-Wang, Donald F Hunt, Katherine L Wilson
The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C with key roles in nuclear structure, signaling, gene regulation, and genome integrity. Mutations in LMNA cause over 12 diseases ('laminopathies'). Lamins A and C are identical for their first 566 residues. However, they form separate filaments in vivo, with apparently distinct roles. We report that lamin A is β- O -linked N -acetylglucosamine- (O -GlcNAc)-modified in human hepatoma (Huh7) cells and in mouse liver. In vitro assays with purified O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) enzyme showed robust O -GlcNAcylation of recombinant mature lamin A tails (residues 385⁻646), with no detectable modification of lamin B1, lamin C, or 'progerin' (Δ50) tails...
May 17, 2018: Cells
Emily J Rutherford, Arnold D K Hill, Ann M Hopkins
Although the developments in cellular and molecular biology over the last few decades have significantly advanced our understanding of the processes and players that regulate invasive disease, many areas of uncertainty remain. This review will discuss the contribution of dysregulated cell⁻cell and cell⁻matrix adhesion to the invasion in both benign and malignant contexts. Using the endometrium as an illustrative tissue that undergoes clinically significant invasion in both contexts, the adhesion considerations in the cells ("seed") and their microenvironment ("soil") will be discussed...
May 16, 2018: Cells
Diana Rüthnick, Elmar Schiebel
The main microtubule organizing centre in the unicellular model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pompe is the spindle pole body (SPB). The SPB is a multilayer structure, which duplicates exactly once per cell cycle. Unlike higher eukaryotic cells, both yeast model organisms undergo mitosis without breakdown of the nuclear envelope (NE), a so-called closed mitosis. Therefore, in order to simultaneously nucleate nuclear and cytoplasmic MTs, it is vital to embed the SPB into the NE at least during mitosis, similarly to the nuclear pore complex (NPC)...
May 10, 2018: Cells
Thiagarajan Venkatesan, Ali Alaseem, Aiyavu Chinnaiyan, Sivanesan Dhandayuthapani, Thanigaivelan Kanagasabai, Khalid Alhazzani, Priya Dondapati, Saad Alobid, Umamaheswari Natarajan, Ruben Schwartz, Appu Rathinavelu
The Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2) amplification or overexpression has been found in many tumors with high metastatic and angiogenic ability. Our experiments were designed to explore the impact of MDM2 overexpression, specifically on the levels of angiogenesis-related genes, which can also play a major role in tumor propagation and increase its metastatic potential. In the present study, we have used the human angiogenesis RT² profiler PCR array to compare the gene expression profile between LNCaP and LNCaP-MST (MDM2 transfected) prostate cancer cells, along with LNCaP-MST cells treated with Nutlin-3, an MDM2 specific inhibitor...
May 10, 2018: Cells
Franz A Zimmermann, Daniel Neureiter, Wolfgang Sperl, Johannes A Mayr, Barbara Kofler
The papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, with disruptive mutations in mitochondrial complex I subunits reported at very low frequency. Furthermore, metabolic diversity of PTC has been postulated owing to variable messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes encoding subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) complexes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the metabolic diversity of the OXPHOS system at the protein level by using immunohistochemical staining...
May 9, 2018: Cells
Alex Kalyuzhny
Two processes are known to take place during neuroinflammation: (i) resident immune cells are activated and (ii) inflammatory leukocytes in the periphery begin to infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS).[…].
May 8, 2018: Cells
Bor Luen Tang
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neuronal (iN) cells are very much touted in terms of their potential promises in therapeutics. However, from a more fundamental perspective, iPSCs and iNs are invaluable tools for the postnatal generation of specific diseased cell types from patients, which may offer insights into disease etiology that are otherwise unobtainable with available animal or human proxies. There are two good recent examples of such important insights with diseased neurons derived via either the iPSC or iN approaches...
May 8, 2018: Cells
Athanasios Metaxakis, Christina Ploumi, Nektarios Tavernarakis
The elimination of abnormal and dysfunctional cellular constituents is an essential prerequisite for nerve cells to maintain their homeostasis and proper function. This is mainly achieved through autophagy, a process that eliminates abnormal and dysfunctional cellular components, including misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. Several studies suggest that age-related decline of autophagy impedes neuronal homeostasis and, subsequently, leads to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders due to the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in neurons...
May 5, 2018: Cells
Satoru Matsuda, Yukie Nakagawa, Yasuko Kitagishi, Atsuko Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Murai
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate to various specialized cells, which have the potential capacity to differentiate properly and accelerate recovery in damaged sites of the body. This stem cell technology has become the fundamental element in regenerative medicine. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to adversely influence stem cell properties, it is imperative to attenuate the extent of ROS to the promising protective approach with MSCs’ regenerative therapy...
May 1, 2018: Cells
Anna Welter, Srividya Sundararaman, Ruliang Li, Ting Zhang, Alexey Y Karulin, Alexander Lehmann, Villian Naeem, Diana R Roen, Stefanie Kuerten, Paul V Lehmann
One of the primary effector functions of immune cells is the killing of virus-infected or malignant cells in the body. Natural killer (NK) and CD8 effector T cells are specialized for this function. The gold standard for measuring such cell-mediated cytolysis has been the chromium release assay, in which the leakage of the radioactive isotope from damaged target cells is being detected. Flow cytometry-based single cell analysis of target cells has recently been established as a non-radioactive alternative. Here we introduce a target cell visualization assay (TVA) that applies similar target cell staining approaches as used in flow cytometry but based on single cell computer image analysis...
April 24, 2018: Cells
Talita Sarah Mazzoni, Fabiana Laura Lo Nostro, Fernanda Natália Antoneli, Irani Quagio-Grassiotto
Teleostei present great plasticity regarding sex change. During sex reversal, the whole gonad including the germinal epithelium undergoes significant changes, remodeling, and neoformation. However, there is no information on the changes that occur within the interstitial compartment. Considering the lack of information, especially on the role played by metalloproteinases (MMPs) in fish gonadal remodeling, the aim of this study was to evaluate the action of MMPs on gonads of sex reversed females of Synbranchus marmoratus , a fresh water protogynic diandric fish...
April 24, 2018: Cells
Xiang Lu, Karima Djabali
The mammalian nuclear lamina proteins—prelamin A- and B-type lamins—are post-translationally modified by farnesylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxymethylation at a carboxy-terminal CAAX (C, cysteine; a, aliphatic amino acid; X, any amino acid) motif. However, prelamin A processing into mature lamin A is a unique process because it results in the production of farnesylated and carboxymethylated peptides. In cells from patients with Hutchinson⁻Gilford progeria syndrome, the mutant prelamin A protein, progerin, cannot release its prenylated carboxyl-terminal moiety and therefore remains permanently associated with the nuclear envelope (NE), causing severe nuclear alterations and a dysmorphic morphology...
April 23, 2018: Cells
Valentin Pitzen, Sophie Askarzada, Ralph Gräf, Irene Meyer
Dictyostelium centrosomes consist of a nucleus-associated cylindrical, three-layered core structure surrounded by a corona consisting of microtubule-nucleation complexes embedded in a scaffold of large coiled-coil proteins. One of them is the conserved CDK5RAP2 protein. Here we focus on the role of Dictyostelium CDK5RAP2 for maintenance of centrosome integrity, its interaction partners and its dynamic behavior during interphase and mitosis. GFP-CDK5RAP2 is present at the centrosome during the entire cell cycle except from a short period during prophase, correlating with the normal dissociation of the corona at this stage...
April 23, 2018: Cells
Verónica Chico, Sara Puente-Marin, Iván Nombela, Sergio Ciordia, María Carmen Mena, Begoña Carracedo, Alberto Villena, Luis Mercado, Julio Coll, María Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan
Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright⁻Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation...
April 19, 2018: Cells
Nicolette N Houreld, Sandra M Ayuk, Heidi Abrahamse
Diabetes affects extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism, contributing to delayed wound healing and lower limb amputation. Application of light (photobiomodulation, PBM) has been shown to improve wound healing. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of PBM on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in diabetic wound healing. Isolated human skin fibroblasts were grouped into a diabetic wounded model. A diode laser at 660 nm with a fluence of 5 J/cm² was used for irradiation and cells were analysed 48 h post-irradiation...
April 16, 2018: Cells
Michael P Koonce, Irina Tikhonenko
The variability in centrosome size, shape, and activity among different organisms provides an opportunity to understand both conserved and specialized actions of this intriguing organelle. Centrosomes in the model organism Dictyostelium sp. share some features with fungal systems and some with vertebrate cell lines and thus provide a particularly useful context to study their dynamics. We discuss two aspects, centrosome positioning in cells and their interactions with nuclei during division as a means to highlight evolutionary modifications to machinery that provide the most basic of cellular services...
April 12, 2018: Cells
Antje Banning, Tanja Babuke, Nina Kurrle, Melanie Meister, Mika O Ruonala, Ritva Tikkanen
Cell-matrix adhesion and cell migration are physiologically important processes that also play a major role in cancer spreading. In cultured cells, matrix adhesion depends on integrin-containing contacts such as focal adhesions. Flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 are frequently overexpressed in cancers and are associated with poor survival. Our previous studies have revealed a role for flotillin-2 in cell-matrix adhesion and in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We here show that flotillins are important for cell migration in a wound healing assay and influence the morphology and dynamics of focal adhesions...
April 7, 2018: Cells
Yu-Hong Jiang, Ying Mao, Yi-Na Lv, Lei-Lei Tang, Yi Zhou, Huan Zhong, Jun Xiao, Jin-Peng Yan
The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene ( Nramp ), has been identified as one of the significant candidate genes responsible for modulating vertebrate natural resistance to intracellular pathogens. Here, we identified and characterized a new Nramp family member, named as maNramp , in the blunt snout bream. The full-length cDNA of maNramp consists of a 153 bp 5'UTR, a 1635 bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 544 amino acids, and a 1359 bp 3'UTR. The deduced protein (maNRAMP) possesses the typical structural features of NRAMP protein family, including 12 transmembrane domains, three N-linked glycosylation sites, and a conserved transport motif...
March 29, 2018: Cells
Toshimitsu Hiragi, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama
Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain that constitute the brain's innate immune system. Recent studies have revealed various functions of microglia in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) in both health and disease. However, the role of microglia in epilepsy remains largely undiscovered, partly because of the complex phenotypes of activated microglia. Activated microglia likely exert different effects on brain function depending on the phase of epileptogenesis. In this review, we mainly focus on the animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and discuss the proepileptic and antiepileptic roles of activated microglia in the epileptic brain...
March 28, 2018: Cells
Daniel Kummer, Klaus Ebnet
Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are cell surface adhesion receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. JAMs are involved in a variety of biological processes both in the adult organism but also during development. These include processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hemostasis, or epithelial barrier formation, but also developmental processes such as hematopoiesis, germ cell development, and development of the nervous system. Several of these functions of JAMs depend on a physical and functional interaction with integrins...
March 26, 2018: Cells
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