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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057797/oxidative-stress-responsive-apoptosis-inducing-protein-oraip-plays-a-critical-role-in-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-cardiac-myocytes-and-murine-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#1
Takako Yao, Tsutomu Fujimura, Kimie Murayama, Ko Okumura, Yoshinori Seko
We previously identified a novel apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in the conditioned medium of hypoxic/reoxygenated-cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally-modified secreted-form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A Oxidative stress-Responsive Apoptosis-Inducing Protein (ORAIP). We confirmed that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma ORAIP levels and rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was clearly suppressed by neutralizing anti-ORAIP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023412/post-translational-modification-of-human-histone-by-wide-tolerance-of-acetylation
#2
Cuiling Li, Han-Pil Choi, Xiaoyue Wang, Fei Wu, Xinjun Chen, Xin Lü, Ruirui Jing, Hoon Ryu, Xingyuan Wang, Kazem M Azadzoi, Jing-Hua Yang
Histone acetylation adds an acetyl group on the lysine residue commonly found within the N-terminal tail protruding from the histone core of the nucleosome, and is important for chromosome structure and function in gene transcription and chromatin remodeling. Acetylation may also occur on other residues additional to lysine, but have not been thoroughly investigated at the proteomics level. Here we report a wide tolerance acetylation study mimicking the addition of 42 ± 0.5 Da delta mass modification on undefined amino acid residues of histones by shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
October 12, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994747/a-perspective-on-the-experimental-techniques-for-studying-lamins
#3
REVIEW
Ilaria Pecorari, Daniele Borin, Orfeo Sbaizero
Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures...
October 10, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961208/how-can-elispot-add-information-to-improve-knowledge-on-tropical-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Josué da Costa Lima-Junior, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado, Fátima Conceição-Silva
Elispot has been used as an important tool for detecting immune cells' products and functions and has facilitated the understanding of host-pathogen interaction. Despite the incredible diversity of possibilities, two main approaches have been developed: the immunopathogenesis and diagnosis/prognosis of infectious diseases as well as cancer research. Much has been described on the topics of allergy, autoimmune diseases, and HIV-Aids, however, Elispot can also be applied to other infectious diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, malaria, some viruses, helminths and mycosis usually classified as tropical diseases...
September 29, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946615/use-of-human-neurons-derived-via-cellular-reprogramming-methods-to-study-host-parasite-interactions-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-neurons
#5
REVIEW
Sandra K Halonen
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, with approximately one-third of the worlds' population chronically infected. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides in tissue cysts in neurons in the brain. The chronic infection in immunocompetant individuals has traditionally been considered to be asymptomatic, but increasing evidence indicates that chronic infection is associated with diverse neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, cryptogenic epilepsy, and Parkinson's Disease...
September 23, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927011/assessing-autophagy-in-sciatic-nerves-of-a-rat-model-that-develops-inflammatory-autoimmune-peripheral-neuropathies
#6
REVIEW
Susana Brun, Nicolas Schall, Hélène Jeltsch-David, Jérôme de Sèze, Sylviane Muller
The rat sciatic nerve has attracted widespread attention as an excellent model system for studying autophagy alterations in peripheral neuropathies. In our laboratory, we have developed an original rat model, which we used currently in routine novel drug screening and to evaluate treatment strategies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and other closely related diseases. Lewis rats injected with the S-palmitoylated P0(180-199) peptide develop a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease...
September 18, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895901/delayed-activation-kinetics-of-th2-and-th17-cells-compared-to-th1-cells
#7
Andrea Duechting, Anna Przybyla, Stefanie Kuerten, Paul V Lehmann
During immune responses, different classes of T cells arise: Th1, Th2, and Th17. Mobilizing the right class plays a critical role in successful host defense and therefore defining the ratios of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells within the antigen-specific T cell repertoire is critical for immune monitoring purposes. Antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells can be detected by challenging peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with antigen, and establishing the numbers of T cells producing the respective lead cytokine, IFN-γ and IL-2 for Th1 cells, IL-4 and IL-5 for Th2, and IL-17 for Th-17 cells, respectively...
September 12, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858257/lamin-b-receptor-interplay-between-structure-function-and-localization
#8
REVIEW
Eleni Nikolakaki, Ilias Mylonis, Thomas Giannakouros
Lamin B receptor (LBR) is an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, containing a hydrophilic N-terminal end protruding into the nucleoplasm, eight hydrophobic segments that span the membrane and a short, nucleoplasmic C-terminal tail. Two seemingly unrelated functions have been attributed to LBR. Its N-terminal domain tethers heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery, thus contributing to the shape of interphase nuclear architecture, while its transmembrane domains exhibit sterol reductase activity...
August 31, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867808/approaches-for-studying-autophagy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
REVIEW
Yanfang Chen, Vincent Scarcelli, Renaud Legouis
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is an intracellular degradative process, well conserved among eukaryotes. By engulfing cytoplasmic constituents into the autophagosome for degradation, this process is involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy induction triggers the formation of a cup-shaped double membrane structure, the phagophore, which progressively elongates and encloses materials to be removed. This double membrane vesicle, which is called an autophagosome, fuses with lysosome and forms the autolysosome...
August 30, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832532/the-potential-of-targeting-brain-pathology-with-ascl1-mash1
#10
REVIEW
Bor Luen Tang
The proneural factor Achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Ascl1/Mash1) acts as a pioneering transcription factor that initializes neuronal reprogramming. It drives neural progenitors and non-neuronal cells to exit the cell cycle, and promotes neuronal differentiation by activating neuronal target genes, even those that are normally repressed. Importantly, force-expression of Ascl1 was shown to drive proliferative reactive astroglia formed during stroke and glioblastoma stem cells towards neuronal differentiation, and this could potentially diminish CNS damage resulting from their proliferation...
August 23, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832529/assessment-of-autophagy-in-neurons-and-brain-tissue
#11
REVIEW
Irene Benito-Cuesta, Héctor Diez, Lara Ordoñez, Francisco Wandosell
Autophagy is a complex process that controls the transport of cytoplasmic components into lysosomes for degradation. This highly conserved proteolytic system involves dynamic and complex processes, using similar molecular elements and machinery from yeast to humans. Moreover, autophagic dysfunction may contribute to a broad spectrum of mammalian diseases. Indeed, in adult tissues, where the capacity for regeneration or cell division is low or absent (e.g., in the mammalian brain), the accumulation of proteins/peptides that would otherwise be recycled or destroyed may have pathological implications...
August 23, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800101/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-neuronal-models-for-the-study-of-autophagy-pathways-in-human-neurodegenerative-disease
#12
REVIEW
Natalia Jiménez-Moreno, Petros Stathakos, Maeve A Caldwell, Jon D Lane
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are invaluable tools for research into the causes of diverse human diseases, and have enormous potential in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Our ability to reprogramme patient cells to become hiPSCs, and to subsequently direct their differentiation towards those classes of neurons that are vulnerable to stress, is revealing how genetic mutations cause changes at the molecular level that drive the complex pathogeneses of human neurodegenerative diseases...
August 11, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703742/assays-to-monitor-autophagy-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
REVIEW
Raffaela Torggler, Daniel Papinski, Claudine Kraft
Autophagy is an intracellular process responsible for the degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components. It selectively removes harmful cellular material and enables the cell to survive starvation by mobilizing nutrients via the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components. While research over the last decades has led to the discovery of the key factors involved in autophagy, the pathway is not yet completely understood. The first studies of autophagy on a molecular level were conducted in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
July 13, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704946/exploring-autophagy-in-drosophila
#14
REVIEW
Péter Lőrincz, Caroline Mauvezin, Gábor Juhász
Autophagy is a catabolic process in eukaryotic cells promoting bulk or selective degradation of cellular components within lysosomes. In recent decades, several model systems were utilized to dissect the molecular machinery of autophagy and to identify the impact of this cellular "self-eating" process on various physiological and pathological processes. Here we briefly discuss the advantages and limitations of using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a popular model in cell and developmental biology, to apprehend the main pathway of autophagy in a complete animal...
July 12, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698482/studying-autophagy-in-zebrafish
#15
REVIEW
Benan John Mathai, Annemarie H Meijer, Anne Simonsen
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process which allows lysosomal degradation of complex cytoplasmic components into basic biomolecules that are recycled for further cellular use. Autophagy is critical for cellular homeostasis and for degradation of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles as well as intracellular pathogens. The role of autophagy in protection against age-related diseases and a plethora of other diseases is now coming to light; assisted by several divergent eukaryotic model systems ranging from yeast to mice...
July 9, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686195/assays-to-monitor-autophagy-progression-in-cell-cultures
#16
REVIEW
Idil Orhon, Fulvio Reggiori
The vast number of implications of autophagy in multiple areas of life sciences and medicine has attracted the interest of numerous scientists that aim to unveil the role of this process in specific physiological and pathological contexts. Cell cultures are one of the most frequently used experimental setup for the investigation of autophagy. As a result, it is essential to assess this highly regulated molecular pathway with efficient and reliable methods. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages...
July 7, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671618/vascular-mechanobiology-towards-control-of-in-situ-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Eline E van Haaften, Carlijn V C Bouten, Nicholas A Kurniawan
The paradigm of regenerative medicine has recently shifted from in vitro to in situ tissue engineering: implanting a cell-free, biodegradable, off-the-shelf available scaffold and inducing the development of functional tissue by utilizing the regenerative potential of the body itself. This approach offers a prospect of not only alleviating the clinical demand for autologous vessels but also circumventing the current challenges with synthetic grafts. In order to move towards a hypothesis-driven engineering approach, we review three crucial aspects that need to be taken into account when regenerating vessels: (1) the structure-function relation for attaining mechanical homeostasis of vascular tissues, (2) the environmental cues governing cell function, and (3) the available experimental platforms to test instructive scaffolds for in situ tissue engineering...
July 3, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671610/methods-to-monitor-and-quantify-autophagy-in-the-social-amoeba-dictyostelium-discoideum
#18
REVIEW
Eunice Domínguez-Martín, Elena Cardenal-Muñoz, Jason S King, Thierry Soldati, Roberto Coria, Ricardo Escalante
Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic pathway that degrades and recycles cellular components to maintain homeostasis. It can target protein aggregates, superfluous biomolecular complexes, dysfunctional and damaged organelles, as well as pathogenic intracellular microbes. Autophagy is a dynamic process in which the different stages from initiation to final degradation of cargo are finely regulated. Therefore, the study of this process requires the use of a palette of techniques, which are continuously evolving and whose interpretation is not trivial...
July 3, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665306/standard-immunohistochemical-assays-to-assess-autophagy-in-mammalian-tissue
#19
REVIEW
Wim Martinet, Lynn Roth, Guido R Y De Meyer
Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosomal degradation pathway with major impact on diverse human pathologies. Despite the development of different methodologies to detect autophagy both in vitro and in vivo, monitoring autophagy in tissue via immunohistochemical techniques is hampered due to the lack of biomarkers. Immunohistochemical detection of a punctate pattern of ATG8/MAP1LC3 proteins is currently the most frequently used approach to detect autophagy in situ, but it depends on a highly sensitive detection method and is prone to misinterpretation...
June 30, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657591/assessing-autophagy-in-mouse-models-and-patients-with-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Fengjuan Wang, Baihui Li, Nicolas Schall, Maud Wilhelm, Sylviane Muller
Autophagy is a tightly regulated mechanism that allows cells to renew themselves through the lysosomal degradation of proteins, which are misfolded or produced in excess, and of damaged organelles. In the context of immunity, recent research has specially attempted to clarify its roles in infection, inflammation and autoimmunity. Autophagy has emerged as a spotlight in several molecular pathways and trafficking events that participate to innate and adaptive immunity. Deregulation of autophagy has been associated to several autoimmune diseases, in particular to systemic lupus erythematosus...
June 28, 2017: Cells
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