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Marcelo Ozu, Luciano Galizia, Cynthia Acuña, Gabriela Amodeo
Aquaporins (AQPs) function as tetrameric structures in which each monomer has its own permeable pathway. The combination of structural biology, molecular dynamics simulations, and experimental approaches has contributed to improve our knowledge of how protein conformational changes can challenge its transport capacity, rapidly altering the membrane permeability. This review is focused on evidence that highlights the functional relationship between the monomers and the tetramer. In this sense, we address AQP permeation capacity as well as regulatory mechanisms that affect the monomer, the tetramer, or tetramers combined in complex structures...
November 11, 2018: Cells
Ita Novita Sari, Lan Thi Hanh Phi, Nayoung Jun, Yoseph Toni Wijaya, Sanghyun Lee, Hyog Young Kwon
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a signaling cascade that plays a crucial role in many fundamental processes, including embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence has suggested that aberrant activation of Hh is associated with neoplastic transformations, malignant tumors, and drug resistance of a multitude of cancers. At the molecular level, it has been shown that Hh signaling drives the progression of cancers by regulating cancer cell proliferation, malignancy, metastasis, and the expansion of cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
November 10, 2018: Cells
Andreia F Mósca, Andreia de Almeida, Darren Wragg, Ana P Martins, Farzana Sabir, Stefano Leoni, Teresa F Moura, Catarina Prista, Angela Casini, Graça Soveral
The aquaglyceroporin AQP7, a family member of aquaporin membrane channels, facilitates the permeation of water and glycerol through cell membranes and is crucial for body lipid and energy homeostasis. Regulation of glycerol permeability via AQP7 is considered a promising therapeutic strategy towards fat-related metabolic complications. Here, we used a yeast aqy -null strain for heterologous expression and functional analysis of human AQP7 and investigated its regulation by pH. Using a combination of in vitro and in silico approaches, we found that AQP7 changes from fully permeable to virtually closed at acidic pH, and that Tyr135 and His165 facing the extracellular environment are crucial residues for channel permeability...
November 10, 2018: Cells
José Paulo de Pizzol Júnior, Estela Sasso-Cerri, Paulo Sérgio Cerri
The comprehension of dental pathogenesis and disorders derived from eruption failure requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying normal tooth eruption. As intense remodelling is needed during tooth eruption, we hypothesize that matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and acid phosphatase (ACP) play a role in the eruptive pathway degradation. We evaluated MMP-1-immunoexpression and the collagen content in the lamina propria at different eruptive phases. Immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural cytochemistry for detection of ACP were also performed...
November 10, 2018: Cells
Tamar Segal, Mali Salmon-Divon, Gabi Gerlitz
H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and H4K20me1 are epigenetic markers associated with chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. Previously, we found that migration of melanoma cells is associated with and dependent on global chromatin condensation that includes a global increase in these markers. Taken together with more recent reports by others suggests it is a general signature of migrating cells. Here, to learn about the function of these markers in migrating cells, we mapped them by ChIP-seq analysis. This analysis revealed that induction of migration leads to expansion of these markers along the genome and to an increased overlapping between them...
November 9, 2018: Cells
Daniela Ribeiro, Marisa Freitas, Sílvia Rocha, José L F C Lima, Félix Carvalho, Eduarda Fernandes
In neutrophils, intracellular Ca2+ levels are regulated by several transporters and pathways, namely SERCA [sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase], SOCE (store-operated calcium entry), and ROCE (receptor-operated calcium entry). However, the exact mechanisms involved in the communication among these transporters are still unclear. In the present study, thapsigargin, an irreversible inhibitor of SERCA, and ML-9, a broadly used SOCE inhibitor, were applied in human neutrophils to better understand their effects on Ca2+ pathways in these important cells of the immune system...
November 9, 2018: Cells
Adele Vivacqua, Anna Sebastiani, Anna Maria Miglietta, Damiano Cosimo Rigiracciolo, Francesca Cirillo, Giulia Raffaella Galli, Marianna Talia, Maria Francesca Santolla, Rosamaria Lappano, Francesca Giordano, Maria Luisa Panno, Marcello Maggiolini
Estrogens acting through the classic estrogen receptors (ERs) and the G protein estrogen receptor (GPER) regulate the expression of diverse miRNAs, small sequences of non-coding RNA involved in several pathophysiological conditions, including breast cancer. In order to provide novel insights on miRNAs regulation by estrogens in breast tumor, we evaluated the expression of 754 miRNAs by TaqMan Array in ER-negative and GPER-positive SkBr3 breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) upon 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment...
November 9, 2018: Cells
Ralph Gräf
The centrosome is not only the largest and most sophisticated protein complex within a eukaryotic cell, in the light of evolution, it is also one of its most ancient organelles. This special issue of " Cells " features representatives of three main, structurally divergent centrosome types, i.e., centriole-containing centrosomes, yeast spindle pole bodies (SPBs), and amoebozoan nucleus-associated bodies (NABs). Here, I discuss their evolution and their key-functions in microtubule organization, mitosis, and cytokinesis...
November 8, 2018: Cells
Ethan Chernivec, Jacie Cooper, Kari Naylor
Current treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) only alleviate symptoms doing little to inhibit the onset and progression of the disease, thus we must research the mechanism of Parkinson's. Rotenone is a known inducer of parkinsonian conditions in rats; we use rotenone to induce parkinsonian cellular conditions in Dictyostelium discoideum . In our model we primarily focus on mitochondrial dynamics. We found that rotenone disrupts the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton but mitochondrial morphology remains intact...
November 8, 2018: Cells
Bruna F Pinto, Nayara I Medeiros, Tereza C M Fontes-Cal, Isabela M Naziazeno, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Walderez O Dutra, Juliana A S Gomes
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi , is a potentially life-threatening tropical disease endemic to Latin American countries that affects approximately 8 million people. In the chronic phase of the disease, individuals are classified as belonging to the indeterminate clinical form or to the cardiac and/or digestive forms when clinical symptoms are apparent. The relationship between monocytes and lymphocytes may be an important point to help clarify the complexity that surrounds the clinical symptoms of the chronic phase of Chagas disease...
November 7, 2018: Cells
Xiaolan Chen, Hongjia Ouyang, Zhijun Wang, Biao Chen, Qinghua Nie
It is well known that fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 ( FGFR2 ) interacts with its ligand of fibroblast growth factor ( FGF ) therefore exerting biological functions on cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we first reported that the FGFR2 gene could generate a circular RNA of circFGFR2, which regulates skeletal muscle development by sponging miRNA. In our previous study of circular RNA sequencing, we found that circFGFR2, generated by exon 3⁻6 of FGFR2 gene, differentially expressed during chicken embryo skeletal muscle development...
November 6, 2018: Cells
Juhyung Lee, Yihong Ye
Protein secretion in general depends on signal sequence (also named leader sequence), a hydrophobic segment located at or close to the NH2-terminus of a secretory or membrane protein. This sequence guides the entry of nascent polypeptides into the lumen or membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for folding, assembly, and export. However, evidence accumulated in recent years has suggested the existence of a collection of unconventional protein secretion (UPS) mechanisms that are independent of the canonical vesicular trafficking route between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM)...
November 3, 2018: Cells
Rosanna Avola, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Giovanna Pannuzzo, Venera Cardile
The development in digital screen technology has exponentially increased in the last decades, and many of today's electronic devices use light-emitting diode (LED) technology producing very strong blue light (BL) waves. Long-term exposure at LED-BL seems to have an implication in the dehydration of the epidermis, in the alterations of shape and number of the keratinocytes, and in the aging of the skin. Aquaporins (AQPs) are water membrane channels that permeate both water and glycerol and play an important role in the hydration of epidermis, as well as in proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes...
November 3, 2018: Cells
Pilar Garcia-Broncano, Luz Maria Medrano, Juan Berenguer, Juan González-García, Mª Ángeles Jiménez-Sousa, Ana Carrero, Victor Hontañón, Josep M Guardiola, Manuel Crespo, Carmen Quereda, José Sanz, Ana Belen García-Gómez, Jose Luis Jimenez, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND: Advanced cirrhosis is related to alterations in immunity. We aimed to evaluate the levels of peripheral CD4⁺ T cells (Tregs) and plasma cytokine in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) according to liver fibrosis stages [evaluated as liver stiffness measure (LSM)] and their linear relationship. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on 238 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (119 had <12.5 kPa, 73 had 12...
November 2, 2018: Cells
Huayu Sun, Sining Wang, Yongfeng Lou, Chenglei Zhu, Hansheng Zhao, Ying Li, Xueping Li, Zhimin Gao
Water supply is essential for maintaining normal physiological function during the rapid growth of bamboo. Aquaporins (AQPs) play crucial roles in water transport for plant growth and development. Although 26 PeAQP s in bamboo have been reported, the aquaporin-led mechanism of maintaining diurnal water balance in bamboo shoots remains unclear. In this study, a total of 63 PeAQP s were identified, based on the updated genome of moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys edulis ), including 22 PePIP s, 20 PeTIP s, 17 PeNIP s, and 4 PeSIP s...
November 2, 2018: Cells
Shuyuan Wang, Wencan Wang, Qianqian Meng, Shunheng Zhou, Haizhou Liu, Xueyan Ma, Xu Zhou, Hui Liu, Xiaowen Chen, Wei Jiang
Autophagy is a complex cellular digestion process involving multiple regulators. Compared to post-translational autophagy regulators, limited information is now available about transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators such as transcription factors (TFs) and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). In this study, we proposed a computational method to infer novel autophagy-associated TFs, micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) based on TFs and ncRNAs coordinated regulatory (TNCR) network. First, we constructed a comprehensive TNCR network, including 155 TFs, 681 miRNAs and 1332 lncRNAs...
November 2, 2018: Cells
Bruna Silva Oliveira, Catherine M Pirkle, Maria Victoria Zunzunegui, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Ronaldo Luis Thomasini, Ricardo Oliveira Guerra
This study assessed whether telomere length is related to chronic conditions, cardiovascular risk factors, and inflammation in women aged 65 to 74 from Northeast Brazil. Participants were selected from two sources, a representative sample of the International Mobility in Aging Study ( n = 57) and a convenience sample ( n = 49) recruited at senior centers. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from blood samples in 83 women. Natural log-transformed telomere/single copy gene ratio was used as the dependent variable in the analysis...
November 2, 2018: Cells
Urszula Majcher, Greta Klejborowska, Mahshad Moshari, Ewa Maj, Joanna Wietrzyk, Franz Bartl, Jack A Tuszynski, Adam Huczyński
Microtubules are tubulin polymer structures, which are indispensable for cell growth and division. Its constituent protein β-tubulin has been a common drug target for various diseases including cancer. Colchicine has been used to treat gout, but it has also been an investigational anticancer agent with a known antimitotic effect on cells. However, the use of colchicine as well as many of its derivatives in long-term treatment is hampered by their high toxicity. To create more potent anticancer agents, three novel double-modified colchicine derivatives have been obtained by structural modifications in C-4 and C-10 positions...
November 1, 2018: Cells
Emmanuelle Blanchard, Philippe Roingeard
Host cell membrane rearrangements induced by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been exclusively studied in vitro . These studies have shown that HCV induces double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), which probably serve to separate replication sites from the cytoplasmic sensors of the innate immune response. We report for the first time the observation of HCV-induced membrane rearrangements in liver biopsy specimens from patients chronically infected with HCV. Unlike observations performed in vitro, the membranous web detected in liver tissue seems essentially made of clusters of single-membrane vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and close to lipid droplets...
November 1, 2018: Cells
Elia Bari, Sara Perteghella, Dario Di Silvestre, Marzio Sorlini, Laura Catenacci, Milena Sorrenti, Giorgio Marrubini, Rossana Rossi, Giuseppe Tripodo, Pierluigi Mauri, Mario Marazzi, Maria Luisa Torre
In this paper, a pilot production process for mesenchymal stem/stromal freeze-dried secretome was performed in a validated good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant cell factory. Secretome was purified from culture supernatants by ultrafiltration, added to cryoprotectant, lyophilized and characterized. We obtained a freeze-dried, "ready-off-the-shelf" and free soluble powder containing extracellular vesicles and proteins. In the freeze-dried product, a not-aggregated population of extracellular vesicles was detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis; Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the simultaneous presence of protein and lipids, while differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that lyophilization process successfully occurred...
October 30, 2018: Cells
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