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Jenna Lynne Wingfield, Karl-Ferdinand Lechtreck
During ciliogenesis, centrioles convert to membrane-docked basal bodies, which initiate the formation of cilia/flagella and template the nine doublet microtubules of the flagellar axoneme. The discovery that many human diseases and developmental disorders result from defects in flagella has fueled a strong interest in the analysis of flagellar assembly. Here, we will review the structure, function, and development of basal bodies in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , a widely used model for the analysis of basal bodies and flagella...
July 17, 2018: Cells
Julien Guinde, Diane Frankel, Sophie Perrin, Valérie Delecourt, Nicolas Lévy, Fabrice Barlesi, Philippe Astoul, Patrice Roll, Elise Kaspi
Lung cancer represents the primary cause of cancer death in the world. Malignant cells identification and characterization are crucial for the diagnosis and management of patients with primary or metastatic cancers. In this context, the identification of new biomarkers is essential to improve the differential diagnosis between cancer subtypes, to select the most appropriate therapy, and to establish prognostic correlations. Nuclear abnormalities are hallmarks of carcinoma cells and are used as cytological diagnostic criteria of malignancy...
July 16, 2018: Cells
Yunpeng Cao, Dandan Meng, Yu Chen, Muhammad Abdullah, Qing Jin, Yi Lin, Yongping Cai
Ripening affects the nutritional contents and quality of fleshy fruits, and it plays an important role during the process of fruit development. Studies have demonstrated that ubiquitin-conjugating ( UBC or E2 ) genes can regulate fruit ripening, but the characterization of UBCs in pear is not well documented. The recently published genome-wide sequences of Pyrus bretschneideri and Pyrus communis have allowed a comprehensive analysis of this important gene family in pear. Using bioinformatics approaches, we identified 83 ( PbrUBCs ) and 84 ( PcpUBCs ) genes from P...
July 16, 2018: Cells
Navid Sobhani, Anna Ianza, Alberto D'Angelo, Giandomenico Roviello, Fabiola Giudici, Marina Bortul, Fabrizio Zanconati, Cristina Bottin, Daniele Generali
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and second only to lung cancer in terms of mortality in women. Despite the incredible progress made in this field, metastatic breast cancer has a poor prognosis. In an era of personalized medicine, there is an urgent need for better knowledge of the biology leading to the disease, which can lead to the design of increasingly accurate drugs against patients' specific molecular aberrations. Among one of the actionable targets is the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway, triggered by specific ligands...
July 15, 2018: Cells
Elkin Navarro Quiroz, Roberto Navarro Quiroz, Mostapha Ahmad, Lorena Gomez Escorcia, Jose Luis Villarreal, Cecilia Fernandez Ponce, Gustavo Aroca Martinez
The defining characteristic of neural stem cells (NSCs) is their ability to multiply through symmetric divisions and proliferation, and differentiation by asymmetric divisions, thus giving rise to different types of cells of the central nervous system (CNS). A strict temporal space control of the NSC differentiation is necessary, because its alterations are associated with neurological dysfunctions and, in some cases, death. This work reviews the current state of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the transcription in NSCs, organized according to whether the origin of the stimulus that triggers the molecular cascade in the CNS is internal (intrinsic factors) or whether it is the result of the microenvironment that surrounds the CNS (extrinsic factors)...
July 14, 2018: Cells
Xibao Liu, Hwei Ling Ong, Indu Ambudkar
Salivary glands secrete saliva, a mixture of proteins and fluids, which plays an extremely important role in the maintenance of oral health. Loss of salivary secretion causes a dry mouth condition, xerostomia, which has numerous deleterious consequences including opportunistic infections within the oral cavity, difficulties in eating and swallowing food, and problems with speech. Secretion of fluid by salivary glands is stimulated by activation of specific receptors on acinar cell plasma membrane and is mediated by an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+ ] ([Ca2+ ]i )...
July 11, 2018: Cells
Oliver J Gruss
Sexual reproduction requires the generation of gametes, which are highly specialised for fertilisation. Female reproductive cells, oocytes, grow up to large sizes when they accumulate energy stocks and store proteins as well as mRNAs to enable rapid cell divisions after fertilisation. At the same time, metazoan oocytes eliminate their centrosomes, i.e., major microtubule-organizing centres (MTOCs), during or right after the long growth phases. Centrosome elimination poses two key questions: first, how can the centrosome be re-established after fertilisation? In general, metazoan oocytes exploit sperm components, i...
July 10, 2018: Cells
Marina Del Fiacco, Maria Pina Serra, Marianna Boi, Laura Poddighe, Roberto Demontis, Antonio Carai, Marina Quartu
The presence of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 receptor (TRPV1)-like immunoreactivity (LI), in the form of nerve fibres and terminals, is shown in a set of discrete gray matter subregions placed in the territory of the human cuneate nucleus. We showed previously that those subregions share neurochemical and structural features with the protopathic nuclei and, after the ancient name of our town, collectively call them Locus Karalis, and briefly Locus K. TRPV1-LI in the Locus K is codistributed, though not perfectly overlapped, with that of the neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, the topography of the elements immunoreactive to the three markers, in relation to each other, reflecting that previously described in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus...
July 8, 2018: Cells
Daisuke Ito, Mónica Bettencourt-Dias
The centrosome is the major microtubule organizing centre (MTOC) in animal cells. The canonical centrosome is composed of two centrioles surrounded by a pericentriolar matrix (PCM). In contrast, yeasts and amoebozoa have lost centrioles and possess acentriolar centrosomes—called the spindle pole body (SPB) and the nucleus-associated body (NAB), respectively. Despite the difference in their structures, centriolar centrosomes and SPBs not only share components but also common biogenesis regulators. In this review, we focus on the SPB and speculate how its structures evolved from the ancestral centrosome...
July 6, 2018: Cells
Giuseppe A Ramirez, Lavinia A Coletto, Clara Sciorati, Enrica P Bozzolo, Paolo Manunta, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Angelo A Manfredi
Allergy and autoimmune diseases are characterised by a multifactorial pathogenic background. Several genes involved in the control of innate and adaptive immunity have been associated with diseases and variably combine with each other as well as with environmental factors and epigenetic processes to shape the characteristics of individual manifestations. Systemic or local perturbations in salt/water balance and in ion exchanges between the intra- and extracellular spaces or among tissues play a role. In this field, usually referred to as elementary immunology, novel evidence has been recently acquired on the role of members of the transient potential receptor (TRP) channel family in several cellular mechanisms of potential significance for the pathophysiology of the immune response...
July 4, 2018: Cells
Madison Turk, Victor Naumenko, Douglas J Mahoney, Craig N Jenne
Recent advances in imaging technology have made it possible to track cellular recruitment and behavior within the vasculature of living animals in real-time. Using approaches such as resonant scanning confocal and multiphoton intravital microscopy (IVM), we are now able to observe cells within the intact tumor microenvironment of a mouse. We are able to follow these cells for extended periods of time (hours) and can characterize how specific cell types (T cells, neutrophils, monocytes) interact with the tumor vasculature and cancer cells...
July 3, 2018: Cells
Charlotte Domblides, Lydia Lartigue, Benjamin Faustin
Innate and adaptive immune cells from myeloid and lymphoid lineages resolve host infection or cell stress by mounting an appropriate and durable immune response. Upon sensing of cellular insults, immune cells become activated and undergo rapid and efficient functional changes to unleash biosynthesis of macromolecules, proliferation, survival, and trafficking; unprecedented events among other mammalian cells within the host. These changes must become operational within restricted timing to rapidly control the insult and to avoid tissue damage and pathogen spread...
June 29, 2018: Cells
Tomer Avidor-Reiss
Centrioles are ancient subcellular protein-based organelles that maintain a conserved number and structure across many groups of eukaryotes. Centriole number (two per cells) is tightly regulated; each pre-existing centriole nucleates only one centriole as the cell prepares for division. The structure of centrioles is barrel-shaped, with a nine-fold symmetry of microtubules. This organization of microtubules is essential for the ancestral function of centriole⁻cilium nucleation. In animal cells, centrioles have gained an additional role: recruiting pericentriolar material (PCM) to form a centrosome...
June 26, 2018: Cells
Sindora R Baddam, Paul T Arsenovic, Vani Narayanan, Nicole R Duggan, Carl R Mayer, Shaston T Newman, Dahlia A Abutaleb, Abhinav Mohan, Andrew P Kowalczyk, Daniel E Conway
Cell-cell junctions are critical structures in a number of tissues for mechanically coupling cells together, cell-to-cell signaling, and establishing a barrier. In many tissues, desmosomes are an important component of cell-cell junctions. Loss or impairment of desmosomes presents with clinical phenotypes in the heart and skin as cardiac arrhythmias and skin blistering, respectively. Because heart and skin are tissues that are subject to large mechanical stresses, we hypothesized that desmosomes, similar to adherens junctions, would also experience significant tensile loading...
June 26, 2018: Cells
Julie C Nielsen, Cathrine Nordgaard, Maxim A X Tollenaere, Simon Bekker-Jensen
Centriolar satellites (CS) are small proteinaceous granules that cluster around the centrosome and serve as cargo vehicles for centrosomal proteins. It is generally accepted that CS support a number of canonical and specialized centrosome functions. Consequently, these highly dynamic structures are the target of regulation by several cellular signalling pathways. Two decades of research have led to the identification of a large number of molecular components and new biological roles of CS. Here, we summarize the latest advances in the continuous efforts to uncover the compositional, functional, dynamic and regulatory aspects of CS...
June 22, 2018: Cells
Gianluca Sgarbi, Giulia Gorini, Francesca Liuzzi, Giancarlo Solaini, Alessandra Baracca
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the metabolic reprogramming of cells adapted to hypoxia and the interplay between ROS and hypoxia in malignancy is under debate. Here, we examined how ROS levels are modulated by hypoxia in human cancer compared to untransformed cells. Short time exposure (20 min) of either fibroblasts or 143B osteosarcoma cells to low oxygen tension down to 0.5% induced a significant decrease of the cellular ROS level, as detected by the CellROX fluorescent probe (−70%)...
June 21, 2018: Cells
Rose Ghemrawi, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu, Carole Arnold
Metabolic disorders have become among the most serious threats to human health, leading to severe chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, despite the fact that each of these diseases has different physiological and clinical symptoms, they appear to share certain pathological traits such as intracellular stress and inflammation induced by metabolic disturbance stemmed from over nutrition frequently aggravated by a modern, sedentary life style...
June 19, 2018: Cells
Chen Wang, Keiji Naruse, Ken Takahashi
The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 (TRPM4) channel influences calcium homeostasis during many physiological activities such as insulin secretion, immune response, respiratory reaction, and cerebral vasoconstriction. This calcium-activated, monovalent, selective cation channel also plays a key role in cardiovascular pathophysiology; for example, a mutation in the TRPM4 channel leads to cardiac conduction disease. Recently, it has been suggested that the TRPM4 channel is also involved in the development of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, which causes myocardial infarction...
June 15, 2018: Cells
Theodoros Rizopoulos, Helen Papadaki-Petrou, Martha Assimakopoulou
The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family of selective and non-selective ion channels is well represented throughout the mammalian gastrointestinal track. Several members of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) subfamily have been identified in contributing to modulation of mobility, secretion and sensitivity of the human intestine. Previous studies have focused on the detection of TRPV mRNA levels in colon tissue of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whereas little information exists regarding TRPV channel expression in the colonic epithelium...
June 15, 2018: Cells
Timothy E Yap, Piero Donna, Melanie T Almonte, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Monitoring real-time apoptosis in-vivo is an unmet need of neurodegeneration science, both in clinical and research settings. For patients, earlier diagnosis before the onset of symptoms provides a window of time in which to instigate treatment. For researchers, being able to objectively monitor the rates of underlying degenerative processes at a cellular level provides a biomarker with which to test novel therapeutics. The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells) project has developed a minimally invasive method using fluorescent annexin A5 to detect rates of apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, the key pathological process in glaucoma...
June 15, 2018: Cells
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