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Cells

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085028/acknowledgement-to-reviewers-of-cells-in-2016
#1
EDITORIAL
Cells Editorial Office
The editors of Cells would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...].
January 11, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009813/translational-prospects-and-challenges-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-research-in-drug-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Masaki Hosoya, Katherine Czysz
Despite continuous efforts to improve the process of drug discovery and development, achieving success at the clinical stage remains challenging because of a persistent translational gap between the preclinical and clinical settings. Under these circumstances, the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has brought new hope to the drug discovery field because they enable scientists to humanize a variety of pharmacological and toxicological models in vitro. The availability of human iPS cell-derived cells, particularly as an alternative for difficult-to-access tissues and organs, is increasing steadily; however, their use in the field of translational medicine remains challenging...
December 21, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983621/random-splicing-of-several-exons-caused-by-a-single-base-change-in-the-target-exon-of-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-knockout
#3
Marcel Kapahnke, Antje Banning, Ritva Tikkanen
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is widely used for genome editing purposes as it facilitates an efficient knockout of a specific gene in, e.g. cultured cells. Targeted double-strand breaks are introduced to the target sequence of the guide RNAs, which activates the cellular DNA repair mechanism for non-homologous-end-joining, resulting in unprecise repair and introduction of small deletions or insertions. Due to this, sequence alterations in the coding region of the target gene frequently cause frame-shift mutations, facilitating degradation of the mRNA...
December 14, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941641/potential-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs-for-treating-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
#4
REVIEW
Mark Fields, Hui Cai, Jie Gong, Lucian Del Priore
The field of stem cell biology has rapidly evolved in the last few decades. In the area of regenerative medicine, clinical applications using stem cells hold the potential to be a powerful tool in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, in particular, disorders of the eye. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising technologies that can potentially provide an unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy in the treatment of retinal degenerative disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt disease, and other disorders...
December 8, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916834/role-of-cytokine-induced-glycosylation-changes-in-regulating-cell-interactions-and-cell-signaling-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Justine H Dewald, Florent Colomb, Marie Bobowski-Gerard, Sophie Groux-Degroote, Philippe Delannoy
Glycosylation is one of the most important modifications of proteins and lipids, and cell surface glycoconjugates are thought to play important roles in a variety of biological functions including cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, bacterial adhesion, cell immunogenicity and cell signaling. Alterations of glycosylation are observed in number of diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. In that context, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to modulate cell surface glycosylation by regulating the expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of carbohydrate chains...
November 29, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886120/the-role-and-application-of-sirtuins-and-mtor-signaling-in-the-control-of-ovarian-functions
#6
REVIEW
Alexander V Sirotkin
The present short review demonstrates the involvement of sirtuins (SIRTs) in the control of ovarian functions at various regulatory levels. External and endocrine factors can affect female reproduction via SIRTs-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) system, which, via hormones and growth factors, can in turn regulate basic ovarian functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity of ovarian cells, their response to upstream hormonal regulators, ovarian folliculo- and oogenesis, and fecundity). SIRTs and SIRTs-related signaling molecules and drugs regulating mTOR can be used for characterization, prediction, and regulation of ovarian functions, as well as for diagnostics and treatment of ovarian disorders...
November 24, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854297/prelamin-a-accumulation-attenuates-rac1-activity-and-increases-the-intrinsic-migrational-persistence-of-aged-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#7
Lauren J Porter, Mark R Holt, Daniel Soong, Catherine M Shanahan, Derek T Warren
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin A accumulation is known to drive VSMC ageing and we show that presenescent VSMCs, that have accumulated prelamin A, display increased focal adhesion dynamics, augmented migrational velocity/persistence and attenuated Rac1 activity...
November 15, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845721/airway-epithelial-cell-cilia-and-obstructive-lung-disease
#8
REVIEW
Asma Yaghi, Myrna B Dolovich
Airway epithelium is the first line of defense against exposure of the airway and lung to various inflammatory stimuli. Ciliary beating of airway epithelial cells constitutes an important part of the mucociliary transport apparatus. To be effective in transporting secretions out of the lung, the mucociliary transport apparatus must exhibit a cohesive beating of all ciliated epithelial cells that line the upper and lower respiratory tract. Cilia function can be modulated by exposures to endogenous and exogenous factors and by the viscosity of the mucus lining the epithelium...
November 11, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792143/self-organization-of-stem-cell-colonies-and-of-early-mammalian-embryos-recent-experiments-shed-new-light-on-the-role-of-autonomy-vs-external-instructions-in-basic-body-plan-development
#9
REVIEW
Hans-Werner Denker
"Organoids", i.e., complex structures that can develop when pluripotent or multipotent stem cells are maintained in three-dimensional cultures, have become a new area of interest in stem cell research. Hopes have grown that when focussing experimentally on the mechanisms behind this type of in vitro morphogenesis, research aiming at tissue and organ replacements can be boosted. Processes leading to the formation of organoids in vitro are now often addressed as self-organization, a term referring to the formation of complex tissue architecture in groups of cells without depending on specific instruction provided by other cells or tissues...
October 25, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763519/segmental-aging-underlies-the-development-of-a-parkinson-phenotype-in-the-as-agu-rat
#10
Sohair M Khojah, Anthony P Payne, Dagmara McGuinness, Paul G Shiels
There is a paucity of information on the molecular biology of aging processes in the brain. We have used biomarkers of aging (SA β-Gal, p16(Ink4a), Sirt5, Sirt6, and Sirt7) to demonstrate the presence of an accelerated aging phenotype across different brain regions in the AS/AGU rat, a spontaneous Parkinsonian mutant of PKCγ derived from a parental AS strain. P16(INK4a) expression was significantly higher in AS/AGU animals compared to age-matched AS controls (p < 0.001) and displayed segmental expression across various brain regions...
October 17, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754432/implications-and-assessment-of-the-elastic-behavior-of-lamins-in-laminopathies
#11
REVIEW
Subarna Dutta, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Kaushik Sengupta
Lamins are mechanosensitive and elastic components of the nuclear lamina that respond to external mechanical cues by altering gene regulation in a feedback mechanism. Numerous mutations in A-type lamins cause a plethora of diverse diseases collectively termed as laminopathies, the majority of which are characterized by irregularly shaped, fragile, and plastic nuclei. These nuclei are challenged to normal mechanotransduction and lead to disease phenotypes. Here, we review our current understanding of the nucleocytoskeleton coupling in mechanotransduction mediated by lamins...
October 14, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657130/erratum-lazar-karsten-p-et-al-generation-and-characterization-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-lines-derived-from-a-patient-with-a-bicuspid-aortic-valve-cells-2016-5-19
#12
Pamela Lazar-Karsten, Gazanfer Belge, Detlev Schult-Badusche, Tim Focken, Arlo Radtke, Junfeng Yan, Pramod Ranabhat, Salah A Mohamed
The authors wish to make the following erratum to this paper [1].[...].
September 20, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626448/keratins-are-altered-in-intestinal-disease-related-stress-responses
#13
Terhi O Helenius, Cecilia A Antman, Muhammad Nadeem Asghar, Joel H Nyström, Diana M Toivola
Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells...
September 10, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548222/multiple-roles-of-the-small-gtpase-rab7
#14
REVIEW
Flora Guerra, Cecilia Bucci
Rab7 is a small GTPase that belongs to the Rab family and controls transport to late endocytic compartments such as late endosomes and lysosomes. The mechanism of action of Rab7 in the late endocytic pathway has been extensively studied. Rab7 is fundamental for lysosomal biogenesis, positioning and functions, and for trafficking and degradation of several signaling receptors, thus also having implications on signal transduction. Several Rab7 interacting proteins have being identified leading to the discovery of a number of different important functions, beside its established role in endocytosis...
August 18, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529282/skeletal-muscle-laminopathies-a-review-of-clinical-and-molecular-features
#15
REVIEW
Lorenzo Maggi, Nicola Carboni, Pia Bernasconi
LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle...
August 11, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314389/under-pressure-mechanical-stress-management-in-the-nucleus
#16
REVIEW
Néjma Belaadi, Julien Aureille, Christophe Guilluy
Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback, which hinges on mechanotransduction mechanisms. Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may act as a mechanosensitive structure. Here, we review recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which eventually impact both its structure and the transcriptional machinery...
June 14, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429003/intermediate-filaments-and-polarization-in-the-intestinal-epithelium
#17
REVIEW
Richard A Coch, Rudolf E Leube
The cytoplasmic intermediate filament cytoskeleton provides a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. This is particularly apparent in the intestinal epithelium, in which the intermediate filament network is localized below the apical terminal web region and is anchored to the apical junction complex. This arrangement is conserved from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. The review summarizes compositional, morphological and functional features of the polarized intermediate filament cytoskeleton in intestinal cells of nematodes and mammals...
2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409638/antisense-based-progerin-downregulation-in-hgps-like-patients-cells
#18
Karim Harhouri, Claire Navarro, Camille Baquerre, Nathalie Da Silva, Catherine Bartoli, Frank Casey, Guedenon Koffi Mawuse, Yassamine Doubaj, Nicolas Lévy, Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli
Progeroid laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS, OMIM #176670), are premature and accelerated aging diseases caused by defects in nuclear A-type Lamins. Most HGPS patients carry a de novo point mutation within exon 11 of the LMNA gene encoding A-type Lamins. This mutation activates a cryptic splice site leading to the deletion of 50 amino acids at its carboxy-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated and permanently farnesylated Prelamin A called Prelamin A Δ50 or Progerin. Some patients carry other LMNA mutations affecting exon 11 splicing and are named "HGPS-like" patients...
2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399781/intermediate-filaments-as-organizers-of-cellular-space-how-they-affect-mitochondrial-structure-and-function
#19
REVIEW
Nicole Schwarz, Rudolf E Leube
Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases...
2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355965/epithelial-intermediate-filaments-guardians-against-microbial-infection
#20
REVIEW
Florian Geisler, Rudolf E Leube
Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults...
2016: Cells
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