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Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208600/invariant-chain-complexes-and-clusters-as-platforms-for-mif-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Robert Lindner
Invariant chain (Ii/CD74) has been identified as a surface receptor for migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Most cells that express Ii also synthesize major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules, which depend on Ii as a chaperone and a targeting factor. The assembly of nonameric complexes consisting of one Ii trimer and three MHC II molecules (each of which is a heterodimer) has been regarded as a prerequisite for efficient delivery to the cell surface. Due to rapid endocytosis, however, only low levels of Ii-MHC II complexes are displayed on the cell surface of professional antigen presenting cells and very little free Ii trimers...
February 10, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178187/may-i-cut-in-gene-editing-approaches-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Nicholas Brookhouser, Sreedevi Raman, Christopher Potts, David A Brafman
In the decade since Yamanaka and colleagues described methods to reprogram somatic cells into a pluripotent state, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated tremendous promise in numerous disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine applications. More recently, the development and refinement of advanced gene transduction and editing technologies have further accelerated the potential of hiPSCs. In this review, we discuss the various gene editing technologies that are being implemented with hiPSCs...
February 6, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157165/stem-cell-therapies-in-retinal-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Aakriti Garg, Jin Yang, Winston Lee, Stephen H Tsang
Stem cell therapy has long been considered a promising mode of treatment for retinal conditions. While human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have provided the precedent for regenerative medicine, the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) revolutionized this field. iPSCs allow for the development of many types of retinal cells, including those of the retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors, and ganglion cells, and can model polygenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Cellular programming and reprogramming technology is especially useful in retinal diseases, as it allows for the study of living cells that have genetic variants that are specific to patients' diseases...
February 2, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134781/implications-for-diverse-functions-of-the-linc-complexes-based-on-the-structure
#4
REVIEW
Miki Hieda
The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is composed of the outer and inner nuclear membrane protein families Klarsicht, Anc-1, and Syne homology (KASH), and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) homology domain proteins. Increasing evidence has pointed to diverse functions of the LINC complex, such as in nuclear migration, nuclear integrity, chromosome movement and pairing during meiosis, and mechanotransduction to the genome. In metazoan cells, the nuclear envelope possesses the nuclear lamina, which is a thin meshwork of intermediate filaments known as A-type and B-type lamins and lamin binding proteins...
January 26, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117759/vimentin-levels-and-serine-71-phosphorylation-in-the-control-of-cell-matrix-adhesions-migration-speed-and-shape-of-transformed-human-fibroblasts
#5
Emmanuel Terriac, Giovanna Coceano, Zahra Mavajian, Tijmen A G Hageman, Andreas F Christ, Ilaria Testa, Franziska Lautenschläger, Annica K B Gad
Metastasizing tumor cells show increased expression of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin, which has been used to diagnose invasive tumors for decades. Recent observations indicate that vimentin is not only a passive marker for carcinoma, but may also induce tumor cell invasion. To clarify how vimentin IFs control cell adhesions and migration, we analyzed the nanoscale (30-50 nm) spatial organization of vimentin IFs and cell-matrix adhesions in metastatic fibroblast cells, using three-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy...
January 22, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085028/acknowledgement-to-reviewers-of-cells-in-2016
#6
EDITORIAL
Cells Editorial Office
The editors of Cells would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...].
January 11, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009813/translational-prospects-and-challenges-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-research-in-drug-discovery
#7
REVIEW
Masaki Hosoya, Katherine Czysz
Despite continuous efforts to improve the process of drug discovery and development, achieving success at the clinical stage remains challenging because of a persistent translational gap between the preclinical and clinical settings. Under these circumstances, the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has brought new hope to the drug discovery field because they enable scientists to humanize a variety of pharmacological and toxicological models in vitro. The availability of human iPS cell-derived cells, particularly as an alternative for difficult-to-access tissues and organs, is increasing steadily; however, their use in the field of translational medicine remains challenging...
December 21, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983621/random-splicing-of-several-exons-caused-by-a-single-base-change-in-the-target-exon-of-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-knockout
#8
Marcel Kapahnke, Antje Banning, Ritva Tikkanen
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is widely used for genome editing purposes as it facilitates an efficient knockout of a specific gene in, e.g. cultured cells. Targeted double-strand breaks are introduced to the target sequence of the guide RNAs, which activates the cellular DNA repair mechanism for non-homologous-end-joining, resulting in unprecise repair and introduction of small deletions or insertions. Due to this, sequence alterations in the coding region of the target gene frequently cause frame-shift mutations, facilitating degradation of the mRNA...
December 14, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941641/potential-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs-for-treating-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
#9
REVIEW
Mark Fields, Hui Cai, Jie Gong, Lucian Del Priore
The field of stem cell biology has rapidly evolved in the last few decades. In the area of regenerative medicine, clinical applications using stem cells hold the potential to be a powerful tool in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, in particular, disorders of the eye. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising technologies that can potentially provide an unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy in the treatment of retinal degenerative disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt disease, and other disorders...
December 8, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916834/role-of-cytokine-induced-glycosylation-changes-in-regulating-cell-interactions-and-cell-signaling-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Justine H Dewald, Florent Colomb, Marie Bobowski-Gerard, Sophie Groux-Degroote, Philippe Delannoy
Glycosylation is one of the most important modifications of proteins and lipids, and cell surface glycoconjugates are thought to play important roles in a variety of biological functions including cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, bacterial adhesion, cell immunogenicity and cell signaling. Alterations of glycosylation are observed in number of diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. In that context, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to modulate cell surface glycosylation by regulating the expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of carbohydrate chains...
November 29, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886120/the-role-and-application-of-sirtuins-and-mtor-signaling-in-the-control-of-ovarian-functions
#11
REVIEW
Alexander V Sirotkin
The present short review demonstrates the involvement of sirtuins (SIRTs) in the control of ovarian functions at various regulatory levels. External and endocrine factors can affect female reproduction via SIRTs-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) system, which, via hormones and growth factors, can in turn regulate basic ovarian functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity of ovarian cells, their response to upstream hormonal regulators, ovarian folliculo- and oogenesis, and fecundity). SIRTs and SIRTs-related signaling molecules and drugs regulating mTOR can be used for characterization, prediction, and regulation of ovarian functions, as well as for diagnostics and treatment of ovarian disorders...
November 24, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854297/prelamin-a-accumulation-attenuates-rac1-activity-and-increases-the-intrinsic-migrational-persistence-of-aged-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
Lauren J Porter, Mark R Holt, Daniel Soong, Catherine M Shanahan, Derek T Warren
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin A accumulation is known to drive VSMC ageing and we show that presenescent VSMCs, that have accumulated prelamin A, display increased focal adhesion dynamics, augmented migrational velocity/persistence and attenuated Rac1 activity...
November 15, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845721/airway-epithelial-cell-cilia-and-obstructive-lung-disease
#13
REVIEW
Asma Yaghi, Myrna B Dolovich
Airway epithelium is the first line of defense against exposure of the airway and lung to various inflammatory stimuli. Ciliary beating of airway epithelial cells constitutes an important part of the mucociliary transport apparatus. To be effective in transporting secretions out of the lung, the mucociliary transport apparatus must exhibit a cohesive beating of all ciliated epithelial cells that line the upper and lower respiratory tract. Cilia function can be modulated by exposures to endogenous and exogenous factors and by the viscosity of the mucus lining the epithelium...
November 11, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792143/self-organization-of-stem-cell-colonies-and-of-early-mammalian-embryos-recent-experiments-shed-new-light-on-the-role-of-autonomy-vs-external-instructions-in-basic-body-plan-development
#14
REVIEW
Hans-Werner Denker
"Organoids", i.e., complex structures that can develop when pluripotent or multipotent stem cells are maintained in three-dimensional cultures, have become a new area of interest in stem cell research. Hopes have grown that when focussing experimentally on the mechanisms behind this type of in vitro morphogenesis, research aiming at tissue and organ replacements can be boosted. Processes leading to the formation of organoids in vitro are now often addressed as self-organization, a term referring to the formation of complex tissue architecture in groups of cells without depending on specific instruction provided by other cells or tissues...
October 25, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763519/segmental-aging-underlies-the-development-of-a-parkinson-phenotype-in-the-as-agu-rat
#15
Sohair M Khojah, Anthony P Payne, Dagmara McGuinness, Paul G Shiels
There is a paucity of information on the molecular biology of aging processes in the brain. We have used biomarkers of aging (SA β-Gal, p16(Ink4a), Sirt5, Sirt6, and Sirt7) to demonstrate the presence of an accelerated aging phenotype across different brain regions in the AS/AGU rat, a spontaneous Parkinsonian mutant of PKCγ derived from a parental AS strain. P16(INK4a) expression was significantly higher in AS/AGU animals compared to age-matched AS controls (p < 0.001) and displayed segmental expression across various brain regions...
October 17, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754432/implications-and-assessment-of-the-elastic-behavior-of-lamins-in-laminopathies
#16
REVIEW
Subarna Dutta, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Kaushik Sengupta
Lamins are mechanosensitive and elastic components of the nuclear lamina that respond to external mechanical cues by altering gene regulation in a feedback mechanism. Numerous mutations in A-type lamins cause a plethora of diverse diseases collectively termed as laminopathies, the majority of which are characterized by irregularly shaped, fragile, and plastic nuclei. These nuclei are challenged to normal mechanotransduction and lead to disease phenotypes. Here, we review our current understanding of the nucleocytoskeleton coupling in mechanotransduction mediated by lamins...
October 14, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657130/erratum-lazar-karsten-p-et-al-generation-and-characterization-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-lines-derived-from-a-patient-with-a-bicuspid-aortic-valve-cells-2016-5-19
#17
Pamela Lazar-Karsten, Gazanfer Belge, Detlev Schult-Badusche, Tim Focken, Arlo Radtke, Junfeng Yan, Pramod Ranabhat, Salah A Mohamed
The authors wish to make the following erratum to this paper [1].[...].
September 20, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626448/keratins-are-altered-in-intestinal-disease-related-stress-responses
#18
Terhi O Helenius, Cecilia A Antman, Muhammad Nadeem Asghar, Joel H Nyström, Diana M Toivola
Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells...
September 10, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548222/multiple-roles-of-the-small-gtpase-rab7
#19
REVIEW
Flora Guerra, Cecilia Bucci
Rab7 is a small GTPase that belongs to the Rab family and controls transport to late endocytic compartments such as late endosomes and lysosomes. The mechanism of action of Rab7 in the late endocytic pathway has been extensively studied. Rab7 is fundamental for lysosomal biogenesis, positioning and functions, and for trafficking and degradation of several signaling receptors, thus also having implications on signal transduction. Several Rab7 interacting proteins have being identified leading to the discovery of a number of different important functions, beside its established role in endocytosis...
August 18, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529282/skeletal-muscle-laminopathies-a-review-of-clinical-and-molecular-features
#20
REVIEW
Lorenzo Maggi, Nicola Carboni, Pia Bernasconi
LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle...
August 11, 2016: Cells
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