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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215603/differential-location-and-distribution-of-hepatic-immune-cells
#1
REVIEW
Maria Alice Freitas-Lopes, Kassiana Mafra, Bruna A David, Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Gustavo B Menezes
The liver is one of the main organs in the body, performing several metabolic and immunological functions that are indispensable to the organism. The liver is strategically positioned in the abdominal cavity between the intestine and the systemic circulation. Due to its location, the liver is continually exposed to nutritional insults, microbiota products from the intestinal tract, and to toxic substances. Hepatocytes are the major functional constituents of the hepatic lobes, and perform most of the liver's secretory and synthesizing functions, although another important cell population sustains the vitality of the organ: the hepatic immune cells...
December 7, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215584/a-positive-control-for-detection-of-functional-cd4-t-cells-in-pbmc-the-cpi-pool
#2
Annemarie Schiller, Ting Zhang, Ruliang Li, Andrea Duechting, Srividya Sundararaman, Anna Przybyla, Stefanie Kuerten, Paul V Lehmann
Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool has become the gold standard for testing CD8 cell functionality, a positive control for CD4 cells is so far lacking. The latter ideally consists of proteins so as to control for the functionality of the antigen processing and presentation compartments, as well...
December 7, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186822/venture-from-the-interior-herpesvirus-pul31-escorts-capsids-from-nucleoplasmic-replication-compartments-to-sites-of-primary-envelopment-at-the-inner-nuclear-membrane
#3
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a membrane-mediated budding process, composed of primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the capsids receive their secondary envelope for maturation into infectious virions...
November 25, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165393/the-role-of-hypoxia-in-glioblastoma-invasion
#4
REVIEW
Ana Rita Monteiro, Richard Hill, Geoffrey J Pilkington, Patrícia A Madureira
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient's median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance...
November 22, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160807/entamoeba-histolytica-under-oxidative-stress-what-countermeasure-mechanisms-are-in-place
#5
REVIEW
Erika Pineda, Doranda Perdomo
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis; it affects 50 million people worldwide and causes approximately 100,000 deaths per year. Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasite that is primarily found in the colon; however, for unknown reasons, it can become invasive, breaching the gut barrier and migrating toward the liver causing amoebic liver abscesses. During the invasive process, it must maintain intracellular hypoxia within the oxygenated human tissues and cellular homeostasis during the host immune defense attack when it is confronted with nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species...
November 21, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140302/danger-high-voltage-the-role-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-central-nervous-system-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Andrea Schampel, Stefanie Kuerten
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are widely distributed within the central nervous system (CNS) and presumed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of CNS disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as multiple sclerosis. Several calcium channel blockers have been in clinical practice for many years so that their toxicity and side effects are well studied. However, these drugs are primarily used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and most if not all effects on brain functions are secondary to peripheral effects on blood pressure and circulation...
November 15, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112114/role-of-scaffold-protein-proline-glutamic-acid-and-leucine-rich-protein-1-pelp1-in-the-modulation-of-adrenocortical-cancer-cell-growth
#7
Arianna De Luca, Paola Avena, Rosa Sirianni, Adele Chimento, Francesco Fallo, Catia Pilon, Ivan Casaburi, Vincenzo Pezzi
PELP1 acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator that exerts an essential role in the ER's functions. ER coregulators have a critical role in the progression and response to hormonal treatment of estrogen-dependent tumors. We previously demonstrated that, in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), ERα is upregulated and that estradiol activates the IGF-II/IGF1R signaling pathways defining the role of this functional cross-talk in H295R ACC cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine if PELP1 is expressed in ACC and may play a role in promoting the interaction between ERα and IGF1R allowing the activation of pathways important for ACC cell growth...
November 7, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104234/dupuytren-s-and-ledderhose-diseases-in-a-family-with-lmna-related-cardiomyopathy-and-a-novel-variant-in-the-aste1-gene
#8
Michael V Zaragoza, Cecilia H H Nguyen, Halida P Widyastuti, Linda A McCarthy, Anna Grosberg
Dupuytren's disease (palmar fibromatosis) involves nodules in fascia of the hand that leads to flexion contractures. Ledderhose disease (plantar fibromatosis) is similar with nodules of the foot. While clinical aspects are well-described, genetic mechanisms are unknown. We report a family with cardiac disease due to a heterozygous LMNA mutation (c.736C>T, p.Gln246Stop) with palmar/plantar fibromatosis and investigate the hypothesis that a second rare DNA variant increases the risk for fibrotic disease in LMNA mutation carriers...
November 1, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104220/what-makes-cells-different-from-other-open-access-journals
#9
EDITORIAL
Alexander E Kalyuzhny
In 2011, I was invited to serve as the Editor-In-Chief for Cells, which back then was a "new kid on the block" among open access (OA) journals.[...].
November 1, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064404/application-of-sodium-selenite-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Marek Kieliszek, Boguslaw Lipinski, Stanisław Błażejak
Selenium is an essential trace element that occurs in nature, in both inorganic and organic forms. This element participates in numerous biochemical processes, including antioxidant potential, but the mechanism of its anti-cancer action is still not well known. It should be noted that the anti-cancer properties of selenium depends on its chemical form, therapeutic doses, and the tumor type. Higher nutritional doses of selenium can stimulate human immune system. There are several hypotheses concerning the anticancer activity of selenium, including oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in proteins causing their conformational alterations...
October 24, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065506/expression-profiling-of-differentiating-emerin-null-myogenic-progenitor-identifies-molecular-pathways-implicated-in-their-impaired-differentiation
#11
Ashvin Iyer, Adam J Koch, James M Holaska
Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), a disorder causing progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. RNA sequencing was performed on differentiating wildtype and emerin-null myogenic progenitors to identify molecular pathways implicated in EDMD, 340 genes were uniquely differentially expressed during the transition from day 0 to day 1 in wildtype cells. 1605 genes were uniquely expressed in emerin-null cells; 1706 genes were shared among both wildtype and emerin-null cells...
October 22, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065501/standard-assays-for-the-study-of-autophagy-in-the-ex-vivo-retina
#12
REVIEW
Raquel Gómez-Sintes, Beatriz Villarejo-Zori, Ana Serrano-Puebla, Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Elena Sierra-Filardi, Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo, Natalia Rodríguez-Muela, Patricia Boya
Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that mediates the degradation and recycling of intracellular components, and is a key player in a variety of physiological processes in cells and tissues. Recent studies of autophagy in the eye suggest that this pathway is fundamental for the preservation of retinal homeostasis. Given its accessible location outside the brain, the retina is an ideal organ in which to study the central nervous system and a wide range of neuronal processes, from development to neurodegeneration...
October 22, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065500/monitoring-autophagy-in-the-model-green-microalga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#13
REVIEW
María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Inmaculada Couso, Luis G Heredia-Martínez, José L Crespo
Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents and organelles in the vacuole. This degradative process is mediated by a group of proteins coded by autophagy-related (ATG) genes that are widely conserved from yeasts to plants and mammals. Homologs of ATG genes have been also identified in algal genomes including the unicellular model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The development of specific tools to monitor autophagy in Chlamydomonas has expanded our current knowledge about the regulation and function of this process in algae...
October 22, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057797/oxidative-stress-responsive-apoptosis-inducing-protein-oraip-plays-a-critical-role-in-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-cardiac-myocytes-and-murine-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#14
Takako Yao, Tsutomu Fujimura, Kimie Murayama, Ko Okumura, Yoshinori Seko
We previously identified a novel apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in the conditioned medium of hypoxic/reoxygenated-cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally-modified secreted-form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A Oxidative stress-Responsive Apoptosis-Inducing Protein (ORAIP). We confirmed that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma ORAIP levels and rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was clearly suppressed by neutralizing anti-ORAIP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023412/post-translational-modification-of-human-histone-by-wide-tolerance-of-acetylation
#15
Cuiling Li, Han-Pil Choi, Xiaoyue Wang, Fei Wu, Xinjun Chen, Xin Lü, Ruirui Jing, Hoon Ryu, Xingyuan Wang, Kazem M Azadzoi, Jing-Hua Yang
Histone acetylation adds an acetyl group on the lysine residue commonly found within the N-terminal tail protruding from the histone core of the nucleosome, and is important for chromosome structure and function in gene transcription and chromatin remodeling. Acetylation may also occur on other residues additional to lysine, but have not been thoroughly investigated at the proteomics level. Here we report a wide tolerance acetylation study mimicking the addition of 42 ± 0.5 Da delta mass modification on undefined amino acid residues of histones by shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
October 12, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994747/a-perspective-on-the-experimental-techniques-for-studying-lamins
#16
REVIEW
Ilaria Pecorari, Daniele Borin, Orfeo Sbaizero
Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures...
October 10, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961208/how-can-elispot-add-information-to-improve-knowledge-on-tropical-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Josué da Costa Lima-Junior, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado, Fátima Conceição-Silva
Elispot has been used as an important tool for detecting immune cells' products and functions and has facilitated the understanding of host-pathogen interaction. Despite the incredible diversity of possibilities, two main approaches have been developed: the immunopathogenesis and diagnosis/prognosis of infectious diseases as well as cancer research. Much has been described on the topics of allergy, autoimmune diseases, and HIV-Aids, however, Elispot can also be applied to other infectious diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, malaria, some viruses, helminths and mycosis usually classified as tropical diseases...
September 29, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946615/use-of-human-neurons-derived-via-cellular-reprogramming-methods-to-study-host-parasite-interactions-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-neurons
#18
REVIEW
Sandra K Halonen
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, with approximately one-third of the worlds' population chronically infected. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides in tissue cysts in neurons in the brain. The chronic infection in immunocompetant individuals has traditionally been considered to be asymptomatic, but increasing evidence indicates that chronic infection is associated with diverse neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, cryptogenic epilepsy, and Parkinson's Disease...
September 23, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927011/assessing-autophagy-in-sciatic-nerves-of-a-rat-model-that-develops-inflammatory-autoimmune-peripheral-neuropathies
#19
REVIEW
Susana Brun, Nicolas Schall, Hélène Jeltsch-David, Jérôme de Sèze, Sylviane Muller
The rat sciatic nerve has attracted widespread attention as an excellent model system for studying autophagy alterations in peripheral neuropathies. In our laboratory, we have developed an original rat model, which we used currently in routine novel drug screening and to evaluate treatment strategies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and other closely related diseases. Lewis rats injected with the S-palmitoylated P0(180-199) peptide develop a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease...
September 18, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895901/delayed-activation-kinetics-of-th2-and-th17-cells-compared-to-th1-cells
#20
Andrea Duechting, Anna Przybyla, Stefanie Kuerten, Paul V Lehmann
During immune responses, different classes of T cells arise: Th1, Th2, and Th17. Mobilizing the right class plays a critical role in successful host defense and therefore defining the ratios of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells within the antigen-specific T cell repertoire is critical for immune monitoring purposes. Antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells can be detected by challenging peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with antigen, and establishing the numbers of T cells producing the respective lead cytokine, IFN-γ and IL-2 for Th1 cells, IL-4 and IL-5 for Th2, and IL-17 for Th-17 cells, respectively...
September 12, 2017: Cells
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