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Giulia Cazzanelli, Flávia Pereira, Sara Alves, Rita Francisco, Luísa Azevedo, Patrícia Dias Carvalho, Ana Almeida, Manuela Côrte-Real, Maria José Oliveira, Cândida Lucas, Maria João Sousa, Ana Preto
The exploitation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biological model for the investigation of complex molecular processes conserved in multicellular organisms, such as humans, has allowed fundamental biological discoveries. When comparing yeast and human proteins, it is clear that both amino acid sequences and protein functions are often very well conserved. One example of the high degree of conservation between human and yeast proteins is highlighted by the members of the RAS family. Indeed, the study of the signaling pathways regulated by RAS in yeast cells led to the discovery of properties that were often found interchangeable with RAS proto-oncogenes in human pathways, and vice versa...
February 19, 2018: Cells
Pablo R Duchowicz
A structurally diverse dataset of 530 polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) inhibitors is compiled from the ChEMBL database and studied by means of a conformation-independent quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach. A large number (26,761) of molecular descriptors are explored with the main intention of capturing the most relevant structural characteristics affecting the bioactivity. The structural descriptors are derived with different freeware, such as PaDEL, Mold², and QuBiLs-MAS; such descriptor software complements each other and improves the QSAR results...
February 14, 2018: Cells
Graziella Curtale
Innate immune cells form an integrative component of the tumor microenvironment (TME), which can control or prevent tumor initiation and progression, due to the simultaneous processing of both anti- and pro-growth signals. This decision-making process is a consequence of gene expression changes, which are in part dependent on post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. In this context, microRNAs have been shown to regulate both recruitment and activation of specific tumor-associated immune cells in the TME...
February 8, 2018: Cells
Emilie Lukášová, Aleš Kovařík, Stanislav Kozubek
Anchoring of heterochromatin to the nuclear envelope appears to be an important process ensuring the spatial organization of the chromatin structure and genome function in eukaryotic nuclei. Proteins of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) mediating these interactions are able to recognize lamina-associated heterochromatin domains (termed LAD) and simultaneously bind either lamin A/C or lamin B1. One of these proteins is the lamin B receptor (LBR) that binds lamin B1 and tethers heterochromatin to the INM in embryonic and undifferentiated cells...
February 6, 2018: Cells
Felix Urusov, Dina Glazkova, Denis Omelchenko, Elena Bogoslovskaya, Galina Tsyganova, Katerina Kersting, German Shipulin, Vadim Pokrovsky
C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is utilized by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a co-receptor for cell entry. Suppression of the CCR5 gene by artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) could confer cell resistance. In previous work, we created a lentivector that encoded the polycistron of two identical amiRNAs that could effectively suppress CCR5. However, tandem repeats in lentiviral vectors led to deletions of the repeated sequences during reverse transcription of the vector RNA. To solve this problem, we have created a new amiRNA against CCR5, mic1002, which has a different microRNA scaffold and targets a different sequence...
February 4, 2018: Cells
José Serrado Marques, Vera Teixeira, António Jacinto, Ana Teresa Tavares
During early vertebrate embryogenesis, both hematopoietic and endothelial lineages derive from a common progenitor known as the hemangioblast. Hemangioblasts derive from mesodermal cells that migrate from the posterior primitive streak into the extraembryonic yolk sac. In addition to primitive hematopoietic cells, recent evidence revealed that yolk sac hemangioblasts also give rise to tissue-resident macrophages and to definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. In our previous work, we used a novel hemangioblast-specific reporter to isolate the population of chick yolk sac hemangioblasts and characterize its gene expression profile using microarrays...
January 31, 2018: Cells
Ekaterina A Golenkina, Galina M Viryasova, Svetlana I Galkina, Tatjana V Gaponova, Galina F Sud'ina, Alexey V Sokolov
Timely neutrophil apoptosis is an essential part of the resolution phase of acute inflammation. Ceruloplasmin, an acute-phase protein, which is the predominant copper-carrying protein in the blood, has been suggested to have a marked effect on neutrophil life span. The present work is a comparative study on the effects of intact holo-ceruloplasmin, its copper-free (apo-) and partially proteolyzed forms, and synthetic free peptides RPYLKVFNPR (883-892) and RRPYLKVFNPRR (882-893) on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL, neutrophil) oxidant status and apoptosis...
January 12, 2018: Cells
Wisam Nabeel Ibrahim, Abd Almonem Doolaanea, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari Bin Abdull Rasad
Background and Objective: YB-1 is a transcription and oncogenic factor capable of binding to DNA and RNA performing versatile functions within normal and cancer cells. Some studies reported the binding of YB-1 with a collagenases gene promoter and influencing their expression. In addition, the role of YB-1 in malignant melanoma was not elucidated. Thus, in this study, the aim was to knock down the expression of YB-1 in A375 malignant melanoma cancer cell using the shRNA approach and study its effect on cancer cell proliferation, migration, and expression of collagenases...
January 10, 2018: Cells
Jessica Marion, Romain Le Bars, Laetitia Besse, Henri Batoko, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre
Autophagy is a catabolic process used by eukaryotic cells to maintain or restore cellular and organismal homeostasis. A better understanding of autophagy in plant biology could lead to an improvement of the recycling processes of plant cells and thus contribute, for example, towards reducing the negative ecological consequences of nitrogen-based fertilizers in agriculture. It may also help to optimize plant adaptation to adverse biotic and abiotic conditions through appropriate plant breeding or genetic engineering to incorporate useful traits in relation to this catabolic pathway...
January 9, 2018: Cells
Riad El Fakih, Walid Rasheed, Yousef Hawsawi, Maamoun Alsermani, Mona Hassanein
The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) pathway has an important role in cellular proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with mutated FLT3 have a large disease burden at presentation and a dismal prognosis. A number of FLT3 inhibitors have been developed over the years. The first-generation inhibitors are largely non-specific, while the second-generation inhibitors are more specific and more potent. These inhibitors are used to treat patients with FLT3-mutated AML in virtually all disease settings including induction, consolidation, maintenance, relapse, and after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)...
January 8, 2018: Cells
Alexander Lehmann, Zoltan Megyesi, Anna Przybyla, Paul V Lehmann
ELISPOT assays enable the detection of the frequency of antigen-specific T cells in the blood by measuring the secretion of cytokines, or combinations of cytokines, in response to antigenic challenges of a defined population of PBMC. As such, these assays are suited to establish the magnitude and quality of T cell immunity in infectious, allergic, autoimmune and transplant settings, as well as for measurements of anti-tumor immunity. The simplicity, robustness, cost-effectiveness and scalability of ELISPOT renders it suitable for regulated immune monitoring...
January 3, 2018: Cells
Daniele Focosi, Giovanni Amabile
Red blood cells and platelets are anucleate blood components indispensable for oxygen delivery and hemostasis, respectively. Derivation of these blood elements from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has the potential to develop blood donor-independent and genetic manipulation-prone products to complement or replace current transfusion banking, also minimizing the risk of alloimmunization. While the production of erythrocytes from iPS cells has challenges to overcome, such as differentiation into adult-type phenotype that functions properly after transfusion, platelet products are qualitatively and quantitatively approaching a clinically-applicable level owing to advances in expandable megakaryocyte (MK) lines, platelet-producing bioreactors, and novel reagents...
December 27, 2017: Cells
Yoshimitsu Kiriyama, Hiromi Nochi
Mitochondria function to generate ATP and also play important roles in cellular homeostasis, signaling, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. The loss of mitochondrial function results in cell death and various types of diseases. Therefore, quality control of mitochondria via intra- and intercellular pathways is crucial. Intracellular quality control consists of biogenesis, fusion and fission, and degradation of mitochondria in the cell, whereas intercellular quality control involves tunneling nanotubes and extracellular vesicles...
December 26, 2017: Cells
Maria Alice Freitas-Lopes, Kassiana Mafra, Bruna A David, Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Gustavo B Menezes
The liver is one of the main organs in the body, performing several metabolic and immunological functions that are indispensable to the organism. The liver is strategically positioned in the abdominal cavity between the intestine and the systemic circulation. Due to its location, the liver is continually exposed to nutritional insults, microbiota products from the intestinal tract, and to toxic substances. Hepatocytes are the major functional constituents of the hepatic lobes, and perform most of the liver's secretory and synthesizing functions, although another important cell population sustains the vitality of the organ: the hepatic immune cells...
December 7, 2017: Cells
Annemarie Schiller, Ting Zhang, Ruliang Li, Andrea Duechting, Srividya Sundararaman, Anna Przybyla, Stefanie Kuerten, Paul V Lehmann
Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool has become the gold standard for testing CD8 cell functionality, a positive control for CD4 cells is so far lacking. The latter ideally consists of proteins so as to control for the functionality of the antigen processing and presentation compartments, as well...
December 7, 2017: Cells
(no author information available yet)
Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a membrane-mediated budding process, composed of primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the capsids receive their secondary envelope for maturation into infectious virions...
November 25, 2017: Cells
Ana Rita Monteiro, Richard Hill, Geoffrey J Pilkington, Patrícia A Madureira
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient's median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance...
November 22, 2017: Cells
Erika Pineda, Doranda Perdomo
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis; it affects 50 million people worldwide and causes approximately 100,000 deaths per year. Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasite that is primarily found in the colon; however, for unknown reasons, it can become invasive, breaching the gut barrier and migrating toward the liver causing amoebic liver abscesses. During the invasive process, it must maintain intracellular hypoxia within the oxygenated human tissues and cellular homeostasis during the host immune defense attack when it is confronted with nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species...
November 21, 2017: Cells
Andrea Schampel, Stefanie Kuerten
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are widely distributed within the central nervous system (CNS) and presumed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of CNS disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as multiple sclerosis. Several calcium channel blockers have been in clinical practice for many years so that their toxicity and side effects are well studied. However, these drugs are primarily used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and most if not all effects on brain functions are secondary to peripheral effects on blood pressure and circulation...
November 15, 2017: Cells
Arianna De Luca, Paola Avena, Rosa Sirianni, Adele Chimento, Francesco Fallo, Catia Pilon, Ivan Casaburi, Vincenzo Pezzi
PELP1 acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator that exerts an essential role in the ER's functions. ER coregulators have a critical role in the progression and response to hormonal treatment of estrogen-dependent tumors. We previously demonstrated that, in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), ERα is upregulated and that estradiol activates the IGF-II/IGF1R signaling pathways defining the role of this functional cross-talk in H295R ACC cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine if PELP1 is expressed in ACC and may play a role in promoting the interaction between ERα and IGF1R allowing the activation of pathways important for ACC cell growth...
November 7, 2017: Cells
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