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Biomedical Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673555/structure-and-mechanism-of-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain
#1
REVIEW
Runyu Guo, Jinke Gu, Shuai Zong, Meng Wu, Maojun Yang
Respiration is one of the most vital and basic features of living organisms. In mammals, respiration is accomplished by respiratory chain complexes located on the mitochondrial inner membrane. In the past century, scientists put tremendous efforts in understanding these complexes, but failed to solve the high resolution structure until recently. In 2016, three research groups reported the structure of respiratory chain supercomplex from different species, and fortunately the structure solved by our group has the highest resolution...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673554/subclinical-hypothyroidism-and-metabolic-risk-factors-association-a-health-examination-based-study-in-northern-taiwan
#2
Feng-Hsuan Liu, Jawl-Shan Hwang, Chang-Fu Kuo, Yu-Shien Ko, Szu-Tah Chen, Jen-Der Lin
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevation in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels despite normal serum levels of free thyroxine. It remains controversial whether people with SCH have higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to normal-thyroid subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic risk factors for SCH. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the health examination center of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673553/the-discoveries-of-molecular-mechanisms-for-the-circadian-rhythm-the-2017-nobel-prize-in-physiology-or-medicine
#3
Rong-Chi Huang
Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673552/fracture-of-cobalt-chrome-fully-coat-beaded-femoral-revision-long-stem-a-clinical-outcomes-study
#4
Chih-Hsiang Chang, Po-Chun Lin, Cheng-Min Shih, Chun-Chieh Chen, Pang-Hsin Hsieh, Hsin-Nung Shih
BACKGROUND: Femoral bone loss during revision total hip arthroplasty poses a challenging problem. Bypass fixation over the diaphysis has achieved clinical success in cases of proximal femoral bone loss. Fracture of cementless, fully bead-coated femoral stem is an uncommon complication. The purpose of this study is to analyze the patients with and without fracture stem and find out the possible risk factors. METHODS: From 2006 to 2012, a total of 251 revision long stems (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) were implanted...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673551/antiulcer-and-hepatoprotective-effects-of-aqueous-extract-of-plantago-ovata-seed-on-indomethacin-ulcerated-rats
#5
Seyyed Majid Bagheri, Fatemeh Zare-Mohazabieh, Haniyeh Momeni-Asl, Maryam Yadegari, Aghdas Mirjalili, Morteza Anvari
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Plantago ovata seed (AEPOS) on peptic ulcer induced by indomethacin (IND) in rats. METHODS: Rats (250-300 g) were divided into three groups (5 rats in each group). Gastric ulcer was induced by a single oral gavage of 48 mg/kg IND. The first group received only 5% sodium bicarbonate orally (5 ml/kg) whereas the control (IND) group received only single oral dose of 48 mg/kg IND...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673550/complex-role-of-chemokine-mediators-in-animal-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Elodie Martin, Cécile Delarasse
Chemokines are a family of cytokines, first described to play a role in the immune system. However, neurons and glial cells also express chemokines and their receptors. In the central nervous system, chemokines are involved in several neural functions, in particular in the control of cell communications and neuronal activity. In pathological conditions, chemokines participate in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), chemokines play a role in the development of the two main lesions, amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673549/tau-and-neuroinflammation-what-impact-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-tauopathies
#7
REVIEW
Cyril Laurent, Luc Buée, David Blum
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia (60-80% of cases). In 2016, nearly 44 million people were affected by AD or related dementia. AD is characterized by progressive neuronal damages leading to subtle and latter obvious decline in cognitive functions including symptoms such as memory loss or confusion, which ultimately require full-time medical care. Its neuropathology is defined by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into amyloid plaques, and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) consisting of aggregated hyper- and abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673548/for-better-or-worse-immune-system-involvement-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
EDITORIAL
Emma L Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the key role of the immune system in the development of Alzheimer's disease. We also learn more about the link between two disorders related to metabolic imbalances, with findings that could help to inform future screening programs. Finally, we would like to highlight some big news for our journal: the Biomedical Journal will be indexed in the Science Citation Index and receive its first official impact factor from this year.
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433839/an-accurate-emotion-recognition-system-using-ecg-and-gsr-signals-and-matching-pursuit-method
#9
Atefeh Goshvarpour, Ataollah Abbasi, Ateke Goshvarpour
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm in emotion recognition. METHODS: Electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin responses (GSR) of 11 healthy students were collected while subjects were listening to emotional music clips. Applying three dictionaries, including two wavelet packet dictionaries (Coiflet, and Daubechies) and discrete cosine transform, MP coefficients were extracted from ECG and GSR signals...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433838/preliminary-asian-experience-of-using-perampanel-in-clinical-practice
#10
Hsing-I Chiang, Siew-Na Lim, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Mei-Yun Cheng, Chun-Wei Chang, Wei-En Johnny Tseng, Han-Tao Li, Chin-Yin Lin, Tony Wu
BACKGROUND: To analyze the efficacy and safety of perampanel over a 3-month period in a sample of Asian people with epilepsy. METHODS: The efficacy and safety of perampanel as an adjunctive therapy for patients with epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Patients were categorized according to seizure type, concomitant antiepileptic drug usage, and perampanel dosage. RESULTS: A total of 210 patients were included in the study and 131 patients completed 3 months of perampanel treatment...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433837/effect-of-enzymatic-pre-treatment-of-microalgae-extracts-on-their-anti-tumor-activity
#11
Asma Jabeen, Brandon Reeder, Soleiman Hisaindee, Salman Ashraf, Naeema Al Darmaki, Sinan Battah, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need to find natural bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical applications, because they have less harmful side effects compared to their chemical alternatives. Microalgae (MA) have been identified as a promising source for these bioactive compounds, and this work aimed to evaluate the anti-proliferative effects of semi-purified protein extracted from MA against several tumor cell lines. METHODS: Tested samples comprised MA cell extracts treated with cellulase and lysozyme, prior to extraction...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433836/multiresolution-image-registration-for-multimodal-brain-images-and-fusion-for-better-neurosurgical-planning
#12
Siddeshappa Nandish, Gopalakrishna Prabhu, Kadavigere V Rajagopal
BACKGROUND: Imaging modalities in medicine gives complementary information. Inadequacy in clinical information made single imaging modality insufficient. There is a need for computer-based system that permits rapid acquisition of digital medical images and performs multi-modality registration, segmentation and three-dimensional planning of minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. In this regard proposed article presents multimodal brain image registration and fusion for better neurosurgical planning...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433835/towards-automated-detection-semi-quantification-and-identification-of-microbial-growth-in-clinical-bacteriology-a-proof-of-concept
#13
Antony Croxatto, Raphaël Marcelpoil, Cédrick Orny, Didier Morel, Guy Prod'hom, Gilbert Greub
BACKGROUND: Automation in microbiology laboratories impacts management, workflow, productivity and quality. Further improvements will be driven by the development of intelligent image analysis allowing automated detection of microbial growth, release of sterile samples, identification and quantification of bacterial colonies and reading of AST disk diffusion assays. We investigated the potential benefit of intelligent imaging analysis by developing algorithms allowing automated detection, semi-quantification and identification of bacterial colonies...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433834/gasdermin-a-new-player-to-the-inflammasome-game
#14
Erivan S Ramos-Junior, Ana Carolina Morandini
Pyroptosis is a lytic type of programmed cell death that was traditionally associated with the involvement of inflammatory caspases, such as caspase-1. These inflammatory caspases are activated within multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes that are assembled in response to invading pathogens and/or danger signals. Pyroptotic cell death was suggested to evolve via the formation of pores in the plasma membrane, but the exact mechanism underlying the formation of these pores remained unclear. Recently, gasdermin D, a member of the gasdermin protein family was identified as a caspase substrate and essential effector of pyroptosis, being identified as the protagonist of membrane pore formation...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433833/macrophage-phagocytosis-cracking-the-defect-code-in-copd
#15
REVIEW
Jamil Jubrail, Nisha Kurian, Florence Niedergang
In the normal non-diseased lung, various macrophage populations maintain homeostasis and sterility by ingesting and clearing inhaled particulates, pathogens and apoptotic cells from the local environment. This process of phagocytosis leads to the degradation of the internalized material, coordinated induction of gene expression, antigen presentation and cytokine production, implicating phagocytosis as a central regulator of innate immunity. Phagocytosis is extremely efficient and any perturbation of this function is deleterious...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433832/microbes-are-off-the-menu-defective-macrophage-phagocytosis-in-copd
#16
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how defective macrophage phagocytosis may lead to the build up of microbes and pollutants in inflamed lungs. We also focus on new findings that may take us a step closer to full automation in diagnostic bacteriology laboratories. Finally, we highlight the anti-tumor properties of microalgae and the application of algorithms to predict human emotion from electrocardiogram.
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179885/bilaterality-of-ovarian-endometriomas-does-not-affect-the-outcome-of-in-vitro-fertilization-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-in-infertile-women-after-laparoscopic-cystectomy
#17
Hsing-Tse Yu, Hong-Yuan Huang, Hsiao-Jung Tseng, Chin-Jung Wang, Chyi-Long Lee, Yung-Kuei Soong
BACKGROUND: To assess whether the unilateral or bilateral lesions can affect ovarian reserve and pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) in infertility patients underwent laparoscopic cystectomy. METHODS: A total of 148 IVF/ICSI cycle in patients who had undergone laparoscopic cystectomy for unilateral or bilateral endometriomas were reviewed retrospectively. There were 103 cycles where laparoscopic cystectomy had been carried out for unilateral endometriomas and 45 cycles after bilateral-side surgery...
October 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179884/mortality-pattern-in-otorhinolaryngology-ward-a-5-years-retrospective-study-at-an-urban-tertiary-health-care-center-in-india
#18
Vivek Kumar, Satish Kumar, Naresh Chandra Sharma, Badal Kumar
BACKGROUND: To recognize deaths in the otorhinolaryngology indoor wards, determine the reason behind the mortalities and recommend modifications for betterment of patient care and surgical outcomes. METHOD: Data was collected from the mortality register, operation theatre registers, ward registers and case notes of patients declared dead at an urban tertiary health care center in India for a period of 5 years; from January 2012 to December 2016. The data included date of admission, age, sex, educational status, residence, and clinical diagnosis, course of hospital stay and medical cause of death...
October 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179883/shifting-trend-of-tubercular-lymphadenitis-over-a-decade-a-study-from-eastern-region-of-india
#19
Senjuti Dasgupta, Sudipta Chakrabarti, Supriya Sarkar
BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is changing in India. The commonest extra pulmonary manifestation of TB is tuberculous lymphadenitis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To detect changes in occurrence of TB lymphadenitis by comparing current data with that from 10 years back. METHODS: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) findings of patients presenting with lymphadenopathy between January 2014 and December 2015 were included in the study as current data...
October 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179882/probiotic-potential-of-lactobacilli-with-antagonistic-activity-against-pathogenic-strains-an-in-vitro-validation-for-the-production-of-inhibitory-substances
#20
Chidre Prabhurajeshwar, Revanasiddappa Kelmani Chandrakanth
BACKGROUND: Probiotics, live cells with different beneficiary characteristics, have been extensively studied and explored commercially in many different products in the world. Their benefits to human and animal health have proven in hundreds of scientific studies. Based on rich bibliographic material, Curd is the potential source of probiotic Lactobacilli. METHOD: The aim of the present study was to observe Lactobacilli with probiotic potential activities from different curd samples for isolation, identification and characterization of Lactobacillus species...
October 2017: Biomedical Journal
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