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Biomedical Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866605/translational-insights-on-developmental-origins-of-metabolic-syndrome-focus-on-fructose-consumption
#1
Wei-Chia Lee, Kay L H Wu, Steve Leu, You-Lin Tain
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent complex trait despite recent advances in pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment. MetS can begin in early life by so-called the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). The DOHaD concept offers a novel approach to prevent MetS through reprogramming. High fructose (HF) intake has been associated with increased risk of MetS. HF diet becomes one of the most commonly used animal model to induce MetS. This review discusses the maternal HF diet induced programming process and reprogramming strategy to prevent MetS of developmental origin, with an emphasis on: (1) an overview of metabolic effects of fructose consumption on MetS; (2) insight from maternal HF animal models on MetS-related phenotypes; (3) impact of HF consumption induces organ-specific transcriptome changes; and (4) application of reprogramming strategy to prevent maternal HF consumption-induced MetS...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866604/food-safety-in-the-21st-century
#2
REVIEW
Fred Fung, Huei-Shyong Wang, Suresh Menon
Food is essential to life, hence food safety is a basic human right. Billons of people in the world are at risk of unsafe food. Many millions become sick while hundreds of thousand die yearly. The food chain starts from farm to fork/plate while challenges include microbial, chemical, personal and environmental hygiene. Historically, documented human tragedies and economic disasters due to consuming contaminated food occurred as a result of intentional or unintentional personal conduct and governmental failure to safeguard food quality and safety...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866603/salivary-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-neurological-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Raymond Farah, Hayat Haraty, Ziad Salame, Youssef Fares, David M Ojcius, Najwane Said Sadier
Current research efforts on neurological diseases are focused on identifying novel disease biomarkers to aid in diagnosis, provide accurate prognostic information and monitor disease progression. With advances in detection and quantification methods in genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, saliva has emerged as a good source of samples for detection of disease biomarkers. Obtaining a sample of saliva offers multiple advantages over the currently tested biological fluids as it is a non-invasive, painless and simple procedure that does not require expert training or harbour undesirable side effects for the patients...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866602/saliva-biomarkers-in-neurological-disorders-a-spitting-image-of-brain-health
#4
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how biomarkers in saliva may be able to provide insight into the health of the brain and the central nervous system. We also discover how computational modeling can help to identify potential epitopes for vaccine development against Chlamydia, the world's most common sexually transmitted infection.
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866601/a-phase-ii-randomized-trial-comparing-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-followed-by-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-versus-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-alone-in-advanced-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-pharynx-or-larynx
#5
Pei-Wei Huang, Chien-Yu Lin, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Cheng-Lung Hsu, Kang-Hsing Fan, Shiang-Fu Huang, Chun-Ta Liao, Shu-Kung Ng, Tzu-Chen Yen, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang, Hung-Ming Wang
BACKGROUND: To clarify the effect of induction chemotherapy (ICT) in patients with advanced pharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (PLSCC) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). METHODS: Patients with treatment-naïve nonmetastatic advanced PLSCC were stratified according to disease stage (III or IV) and resectability before being randomized to either a ICT/CCRT or CCRT arm. A cisplatin/tegafur-uracil/leucovorin regimen was administered during ICT and CCRT...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866600/computational-prediction-of-vaccine-potential-epitopes-and-3-dimensional-structure-of-xage-1b-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Mohammad M Tarek, Ayman E Shafei, Mahmoud A Ali, Mohamed M Mansour
BACKGROUND: XAGE-1b is shown to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma and to be a strong immunogenic antigen among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, 3D structure of XAGE-1b is not available and its confirmation has not been solved yet. METHODS: Multiple sequence alignment was run to select the most reliable templates. Homology modeling technique was performed using computer-based tool to generate 3-dimensional structure models, eight models were generated and assessed on basis of local and global quality...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866599/in-silico-prediction-of-t-and-b-cell-epitopes-in-pmpd-first-step-towards-to-the-design-of-a-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccine
#7
Romina Cecilia Russi, Elian Bourdin, María Inés García, Carolina Melania I Veaute
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection globally. Currently, there are no vaccines available despite the efforts made to develop a protective one. Polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) is an attractive immunogen candidate as it is conserved among strains and it is target of neutralizing antibodies. However, its high molecular weight and its complex structure make it difficult to handle by recombinant DNA techniques. Our aim is to predict B-cell and T-cell epitopes of PmpD...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866598/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-in-lipid-metabolic-disorders
#8
Kuang-Tzu Huang, Chih-Che Lin, Ming-Chao Tsai, Kuang-Den Chen, King-Wah Chiu
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted glycoprotein that has anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, neurotrophic and immunomodulatory properties. PEDF has recently emerged as a critical metabolic regulatory protein since the discovery of its modulatory activities in the lipolytic pathway by binding to adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Despite being beneficial in maintaining the homeostasis of hepatic lipid accumulation, PEDF has been uncovered an unfavorable role associated with insulin resistance...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673555/structure-and-mechanism-of-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain
#9
REVIEW
Runyu Guo, Jinke Gu, Shuai Zong, Meng Wu, Maojun Yang
Respiration is one of the most vital and basic features of living organisms. In mammals, respiration is accomplished by respiratory chain complexes located on the mitochondrial inner membrane. In the past century, scientists put tremendous efforts in understanding these complexes, but failed to solve the high resolution structure until recently. In 2016, three research groups reported the structure of respiratory chain supercomplex from different species, and fortunately the structure solved by our group has the highest resolution...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673554/subclinical-hypothyroidism-and-metabolic-risk-factors-association-a-health-examination-based-study-in-northern-taiwan
#10
Feng-Hsuan Liu, Jawl-Shan Hwang, Chang-Fu Kuo, Yu-Shien Ko, Szu-Tah Chen, Jen-Der Lin
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevation in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels despite normal serum levels of free thyroxine. It remains controversial whether people with SCH have higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to normal-thyroid subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic risk factors for SCH. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the health examination center of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673553/the-discoveries-of-molecular-mechanisms-for-the-circadian-rhythm-the-2017-nobel-prize-in-physiology-or-medicine
#11
Rong-Chi Huang
Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673552/fracture-of-cobalt-chrome-fully-coat-beaded-femoral-revision-long-stem-a-clinical-outcomes-study
#12
Chih-Hsiang Chang, Po-Chun Lin, Cheng-Min Shih, Chun-Chieh Chen, Pang-Hsin Hsieh, Hsin-Nung Shih
BACKGROUND: Femoral bone loss during revision total hip arthroplasty poses a challenging problem. Bypass fixation over the diaphysis has achieved clinical success in cases of proximal femoral bone loss. Fracture of cementless, fully bead-coated femoral stem is an uncommon complication. The purpose of this study is to analyze the patients with and without fracture stem and find out the possible risk factors. METHODS: From 2006 to 2012, a total of 251 revision long stems (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) were implanted...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673551/antiulcer-and-hepatoprotective-effects-of-aqueous-extract-of-plantago-ovata-seed-on-indomethacin-ulcerated-rats
#13
Seyyed Majid Bagheri, Fatemeh Zare-Mohazabieh, Haniyeh Momeni-Asl, Maryam Yadegari, Aghdas Mirjalili, Morteza Anvari
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Plantago ovata seed (AEPOS) on peptic ulcer induced by indomethacin (IND) in rats. METHODS: Rats (250-300 g) were divided into three groups (5 rats in each group). Gastric ulcer was induced by a single oral gavage of 48 mg/kg IND. The first group received only 5% sodium bicarbonate orally (5 ml/kg) whereas the control (IND) group received only single oral dose of 48 mg/kg IND...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673550/complex-role-of-chemokine-mediators-in-animal-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Elodie Martin, Cécile Delarasse
Chemokines are a family of cytokines, first described to play a role in the immune system. However, neurons and glial cells also express chemokines and their receptors. In the central nervous system, chemokines are involved in several neural functions, in particular in the control of cell communications and neuronal activity. In pathological conditions, chemokines participate in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), chemokines play a role in the development of the two main lesions, amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673549/tau-and-neuroinflammation-what-impact-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-tauopathies
#15
REVIEW
Cyril Laurent, Luc Buée, David Blum
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia (60-80% of cases). In 2016, nearly 44 million people were affected by AD or related dementia. AD is characterized by progressive neuronal damages leading to subtle and latter obvious decline in cognitive functions including symptoms such as memory loss or confusion, which ultimately require full-time medical care. Its neuropathology is defined by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into amyloid plaques, and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) consisting of aggregated hyper- and abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673548/for-better-or-worse-immune-system-involvement-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
EDITORIAL
Emma L Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the key role of the immune system in the development of Alzheimer's disease. We also learn more about the link between two disorders related to metabolic imbalances, with findings that could help to inform future screening programs. Finally, we would like to highlight some big news for our journal: the Biomedical Journal will be indexed in the Science Citation Index and receive its first official impact factor from this year.
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433839/an-accurate-emotion-recognition-system-using-ecg-and-gsr-signals-and-matching-pursuit-method
#17
Atefeh Goshvarpour, Ataollah Abbasi, Ateke Goshvarpour
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm in emotion recognition. METHODS: Electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin responses (GSR) of 11 healthy students were collected while subjects were listening to emotional music clips. Applying three dictionaries, including two wavelet packet dictionaries (Coiflet, and Daubechies) and discrete cosine transform, MP coefficients were extracted from ECG and GSR signals...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433838/preliminary-asian-experience-of-using-perampanel-in-clinical-practice
#18
Hsing-I Chiang, Siew-Na Lim, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Mei-Yun Cheng, Chun-Wei Chang, Wei-En Johnny Tseng, Han-Tao Li, Chin-Yin Lin, Tony Wu
BACKGROUND: To analyze the efficacy and safety of perampanel over a 3-month period in a sample of Asian people with epilepsy. METHODS: The efficacy and safety of perampanel as an adjunctive therapy for patients with epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Patients were categorized according to seizure type, concomitant antiepileptic drug usage, and perampanel dosage. RESULTS: A total of 210 patients were included in the study and 131 patients completed 3 months of perampanel treatment...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433837/effect-of-enzymatic-pre-treatment-of-microalgae-extracts-on-their-anti-tumor-activity
#19
Asma Jabeen, Brandon Reeder, Soleiman Hisaindee, Salman Ashraf, Naeema Al Darmaki, Sinan Battah, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need to find natural bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical applications, because they have less harmful side effects compared to their chemical alternatives. Microalgae (MA) have been identified as a promising source for these bioactive compounds, and this work aimed to evaluate the anti-proliferative effects of semi-purified protein extracted from MA against several tumor cell lines. METHODS: Tested samples comprised MA cell extracts treated with cellulase and lysozyme, prior to extraction...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433836/multiresolution-image-registration-for-multimodal-brain-images-and-fusion-for-better-neurosurgical-planning
#20
Siddeshappa Nandish, Gopalakrishna Prabhu, Kadavigere V Rajagopal
BACKGROUND: Imaging modalities in medicine gives complementary information. Inadequacy in clinical information made single imaging modality insufficient. There is a need for computer-based system that permits rapid acquisition of digital medical images and performs multi-modality registration, segmentation and three-dimensional planning of minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. In this regard proposed article presents multimodal brain image registration and fusion for better neurosurgical planning...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
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