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Biomedical Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884384/radiographic-outcome-of-necrotic-immature-teeth-treated-with-two-endodontic-techniques-a-retrospective-analysis
#1
COMMENT
Szu-Ju Chen, Li-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: The endodontic treatment of teeth with immature root has always been a challenge. To achieve a better prognosis, regenerative endodontic treatment may become a treatment trend for teeth with apical periodontitis and immature roots. METHODS: Clinical and radiographic data were collected from 38 endodontic treated immature teeth (21 apexification and 17 regeneration). Measure the radiographic outcome by quantifying the apical lesion. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the two treatments regarding PAI scores at the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (p > 0...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884383/histomorphometric-study-of-basilar-artery-in-normal-and-suicide-persons
#2
Suresh Kumar Parmar, V Satya Prasad
BACKGROUND: Depression in association with cerebro-vascular risk factors and white matter lesions is increasingly referred to as 'vascular depression'. There are several brain areas known for playing a role in patho-physiology of depression which may lead to suicidal tendencies, are fed by basilar artery. Therefore, the arterial histoarchitecture was studied in the normal and suicide individuals to establish a relationship between the vascular structural changes and depression. METHODS: 40 post-mortem samples (both sexes) of basilar artery have been collected and were grouped into normal and suicide groups...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884382/profile-of-glycated-hemoglobin-antioxidant-vitamin-and-cytokine-levels-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-at-pulmonary-diseases-center-semarang-city-indonesia
#3
Praba Ginandjar, Lintang Dian Saraswati, Bagoes Widjanarko
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled blood glucose, which marked by high level of HbA1c, increases risk of pulmonary TB because of cellular immunity dysfunction. This study aimed to analyze profile of glycated hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamins status and cytokines levels in active pulmonary TB patients. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia. Study subject consisted of 62 pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed with positive acid fast bacilli and chest X-ray...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884381/elevated-adiponectin-but-varied-response-in-circulating-leptin-levels-to-falciparum-malaria-in-type-2-diabetics-and-non-diabetic-controls
#4
COMMENT
Samuel Acquah, Benjamin Ackon Eghan, Johnson Nyarko Boampong
BACKGROUND: To investigate effects of falciparum malaria on circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-diabetic controls in relation to measures of adiposity. METHODS: Levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured in 100 type 2 diabetics and 100 age-matched controls before and during falciparum malaria in a 2-year prospective study. Also, waist circumference (WC), weight, height and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884380/association-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cytotoxin-associated-gene-a-positive-helicobacter-pylori-in-patients-with-cardiac-syndrome-x
#5
COMMENT
Yousef Rasmi, Hadi Rouhrazi, Ebrahim Khayati-Shal, Alireza Shirpoor, Ehsan Saboory
BACKGROUND: Existence of coronary endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). In addition, Helicobacter pylorus (H. pylori) has been associated with CSX. We aimed to assess the possible association of endothelial dysfunction and cytotoxin-associated gene A-positive H. pylori (CagA+) infection in CSX patients. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with CSX (23 male/33 female; age: 51.25 ± 8.86 years) who were anti-H. pylori IgG-positive [H...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884379/purinergic-signalling-in-autoimmunity-a-role-for-the-p2x7r-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Di Virgilio, Anna Lisa Giuliani
Purinergic signalling plays a crucial role in immunity and autoimmunity. Among purinergic receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has an undisputed role as it is expressed to high level by immune cells, triggers cytokine release and modulates immune cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on evidence supporting a possible role of the P2X7R in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884378/purinergic-signaling-in-schistosomal-infection
#7
REVIEW
Claudia Lucia Martins Silva
Human schistosomiasis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by blood fluke worms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. Health metrics indicate that the disease is related to an elevated number of years lost-to-disability and years lost-to-life. Schistosomiasis is an intravascular disease that is related to a Th1 and Th2 immune response polarization, and the degree of polarization affects the outcome of the disease. The purinergic system is composed of adenosine and nucleotides acting as key messenger molecules...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884377/danger-signals-inflammasomes-and-the-intricate-intracellular-lives-of-chlamydiae
#8
REVIEW
Matthew A Pettengill, Ali Abdul-Sater, Robson Coutinho-Silva, David M Ojcius
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens, and as such are sensitive to alterations in the cellular physiology of their hosts. Chlamydial infections often cause pathologic consequences due to prolonged localized inflammation. Considerable advances have been made in the last few years regarding our understanding of how two key inflammation-associated signaling pathways influence the biology of Chlamydia infections: inflammation regulating purinergic signaling pathways significantly impact intracellular chlamydial development, and inflammasome activation modulates both chlamydial growth and infection mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884376/purinergic-signaling-in-infection-and-autoimmune-disease
#9
EDITORIAL
Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Purinergic signaling plays a key role in inflammatory processes and modulates immune responses against a variety of bacterial and eukaryotic parasites. Here we highlight the role of purinergic receptor activation in infection and autoimmune diseases. Purinergic signaling and inflammasomes modulate the host immune response against chlamydial infections. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that purinergic signaling contributes to Schistosomiasis morbidity, a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic worms called schistosomes...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884375/the-inflammasome-friend-or-foe-in-chlamydia-infection
#10
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we take a look at the still somewhat perplexing role of the inflammasome in Chlamydia infection. We also highlight findings suggesting a link between structural changes to arteries in the brain and the onset of depression. Finally, we learn about some of the implications of co-morbidity between diabetes and infectious diseases.
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793273/nasal-gouty-tophus-report-a-rare-case-presenting-as-a-nasal-hump-with-nasal-obstruction
#11
COMMENT
John Chung-Han Wu, Pang-Yun Chou, Chih-Hao Chen
Dorsal nasal gouty tophus are rare occurrences with limited documentation. Here we report a male patient who has a history of poorly controlled gouty arthritis. He had nasal obstruction with an enlarging mass over his left nasal ridge for the past three years. Image studies revealed a nasal bone defect underneath the nasal lesion. The firm mass was excised and confirmed to be of gouty origin. The nasal bone defect was repaired with a titanium mesh plate to prevent nasal depression. He has fully recovered with no more nasal obstruction or recurrence of nasal tophus...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793272/a-pilot-study-on-trichomonas-vaginalis-in-women-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#12
Po-Chih Chang, Yu-Chao Hsu, Ming-Li Hsieh, Shih-Tsung Huang, Hsin-Chieh Huang, Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Trichomoniasis and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) shared similar risk factors, age distribution and overlapping symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) in women with recurrent UTIs, attending a urology clinic in a medical center, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. METHODS: Women with recurrent UTIs, defined as the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency and urgency) and three positive urine cultures on voided urine specimens in the previous year, were enrolled prospectively from January 2013 to April 2014...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793271/non-imaging-assisted-insertion-of-un-cuffed-non-tunneled-internal-jugular-venous-catheters-for-hemodialysis-safety-and-utility-in-modern-day-world
#13
COMMENT
Manish Rathi, Venkata Siva Tez Pinnamaneni, Vinay Sakhuja
BACKGROUND: Absolute necessity in acute kidney injury (AKI) and ignorance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) make the use of un-cuffed, non-tunneled catheters an indispensable vascular access for hemodialysis. Although these catheters should be inserted under radiological guidance, it may not be feasible in certain circumstances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate safety and outcome of non-imaging assisted insertion of these catheters in internal jugular vein (IJV) for hemodialysis...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793270/morphological-changes-evaluation-of-left-atrial-appendage-in-patients-with-ischaemic-heart-disease
#14
COMMENT
Abdulwahab Abuderman, Mohammed Abbas
BACKGROUND: Since the majority of morphological changes evaluation of myocardium in ischaemic heart disease was in animal model, we detected the importance to evaluate such changes in human patients to gain insights into the targets of cellular damage and to reconcile or refine those experiments. METHODS: Tissue sections from left atrial appendage of the heart were carefully dissected from seventy five patients underwent conventional coronary artery bypass grafting at the cardiothoracic surgical department, Manchester Royal Infirmary...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793269/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-protein-and-mrna-levels-in-patients-with-bipolar-mania-a-preliminary-study
#15
Chin-Chuen Lin, Chien-Te Lee, Ya-Ting Lo, Tiao-Lai Huang
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein or mRNA levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, the results were inconsistent. We aimed to simultaneously investigate the relationship of BDNF protein and mRNA levels in peripheral blood of patients with bipolar mania. METHODS: Patients with bipolar mania (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 30) were recruited during our one-year study. Psychiatric diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793268/spontaneous-metastases-in-immunocompetent-mice-harboring-a-primary-tumor-driven-by-oncogene-latent-membrane-protein-1-from-epstein-barr-virus
#16
Pu-Yuan Chang, Yenlin Huang, Tzu-Yuan Hung, Kowit-Yu Chong, Yu-Sun Chang, Chuck C-K Chao, Kai-Ping N Chow
BACKGROUND: In vitro and clinical studies suggest that the oncogene LMP1 (latent membrane protein 1) encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the formation of metastases in immunocompetent individuals. However, whether LMP1 itself is sufficient to drive these events in immunocompetent hosts remains elusive due to the lack of appropriate experimental models. The aim of this study was to study LMP1-dependent tumorigenesis and metastasis in BALB/c mice inoculated with BALB/c-3T3 cells expressing N-LMP1 (a Taiwanese NPC variant)...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793267/purinergic-signaling-during-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection
#17
REVIEW
Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Ana Carolina Morandini, Henning Ulrich, David M Ojcius, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Despite recent advances unraveling mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions in innate immunity, the participation of purinergic signaling in infection-driven inflammation remains an emerging research field with many unanswered questions. As one of the most-studied oral pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a keystone pathogen with a central role in development of periodontal disease. This pathogen needs to evade immune-mediated defense mechanisms and tolerate inflammation in order to survive in the host...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793266/purinergic-signaling-and-infection-by-leishmania-a-new-approach-to-evasion-of-the-immune-response
#18
REVIEW
Amanda Braga de Figueiredo, Miriam Conceicao Souza-Testasicca, Luis Carlos Crocco Afonso
Infection by protozoan parasites is part of the most common Tropical Neglected Diseases. In the case of leishmaniasis, several millions of people are at risk of contracting the disease. In spite of innumerous studies that elucidated the immune response capable of killing the parasite, the understanding of the evasion mechanisms utilized by the parasite to survive within the very cell responsible for its destruction is still incomplete. In this review, we offer a new approach to the control of the immune response against the parasite...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793265/trichomoniasis-immunity-and-the-involvement-of-the-purinergic-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Camila Braz Menezes, Tiana Tasca
Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In the urogenital tract, innate immunity is accomplished by a defense physical barrier constituted by epithelial cells, mucus, and acidic pH. During infection, immune cells, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines, and adaptive immunity evolve in the reproductive tract, and a proinflammatory response is generated to eliminate the invading extracellular pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793264/perturbing-purinergic-signaling-a-pathogen-s-guidebook-to-counteracting-inflammatory-responses
#20
EDITORIAL
Emma L Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how bacteria and parasites alike counteract inflammatory signaling by manipulating purinergic signaling. We also focus on an original article shedding light on the role of an Epstein-Barr virus encoded gene in metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Finally, we learn about a possible link between Trichomonas vaginalis and recurrent urinary tract infection.
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
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