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Biomedical Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348271/adaptation-and-validation-of-a-measure-of-health-literacy-in-taiwan-the-newest-vital-sign
#1
Hsu-Min Tseng, Shu-Fen Liao, Yu-Ping Wen, Yuh-Jue Chuang
BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) refers to the ability to obtain, read, understand, and use basic health care information required to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS) is an instrument developed for assessing aspects of HL relevant to reading and numeracy skills. This study aimed to develop a traditional Chinese version of the NVS (NVS-TC) and assess its feasibility, reliability, and validity in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes...
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348270/sutureless-aortic-bioprosthesis-replacement-in-elderly-asian-patients-with-aortic-stenosis-experience-in-a-single-institution
#2
Chun-Yu Lin, Hsiu-An Lee, Pyng-Jing Lin, Chun-Li Wang, Kuo-Chun Hung, Feng-Chun Tsai
BACKGROUND: Sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) has emerged as a promising alternative for the treatment of patients with aortic valve stenosis. This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of SU-AVR in an elderly Asian population. METHODS: From June 2015 to May 2016, 15 adults with severe aortic stenosis (9 females) with a median age of 79 years underwent Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis (LivaNova, UK) implantation in a single Taiwanese institution; peri-operative recovery, clinical improvement, and valve performance were analyzed...
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348269/evaluation-of-cell-damage-induced-by-irradiated-zinc-phthalocyanine-gold-dendrimeric-nanoparticles-in-a-breast-cancer-cell-line
#3
Ivan Mfouo-Tynga, Nicolette Nadene Houreld, Heidi Abrahamse
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a non-communicable disease that occurs following a mutation in the genes which control cell growth. Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among South African women and a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative cancer therapy that uses photochemotherapeutic agents, known as photosensitizers. Drug-delivery nanoparticles are commonly used in nanomedicine to enhance drug-therapeutic efficiency. This study evaluated the photodynamic effects following treatment with 0...
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348268/wearable-sensors-for-the-monitoring-of-movement-disorders
#4
Nahed Jalloul
This paper offers a review of the implementation of current wearable sensing technologies in monitoring the movement and activity of patients suffering from movement disorders. Recent literature has focused on incorporating simple and reliable wearable technologies for the continuous and objective monitoring of patient movement during normal daily activities. However, the use of such wearable sensing technologies has yet to find its way to clinical practice. In the following, the basic elements of such monitoring systems and their applications are introduced, and a discussion regarding current clinical applications is presented...
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348267/legacy-of-the-influenza-pandemic-1918-the-host-t-cell-response
#5
REVIEW
Andrew J McMichael
The influenza virus was instrumental in unravelling critical aspects of the antiviral T lymphocyte mediated immune response. A major finding was the demonstration that CD8 T lymphocytes recognize short viral peptides presented by class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex. Studies of influenza specific T cells have also led to an understanding of their important role in recovery from influenza virus infection in humans.
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348266/centennial-review-of-influenza-in-taiwan
#6
REVIEW
Yu-Nong Gong, Rei-Lin Kuo, Guang-Wu Chen, Shin-Ru Shih
The history of influenza in Taiwan can be traced up to the 1918 H1N1 Spanish flu pandemic, followed by several others including the 1957 H2N2, 1968 H3N2, and the 2009 new H1N1. A couple of avian influenza viruses of H5N1 and H7N9 also posed threats to the general public in Taiwan in the two recent decades. Nevertheless, two seasonal influenza A viruses and two lineages of influenza B viruses continue causing annual endemics one after the other, or appearing simultaneously. Their interplay provided interesting evolutionary trajectories for these viruses, allowing us to computationally model their global migrations together with the data collected elsewhere from different geographical locations...
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348265/the-role-of-respiratory-epithelium-in-host-defence-against-influenza-virus-infection
#7
REVIEW
Laura Denney, Ling-Pei Ho
The respiratory epithelium is the major interface between the environment and the host. Sophisticated barrier, sensing, anti-microbial and immune regulatory mechanisms have evolved to help maintain homeostasis and to defend the lung against foreign substances and pathogens. During influenza virus infection, these specialised structural cells and populations of resident immune cells come together to mount the first response to the virus, one which would play a significant role in the immediate and long term outcome of the infection...
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348264/legacy-of-the-influenza-pandemic-1918-introduction
#8
EDITORIAL
Siamon Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348263/the-influenza-chronicles-from-the-1918-pandemic-to-current-understanding-of-host-defense-mechanisms
#9
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this special edition of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about the battle between host and influenza virus at the respiratory epithelium, and how the history of influenza pandemics has driven both major advances in the understanding of immunology and planning for future outbreaks. We also learn of a nanoparticle system that holds promise for photodynamic therapy in breast cancer. Finally, we add evidence to the debate of the safety of a minimally invasive technique for aortic valve replacement in elderly patients...
August 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080661/the-rainbow-pattern-in-dermoscopy-a-zoom-on-nonkaposi-sarcoma-skin-diseases
#10
LETTER
Awatef Kelati, Fatima Zahra Mernissi
The rainbow pattern is currently a subject of debate, it is considered the specific dermoscopic pattern of Kaposi sarcoma. We present in this research correspondence a review of 700 dermoscopic figures of different biopsy-proven skin diseases in our department of dermatology of the Hospital Hassan II of Fez. All the lesions were localized to the limbs except for one lesion of atrophic scar that was localized on the left shoulder. RP was observed in four raised lesions: one case of hypertrophic scar, one case of angiokeratoma, one case of stasis dermatitis and one case of pseudo-Kaposi...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080660/risk-factors-and-quality-of-life-for-the-occurrence-of-hip-fracture-in-postmenopausal-women
#11
Fang-Ping Chen, Tsai-Sheng Fu, Yu-Ching Lin, Chih-Ming Fan
BACKGROUND: To identify the risk factors and changes of quality of life in the first occurrence of hip fracture in Taiwanese postmenopausal women. METHODS: In this case-control study, we enrolled 100 postmenopausal women with accidental first-incident hip fracture and 100 women without hip fracture. The control group was matched to the study group according to age. Evaluation consisted of a questionnaire, an interview to both assess quality of life via a 36-item Short Form Health Survey and document risk factors, a physical examination to record height and body weight, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080659/acute-toxicity-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-leaf-tincture-baccharis-trimera-less
#12
Andreia Regina Haas da Silva, Leonardo Quintana Soares Lopes, Gabriela Buzatti Cassanego, Patrícia Romualdo de Jesus, Kássia Caroline Figueredo, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos, Gilberti Helena Hübscher Lopes, Liliane de Freitas Bauermann
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the possible acute oral toxicity of Baccharistrimera leaf dye as well as its antimicrobial activity. METHOD: Organization for Economic co-operation and development (OECD) 423 was used to assess acute oral toxicity and as per protocol a dose of 2000 mg/kg of tincture was administered to Wistar rats, male and female, and observed for 14 days. Biochemical and hematological analyzes were performed with sample collected of rat...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080658/oral-infection-of-mice-with-fusobacterium-nucleatum-results-in-macrophage-recruitment-to-the-dental-pulp-and-bone-resorption
#13
Larry Johnson, Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Christina Maeda Takiya, Vanessa Figliuolo, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Gilberto Weissmüller, Julio Scharfstein, Robson Coutinho-Silva, David M Ojcius
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with periodontal disease. Some oral bacteria, like Porphyromonas gingivalis, evade the host immune response by inhibiting inflammation. On the other hand, F. nucleatum triggers inflammasome activation and release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in infected gingival epithelial cells. METHODS: In this study, we characterized the pro-inflammatory response to F. nucleatum oral infection in BALB/c mice...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080657/nrf2-activation-attenuates-the-early-suppression-of-mitochondrial-respiration-due-to-the-%C3%AE-synuclein-overexpression
#14
Mu-Hui Fu, Chih-Wei Wu, Yu-Chi Lee, Chun-Ying Hung, I-Chun Chen, Kay L H Wu
BACKGROUND: α-synuclein (SNCA) accumulation in the substantia nigra is one of the characteristic pathologies of Parkinson's disease (PD). A53T missense mutations in the SNCA gene has been proved to enhance the expression of SNCA and accelerate the onset of PD. Mitochondrial dysfunction in SNCA aggregation has been under debate for decades but the causal relationship remains uncertain. At a later stage of PD, the cellular dysfunctions are complicated and multiple factors are tangled. Our aim here is to investigate the mitochondrial functional changes and clarify the main causal mechanism at earlier-stage of PD...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080656/tumor-microenvironment-mediated-by-suppression-of-autophagic-flux-drives-liver-malignancy
#15
Kuang-Den Chen, Chih-Che Lin, Ming-Chao Tsai, Kuang-Tzu Huang, King-Wah Chiu
The physiological role of autophagy in the catabolic process of the body involves protein synthesis and degradation in homeostasis under normal and stressed conditions. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of tumor microenvironment (TME) has been concerned as the main issue in fighting against this deadly malignancy. During the last decade, the crosstalk between tumor cells and their TME in HCC extensively accumulated. However, a deeper knowledge for the actual function of autophagy in this interconnection which involved in supporting tumor development, progression and chemoresistance in HCC is needed but still largely unknown...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080655/the-emerging-risk-of-exposure-to-air-pollution-on-cognitive-decline-and-alzheimer-s-disease-evidence-from-epidemiological-and-animal-studies
#16
REVIEW
Jason Kilian, Masashi Kitazawa
As incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases rise, there is increasing interest in environmental factors which may contribute to disease onset and progression. Air pollution has been known as a major health hazard for decades. While its effects on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality have been extensively studied, growing evidence has emerged that exposure to polluted air is associated with impaired cognitive functions at all ages and increased risk of AD and other dementias in later life; this association is particularly notable with traffic related pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, black carbon, and small diameter airborne solids and liquids known as particulate matter...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080654/tainted-air-the-link-between-pollution-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how air pollution may contribute to cognitive decline and even increase risk for Alzheimer's disease. We also highlight original research documenting the body's response to infection with a common oral pathogen. Finally, we learn how a cellular antioxidant protein protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866605/translational-insights-on-developmental-origins-of-metabolic-syndrome-focus-on-fructose-consumption
#18
Wei-Chia Lee, Kay L H Wu, Steve Leu, You-Lin Tain
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent complex trait despite recent advances in pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment. MetS can begin in early life by so-called the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). The DOHaD concept offers a novel approach to prevent MetS through reprogramming. High fructose (HF) intake has been associated with increased risk of MetS. HF diet becomes one of the most commonly used animal model to induce MetS. This review discusses the maternal HF diet induced programming process and reprogramming strategy to prevent MetS of developmental origin, with an emphasis on: (1) an overview of metabolic effects of fructose consumption on MetS; (2) insight from maternal HF animal models on MetS-related phenotypes; (3) impact of HF consumption induces organ-specific transcriptome changes; and (4) application of reprogramming strategy to prevent maternal HF consumption-induced MetS...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866604/food-safety-in-the-21st-century
#19
REVIEW
Fred Fung, Huei-Shyong Wang, Suresh Menon
Food is essential to life, hence food safety is a basic human right. Billons of people in the world are at risk of unsafe food. Many millions become sick while hundreds of thousand die yearly. The food chain starts from farm to fork/plate while challenges include microbial, chemical, personal and environmental hygiene. Historically, documented human tragedies and economic disasters due to consuming contaminated food occurred as a result of intentional or unintentional personal conduct and governmental failure to safeguard food quality and safety...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866603/salivary-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-neurological-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Raymond Farah, Hayat Haraty, Ziad Salame, Youssef Fares, David M Ojcius, Najwane Said Sadier
Current research efforts on neurological diseases are focused on identifying novel disease biomarkers to aid in diagnosis, provide accurate prognostic information and monitor disease progression. With advances in detection and quantification methods in genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, saliva has emerged as a good source of samples for detection of disease biomarkers. Obtaining a sample of saliva offers multiple advantages over the currently tested biological fluids as it is a non-invasive, painless and simple procedure that does not require expert training or harbour undesirable side effects for the patients...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
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