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Biomedical Journal

Awatef Kelati, Fatima Zahra Mernissi
The rainbow pattern is currently a subject of debate, it is considered the specific dermoscopic pattern of Kaposi sarcoma. We present in this research correspondence a review of 700 dermoscopic figures of different biopsy-proven skin diseases in our department of dermatology of the Hospital Hassan II of Fez. All the lesions were localized to the limbs except for one lesion of atrophic scar that was localized on the left shoulder. RP was observed in four raised lesions: one case of hypertrophic scar, one case of angiokeratoma, one case of stasis dermatitis and one case of pseudo-Kaposi...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Fang-Ping Chen, Tsai-Sheng Fu, Yu-Ching Lin, Chih-Ming Fan
BACKGROUND: To identify the risk factors and changes of quality of life in the first occurrence of hip fracture in Taiwanese postmenopausal women. METHODS: In this case-control study, we enrolled 100 postmenopausal women with accidental first-incident hip fracture and 100 women without hip fracture. The control group was matched to the study group according to age. Evaluation consisted of a questionnaire, an interview to both assess quality of life via a 36-item Short Form Health Survey and document risk factors, a physical examination to record height and body weight, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Andreia Regina Haas da Silva, Leonardo Quintana Soares Lopes, Gabriela Buzatti Cassanego, Patrícia Romualdo de Jesus, Kássia Caroline Figueredo, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos, Gilberti Helena Hübscher Lopes, Liliane de Freitas Bauermann
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the possible acute oral toxicity of Baccharistrimera leaf dye as well as its antimicrobial activity. METHOD: Organization for Economic co-operation and development (OECD) 423 was used to assess acute oral toxicity and as per protocol a dose of 2000 mg/kg of tincture was administered to Wistar rats, male and female, and observed for 14 days. Biochemical and hematological analyzes were performed with sample collected of rat...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Larry Johnson, Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Christina Maeda Takiya, Vanessa Figliuolo, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Gilberto Weissmüller, Julio Scharfstein, Robson Coutinho-Silva, David M Ojcius
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with periodontal disease. Some oral bacteria, like Porphyromonas gingivalis, evade the host immune response by inhibiting inflammation. On the other hand, F. nucleatum triggers inflammasome activation and release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in infected gingival epithelial cells. METHODS: In this study, we characterized the pro-inflammatory response to F. nucleatum oral infection in BALB/c mice...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Mu-Hui Fu, Chih-Wei Wu, Yu-Chi Lee, Chun-Ying Hung, I-Chun Chen, Kay L H Wu
BACKGROUND: α-synuclein (SNCA) accumulation in the substantia nigra is one of the characteristic pathologies of Parkinson's disease (PD). A53T missense mutations in the SNCA gene has been proved to enhance the expression of SNCA and accelerate the onset of PD. Mitochondrial dysfunction in SNCA aggregation has been under debate for decades but the causal relationship remains uncertain. At a later stage of PD, the cellular dysfunctions are complicated and multiple factors are tangled. Our aim here is to investigate the mitochondrial functional changes and clarify the main causal mechanism at earlier-stage of PD...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Kuang-Den Chen, Chih-Che Lin, Ming-Chao Tsai, Kuang-Tzu Huang, King-Wah Chiu
The physiological role of autophagy in the catabolic process of the body involves protein synthesis and degradation in homeostasis under normal and stressed conditions. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of tumor microenvironment (TME) has been concerned as the main issue in fighting against this deadly malignancy. During the last decade, the crosstalk between tumor cells and their TME in HCC extensively accumulated. However, a deeper knowledge for the actual function of autophagy in this interconnection which involved in supporting tumor development, progression and chemoresistance in HCC is needed but still largely unknown...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Jason Kilian, Masashi Kitazawa
As incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases rise, there is increasing interest in environmental factors which may contribute to disease onset and progression. Air pollution has been known as a major health hazard for decades. While its effects on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality have been extensively studied, growing evidence has emerged that exposure to polluted air is associated with impaired cognitive functions at all ages and increased risk of AD and other dementias in later life; this association is particularly notable with traffic related pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, black carbon, and small diameter airborne solids and liquids known as particulate matter...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how air pollution may contribute to cognitive decline and even increase risk for Alzheimer's disease. We also highlight original research documenting the body's response to infection with a common oral pathogen. Finally, we learn how a cellular antioxidant protein protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Wei-Chia Lee, Kay L H Wu, Steve Leu, You-Lin Tain
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent complex trait despite recent advances in pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment. MetS can begin in early life by so-called the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). The DOHaD concept offers a novel approach to prevent MetS through reprogramming. High fructose (HF) intake has been associated with increased risk of MetS. HF diet becomes one of the most commonly used animal model to induce MetS. This review discusses the maternal HF diet induced programming process and reprogramming strategy to prevent MetS of developmental origin, with an emphasis on: (1) an overview of metabolic effects of fructose consumption on MetS; (2) insight from maternal HF animal models on MetS-related phenotypes; (3) impact of HF consumption induces organ-specific transcriptome changes; and (4) application of reprogramming strategy to prevent maternal HF consumption-induced MetS...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Fred Fung, Huei-Shyong Wang, Suresh Menon
Food is essential to life, hence food safety is a basic human right. Billons of people in the world are at risk of unsafe food. Many millions become sick while hundreds of thousand die yearly. The food chain starts from farm to fork/plate while challenges include microbial, chemical, personal and environmental hygiene. Historically, documented human tragedies and economic disasters due to consuming contaminated food occurred as a result of intentional or unintentional personal conduct and governmental failure to safeguard food quality and safety...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Raymond Farah, Hayat Haraty, Ziad Salame, Youssef Fares, David M Ojcius, Najwane Said Sadier
Current research efforts on neurological diseases are focused on identifying novel disease biomarkers to aid in diagnosis, provide accurate prognostic information and monitor disease progression. With advances in detection and quantification methods in genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, saliva has emerged as a good source of samples for detection of disease biomarkers. Obtaining a sample of saliva offers multiple advantages over the currently tested biological fluids as it is a non-invasive, painless and simple procedure that does not require expert training or harbour undesirable side effects for the patients...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how biomarkers in saliva may be able to provide insight into the health of the brain and the central nervous system. We also discover how computational modeling can help to identify potential epitopes for vaccine development against Chlamydia, the world's most common sexually transmitted infection.
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Pei-Wei Huang, Chien-Yu Lin, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Cheng-Lung Hsu, Kang-Hsing Fan, Shiang-Fu Huang, Chun-Ta Liao, Shu-Kung Ng, Tzu-Chen Yen, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang, Hung-Ming Wang
BACKGROUND: To clarify the effect of induction chemotherapy (ICT) in patients with advanced pharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (PLSCC) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). METHODS: Patients with treatment-naïve nonmetastatic advanced PLSCC were stratified according to disease stage (III or IV) and resectability before being randomized to either a ICT/CCRT or CCRT arm. A cisplatin/tegafur-uracil/leucovorin regimen was administered during ICT and CCRT...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Mohammad M Tarek, Ayman E Shafei, Mahmoud A Ali, Mohamed M Mansour
BACKGROUND: XAGE-1b is shown to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma and to be a strong immunogenic antigen among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, 3D structure of XAGE-1b is not available and its confirmation has not been solved yet. METHODS: Multiple sequence alignment was run to select the most reliable templates. Homology modeling technique was performed using computer-based tool to generate 3-dimensional structure models, eight models were generated and assessed on basis of local and global quality...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Romina Cecilia Russi, Elian Bourdin, María Inés García, Carolina Melania I Veaute
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection globally. Currently, there are no vaccines available despite the efforts made to develop a protective one. Polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) is an attractive immunogen candidate as it is conserved among strains and it is target of neutralizing antibodies. However, its high molecular weight and its complex structure make it difficult to handle by recombinant DNA techniques. Our aim is to predict B-cell and T-cell epitopes of PmpD...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Kuang-Tzu Huang, Chih-Che Lin, Ming-Chao Tsai, Kuang-Den Chen, King-Wah Chiu
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted glycoprotein that has anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, neurotrophic and immunomodulatory properties. PEDF has recently emerged as a critical metabolic regulatory protein since the discovery of its modulatory activities in the lipolytic pathway by binding to adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Despite being beneficial in maintaining the homeostasis of hepatic lipid accumulation, PEDF has been uncovered an unfavorable role associated with insulin resistance...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Runyu Guo, Jinke Gu, Shuai Zong, Meng Wu, Maojun Yang
Respiration is one of the most vital and basic features of living organisms. In mammals, respiration is accomplished by respiratory chain complexes located on the mitochondrial inner membrane. In the past century, scientists put tremendous efforts in understanding these complexes, but failed to solve the high resolution structure until recently. In 2016, three research groups reported the structure of respiratory chain supercomplex from different species, and fortunately the structure solved by our group has the highest resolution...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
Feng-Hsuan Liu, Jawl-Shan Hwang, Chang-Fu Kuo, Yu-Shien Ko, Szu-Tah Chen, Jen-Der Lin
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevation in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels despite normal serum levels of free thyroxine. It remains controversial whether people with SCH have higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to normal-thyroid subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic risk factors for SCH. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the health examination center of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
Rong-Chi Huang
Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
Chih-Hsiang Chang, Po-Chun Lin, Cheng-Min Shih, Chun-Chieh Chen, Pang-Hsin Hsieh, Hsin-Nung Shih
BACKGROUND: Femoral bone loss during revision total hip arthroplasty poses a challenging problem. Bypass fixation over the diaphysis has achieved clinical success in cases of proximal femoral bone loss. Fracture of cementless, fully bead-coated femoral stem is an uncommon complication. The purpose of this study is to analyze the patients with and without fracture stem and find out the possible risk factors. METHODS: From 2006 to 2012, a total of 251 revision long stems (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) were implanted...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
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