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Biomedical Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521906/spinal-cord-regeneration-by-modulating-bone-marrow-with-neurotransmitters-and-citicholine-analysis-at-micromolecular-level
#1
Cheramadathukudiyil Skaria Paulose, Ponnezhathu Sebastian John, Romeo Chinthu, Puthenveetil Raju Akhilraj, Thoppil Raveendran Anju
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. METHODS: Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521905/harnessing-the-properties-of-dendritic-cells-in-the-pursuit-of-immunological-tolerance
#2
REVIEW
Christopher Horton, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Paul J Fairchild
The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the "holy grail" of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521904/make-immunological-peace-not-war-potential-applications-of-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells
#3
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the powerful immunosuppressive properties of tolerogenic dendritic cells and discuss their potential to bring about lifelong tolerance in transplantation and autoimmune disease. We also highlight an exciting new development in the field of malaria diagnosis that could facilitate early detection of the disease.
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521903/motorcycle-related-hospitalizations-of-the-elderly
#4
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Hang-Tsung Liu, Shiun-Yuan Hsu, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Yi-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: To investigate the injury pattern, mechanisms, severity, and mortality of the elderly hospitalized for treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents. METHODS: Motorcycle-related hospitalization of 994 elderly and 5078 adult patients from the 16,548 hospitalized patients registered in the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. RESULTS: The motorcycle-related elderly trauma patients had higher injury severity, less favorable outcomes, higher proportion of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), prolonged hospital and ICU stays and higher mortality than those adult motorcycle riders...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521902/differences-between-the-sexes-in-motorcycle-related-injuries-and-fatalities-at-a-taiwanese-level-i-trauma-center
#5
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Shiun-Yuan Hsu, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Yi-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: Female patients present with unique physiological and behavioral characteristics compared to male patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury patterns, injury characteristics, and mortality of male and female patients hospitalized for treatment of motorcycle accident-related trauma in a level I trauma center. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of motorcycle-related injuries from the Trauma Registry System was performed to identify and compare 4028 male and 2919 female patients hospitalized for treatment between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521901/noninvasive-imaging-analysis-of-biological-tissue-associated-with-laser-thermal-injury
#6
Cheng-Jen Chang, De-Yi Yu, Yen-Chang Hsiao, Kuang-Hua Ho
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study is to use a noninvasive tomographic imaging technique with high spatial resolution to characterize and monitor biological tissue responses associated with laser thermal injury. METHODS: Optical doppler tomography (ODT) combines laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high resolution tomographic velocity and structural images of static and moving constituents in highly scattering biological tissues...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521900/diagnosis-of-malarial-infection-using-change-in-properties-of-optically-trapped-red-blood-cells
#7
Apurba Paul, Ponnan Padmapriya, Vasant Natarajan
BACKGROUND: In previous work studying the properties of red blood cells (RBCs) held in an optical tweezers trap, we observed an increase in the spectrum of Brownian fluctuations for RBCs from a Plasmodium falciparum culture-due to increased rigidity of the cells-compared to normal RBCs. We wanted to extend the study to patient samples, since the earlier work was done with cultures grown in the lab. METHODS: Individual RBCs were held in an optical-tweezers trap. Its position fluctuations were measured and the power spectrum determined...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411887/from-christian-de-duve-to-yoshinori-ohsumi-more%C3%A2-to-autophagy-than-just-dining-at-home
#8
REVIEW
Margaret M Harnett, Miguel A Pineda, Perle Latré de Laté, Russell J Eason, Sébastien Besteiro, William Harnett, Gordon Langsley
Christian de Duve first coined the expression "autophagy" during his seminal work on the discovery of lysosomes, which led to him being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. The term was adopted to distinguish degradation of intracellular components from the uptake and degradation of extracellular substances that he called "heterophagy". Studies until the 1990s were largely observational/morphological-based until in 1993 Yoshinori Oshumi described a genetic screen in yeast undergoing nitrogen deprivation that led to the isolation of autophagy-defective mutants now better known as ATG (AuTophaGy-related) genes...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411886/interference-factors-regarding-the-path-of-insertion-of-rotational-path-removable-partial-dentures
#9
Chan-Te Huang, Fang-Chun Liu, Kwing-Chi Luk
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the location of the rotational center and the morphology of teeth resulting in interference with the rotational path of insertion and to estimate when an interference test should be performed. METHODS: A total of 400 dental radiograms of maxillary and mandibular first and second molars (100 for each position) were selected. The radiograms were used to hand-sketch the outlines on tracing paper. Then, an interference test was simulated using calipers...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411885/characterization-of-a-novel-caudal-vertebral-interbody-fusion-in-a-rat-tail-model-an-implication-for-future-material-and-mechanical-testing
#10
Yu-Cheng Yeh, Cheng-Chun Yang, Ching-Lung Tai, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Po-Liang Lai, Tsai-Sheng Fu, Chi-Chien Niu, Lih-Huei Chen, Wen-Jer Chen
BACKGROUND: Of the proposed animal interbody fusion models, rat caudal discs have gained popularity in disc research due to their strong resemblance to human discs with respect to geometry, composition and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible animal model of interbody fusion for future research into mechanical testing and graft materials. METHODS: Twelve 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent caudal interbody fusion of the third and fourth coccygeal vertebrae of the tail...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411884/risk-factors-for-relapse-of-resectable-pathologic-n2-non-small-lung-cancer-and-prediction-model-for-time-to-progression
#11
Chih-Tsung Wen, Jui-Ying Fu, Ching-Feng Wu, Yun-Hen Liu, Ching-Yang Wu, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Yi-Cheng Wu, Ying-Huang Tsai
BACKGROUND: Pathologic N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was demonstrated with poor survival among literature. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed patients with pathologic N2 NSCLC and received anatomic resection (i.e. lobectomy) for further relapse risk factor analysis. The aim of this study is to identify the clinicopathologic factors related to relapse among resectable N2 NSCLC patients and to help clinicians in developing individualized follow up program and treatment plan...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411883/horning-cell-self-digestion-autophagy-wins-the%C3%A2-2016-nobel-prize-in-physiology-or-medicine
#12
EDITORIAL
Po-Yuan Ke
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411882/in-vitro-generation-of-interleukin-10-secreting-b-regulatory-cells-from-donor-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-recipient-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-for-potential-cell-therapy
#13
Kunal S Gupte, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi, Chetan N Patel, Jignesh V Patel
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-10 secreting B-cells are a major subset of B-regulatory cells (B-regs), commonly recognized as CD19(+)/38(hi)/24(hi)/IL10(+). They carry out immunomodulation by release of specific cytokines and/or cell-to-cell contact. We have generated B-regs in-vitro from donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and renal allograft recipient (RAR) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for potential cell therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mononuclear cells separated by density gradient centrifugation from 50 ml anti-coagulated blood of 15-RAR and respective donors were analysed for baseline B-regs using appropriate antibodies...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411881/overexpression-of-mutl-homolog-1-and-muts-homolog-2-proteins-have-reversed-prognostic-implications-for-stage-i-ii-colon-cancer-patients
#14
Shih-Chiang Huang, Shiu-Feng Huang, Ya-Ting Chen, Yu Chang, Yu-Ting Chiu, Il-Chi Chang, Hong-Dar Isaac Wu, Jinn-Shiun Chen
BACKGROUND: The outcome of colon cancer patients without lymph node metastasis is heterogeneous. Searching for new prognostic markers is warranted. METHODS: One hundred twenty stage I-II colon cancer patients who received complete surgical excision during 1995-2004 were selected for this biomarker study. Immunohistochemical method was used to assess p53, epidermal growth factor receptor, MLH1, and MSH2 status. KRAS mutation was examined by direct sequencing. RESULTS: Thirty three patients (27...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411880/in%C3%A2-vitro-induction-effect-of-1-25-oh-2d3-on-differentiation-of-hair-follicle-stem-cell-into-keratinocyte
#15
Sanaz Joulai Veijouyeh, Farhad Mashayekhi, Abazar Yari, Fatemeh Heidari, Nayereh Sajedi, Fatemeh Moghani Ghoroghi, Maliheh Nobakht
BACKGROUND: Stem cells are characterized by self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. The bulge hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are able to convert to epithelial components. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, plays important roles in this differentiation process. In the present study has found that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces the HFSCs differentiation into keratinocyte. METHODS: HFSCs are isolated from rat whiskers and cultivated in DMEM medium. To isolate bulge stem cell population, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry using K15, CD34 and nestin biomarkers were performed...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411879/apicomplexan-autophagy-and-modulation-of-autophagy-in-parasite-infected-host-cells
#16
REVIEW
Perle Laté de Laté, Miguel Pineda, Margaret Harnett, William Harnett, Sébastien Besteiro, Gordon Langsley
Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for a number of important human pathologies. Obviously, as Eukaryotes they share a number of cellular features and pathways with their respective host cells. One of them is autophagy, a process involved in the degradation of the cell's own components. These intracellular parasites nonetheless seem to present a number of original features compared to their very evolutionarily distant host cells. In mammals and other metazoans, autophagy has been identified as an important contributor to the defence against microbial pathogens...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411878/food-for-thought-autophagy-researcher-wins-2016-nobel-prize-in-physiology-or-medicine
#17
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
This special edition of the Biomedical Journal honors the awarding of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Yoshinori Ohsumi for his pioneering work on elucidating the mechanisms of autophagy. We also highlight a study reporting a new and simple animal model for a widespread surgical technique called interbody spinal fusion. Finally, this issue also includes two articles reporting protocols that could produce specific cell types for cell based therapies.
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043421/cysto-duodeno-colic-ligament-and-its-clinical-relevance
#18
Vishwajit Ravindra Deshmukh, Seema Singh, Ritu Sehgal
During a routine dissection class for the undergraduate students at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, a rare uncommon variation of the peritoneal ligament was found. Information regarding variation in such type of accessory peritoneal reflections is necessary for anatomists, surgeons, and radiologists. Normally there was no peritoneal reflection between gallbladder, duodenum and transverse colon, but in the present case report, it was present and termed as cysto-duodeno-colic ligament. Knowledge of such variation is necessary during gallbladder surgeries and liver transplantation surgeries...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043420/two-additional-augmenting-screws-with-posterior-short-segment-instrumentation-without-fusion-for-unstable-thoracolumbar-burst-fracture-comparisons-with-transpedicular-grafting-techniques
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yu-Chih Lin, Kuo-Fon Fan, Jen-Chung Liao
BACKGROUND: Transpedicular grafting techniques with posterior short-segment instrumentation have demonstrated to prevent high implant failure in unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures. We tested our hypothesis that short-segment instrumentation with two additional augmenting screws in the injured vertebra could provide stability and was similar to those of the transpedicular grafting technique. METHODS: Twenty patients belonged to group A; treated with short-segment pedicle screw fixation and reinforced by two augmenting screws at the fractured vertebra...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043419/percutaneous-radiofrequency-ablation-of-tumor-feeding-artery-before-target-tumor-ablation-may-reduce-local-tumor-progression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Ya-Ting Cheng, Wen-Juei Jeng, Chen-Chun Lin, Wei-Ting Chen, I-Shyan Sheen, Chun-Yen Lin, Shi-Ming Lin
BACKGROUND: Local tumor progression (LTP) in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains high. Tumor feeding artery ablation (FAA) before target tumor ablation was reported to reduce LTP in patients with HCC >3 cm. The aim of our study is to investigate whether FAA before target tumor ablation may reduce LTP in HCC <3 cm. METHODS: We retrospectively analysis the outcome of patients with HCC <3 cm undergoing FAA before target tumor ablation (N = 17) compared to direct RFA to target tumor alone (N = 35)...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
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