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Current Pathobiology Reports

Andrew J Warburton, David N Boone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review was to compare and contrast the results and implications from several recent transcriptomic studies that analyzed the expression of lncRNAs in breast cancer. How many lncRNAs are dysregulated in breast cancer? Do dysregulated lncRNAs contribute to breast cancer etiology? Are lncRNAs viable biomarkers in breast cancer? RECENT FINDINGS: Transcriptomic profiling of breast cancer tissues, mostly from The Cancer Genome Atlas, identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs that are expressed and dysregulated in breast cancer...
March 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Aditi Dubey, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Craniofacial disorders are among the most common human birth defects and present an enormous health care and social burden. The development of animal models has been instrumental to investigate fundamental questions in craniofacial biology and this knowledge is critical to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The vast majority of craniofacial disorders arise from abnormal development of the neural crest, a multipotent and migratory cell population...
March 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Marko Z Nikolić, Emma L Rawlins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The lung research field has pioneered the use of organoids for the study of cell-cell interactions. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of organoids for airway basal cells is routine. However, the development of organoids for the other regions of the lung is still in its infancy. Such cultures usually rely on cell-cell interactions between the stem cells and a putative niche cell for their growth and differentiation. SUMMARY: The use of co-culture organoid systems has facilitated the in vitro cultivation of previously inaccessible stem cell populations, providing a novel method for dissecting the molecular requirements of these cell-cell interactions...
2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Divya Ail, Muriel Perron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retinal degenerative diseases have immense socio-economic impact. Studying animal models that recapitulate human eye pathologies aids in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases and allows for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. Some non-mammalian species are known to have remarkable regenerative abilities and may provide the basis to develop strategies to stimulate self-repair in patients suffering from these retinal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-mammalian organisms, such as zebrafish and Xenopus, have become attractive model systems to study retinal diseases...
2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Shilpa Kulkarni, Timothy C Wang, Chandan Guha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic exposure to high doses of radiation can severely impair organ function due to ablation of stem cells. Normal tissue injury is a dose-limiting toxicity for radiation therapy (RT). Although advances in the delivery of high precision conformal RT has increased normal tissue sparing, mitigating and therapeutic strategies that could alleviate early and chronic radiation effects are urgently needed in order to deliver curative doses of RT, especially in abdominal, pelvic and thoracic malignancies...
December 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Rachel M Gilbert, Joshua T Morgan, Elizabeth S Marcin, Jason P Gleghorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organogenesis is the process during development by which cells self-assemble into complex, multi-scale tissues. Whereas significant focus and research effort has demonstrated the importance of solid mechanics in organogenesis, less attention has been given to the fluid forces that provide mechanical cues over tissue length scales. RECENT FINDINGS: Fluid motion and pressure is capable of creating spatial gradients of forces acting on cells, thus eliciting distinct and localized signaling patterns essential for proper organ formation...
December 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Hsiao-Yen Ma, Jun Xu, Xiao Liu, Yunheng Zhu, Bin Gao, Michael Karin, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Dilip V Jeste, Igor Grant, Amanda J Roberts, Candice Contet, Cedric Geoffroy, Binhai Zheng, David Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) progresses from a normal liver, to steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite intensive studies, the pathogenesis of ALD is poorly understood, in part due to a lack of suitable animal models which mimic the stages of ALD progression. Furthermore, the role of IL-17 in ALD has not been evaluated. We and others have recently demonstrated that IL-17 signaling plays a critical role in development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Here we summarize the most recent evidence supporting the role of IL-17 in ALD...
March 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Activated myofibroblasts are key effector cells in tissue fibrosis. Emerging evidence suggests that myofibroblasts infiltrating fibrotic tissues originate predominantly from local mesenchyme-derived populations. Alterations in the extracellular matrix network play an important role in modulating fibroblast phenotype and function. In a pro-inflammatory environment, generation of matrix fragments may induce a matrix-degrading fibroblast phenotype. Deposition of ED-A fibronectin plays an important role in myofibroblast transdifferentiation...
March 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Andrew J Hollins, Lee Parry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Long-term culture of adult progenitor cells in 3D is a recently emerging technology that inhabits the space between 2D cell lines and organ slice culture. RECENT FINDINGS: Adaptations to defined media components in the wake of advances in ES and iPS cell culture has led to the identification of conditions that maintained intestinal cell progenitors in culture. These conditions retain cellular heterogeneity of the normal or tumour tissue, and the cultures have been shown to be genetically stable, such that substantial biobanks are being created from patient derived material...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Nikolaos Panagiotou, R Wayne Davies, Colin Selman, Paul G Shiels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microvesicles (MVs) have been recognised as mediators of stem cell function, enabling and guiding their regenerative effects. RECENT FINDINGS: MVs constitute one unique size class of extracellular vesicles (EVs) directly shed from the cell plasma membrane. They facilitate cell-to-cell communication via intercellular transfer of proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA). MVs derived from stem cells, or stem cell regulatory cell types, have proven roles in tissue regeneration and repair processes...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Ellaine Salvador, Malgorzata Burek, Carola Y Förster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tight junctions (TJs) are specialized differentiations of epithelial and endothelial cell membranes. TJs play an important role in the adhesion of cells and their interaction with each other. Most cancers originate from epithelial cells. Thus, it is of significance to examine the role of TJs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and how they affect cancer metastasis. RECENT FINDINGS: In epithelium-derived cancers, intactness of the primary tumor mass is influenced by intercellular structures as well as cell-to-cell adhesion...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Briana R Dye, Alyssa J Miller, Jason R Spence
The number and severity of diseases affecting human lung development and adult respiratory function has stimulated great interest in new in vitro models to study the human lung. This review summarizes the most recent breakthroughs deriving lung lineages in a dish by directing the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. A variety of culturing platforms have been developed, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional (organoid) culture platforms, to derive specific cell types and structures of the lung...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Pil-Hoon Park, Carlos Sanz-Garcia, Laura E Nagy
Hepatic fibrosis is a dynamic process resulting from excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver; uncontrolled progression of fibrosis can eventually lead to liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. The fibrogenic process is complex and modulated by a number of both hepatic and extra-hepatic biological factors. Growing evidence indicates that adipokines, a group of cytokines produced by adipose tissue, impart dynamic functions in liver and are involved in modulation of hepatic fibrosis...
December 1, 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Yoon Mee Yang, Ekihiro Seki
Hepatocyte death, inflammation, and liver fibrosis are the hallmarks of chronic liver disease. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine involved in liver inflammation and sustained liver inflammation leads to liver fibrosis. TNFα exerts inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the role of TNFα signaling in liver fibrosis is not fully understood. This review highlights the recent findings demonstrating the molecular mechanisms of TNFα and its downstream signaling in liver fibrosis...
December 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Maria Cecilia Cirio, Mark P de Caestecker, Neil A Hukriede
The vertebrate kidney possesses the capacity to repair damaged nephrons, and this potential is conserved regardless of the complexity of species-specific kidneys. However, many aquatic vertebrates possess the ability to not only repair existing nephrons, but also generate new nephrons after injury. Adult zebrafish have the ability to recover from acute renal injury not only by replacing lost injured epithelial cells of endogenous nephrons, but by also generating de novo nephrons. This strong regeneration potential, along with other unique characteristics such as the high degree of genetic conservation with humans, the ease of harvesting externally fertilized, transparent embryos, the accessibility to larval and adult kidneys, and the ability to perform whole organism phenotypic small molecule screens, has positioned zebrafish as a unique vertebrate model to study kidney injury...
June 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Lindsay Marjoram, Michel Bagnat
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, contribute to significant morbidity and mortality globally. Despite an increase in incidence, IBD onset is still poorly understood. Mouse models of IBD recapitulate several aspects of human disease, but limited accessibility for live imaging and the lack of forward genetics highlight the need for new model systems for disease onset characterization. Zebrafish represent a powerful platform to model IBD using forward and reverse genetics, live imaging of transgenic lines and physiological assays...
June 1, 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Matthew C Salanga, Marko E Horb
Diseases affecting endodermal organs like the pancreas, lung and gastrointestinal (GI) tract have a substantial impact on human welfare. Since many of these are congenital defects that arise as a result of defects during development broad efforts are focused on understanding the development of these organs so as to better identify risk factors, disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Studies implementing model systems, like the amphibian Xenopus, have contributed immensely to our understanding of signaling (e...
June 1, 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Colin A Kretz, Angela C Weyand, Jordan A Shavit
Hemostasis, the process of blood clot formation and resolution in response to vascular injury, and thrombosis, the dysregulation of hemostasis leading to pathological clot formation, are widely studied. However, the genetic variability in hemostatic and thrombotic disorders is incompletely understood, suggesting that novel mediators have yet to be uncovered. The zebrafish is developing into a powerful in vivo model to study hemostasis, and its features as a model organism are well suited to (a) develop high-throughput screens to identify novel mediators of hemostasis and thrombosis, (b) validate candidate genes identified in human populations, and (c) characterize the structure/function relationship of gene products...
June 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Claudia Cavelti-Weder, Weida Li, Adrian Zumsteg, Marianne Stemann, Takatsugu Yamada, Susan Bonner-Weir, Gordon Weir, Qiao Zhou
Direct reprogramming is a promising approach for regenerative medicine whereby one cell type is directly converted into another without going through a multipotent or pluripotent stage. This reprogramming approach has been extensively explored for the generation of functional insulin-secreting cells from non-beta-cells with the aim of developing novel cell therapies for the treatment of people with diabetes lacking sufficient endogenous beta-cells. A common approach for such conversion studies is the introduction of key regulators that are important in controlling beta-cell development and maintenance...
March 1, 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Takuto Chiba, Neil Hukriede, Mark P de Caestecker
A number of genes involved in kidney development are reactivated in the adult after acute kidney injury (AKI). This has led to the belief that tissue repair mechanisms recapitulate pathways involved in embryonic development after AKI. We will discuss evidence to support this hypothesis by comparing the mechanisms of development with common pathways known to regulate post-AKI repair, or that we identified as cell-specific candidates based on public datasets from recent AKI translational profiling studies. We will argue that while many of these developmental pathways are reactivated after AKI, this is not associated with general cellular reprogramming to an embryonic state...
March 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
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