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Current Pathobiology Reports

Ricardo Londono, Aaron X Sun, Rocky S Tuan, Thomas P Lozito
Purpose of the Review: This manuscript discusses wound healing as a component of epimorphic regeneration and the role of the immune system in this process. Recent findings: Epimorphic regeneration involves formation of a blastema, a mass of undifferentiated cells capable of giving rise to the regenerated tissues. The apical epithelial cap plays an important role in blastemal formation. Summary: True regeneration is rarely observed in mammals...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Traci A Wilgus
Purpose of review: Tissue injury stimulates an inflammatory response that is mediated in part by alarmins. Alarmins are a group of endogenous molecules that trigger inflammation in response to damage. This class of molecules is becoming increasingly recognized for their ability to influence wound healing. This article will provide an overview of alarmins and outline the latest findings on these mediators in cutaneous wound healing. Recent findings: In addition to stimulating inflammatory cells, recent evidence suggests that alarmins can act on other cells in the skin to affect wound closure and the extent of scar tissue production...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
M M Pusceddu, K Murray, M G Gareau
Purpose of review: The crosstalk between the gut and the brain has revealed a complex communication system responsible for maintaining a proper gastrointestinal homeostasis as well as affect emotional mood and cognitive functions. Recent research has revealed that beneficial manipulation of the microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics represent an emerging and novel strategy for the treatment of a large spectrum of diseases ranging from visceral pain to mood disorders. The review critically evaluates current knowledge of the effects exerted by both probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Madeleine D Hu, Luo Jia, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: This review will explore the contribution of IELs to mucosal innate immunity and highlight the similarities in IEL functional responses to bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasite invasion. Recent findings: IELs rapidly respond to microbial invasion by activating host defense responses, including the production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides to prevent microbes from reaching the epithelial surface. During active infection, IELs promote epithelial cytolysis, cytokine and chemokine production to limit pathogen invasion, replication and dissemination...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Tina L Morhardt, Atsushi Hayashi, John Y Kao, Nobuhiko Kamada
Purpose of review: The intestine contains the largest compartment of immune regulatory cells which include T regulatory cells and IL-10 producing macrophages. These cell populations serve to restrain unnecessary immune responses of the intestine, which may lead to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease or food allergy. Recent findings: This review discusses the recent findings pertaining to the functional regulation of these cells which may provide insight into novel therapies...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Caghan Kizil
Purpose of the Review: The purpose of this study is to review the current knowledge on the damage-induced molecular programs that underlie the regenerative ability in zebrafish brain. Recent Findings: Neural stem cells are the reservoir for new neurons during development and regeneration of the vertebrate brains. Pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases hamper neural stem cell plasticity and neurogenic outcome in humans, whereas adult zebrafish brain can enhance proliferation and neurogenic capacity of its neural stem cells despite the incipient pathology...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Lei Lu, Erika C Claud
Purpose of Review: Significant research reveals that the microbiome modulates perinatal and postnatal health. This review aims to examine mechanisms by which intrauterine infection, the epigenome, and microbiome specifically influence preterm infant health outcomes. Recent Findings: Intrauterine infection is a primary cause of preterm birth and can cause alterations in gene expression and epigenetic programming as well as postnatal inflammatory responses in the offspring...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Daniel R Bauer, Michael Otter, David R Chafin
Purpose of Review: Studying and developing preanalytical tools and technologies for the purpose of obtaining high-quality samples for histological assays is a growing field. Currently, there does not exist a standard practice for collecting, fixing, and monitoring these precious samples. There has been some advancement in standardizing collection for the highest profile tumor types, such as breast, where HER2 testing drives therapeutic decisions. This review examines the area of tissue collection, transport, and monitoring of formalin diffusion and details a prototype system that could be used to help standardize tissue collection efforts...
2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Elizabeth A Mills, Daniel Goldman
Purpose of review: Notch signaling is an important component of retinal progenitor cell maintenance and MG specification during development, and its manipulation may be critical for allowing MG to re-enter the cell cycle and regenerate neurons in adults. In mammals, MG respond to retinal injury by undergoing a gliotic response rather than a regenerative one. Understanding the complexities of Notch signaling may allow for strategies that enhance regeneration over gliosis. Recent findings: Notch signaling is regulated at multiple levels, and is interdependent with various other signaling pathways in both the receptor and ligand expressing cells...
December 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Melissa A Gilbert, Nancy B Spinner
Purpose of review: We review the genetics of the autosomal dominant, multi-system disorder, Alagille syndrome and provide a summary on how current functional models and emerging biotechnologies are equipped to guide scientists towards novel therapies. The importance of haploinsufficiency as a disease mechanism will be underscored throughout this discussion. Recent findings: Alagille syndrome, a human disorder affecting the liver, heart, vasculature, kidney, and other systems, is caused by mutations in the Notch signaling pathway ligand, Jagged1 ( JAG1 ) or the receptor, NOTCH2 ...
September 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Aron Parekh, Patricia A Hebda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Injured skin in the mammalian fetus can heal regeneratively due to the ability of fetal fibroblasts to effectively reorganize the extracellular matrix (ECM). This process occurs without fetal fibroblasts differentiating into highly contractile myofibroblasts which cause scarring and fibrosis in adult wounds. Here, we provide a brief review of fetal wound healing and the evidence supporting a unique contractile phenotype in fetal fibroblasts. Furthermore, we discuss the biomechanical role of the ECM in driving myofibroblast differentiation in wound healing and the implications for new clinical modalities based on the biophysical properties of fetal fibroblasts...
September 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Duc-Hung Pham, Changwen Zhang, Chunyue Yin
Purpose of Review: The liver is the largest internal organ and performs both exocrine and endocrine function that is necessary for survival. Liver failure is among the leading causes of death and represents a major global health burden. Liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver diseases. Animal models advance our understanding of liver disease etiology and hold promise for the development of alternative therapies. Zebrafish has become an increasingly popular system for modeling liver diseases and complements the rodent models...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Alexandra MacColl Garfinkel, Mustafa K Khokha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the enormous impact congenital heart disease has on child health, it is imperative that we improve our understanding of the disease mechanisms that underlie patient phenotypes and clinical outcomes. This review will outline the merits of using the frog model, Xenopus, as a tool to study human cardiac development and left-right patterning mechanisms associated with congenital heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient-driven gene discovery continues to provide new insight into the mechanisms of congenital heart disease, and by extension, patient phenotypes and outcomes...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Matthew Dodson, Donna D Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge in the field regarding the non-canonical activation of the NRF2 pathway. Specifically, we address what role p62 plays in mediating this pathway, which pathologies have been linked to the p62-dependent activation of NRF2, as well as what therapeutic strategies could be used to treat diseases associated with the non-canonical pathway. RECENT FINDINGS: It has recently been shown that autophagic dysfunction leads to the aggregation or autophagosomal accumulation of p62, which sequesters KEAP1, resulting in prolonged activation of NRF2...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Roberta A Gottlieb, Amandine Thomas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mitochondrial homeostasis and quality control are essential to maintenance of cardiac function and a disruption of this pathway can lead to deleterious cardiac consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: Mitochondrial quality control has been described as a major homeostatic mechanism in cell. Recent studies highlighted that an impairment of mitochondrial quality control in different cell or mouse models is linked to cardiac dysfunction. Moreover, some conditions as aging, genetic mutations or obesity have been associated with mitochondrial quality control alteration leading to an accumulation of damaged mitochondria responsible for increased production of reactive oxygen species, metabolic inflexibility, and inflammation, all of which can have sustained effects on cardiac cell function and even cell death...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
David M Habiel, Cory M Hogaboam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is the most common form of interstitial lung diseases of unknown eathiopathogenesis, mean survival of 3-5 years and limited therapeutics. Characterized by a loss of alveolar type II epithelial cells and aberrant activation of stromal cells, considerable effort was undertaken to characterize the origin and activation mechanisms of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in IPF lungs. In this review, the origin and contribution of fibroblast and myofibroblasts in lung fibrosis will be summarized...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Altea Rocchi, Congcong He
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical exercise is a highly effective method to prevent several pathogenic conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, largely due to metabolic adaptations induced by exercise in skeletal muscle. Yet how exercise induces the beneficial effects in muscle remains to be fully elucidated. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that regulates nutrient recycling, energy production and organelle quality control. The autophagy pathway is upregulated in response to stress during exercise and muscle contraction, and may be an important mechanism mediating exercise-induced health benefits...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Arti V Shinde, Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Activated fibroblasts are critically implicated in repair and remodeling of the injured heart. This manuscript discusses recent progress in the cell biology of fibroblasts in the infarcted and remodeling myocardium, highlighting advances in understanding the origin, function and mechanisms of activation of these cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Following myocardial injury, fibroblasts undergo activation and myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Recently published studies have suggested that most activated myofibroblasts in the infarcted and pressure-overloaded hearts are derived from resident fibroblast populations...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Rui Kang, Daolin Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation system and plays a dual role in cell death, depending on context and phase. Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death that mainly depends on iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In this review, we summarize the processes of autophagy and ferroptosis and discuss their crosstalk mechanisms at the molecular level. RECENT FINDINGS: The original study shows that ferroptosis is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from autophagy and other types of cell death...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Namita Chatterjee, Shushan Rana, Cristina Espinosa-Diez, Sudarshan Anand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goals of this review are to examine the usefulness of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer and to evaluate the applicability of miRNAs as cancer therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Examination of miRNA milieu from body fluids offers a new alternative for quick, affordable and easy analysis of disease status in patients. Blood-based exosomal miRNAs have increased stability and are an excellent choice for clinical cancer diagnostics and prognostics...
March 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
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