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Current Pathobiology Reports

Aditi Dubey, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Craniofacial disorders are among the most common human birth defects and present an enormous health care and social burden. The development of animal models has been instrumental to investigate fundamental questions in craniofacial biology and this knowledge is critical to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The vast majority of craniofacial disorders arise from abnormal development of the neural crest, a multipotent and migratory cell population...
March 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Divya Ail, Muriel Perron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retinal degenerative diseases have immense socio-economic impact. Studying animal models that recapitulate human eye pathologies aids in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases and allows for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. Some non-mammalian species are known to have remarkable regenerative abilities and may provide the basis to develop strategies to stimulate self-repair in patients suffering from these retinal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-mammalian organisms, such as zebrafish and Xenopus, have become attractive model systems to study retinal diseases...
2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
Rachel M Gilbert, Joshua T Morgan, Elizabeth S Marcin, Jason P Gleghorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organogenesis is the process during development by which cells self-assemble into complex, multi-scale tissues. Whereas significant focus and research effort has demonstrated the importance of solid mechanics in organogenesis, less attention has been given to the fluid forces that provide mechanical cues over tissue length scales. RECENT FINDINGS: Fluid motion and pressure is capable of creating spatial gradients of forces acting on cells, thus eliciting distinct and localized signaling patterns essential for proper organ formation...
December 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Hsiao-Yen Ma, Jun Xu, Xiao Liu, Yunheng Zhu, Bin Gao, Michael Karin, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Dilip V Jeste, Igor Grant, Amanda J Roberts, Candice Contet, Cedric Geoffroy, Binhai Zheng, David Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) progresses from a normal liver, to steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite intensive studies, the pathogenesis of ALD is poorly understood, in part due to a lack of suitable animal models which mimic the stages of ALD progression. Furthermore, the role of IL-17 in ALD has not been evaluated. We and others have recently demonstrated that IL-17 signaling plays a critical role in development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Here we summarize the most recent evidence supporting the role of IL-17 in ALD...
March 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Activated myofibroblasts are key effector cells in tissue fibrosis. Emerging evidence suggests that myofibroblasts infiltrating fibrotic tissues originate predominantly from local mesenchyme-derived populations. Alterations in the extracellular matrix network play an important role in modulating fibroblast phenotype and function. In a pro-inflammatory environment, generation of matrix fragments may induce a matrix-degrading fibroblast phenotype. Deposition of ED-A fibronectin plays an important role in myofibroblast transdifferentiation...
March 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Andrew J Hollins, Lee Parry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Long-term culture of adult progenitor cells in 3D is a recently emerging technology that inhabits the space between 2D cell lines and organ slice culture. RECENT FINDINGS: Adaptations to defined media components in the wake of advances in ES and iPS cell culture has led to the identification of conditions that maintained intestinal cell progenitors in culture. These conditions retain cellular heterogeneity of the normal or tumour tissue, and the cultures have been shown to be genetically stable, such that substantial biobanks are being created from patient derived material...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Nikolaos Panagiotou, R Wayne Davies, Colin Selman, Paul G Shiels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microvesicles (MVs) have been recognised as mediators of stem cell function, enabling and guiding their regenerative effects. RECENT FINDINGS: MVs constitute one unique size class of extracellular vesicles (EVs) directly shed from the cell plasma membrane. They facilitate cell-to-cell communication via intercellular transfer of proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA). MVs derived from stem cells, or stem cell regulatory cell types, have proven roles in tissue regeneration and repair processes...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Ellaine Salvador, Malgorzata Burek, Carola Y Förster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tight junctions (TJs) are specialized differentiations of epithelial and endothelial cell membranes. TJs play an important role in the adhesion of cells and their interaction with each other. Most cancers originate from epithelial cells. Thus, it is of significance to examine the role of TJs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and how they affect cancer metastasis. RECENT FINDINGS: In epithelium-derived cancers, intactness of the primary tumor mass is influenced by intercellular structures as well as cell-to-cell adhesion...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Briana R Dye, Alyssa J Miller, Jason R Spence
The number and severity of diseases affecting human lung development and adult respiratory function has stimulated great interest in new in vitro models to study the human lung. This review summarizes the most recent breakthroughs deriving lung lineages in a dish by directing the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. A variety of culturing platforms have been developed, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional (organoid) culture platforms, to derive specific cell types and structures of the lung...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
Pil-Hoon Park, Carlos Sanz-Garcia, Laura E Nagy
Hepatic fibrosis is a dynamic process resulting from excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver; uncontrolled progression of fibrosis can eventually lead to liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. The fibrogenic process is complex and modulated by a number of both hepatic and extra-hepatic biological factors. Growing evidence indicates that adipokines, a group of cytokines produced by adipose tissue, impart dynamic functions in liver and are involved in modulation of hepatic fibrosis...
December 1, 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Yoon Mee Yang, Ekihiro Seki
Hepatocyte death, inflammation, and liver fibrosis are the hallmarks of chronic liver disease. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine involved in liver inflammation and sustained liver inflammation leads to liver fibrosis. TNFα exerts inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the role of TNFα signaling in liver fibrosis is not fully understood. This review highlights the recent findings demonstrating the molecular mechanisms of TNFα and its downstream signaling in liver fibrosis...
December 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Lindsay Marjoram, Michel Bagnat
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, contribute to significant morbidity and mortality globally. Despite an increase in incidence, IBD onset is still poorly understood. Mouse models of IBD recapitulate several aspects of human disease, but limited accessibility for live imaging and the lack of forward genetics highlight the need for new model systems for disease onset characterization. Zebrafish represent a powerful platform to model IBD using forward and reverse genetics, live imaging of transgenic lines and physiological assays...
June 1, 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Matthew C Salanga, Marko E Horb
Diseases affecting endodermal organs like the pancreas, lung and gastrointestinal (GI) tract have a substantial impact on human welfare. Since many of these are congenital defects that arise as a result of defects during development broad efforts are focused on understanding the development of these organs so as to better identify risk factors, disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Studies implementing model systems, like the amphibian Xenopus, have contributed immensely to our understanding of signaling (e...
June 1, 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Colin A Kretz, Angela C Weyand, Jordan A Shavit
Hemostasis, the process of blood clot formation and resolution in response to vascular injury, and thrombosis, the dysregulation of hemostasis leading to pathological clot formation, are widely studied. However, the genetic variability in hemostatic and thrombotic disorders is incompletely understood, suggesting that novel mediators have yet to be uncovered. The zebrafish is developing into a powerful in vivo model to study hemostasis, and its features as a model organism are well suited to (a) develop high-throughput screens to identify novel mediators of hemostasis and thrombosis, (b) validate candidate genes identified in human populations, and (c) characterize the structure/function relationship of gene products...
June 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Claudia Cavelti-Weder, Weida Li, Adrian Zumsteg, Marianne Stemann, Takatsugu Yamada, Susan Bonner-Weir, Gordon Weir, Qiao Zhou
Direct reprogramming is a promising approach for regenerative medicine whereby one cell type is directly converted into another without going through a multipotent or pluripotent stage. This reprogramming approach has been extensively explored for the generation of functional insulin-secreting cells from non-beta-cells with the aim of developing novel cell therapies for the treatment of people with diabetes lacking sufficient endogenous beta-cells. A common approach for such conversion studies is the introduction of key regulators that are important in controlling beta-cell development and maintenance...
March 1, 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Takuto Chiba, Neil Hukriede, Mark P de Caestecker
A number of genes involved in kidney development are reactivated in the adult after acute kidney injury (AKI). This has led to the belief that tissue repair mechanisms recapitulate pathways involved in embryonic development after AKI. We will discuss evidence to support this hypothesis by comparing the mechanisms of development with common pathways known to regulate post-AKI repair, or that we identified as cell-specific candidates based on public datasets from recent AKI translational profiling studies. We will argue that while many of these developmental pathways are reactivated after AKI, this is not associated with general cellular reprogramming to an embryonic state...
March 2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Elizabeth W Uhl, Natalie J Warner
Mice offer a number of advantages and are extensively used to model human diseases and drug responses. Selective breeding and genetic manipulation of mice have made many different genotypes and phenotypes available for research. However, in many cases, mouse models have failed to be predictive. Important sources of the prediction problem have been the failure to consider the evolutionary basis for species differences, especially in drug metabolism, and disease definitions that do not reflect the complexity of gene expression underlying disease phenotypes...
2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Emily R Feldman, Scott A Tibbetts
Herpesviridae constitutes a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that are associated with a wide range of diseases, including herpetic lesions, birth defects, and cancer. Herpesviruses establish lifelong latent infections in part because they are exceptionally adept at modulating the virus/host interface. New insights into the numerous roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cell biology, along with the recent appreciation that nearly every host transcript is targeted by at least one miRNA, has fundamentally changed our conceptualization of the virus/host relationship...
2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Weichun He, Chunsun Dai
Fibrosis is defined as an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components that lead to the destruction of organ architecture and impairment of organ function. Moreover, fibrosis is an intricate process attributable to a variety of interlaced fibrogenic signals and intrinsic mechanisms of activation of myofibroblasts. Being the dominant matrix-producing cells in organ fibrosis, myofibroblasts may be differentiated from various types of precursor cells. Identification of the signal pathways that play a key role in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases may suggest potential therapeutic targets...
2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
Robert A McKee, Rebecca A Wingert
The renal system is vital to maintain homeostasis in the body, where the kidneys contain nephron functional units that remove metabolic waste from the bloodstream, regulate fluids, and balance electrolytes. Severe organ damage from toxins or ischemia that occurs abruptly can cause acute kidney injury (AKI) in which there is a rapid, life-threatening loss of these activities. Humans have a limited but poorly understood ability to regenerate damaged nephrons after AKI. However, researchers studying AKI in vertebrate animal models such as mammals, and more recently the zebrafish, have documented robust regeneration within the nephron blood filter and tubule following injury...
2015: Current Pathobiology Reports
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