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Brain Sciences

Rashad Hussain, Hira Zubair, Sarah Pursell, Muhammad Shahab
Regeneration refers to regrowth of tissue in the central nervous system. It includes generation of new neurons, glia, myelin, and synapses, as well as the regaining of essential functions: sensory, motor, emotional and cognitive abilities. Unfortunately, regeneration within the nervous system is very slow compared to other body systems. This relative slowness is attributed to increased vulnerability to irreversible cellular insults and the loss of function due to the very long lifespan of neurons, the stretch of cells and cytoplasm over several dozens of inches throughout the body, insufficiency of the tissue-level waste removal system, and minimal neural cell proliferation/self-renewal capacity...
September 15, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shervin Assari
Background: Minorities' Diminished Return (MDR) can be defined as smaller health gains from socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, such as education attainment among ethnic minorities compared to the majority group. The current study tested whether income explains why Black and White adults differ in the association between education attainment and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: With a cross-sectional design, this study used data from Cycle 5 of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), 2017...
September 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
Wajana L Labisso, Ana-Caroline Raulin, Lucky L Nwidu, Artur Kocon, Declan Wayne, Amaia M Erdozain, Benito Morentin, Daniela Schwendener, George Allen, Jack Enticott, Henry K Gerdes, Laura Johnson, John Grzeskowiak, Fryni Drizou, Rebecca Tarbox, Natalia A Osna, Kusum K Kharbanda, Luis F Callado, Wayne G Carter
Repetitive excessive alcohol intoxication leads to neuronal damage and brain shrinkage. We examined cytoskeletal protein expression in human post-mortem tissue from Brodmann's area 9 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Brain samples from 44 individuals were divided into equal groups of 11 control, 11 alcoholic, 11 non-alcoholic suicides, and 11 suicide alcoholics matched for age, sex, and post-mortem delay. Tissue from alcoholic cohorts displayed significantly reduced expression of α- and β-tubulins, and increased levels of acetylated α-tubulin...
September 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Mary Yannakoulia, Costas A Anastasiou, Nikolaos Scarmeas
Even though obese individuals often succeed with weight loss, long-term weight loss maintenance remains elusive. Dietary, lifestyle and psychosocial correlates of weight loss maintenance have been researched, yet the nature of maintenance is still poorly understood. Studying the neural processing of weight loss maintainers may provide a much-needed insight towards sustained obesity management. In this narrative review, we evaluate and critically discuss available evidence regarding the food-related neural responses of weight loss maintainers, as opposed to those of obese or lean persons...
September 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Jocelyn M Powers, Gabriela Ioachim, Patrick W Stroman
A comprehensive review of the literature-to-date on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the spinal cord is presented. Spinal fMRI has been shown, over more than two decades of work, to be a reliable tool for detecting neural activity. We discuss 10 key points regarding the history, development, methods, and applications of spinal fMRI. Animal models have served a key purpose for the development of spinal fMRI protocols and for experimental spinal cord injury studies. Applications of spinal fMRI span from animal models across healthy and patient populations in humans using both task-based and resting-state paradigms...
September 10, 2018: Brain Sciences
Jorge Bosch-Bayard, Valeria Peluso, Lidice Galan, Pedro Valdes Sosa, Giuseppe A Chiarenza
Reading is essentially a two-channel function, requiring the integration of intact visual and auditory processes both peripheral and central. It is essential for normal reading that these component processes go forward automatically. Based on this model, Boder described three main subtypes of dyslexia: dysphonetic dyslexia (DD), dyseidetic, mixed and besides a fourth group defined non-specific reading delay (NSRD). The subtypes are identified by an algorithm that considers the reading quotient and the % of errors in the spelling test...
September 10, 2018: Brain Sciences
Sergio Melogno, Maria Antonietta Pinto, Margherita Orsolini, Luigi Tarani
Literature on children with Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) points to general linguistic difficulties in both comprehension and production among other cognitive functions, and in the majority of cases, these coexist with an intellectual level within the norms. In these conditions, children having language delay generally engage in language therapy and are systematically monitored across ages. In this article, we present the profiles of two children with KS (47, XXY), aged 9.1 (Child S) and 13 (Child D), whose language development was assessed as adequate at age 3, and for this reason, did not receive any language treatment...
September 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
Paolo Frisoni, Erica Bacchio, Sabrine Bilel, Anna Talarico, Rosa Maria Gaudio, Mario Barbieri, Margherita Neri, Matteo Marti
BACKGROUND: New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitute a broad range of hundreds of natural and synthetic drugs, including synthetic opioids, synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and other NPS classes, which were not controlled from 1961 to 1971 by the United Nations drug control conventions. Among these, synthetic opioids represent a major threat to public health. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using public databases (such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus) to survey fentanyl-, fentanyl analogs-, and other synthetic opioid-related deaths...
September 2, 2018: Brain Sciences
Markus Christiner, Susanne Maria Reiterer
Musical aptitude and language talent are highly intertwined when it comes to phonetic language ability. Research on pre-school children's musical abilities and foreign language abilities are rare but give further insights into the relationship between language and musical aptitude. We tested pre-school children's abilities to imitate unknown languages, to remember strings of digits, to sing, to discriminate musical statements and their intrinsic (spontaneous) singing behavior ("singing-lovers versus singing nerds")...
September 1, 2018: Brain Sciences
Rikinkumar S Patel, Sanya Virani, Hina Saeed, Sai Nimmagadda, Jupi Talukdar, Nagy A Youssef
BACKGROUND: Past studies have evaluated the association of various comorbidities with bipolar disorder. This study analyzes differences in the prevalence and association of medical and psychiatric comorbidities in bipolar patients by gender. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2010⁻2014). Using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, we narrowed the study population to comprise those with a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder and then obtained information about comorbidities...
September 1, 2018: Brain Sciences
Yoshiki Nakashima, Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Hirofumi Noguchi, Takeshi Omasa
We searched for drugs that alleviate the reduction of dopaminergic neurons caused by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the substantia nigra of the rat brain. Human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFG-E8) is similar to MFG-E8-S, a short isoform, of the mouse MFG-E8. However, the function of MFG-E8-S was not clear. Rats with LPS-induced Parkinson's disease were prepared and the effects of human MFG-E8 were examined. MFG-E8 improved the significant reduction in mesencephalic dopamine neurons induced by the administration of LPS...
August 31, 2018: Brain Sciences
Marc Cavazza
Several researchers have proposed a new application for human augmentation, which is to provide human supervision to autonomous artificial intelligence (AI) systems. In this paper, we introduce a framework to implement this proposal, which consists of using Brain⁻Computer Interfaces (BCI) to influence AI computation via some of their core algorithmic components, such as heuristic search. Our framework is based on a joint analysis of philosophical proposals characterising the behaviour of autonomous AI systems and recent research in cognitive neuroscience that support the design of appropriate BCI...
August 31, 2018: Brain Sciences
Stephen D Smith, Tiffany A Kolesar, Jennifer Kornelsen
Previous research has delineated the networks of brain structures involved in the perception of emotional auditory stimuli. These include the amygdala, insula, and auditory cortices, as well as frontal-lobe, basal ganglia, and cerebellar structures involved in the planning and execution of motoric behaviors. The aim of the current research was to examine whether emotional sounds also influence activity in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord. Seventeen undergraduate participants completed a spinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study consisting of two fMRI runs...
August 31, 2018: Brain Sciences
Soonhyun Lee, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gait training with bilateral rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke patients. Forty-four participants (<6 months after stroke) were randomly allocated to the gait training with bilateral rhythmic auditory stimulation (GTBR) group ( n = 23) and the control group ( n = 21). The GTBR group had gait training with bilateral RAS for 30 min a day, 5 days a week, in a 6-week period, in addition to conventional therapy...
August 31, 2018: Brain Sciences
Caroline Gurvich, Kate Hoy, Natalie Thomas, Jayashri Kulkarni
Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that regulate reproductive function have multiple effects on the development, maintenance and function of the brain. Sex differences in cognitive functioning have been reported in both health and disease, which may be partly attributed to sex hormones. The aim of the current paper was to provide a theoretical review of how sex hormones influence cognitive functioning across the lifespan as well as provide an overview of the literature on sex differences and the role of sex hormones in cognitive decline, specifically in relation to Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
August 28, 2018: Brain Sciences
Rubayat Islam Khan, Saif Shahriar Rahman Nirzhor, Barnaly Rashid
One of the most commonly known chronic neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD), manifests the common type of dementia in 60⁻80% of cases. From a clinical standpoint, a patent cognitive decline and a severe change in personality, as caused by a loss of neurons, is usually evident in AD with about 50 million people affected in 2016. The disease progression in patients is distinguished by a gradual plummet in cognitive functions, eliciting symptoms such as memory loss, and eventually requiring full-time medical care...
August 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
Elisa Unti, Sonia Mazzucchi, Daniela Frosini, Cristina Pagni, Gloria Tognoni, Lionella Palego, Laura Betti, Fabiana Miraglia, Gino Giannaccini, Roberto Ceravolo
This study is aimed at relating social cognition in Huntington's Disease (HD) to plasma levels of the social hormone oxytocin (OT). Indeed, HD patients commonly display reduced social skills and OT is involved in bonding behavior and improved recognition of facial emotions. Twelve mild-symptomatic HD patients (stage II Shoulson &amp; Fahn) and 11 gender/age matched controls (healthy controls, HC), without concurrent psychiatric disorders, were investigated at baseline (T₀) for OT plasma levels and social cognition through an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests...
August 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
Lauren C Shuffrey, Lisa Levinson, Alexis Becerra, Grace Pak, Dayna Moya Sepulveda, Alicia K Montgomery, Heather L Green, Karen Froud
High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine the utility of the P1 event-related potential (ERP) as a marker of visual motion sensitivity to luminance defined low-spatial frequency drifting gratings in 16 children with autism and 16 neurotypical children. Children with autism displayed enhanced sensitivity to large, high-contrast low-spatial frequency stimuli as indexed by significantly shorter P1 response latencies to large vs. small gratings. The current study also found that children with autism had larger amplitude responses to large gratings irrespective of contrast...
August 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Andrew Zillgitt, Abdullah Alshammaa, Neepa Patel, Christos Sidiropoulos, Peter A LeWitt, Susan Bowyer
BACKGROUND: Cervical dystonia (CD) patients have impaired working memory, processing speed and visual-motor integration ability. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate changes in cerebral oscillations in CD patients during an executive function test, before and after administration of botulinum toxin. METHODS: MEG data were collected from five CD patients while they performed a visual continuous performance task (CPT), before and after they received a botulinum toxin injection...
August 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
Sarah Marie Farrell, Alexander Green, Tipu Aziz
Chronic intractable pain is debilitating for those touched, affecting 5% of the population. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has fallen out of favour as the centrally implantable neurostimulation of choice for chronic pain since the 1970⁻1980s, with some neurosurgeons favouring motor cortex stimulation as the 'last chance saloon'. This article reviews the available data and professional opinion of the current state of DBS as a treatment for chronic pain, placing it in the context of other neuromodulation therapies...
August 20, 2018: Brain Sciences
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