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Brain Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156546/systematic-review-of-epigenetic-effects-of-pharmacological-agents-for-bipolar-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Laura E Lockwood, Nagy A Youssef
Epigenetic effects of medications are an evolving field of medicine, and can change the landscape of drug development. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the literature of the relationship between common medications used for treatment of bipolar disorders and epigenetic modifications. MedLine/PubMed searches were performed based on pre-specified inclusion criteria from inception to November 2017. Six animal and human studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined the epigenetic changes in the main classes of medications that are used in bipolar disorders, namely mood stabilizers and antipsychotics...
November 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149018/please-wait-processing-a-selective-literature-review-of-the-neurological-understanding-of-emotional-processing-in-asd-and-its-potential-contribution-to-neuroeducation
#2
REVIEW
Eric Shyman
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its corresponding conditions have been investigated from a multitude of perspectives resulting in varying understandings of its origin, its outplay, its prognosis, and potential methods of intervention and education for individuals with the disorder. One area that has contributed significantly to providing a different type of understanding is that of neuroscience, and specifically neuroimaging. This paper will offer a selective literature review of research that investigates the role of emotional processing in ASD, and how a deepening of this line of understanding can be used to inform more comprehensive educational practices...
November 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144396/salivary-oxytocin-concentration-changes-during-a-group-drumming-intervention-for-maltreated-school-children
#3
Teruko Yuhi, Hiroaki Kyuta, Hisa-Aki Mori, Chihiro Murakami, Kazumi Furuhara, Mari Okuno, Masaki Takahashi, Daikei Fuji, Haruhiro Higashida
Many emotionally-disturbed children who have been maltreated and are legally separated from their parents or primary caregivers live in group homes and receive compulsory education. Such institutions provide various special intervention programs. Taiko-ensou, a Japanese style of group drumming, is one such program because playing drums in a group may improve children's emotional well-being. However, evidence for its efficacy has not been well established at the biological level. In this study, we measured salivary levels of oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide associated with social memory and communication, in three conditions (recital, practice, and free sessions) in four classes of school-aged children...
November 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135933/adolescent-alcohol-drinking-renders-adult-drinking-bla-dependent-bla-hyper-activity-as-contributor-to-comorbid-alcohol-use-disorder-and-anxiety-disorders
#4
Mahsa Moaddab, Elizabeth Mangone, Madelyn H Ray, Michael A McDannald
Adolescent alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol-use disorder in adulthood. Yet, the changes in adult neural function resulting from adolescent alcohol drinking remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that adolescent alcohol drinking alters basolateral amygdala (BLA) function, making alcohol drinking BLA-dependent in adulthood. Male, Long Evans rats were given voluntary, intermittent access to alcohol (20% ethanol) or a bitter, isocaloric control solution, across adolescence. Half of the rats in each group received neurotoxic BLA lesions...
November 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137156/digital-platforms-in-the-assessment-and-monitoring-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Arvind Rajagopalan, Pooja Shah, Melvyn W Zhang, Roger C Ho
This paper aims to review the application of digital platforms in the assessment and monitoring of patients with Bipolar Disorder (BPD). We will detail the current clinical criteria for the diagnosis of BPD and the tools available for patient assessment in the clinic setting. We will go on to highlight the difficulties in the assessment and monitoring of BPD patients in the clinical context. Finally, we will elaborate upon the impact that diital platforms have made, and have the potential to make, on healthcare, mental health, and specifically the management of BPD, before going on to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of the use of such technology...
November 12, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125540/is-high-folic-acid-intake-a-risk-factor-for-autism-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Darrell Wiens, M Catherine DeSoto
Folate is required for metabolic processes and neural development. Insuring its adequate levels for pregnant women through supplementation of grain-based foods with synthetic folic acid (FA) in order to prevent neural tube defects has been an ongoing public health initiative. However, because women are advised to take multivitamins containing FA before and throughout pregnancy, the supplementation together with natural dietary folates has led to a demographic with high and rising serum levels of unmetabolized FA...
November 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112130/role-of-immunological-memory-cells-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Tanima Bose
Pharmacological targeting of memory cells is an attractive treatment strategy in various autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by focal immune cell infiltration, activation of microglia and astrocytes, along with progressive damage to myelin sheaths, axons, and neurons. The current review begins with the identification of memory cell types in the previous literature and a recent description of the modulation of these cell types in T, B, and resident memory cells in the presence of different clinically approved multiple sclerosis drugs...
November 7, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099739/4sc-202-as-a-potential-treatment-for-the-pediatric-brain-tumor-medulloblastoma
#8
Shanta M Messerli, Mariah M Hoffman, Etienne Z Gnimpieba, Hella Kohlhof, Ratan D Bhardwaj
This project involves an examination of the effect of the small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 on the growth of the pediatric brain cancer medulloblastoma. The small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 significantly inhibits the viability of the pediatric desmoplastic cerebellar human medulloblastoma cell line DAOY, with an IC50 = 58.1 nM, but does not affect the viability of noncancerous neural stem cells (NSC). 4SC-202 exposure inhibits hedgehog expression in the DAOY cell line. Furthermore, microarray analysis of human medulloblastoma patient tumors indicate significant upregulation of key targets in the Hedgehog signaling pathway and Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK7)...
November 3, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104237/promoting-mental-health-in-unaccompanied-refugee-minors-recommendations-for-primary-support-programs
#9
Usama El-Awad, Atefeh Fathi, Franz Petermann, Tilman Reinelt
During the last years, the number of refugees around the world increased to about 22.5 million. The mental health of refugees, especially of unaccompanied minors (70% between the ages of 16 and 18 years) who have been exposed to traumatic events (e.g., war), is generally impaired with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Several studies revealed (1) a huge variation among the prevalence rates of these mental problems, and (2) that post-migration stressors (e.g., language barriers, cultural differences) might be at least as detrimental to mental health as the traumatic events in pre- and peri-flight...
November 1, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084144/bipolar-disorder-and-immune-dysfunction-epidemiological-findings-proposed-pathophysiology-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
Bipolar disorder (BD) is strongly associated with immune dysfunction. Replicated epidemiological studies have demonstrated that BD has high rates of inflammatory medical comorbidities, including autoimmune disorders, chronic infections, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. Cytokine studies have demonstrated that BD is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation with further increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels during mood episodes. Several mechanisms have been identified to explain the bidirectional relationship between BD and immune dysfunction...
October 30, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143763/intellectual-functioning-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Jake Jeong, Kevin P Kennedy, Timothy A Allen
Impaired intellectual functioning is an important risk factor for the emergence of severe mental illness. Unlike many other forms of mental disorder however, the association between bipolar disorder and intellectual deficits is unclear. In this narrative review, we examine the current evidence on intellectual functioning in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder. The results are based on 18 independent, peer-reviewed publications from 1980 to 2017 that met criteria for this study. The findings yielded no consistent evidence of lower or higher intellectual quotient (IQ) in offspring of parents diagnosed with bipolar disorder...
October 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076989/biomarkers-associated-with-the-outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#12
REVIEW
Leonardo Lorente
This review focuses on biomarkers associated with the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, such as caspase-3; total antioxidant capacity; melatonin; S100B protein; glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); glutamate; lactate; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); substance P; neuron-specific enolase (NSE); ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1 (UCH-L1); tau; decanoic acid; and octanoic acid.
October 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072587/mental-health-literacy-content-for-children-of-parents-with-a-mental-illness-thematic-analysis-of-a-literature-review
#13
Joanne Riebschleger, Christine Grové, Daniel Cavanaugh, Shane Costello
Millions of children have a parent with a mental illness (COPMI). These children are at higher risk of acquiring behavioural, developmental and emotional difficulties. Most children, including COPMI, have low levels of mental health literacy (MHL), meaning they do not have accurate, non-stigmatized information. There is limited knowledge about what kind of MHL content should be delivered to children. The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the knowledge content needed for general population children and COPMI to increase their MHL...
October 26, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072583/self-injury-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability-exploring-the-role-of-reactivity-to-pain-and-sensory-input
#14
REVIEW
Jane Summers, Ali Shahrami, Stefanie Cali, Chantelle D'Mello, Milena Kako, Andjelka Palikucin-Reljin, Melissa Savage, Olivia Shaw, Yona Lunsky
This paper provides information about the prevalence and topography of self-injurious behavior in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Dominant models regarding the etiology of self-injury in this population are reviewed, with a focus on the role of reactivity to pain and sensory input. Neuroimaging studies are presented and suggestions are offered for future research.
October 26, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064447/investigation-of-sex-differences-in-the-microglial-response-to-binge-ethanol-and-exercise
#15
Emily A Barton, Cassandra Baker, J Leigh Leasure
The female brain appears selectively vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol, but the reasons for this are unclear. One possibility is an exaggerated neuroimmune response in the female brain, such that alcohol increases microglia number and reactivity to subsequent stimuli, such as exercise. It is important to better characterize the interactive neural effects of alcohol and exercise, as exercise is increasingly being used in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. The present study compared the number of microglia and evidence of their activation in alcohol-vulnerable regions of the brain (medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus) in male and female rats following binge alcohol and/or exercise...
October 24, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064441/pattern-recognition-of-the-multiple-sclerosis-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Rana K Zabad, Renee Stewart, Kathleen M Healey
During recent decades, the autoimmune disease neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), once broadly classified under the umbrella of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been extended to include autoimmune inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), which are now diagnosable with serum serological tests. These antibody-mediated inflammatory diseases of the CNS share a clinical presentation to MS. A number of practical learning points emerge in this review, which is geared toward the pattern recognition of optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, brainstem/cerebellar and hemispheric tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL)-associated MS, aquaporin-4-antibody and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody NMOSD, overlap syndrome, and some yet-to-be-defined/classified demyelinating disease, all unspecifically labeled under MSsyndrome...
October 24, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065490/immunotherapy-for-pediatric-brain-tumors
#17
REVIEW
Elias J Sayour, Duane A Mitchell
Malignant brain tumors are the most common cause of solid cancer death in children. New targeted therapies are vital to improve treatment outcomes, but must be developed to enable trafficking across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Since activated T cells cross the BBB, cancer immunotherapy can be harnessed to unlock the cytotoxic potential of the immune system. However, standard of care treatments (i.e., chemotherapy and radiation) applied concomitant to pediatric brain tumor immunotherapy may abrogate induction of immunotherapeutic responses...
October 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065457/metacognitive-precursors-an-analysis-in-children-with-different-disabilities
#18
María Consuelo Sáiz Manzanares, Miguel Ángel Carbonero Martín
The analysis of Metacognitive skills is a key element to guide the learning process. Current research has shown the initiation of these skills from an early age. The present study had two aims: (1) to validate a Scale Measuring Precursor Metacognitive Skills (SMPMS) in children with diverse disabilities, and (2) to study possible significant different between different disabilities in precursor metacognitive skill use. We worked with 87 children with different disabilities, with an average age range of 24-37 months...
October 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065447/analysis-of-predictive-factors-on-minors-mental-health-according-to-the-spanish-national-health-survey
#19
Fernando Fajardo-Bullón, Irina Rasskin-Gutman, Elena Felipe-Castaño, Eduardo João Ribeiro Dos Santos, Benito León-Del Barco
Research on minors' mental health is an increasingly developing area. Given the increased prevalence of disorders, it seems necessary to analyze the factors that can affect poor mental health. This study analyzes the influence of occupational class, educational level, age, sex and perceived mental health of Spanish children, which is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The sample consists of 3599 minors between 4 and 14 years old, who were interviewed through the Spanish National Health Survey 2011...
October 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053637/progress-in-genetic-studies-of-tourette-s-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Yanjie Qi, Yi Zheng, Zhanjiang Li, Lan Xiong
Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a complex disorder characterized by repetitive, sudden, and involuntary movements or vocalizations, called tics. Tics usually appear in childhood, and their severity varies over time. In addition to frequent tics, people with TS are at risk for associated problems including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. TS occurs in most populations and ethnic groups worldwide, and it is more common in males than in females...
October 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
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