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Brain Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085089/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-fatigability-of-the-knee-extensors-post-stroke
#1
Meghan Kirking, Reivian Berrios Barillas, Philip Andrew Nelson, Sandra Kay Hunter, Allison Hyngstrom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. METHODS: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women) with chronic stroke (≥6 months) and 23 (12 men, 11 women) nonstroke controls participated in the study...
January 12, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085038/acknowledgement-to-reviewers-of-brain-sciences-in-2016
#2
EDITORIAL
Brain Sciences Editorial Office
The editors of Brain Sciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...].
January 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067785/relationships-between-gat1-and-ptsd-depression-and-substance-use-disorder
#3
Kaitlin E Bountress, Wei Wei, Christina Sheerin, Dongjun Chung, Ananda B Amstadter, Howard Mandel, Zhewu Wang
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) have large public health impacts. Therefore, researchers have attempted to identify those at greatest risk for these phenotypes. PTSD, MDD, and SUD are in part genetically influenced. Additionally, genes in the glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system are implicated in the encoding of emotional and fear memories, and thus may impact these phenotypes. The current study examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in GAT1 individually, and at the gene level, using a principal components (PC) approach, with PTSD, PTSD comorbid with MDD, and PTSD comorbid with SUD in 486 combat-exposed veterans...
January 5, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#4
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036071/the-interplay-of-hippocampus-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-memory-based-decision-making
#5
REVIEW
Regina A Weilbächer, Sebastian Gluth
Episodic memory and value-based decision making are two central and intensively studied research domains in cognitive neuroscience, but we are just beginning to understand how they interact to enable memory-based decisions. The two brain regions that have been associated with episodic memory and value-based decision making are the hippocampus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, respectively. In this review article, we first give an overview of these brain-behavior associations and then focus on the mechanisms of potential interactions between the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex that have been proposed and tested in recent neuroimaging studies...
December 29, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036062/an-unusual-case-of-post-traumatic-headache-complicated-by-intracranial-hypotension
#6
Sara Siavoshi, Carrie Dougherty, Jessica Ailani, Kaustubh Yadwadkar, Frank Berkowitz
We present a case of post-traumatic headache complicated by intracranial hypotension resulting in an acquired Chiari malformation and myelopathy with syringomyelia. This constellation of findings suggest a possible series of events that started with a traumatic cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak, followed by descent of the cerebellar tonsils and disruption of CSF circulation that caused spinal cord swelling and syrinx. This unusual presentation of post-traumatic headache highlights the varying presentations and the potential sequelae of intracranial hypotension...
December 29, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025542/impact-of-spinal-manipulation-on-cortical-drive-to-upper-and-lower-limb-muscles
#7
Heidi Haavik, Imran Khan Niazi, Mads Jochumsen, Diane Sherwin, Stanley Flavel, Kemal S Türker
This study investigates whether spinal manipulation leads to changes in motor control by measuring the recruitment pattern of motor units in both an upper and lower limb muscle and to see whether such changes may at least in part occur at the cortical level by recording movement related cortical potential (MRCP) amplitudes. In experiment one, transcranial magnetic stimulation input-output (TMS I/O) curves for an upper limb muscle (abductor pollicus brevis; APB) were recorded, along with F waves before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention for the same subjects on two different days...
December 23, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025539/group-vs-individual-treatment-for-acute-insomnia-a-pilot-study-evaluating-a-one-shot-treatment-strategy
#8
Pam Boullin, Christina Ellwood, Jason G Ellis
BACKGROUND: Despite undeniable evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I), the potential for its widespread dissemination and implementation has yet to be realised. A suggested reason for this is that traditional CBT-I is considered too burdensome for deployment, in its current form, within the context of where it would be most beneficial-Primary Care. One strategy, aimed to address this, has been to develop briefer versions of CBT-I, whilst another has been to deliver CBT-I in a group format...
December 23, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009826/using-functional-target-coordinates-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-to-assess-the-indirect-and-direct-methods-of-the-preoperative-planning-do-the-anatomical-and-functional-targets-coincide
#9
Ahmed Rabie, Leo Verhagen Metman, Konstantin V Slavin
OBJECTIVE: To answer the question of whether the anatomical center of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), as calculated indirectly from stereotactic atlases or by direct visualization on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), corresponds to the best functional target. Since the neighboring red nucleus (RN) is well visualized on MRI, we studied the relationships of the final target to its different borders. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 23 PD patients (46 targets) who underwent bilateral frame-based STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedure with microelectrode recording guidance...
December 21, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999387/genetic-pathways-to-insomnia
#10
REVIEW
Mackenzie J Lind, Philip R Gehrman
This review summarizes current research on the genetics of insomnia, as genetic contributions are thought to be important for insomnia etiology. We begin by providing an overview of genetic methods (both quantitative and measured gene), followed by a discussion of the insomnia genetics literature with regard to each of the following common methodologies: twin and family studies, candidate gene studies, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Next, we summarize the most recent gene identification efforts (primarily GWAS results) and propose several potential mechanisms through which identified genes may contribute to the disorder...
December 20, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999381/evaluation-of-teaching-signals-for-motor-control-in-the-cerebellum-during-real-world-robot-application
#11
Ruben Dario Pinzon Morales, Yutaka Hirata
Motor learning in the cerebellum is believed to entail plastic changes at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, induced by the teaching signal conveyed in the climbing fiber (CF) input. Despite the abundant research on the cerebellum, the nature of this signal is still a matter of debate. Two types of movement error information have been proposed to be plausible teaching signals: sensory error (SE) and motor command error (ME); however, their plausibility has not been tested in the real world...
December 20, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999366/preconditioning-of-spatial-and-auditory-cues-roles-of-the-hippocampus-frontal-cortex-and-cue-directed-attention
#12
Andrew C Talk, Katrina L Grasby, Tim Rawson, Jane L Ebejer
Loss of function of the hippocampus or frontal cortex is associated with reduced performance on memory tasks, in which subjects are incidentally exposed to cues at specific places in the environment and are subsequently asked to recollect the location at which the cue was experienced. Here, we examined the roles of the rodent hippocampus and frontal cortex in cue-directed attention during encoding of memory for the location of a single incidentally experienced cue. During a spatial sensory preconditioning task, rats explored an elevated platform while an auditory cue was incidentally presented at one corner...
December 19, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999362/body-machine-interfaces-after-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation-and-brain-plasticity
#13
Ismael Seáñez-González, Camilla Pierella, Ali Farshchiansadegh, Elias B Thorp, Xue Wang, Todd Parrish, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
The purpose of this study was to identify rehabilitative effects and changes in white matter microstructure in people with high-level spinal cord injury following bilateral upper-extremity motor skill training. Five subjects with high-level (C5-C6) spinal cord injury (SCI) performed five visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 12 sessions (2-3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a two-dimensional cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders using a non-invasive inertial measurement unit-based body-machine interface...
December 19, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983685/phase-and-workload-dependent-changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-to-the-biceps-and-triceps-brachii-during-arm-cycling
#14
Alyssa-Joy Spence, Lynsey R Alcock, Evan J Lockyer, Duane C Button, Kevin E Power
This is the first study to examine corticospinal excitability (CSE) to antagonistic muscle groups during arm cycling. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and transmastoid electrical stimulation (TMES) of the corticospinal tract were used to assess changes in supraspinal and spinal excitability, respectively. TMS induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and TMES induced cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEPs) were recorded from the biceps and triceps brachii at two positions, mid-elbow flexion and extension, while cycling at 5% and 15% of peak power output...
December 15, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983589/improvement-of-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-manifestations-with-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-a-single-institution-experience
#15
Ahmed Rabie, Leo Verhagen Metman, Mazen Fakhry, Ayman Youssef Ezeldin Eassa, Wael Fouad, Ahmed Shakal, Konstantin V Slavin
We present our experience at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), describing our surgical technique, and reporting our clinical results, and morbidities. Twenty patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) who underwent bilateral STN-DBS were studied. Patients were assessed preoperatively and followed up for one year using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in "on" and "off" medication and "on" and "off" stimulation conditions...
December 13, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983580/insomnia-phenotypes-based-on-objective-sleep-duration-in-adolescents-depression-risk-and-differential-behavioral-profiles
#16
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Susan L Calhoun, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Yun Li, Jordan Gaines, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
Based on previous studies on the role of objective sleep duration in predicting morbidity in individuals with insomnia, we examined the role of objective sleep duration in differentiating behavioral profiles in adolescents with insomnia symptoms. Adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort (n = 397, ages 12-23, 54.7% male) underwent a nine-hour polysomnography (PSG), clinical history, physical examination and psychometric testing, including the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist and Pediatric Behavior Scale...
December 13, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916831/long-term-task-and-dopamine-dependent-dynamics-of-subthalamic-local-field-potentials-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Sara J Hanrahan, Joshua J Nedrud, Bradley S Davidson, Sierra Farris, Monique Giroux, Aaron Haug, Mohammad H Mahoor, Anne K Silverman, Jun Jason Zhang, Adam Olding Hebb
Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potentials (LFP) are neural signals that have been shown to reveal motor and language behavior, as well as pathological parkinsonian states. We use a research-grade implantable neurostimulator (INS) with data collection capabilities to record STN-LFP outside the operating room to determine the reliability of the signals over time and assess their dynamics with respect to behavior and dopaminergic medication. Seven subjects were implanted with the recording augmented deep brain stimulation (DBS) system, and bilateral STN-LFP recordings were collected in the clinic over twelve months...
November 29, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886079/cerebellar-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-and-motor-control-training-in-individuals-with-cervical-dystonia
#18
Lynley V Bradnam, Michelle N McDonnell, Michael C Ridding
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that cervical dystonia is a neural network disorder with the cerebellum as a key node. The cerebellum may provide a target for neuromodulation as a therapeutic intervention in cervical dystonia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation of the cerebellum on dystonia symptoms, quality of life, hand motor dexterity and cortical neurophysiology using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
November 23, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827903/no-effect-of-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-fear-memory-in-healthy-human-subjects
#19
Aditya Mungee, Max Burger, Malek Bajbouj
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. METHODS: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus...
November 4, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827888/long-term-plasticity-in-reflex-excitability-induced-by-five-weeks-of-arm-and-leg-cycling-training-after-stroke
#20
Taryn Klarner, Trevor S Barss, Yao Sun, Chelsea Kaupp, Pamela M Loadman, E Paul Zehr
Neural connections remain partially viable after stroke, and access to these residual connections provides a substrate for training-induced plasticity. The objective of this project was to test if reflex excitability could be modified with arm and leg (A & L) cycling training. Nineteen individuals with chronic stroke (more than six months postlesion) performed 30 min of A & L cycling training three times a week for five weeks. Changes in reflex excitability were inferred from modulation of cutaneous and stretch reflexes...
November 3, 2016: Brain Sciences
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