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Brain Sciences

Tam T Quach, Nathalie Auvergnon, Rajesh Khanna, Marie-Françoise Belin, Papachan E Kolattukudy, Jérome Honnorat, Anne-Marie Duchemin
Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are highly expressed in the brain during early postnatal development and continue to be present in specific regions into adulthood, especially in areas with extensive neuronal plasticity including the hippocampus. They are found in the axons and dendrites of neurons wherein they contribute to specific signaling mechanisms involved in the regulation of axonal and dendritic development/maintenance. We previously identified CRMP3's role on the morphology of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal dendrites and hippocampus-dependent functions...
November 3, 2018: Brain Sciences
Thierry Gélat, Laure Coudrat, Carole Ferrel-Chapus, Sylvie Vernazza-Martin
Previous studies have reported that anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) associated with gait initiation are affected by emotion-eliciting images. This study examined the effect of the duration of exposure to emotional images on the APAs along the progression axis. From a standing posture, 39 young adults had to reach a table by walking (several steps) toward pleasant or unpleasant images, under two sets of conditions. In the short condition, the word "go" appeared on the image 500 ms after image onset and participants were instructed to initiate gait as soon as possible after the word go appeared...
November 1, 2018: Brain Sciences
Edward Botsford, Jayan George, Ellen E Buckley
Metal storage disorders (MSDs) are a set of rare inherited conditions with variable clinical pictures including neurological dysfunction. The objective of this study was, through a systematic review, to identify the prevalence of Parkinsonism in patients with MSDs in order to uncover novel pathways implemented in Parkinson's disease. Human studies describing patients of any age with an MSD diagnosis were analysed. Foreign language publications as well as animal and cellular studies were excluded. Searches were conducted through PubMed and Ovid between April and September 2018...
October 31, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shervin Assari
BACKGROUND: According to the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDR) theory, the health returns of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller for Blacks compared to Whites. Less is known, however, about trans-generational aspects of such diminished gains. For example, the differential impact of parental educational attainment on differences in mental well-being between White versus Black college students remains unknown. AIMS: With a national scope, this study explored racial differences in the effect of parental educational attainment on the mental well-being of college students in the United States...
October 29, 2018: Brain Sciences
Fabio Barone, Nicola Alberio, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino, Giuseppe Roberto Giammalva, Corrado D'Arrigo, Walter Tagnese, Francesca Graziano, Salvatore Cicero, Rosario Maugeri
Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumours in adults, representing nearly 80%, with poor prognosis in their high-grade forms. Several variables positively affect the prognosis of patients with high-grade glioma: young age, tumour location, radiological features, recurrence, and the opportunity to perform post-operative adjuvant therapy. Low-grade gliomas are slow-growing brain neoplasms of adolescence and young-adulthood, preferentially involving functional areas, particularly the eloquent ones...
October 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
Osamu Aoki, Yoshitaka Otani, Shinichiro Morishita
Gazing at objects at a near distance (small eye-object distance) can reduce body sway. However, whether body sway is regulated by movement in the mediolateral or anteroposterior direction remains unclear. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) can induce body tilting in the mediolateral or anteroposterior direction. This study examined the directionality of the eye-object distance effect, using body-tilting GVS manipulations. Ten healthy subjects (aged 21.1 ± 0.3 years) stood on a force plate covered with a piece of foamed rubber and either closed their eyes or gazed at a marker located 0...
October 23, 2018: Brain Sciences
Dami Aderonke Collier, Lewis Haddow, Jay Brijkumar, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Laura Benjamin, Ravindra K Gupta
Neurocognitive impairment remains an important HIV-associated comorbidity despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since the advent of ART, the spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has shifted from the most severe form to milder forms. Independent replication of HIV in the central nervous system despite ART, so-called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) escape is now recognised in the context of individuals with a reconstituted immune system. This review describes the global prevalence and clinical spectrum of CSF escape, it role in the pathogenesis of HAND and current advances in the diagnosis and management...
October 20, 2018: Brain Sciences
Gorka FragaGonzález, Iliana I Karipidis, Jurgen Tijms
The convenience of referring to dyslexia as a neurodevelopmental disorder has been repeatedly brought into question. In this opinion article, we argue in favor of the current diagnosis of dyslexia based on the criteria of harm and dysfunction. We discuss the favorable clinical and educational outcomes of a neuroscience-informed approach of dyslexia as a disorder. Furthermore, we discuss insights derived from neuroimaging studies and their importance to address problems related to developmental dyslexia.
October 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
Corona Solana, Diana Pereira, Raquel Tarazona
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder characterized by delusions and hallucinations. Several evidences support the link of schizophrenia with accelerated telomeres shortening and accelerated aging. Thus, schizophrenia patients show higher mortality compared to age-matched healthy donors. The etiology of schizophrenia is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Telomere erosion has been shown to be accelerated by different factors including environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and chronic alcohol consumption or by psychosocial stress such as childhood maltreatment...
October 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
Anis Feki, Youssef Hibaoui
Down syndrome (DS) caused by a trisomy of chromosome 21 (HSA21), is the most common genetic developmental disorder, with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births. Its phenotypic characteristics include intellectual impairment, early onset of Alzheimer's disease, congenital heart disease, hypotonia, muscle weakness and several other developmental abnormalities, for the majority of which the pathogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Among the numerous protein coding genes of HSA21, dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A ( DYRK1A ) encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase that plays pleiotropic roles in neurodevelopment in both physiological and pathological conditions...
October 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
Michael Back, Dasantha Jayamanne, Nicola Cove, Helen Wheeler, Mustafa Khasraw, Linxin Guo, Jemimah Back, Matthew Wong
Delivery of highly sophisticated, and subspecialised, management protocols for glioblastoma in low volume rural and regional areas creates potential issues for equivalent quality of care. This study aims to demonstrate the impact on clinical quality indicators through the development of a novel model of care delivering an outsourced subspecialised neuro-oncology service in a regional centre compared with the large volume metropolitan centre. Three hundred and fifty-two patients with glioblastoma were managed under the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (EORTC-NCIC) Protocol, and survival outcome was assessed in relation to potential prognostic factors and the geographical site of treatment, before and after opening of a regional cancer centre...
October 15, 2018: Brain Sciences
Teresa Joy, Muddanna S Rao, Sampath Madhyastha
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), deposition of beta amyloid plaques, and consequent neuronal loss in the brain tissue. Oxidative stress to the neurons is often attributed to AD, but its link to NFT and β-amyloid protein (BAP) still remains unclear. In an animal model of AD, we boosted the oxidative defense by N -Acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger, to understand the link between oxidative stress and NFT...
October 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Grace S Pham, Keisa W Mathis
Crosstalk between the brain and innate immune system may be dysregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic autoimmune disease that presents with dysautonomia and aberrant inflammation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an endogenous neuro-endocrine-immune pathway that can regulate inflammation following activation of vagal afferents. We hypothesized that chronic inflammatory processes in SLE are in part due to HPA axis dysfunction, at the level of either the afferent vagal-paraventricular nuclei (PVN) interface, the anterior pituitary, and/or at the adrenal glands...
October 4, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
Background : Gender may alter African Americans' vulnerability to discrimination. The type of outcomes that follow exposure to discrimination may also be gender-specific. Although teacher discrimination is known to deteriorate school performance, it is yet unknown whether male and female African American youth differ in the effect of teacher discrimination on school performance. Objective : This cross-sectional study explored the moderating role of gender on the effect of teacher discrimination on school performance in a national sample of African American youth...
September 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shervin Assari
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown smaller health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as education attainment for African Americans as compared to whites. However, less is known about diminished returns based on gender within African Americans. AIM: To test whether among African American men are at a relative disadvantage compared to women in terms of having improved mental health as a result of their education attainment. This study thus explored gender differences in the association between education attainment and mental health, using a representative sample of American adults...
September 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
Roberto Averna, Maria Pontillo, Francesco Demaria, Marco Armando, Ornella Santonastaso, Maria Laura Pucciarini, Maria Cristina Tata, Francesco Mancini, Stefano Vicari
In literature nothing is known about the clinical significance of Ultra High Risk (UHR) symptoms in children and adolescents with diagnosis of obsessive⁻compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, we examined the prevalence of UHR symptoms and their relationship with severity of obsessive⁻compulsive symptomatology, global, social, and role functioning, and level of associated depressive symptoms in a clinical sample ( n = 51) of children and adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years with a diagnosis of OCD...
September 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
Holly Roy, Ifeoma Offiah, Anu Dua
Chronic pain affecting the pelvic and urogenital area is a major clinical problem with heterogeneous etiology, affecting both male and female patients and severely compromising quality of life. In cases where pharmacotherapy is ineffective, neuromodulation is proving to be a potential avenue to enhance analgesic outcomes. However, clinicians who frequently see patients with pelvic pain are not traditionally trained in a range of neuromodulation techniques. The aim of this overview is to describe major types of pelvic and urogenital pain syndromes and the neuromodulation approaches that have been trialed, including peripheral nerve stimulation, dorsal root ganglion stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and brain stimulation techniques...
September 29, 2018: Brain Sciences
Erin Dancey, Paul Yielder, Bernadette Murphy
Recent work found that experimental pain appeared to negate alterations in cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) that occurred in response to motor learning acquisition of a novel tracing task. The goal of this experiment was to further investigate the interactive effects of pain stimulus location on motor learning acquisition, retention, and sensorimotor processing. Three groups of twelve participants ( n = 36) were randomly assigned to either a local capsaicin group, remote capsaicin group or contralateral capsaicin group...
September 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
Ruben K Dagda
Mitochondria are multifaceted organelles that serve to power critical neuronal functions.[…].
September 20, 2018: Brain Sciences
Rashad Hussain, Hira Zubair, Sarah Pursell, Muhammad Shahab
Regeneration refers to regrowth of tissue in the central nervous system. It includes generation of new neurons, glia, myelin, and synapses, as well as the regaining of essential functions: sensory, motor, emotional and cognitive abilities. Unfortunately, regeneration within the nervous system is very slow compared to other body systems. This relative slowness is attributed to increased vulnerability to irreversible cellular insults and the loss of function due to the very long lifespan of neurons, the stretch of cells and cytoplasm over several dozens of inches throughout the body, insufficiency of the tissue-level waste removal system, and minimal neural cell proliferation/self-renewal capacity...
September 15, 2018: Brain Sciences
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