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Brain Sciences

Terence D Sanger, Mark Liker, Enrique Arguelles, Ruta Deshpande, Arash Maskooki, Diana Ferman, Aprille Tongol, Aaron Robison
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for secondary (acquired, combined) dystonia does not reach the high degree of efficacy achieved in primary (genetic, isolated) dystonia. We hypothesize that this may be due to variability in the underlying injury, so that different children may require placement of electrodes in different regions of basal ganglia and thalamus. We describe a new targeting procedure in which temporary depth electrodes are placed at multiple possible targets in basal ganglia and thalamus, and probing for efficacy is performed using test stimulation and recording while children remain for one week in an inpatient Neuromodulation Monitoring Unit (NMU)...
July 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
Daniel J Blackburn, Ptolemaios G Sarrigiannis, Matteo De Marco, Yifan Zhao, Annalena Venneri, Sarah Lawrence, Zoe C Unwin, Michelle Blyth, Jenna Angel, Kathleen Baster, Iain D Wilkinson, Simon M Bell, Fei He, Hua-Liang Wei, Stephen A Billings, Thomas F D Farrow
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing with the ageing population. The development of low cost non-invasive diagnostic aids for AD is a research priority. This pilot study investigated whether an approach based on a novel dynamic quantitative parametric EEG method could detect abnormalities in people with AD. METHODS: 20 patients with probable AD, 20 matched healthy controls (HC) and 4 patients with probable fronto temporal dementia (FTD) were included...
July 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
Stefania Bonaccorso, Antonio Metastasio, Angelo Ricciardi, Neil Stewart, Leila Jamal, Naasir-Ud-Dinn Rujully, Christos Theleritis, Stefano Ferracuti, Giuseppe Ducci, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are a heterogeneous class of synthetic molecules including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs). Psychosis is associated with SCRAs use. There is limited knowledge regarding the structured assessment and psychometric evaluation of clinical presentations, analytical toxicology and clinical management plans of patients presenting with psychosis and SCRAs misuse. METHODS: We gathered information regarding the clinical presentations, toxicology and care plans of patients with psychosis and SCRAs misuse admitted to inpatients services...
July 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
Giovanni Ferrati, Emanuele Brai, Skye Stuart, Celia Marino, Susan A Greenfield
The basal forebrain has received much attention due to its involvement in multiple cognitive functions, but little is known about the basic neuronal mechanisms underlying its development, nor those mediating its primary role in Alzheimer’s disease. We have previously suggested that a novel 14-mer peptide, ‘T14’, could play a pivotal role in Alzheimer’s disease, via reactivation of a developmental signaling pathway. In this study, we have characterized T14 in the context of post-natal rat brain development, using a combination of different techniques...
July 10, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shervin Assari, Ritesh Mistry, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
Although perceived discrimination in Black youth is a risk factor for a wide range of negative mental health outcomes, recent research has suggested some gender differences in these associations. Gender differences in vulnerability to perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth is, however, still unknown. The current cross-sectional study investigated gender variations in the association between perceived discrimination and substance use (SU) in a national sample of Caribbean Black youth. Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003⁻2004...
July 9, 2018: Brain Sciences
Hooman Nezamfar, Seyed Sadegh Mohseni Salehi, Matt Higger, Deniz Erdogmus
Even with state-of-the-art techniques there are individuals whose paralysis prevents them from communicating with others. Brain⁻Computer-Interfaces (BCI) aim to utilize brain waves to construct a voice for those whose needs remain unmet. In this paper we compare the efficacy of a BCI input signal, code-VEP via Electroencephalography, against eye gaze tracking, among the most popular modalities used. These results, on healthy individuals without paralysis, suggest that while eye tracking works well for some, it does not work well or at all for others; the latter group includes individuals with corrected vision or those who squint their eyes unintentionally while focusing on a task...
July 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
Marco Grados, Rachel Huselid, Laura Duque-Serrano
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of impairing motor and vocal tics which often persists adolescent and adult years. In this older refractory group, standard treatments such as pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic interventions may only have limited effects. Based on electrical cortical dysregulation in individuals with TS, a novel approach has employed brain stimulation strategies to modulate the putative aberrant neural electrical activity in pathways that may underlie tics, such as insula-supplementary motor area (SMA) connectivity...
July 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
Elena Bilevicius, Tiffany A Kolesar, Stephen D Smith, Paul D Trapnell, Jennifer Kornelsen
Emotional empathy is the ability to experience and/or share another person’s emotional states and responses. Although some research has examined the neural correlates of emotional empathy, there has been little research investigating whether this component of empathy is related to the functional connectivity of resting state networks in the brain. In the current study, 32 participants answered a trait emotional empathy questionnaire in a session previous to their functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
July 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
Yuelong Ji, Anne W Riley, Li-Ching Lee, Xiumei Hong, Guoying Wang, Hui-Ju Tsai, Noel T Mueller, Colleen Pearson, Jessica Thermitus, Anita Panjwani, Hongkai Ji, Tami R Bartell, Irina Burd, M Daniele Fallin, Xiaobin Wang
Previous studies have suggested a positive association between self-reported maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy and risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. We sought to examine the prospective association between maternal plasma biomarkers of acetaminophen intake and ADHD diagnosis in the offspring. This report analyzed 1180 children enrolled at birth and followed prospectively as part of the Boston Birth Cohort, including 188 with ADHD diagnosis based on electronic medical record review...
July 3, 2018: Brain Sciences
Alessandro Tonin, Niels Birbaumer, Ujwal Chaudhary
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) enables people with motor impairments to communicate using their brain signals by selecting letters and words from a screen. However, these spellers do not work for people in a complete locked-in state (CLIS). For these patients, a near infrared spectroscopy-based BCI has been developed, allowing them to reply to "yes"/"no" questions with a classification accuracy of 70%. Because of the non-optimal accuracy, a usual character-based speller for selecting letters or words cannot be used...
July 2, 2018: Brain Sciences
Giuseppe Roberto Giammalva, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino, Giorgio Azzarello, Claudia Gaggiotti, Francesca Graziano, Carlo Gulì, Maria Angela Pino, Rosario Maugeri
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are the most frequently diagnosed primary brain tumors. Even though it has been demonstrated that combined surgical therapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy improve survival, HGGs still harbor a very poor prognosis and limited overall survival. Differently from other types of primary neoplasm, HGG manifests also as a neurological disease. According to this, palliative care of HGG patients represents a peculiar challenge for healthcare providers and caregivers since it has to be directed to both general and neurological cancer symptoms...
June 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shervin Assari
BACKGROUND: Community-based studies have documented racial differences in social, psychiatric, and medical determinants of suicidal ideation; however, less is known about racial differences in the profile of suicide attempts in clinical settings. AIM: The current study aimed to compare Blacks and Whites who attempted suicide for demographic factors, socioeconomic status, medical history, psychiatric disorders, and outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study was a retrospective chart review of DataDirect, which is an electronic data repository of the Michigan Health Care System, 2014 to 2017...
June 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
Cristina Miliano, Giulia Margiani, Liana Fattore, Maria Antonietta De Luca
In the last decade, the trend of drug consumption has completely changed, and several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have appeared on the drug market as legal alternatives to common drugs of abuse. Designed to reproduce the effects of illegal substances like cannabis, ecstasy, cocaine, or ketamine, NPS are only in part controlled by UN conventions and represent an emerging threat to global public health. The effects of NPS greatly differ from drug to drug and relatively scarce information is available at present about their pharmacology and potential toxic effects...
June 29, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shervin Assari, Brianna Preiser, Marisa Kelly
BACKGROUND: The Minorities’ Diminished Return (MDR) theory is defined as systematically smaller effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the health and well-being of minority groups when compared to Whites. To extend the existing literature on the MDR theory as applied to the change of mental well-being over time, we investigated Black-White differences in the effects of baseline education and income on subsequent changes in positive and negative affect over a ten-year period...
June 29, 2018: Brain Sciences
Anna Schroeder, Michael Notaras, Xin Du, Rachel A Hill
Stress, and the chronic overactivation of major stress hormones, is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, clinical literature on the exact role of stress either as a causative, triggering, or modulatory factor to mental illness remains unclear. We suggest that the impact of stress on the brain and behavior is heavily dependent on the developmental timing at which the stress has occurred, and as such, this may contribute to the overall variability reported on the association of stress and mental illness...
June 29, 2018: Brain Sciences
Liegelin Kavitha Bernhardt, K Lakshminarayana Bairy, Sampath Madhyastha
Prenatal adversaries like stress are known to harm the progeny and oxidative stress, which is known to be one of the causative factors. N -acetyl cysteine (NAC), which is a potent antioxidant, has been shown to play a neuroprotective role in humans and experimental animals. This study examines the benefits of NAC on the prenatal stress-induced learning and memory deficits and alteration in brain neurotransmitter in rat pups. Pregnant dams were restrained (45 min; 3 times/day) during the early or late gestational period...
June 28, 2018: Brain Sciences
Sucharita S Somkuwar, Leon W Quach, Jacqueline A Quigley, Dvijen C Purohit, McKenzie J Fannon, George F Koob, Chitra D Mandyam
Lower impulse control is a known risk factor for drug abuse vulnerability. Chronic experience with illicit drugs is suggested to enhance impulsivity and thereby perpetuate addiction. However, the nature of this relationship (directionality, causality) with regard to alcohol use disorder is unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that higher impulsivity is observed during chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation (CIE; a model of ethanol dependence) and subsequent abstinence from CIE in adult Wistar rats...
June 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
Anna Schroeder, Maarten van den Buuse, Rachel A Hill
Reelin depletion and stress seem to affect similar pathways including GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling and both are implicated in psychiatric disorders in late adolescence/early adulthood. The interaction between reelin depletion and stress, however, remains unclear. To investigate this, male and female heterozygous reelin mice (HRM) and wildtype (WT) controls were treated with the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), during late adolescence to simulate chronic stress. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR), N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) subunits, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67 ) and parvalbumin (PV) were measured in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adulthood...
June 25, 2018: Brain Sciences
Imke Galazky, Christian Kluge, Friedhelm C Schmitt, Klaus Kopitzki, Tino Zaehle, Jürgen Voges, Lars Büntjen, Andreas Kupsch, Hermann Hinrichs
BACKGROUND: In advanced Parkinson’s disease, the pedunculopontine nucleus region is thought to be abnormally inhibited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic inputs from the over-active globus pallidus internus. Recent attempts to boost pedunculopontine nucleus function through deep brain stimulation are promising, but suffer from the incomplete understanding of the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus region. METHODS: Local field potentials of the pedunculopontine nucleus region and the globus pallidus internus were recorded and quantitatively analyzed in a patient with Parkinson’s disease...
June 25, 2018: Brain Sciences
Jennifer A Ciarochi, Jingyu Liu, Vince Calhoun, Hans Johnson, Maria Misiura, H Jeremy Bockholt, Flor A Espinoza, Arvind Caprihan, Sergey Plis, Jessica A Turner, Jane S Paulsen
This study assessed how BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and other genes involved in its signaling influence brain structure and clinical functioning in pre-diagnosis Huntington's disease (HD). Parallel independent component analysis (pICA), a multivariate method for identifying correlated patterns in multimodal datasets, was applied to gray matter concentration (GMC) and genomic data from a sizeable PREDICT-HD prodromal cohort ( N = 715). pICA identified a genetic component highlighting NTRK2 , which encodes BDNF's TrkB receptor, that correlated with a GMC component including supplementary motor, precentral/premotor cortex, and other frontal areas ( p < 0...
June 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
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