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Brain Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#1
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448448/in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-techniques-to-study-neuronal-migration-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Roberta Azzarelli, Roberto Oleari, Antonella Lettieri, Valentina Andre', Anna Cariboni
Neuronal migration is a fundamental biological process that underlies proper brain development and neuronal circuit formation. In the developing cerebral cortex, distinct neuronal populations, producing excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurotransmitters, are generated in different germinative areas and migrate along various routes to reach their final positions within the cortex. Different technical approaches and experimental models have been adopted to study the mechanisms regulating neuronal migration in the cortex...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445405/significant-tic-reduction-in-an-otherwise-treatment-resistant-patient-with-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-following-treatment-with-nabiximols
#3
Ahmad Seif Kanaan, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten Müller-Vahl
Early anecdotal reports and preliminary studies suggested that cannabinoid-based medicines such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are effective in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). We report a single case study of a patient with otherwise treatment-resistant TS successfully treated with nabiximols. Our patient was a 22-year-old male suffering from severe and complex TS. Treatment with nabiximols was commenced at a dose of 1 puff/day (= 100 μL containing 2.7 mg THC and 2.5 mg cannabidiol (CBD)) and slowly increased up to a dosage of 3 × 3 puffs/day (= 24...
April 26, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441336/neurobehavioral-outcomes-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Robert Eme
Traumatic brain injury outcomes can be classified as acute or chronic. Acute outcomes refer to injuries that occur immediately at the time of the injury and subsequent short-term consequences. Chronic outcomes refer to adverse outcomes that are more long-term. In mild traumatic brain injury, recovery from acute outcomes typically occurs very rapidly, i.e., within 2 weeks, with full recovery expected by 90 days. However, some 10%-15% individuals can remain symptomatic for much longer with an outcome termed post-concussive syndrome...
April 25, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441335/systematic-review-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-in-psychosis
#5
REVIEW
Maria Michail, Max Birchwood, Lynda Tait
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety is highly prevalent among people with psychosis and linked with significant social disability and poorer prognosis. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has shown to be effective for the treatment of social anxiety in non-psychotic populations, there is a lack of evidence on the clinical effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of social anxiety when this is co-morbid in psychosis. METHODS: A systematic review to summarise and critically appraise the literature on the effectiveness of CBT interventions for the treatment of social anxiety in psychosis...
April 25, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430122/a-comprehensive-diverse-omics-approach-to-better-understanding-the-molecular-pathomechanisms-of-down-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Keiichi Ishihara, Satoshi Akiba
Diverse '-omics' technologies permit the comprehensive quantitative profiling of a variety of biological molecules. Comparative '-omics' analyses, such as transcriptomics and proteomics, are powerful and useful tools for unraveling the molecular pathomechanisms of various diseases. As enhanced oxidative stress has been demonstrated in humans and mice with Down syndrome (DS), a redox proteomic analysis is useful for understanding how enhanced oxidative stress aggravates the state of individuals with oxidative stress-related disorders...
April 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420200/integrating-spatial-working-memory-and-remote-memory-interactions-between-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#7
REVIEW
Ryan A Wirt, James M Hyman
In recent years, two separate research streams have focused on information sharing between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HC). Research into spatial working memory has shown that successful execution of many types of behaviors requires synchronous activity in the theta range between the mPFC and HC, whereas studies of memory consolidation have shown that shifts in area dependency may be temporally modulated. While the nature of information that is being communicated is still unclear, spatial working memory and remote memory recall is reliant on interactions between these two areas...
April 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420150/virtual-reality-for-research-in-social-neuroscience
#8
Thomas D Parsons, Andrea Gaggioli, Giuseppe Riva
The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time...
April 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420079/how-hyperarousal-and-sleep-reactivity-are-represented-in-different-adult-age-groups-results-from-a-large-cohort-study-on-insomnia
#9
Ellemarije Altena, Ivy Y Chen, Yannick Daviaux, Hans Ivers, Pierre Philip, Charles M Morin
Hyperarousal is a 24-h state of elevated cognitive and physiological activation, and is a core feature of insomnia. The extent to which sleep quality is affected by stressful events-so-called sleep reactivity-is a vulnerability factor for developing insomnia. Given the increasing prevalence of insomnia with age, we aimed to investigate how hyperarousal and sleep reactivity were related to insomnia severity in different adult age groups. Data were derived from a large cohort study investigating the natural history of insomnia in a population-based sample (n = 1693)...
April 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#10
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394266/is-decompressive-surgery-for-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-effective-in-patients-suffering-from-concomitant-multiple-sclerosis-or-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Taylor E Purvis, Daniel Lubelski, Thomas E Mroz
A subset of patients with a demyelinating disease suffer from concurrent cervical spondylotic myelopathy, both of which evince similar symptomatology. Differentiating the cause of these symptoms is challenging, and little research has been done on patients with coexisting diseases. This review explores the current literature on the appropriate surgical management of patients with concurrent multiple sclerosis (MS) and cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and those with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and CSM...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383502/the-role-of-hiv-infection-in-neurologic-injury
#12
REVIEW
Rossana Scutari, Claudia Alteri, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Stefano Aquaro
The central nervous system (CNS) is a very challenging HIV-1 sanctuary, in which HIV-1 replication is established early on during acute infection and can persist despite potent antiretroviral treatments. HIV-1 infected macrophages play a pivotal role acting as vehicles for HIV-1 to spread into the brain, and can be the major contributor of an early compartmentalization. HIV-1 infection in CNS may lead to a broad spectrum of neurological syndromes, such as dementia, mild neurocognitive disorders, and asymptomatic impairment...
April 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383490/seed-location-impacts-whole-brain-structural-network-comparisons-between-healthy-elderly-and-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Lauren Zajac, Bang-Bon Koo, Corinna M Bauer, Ron Killiany, Behalf Of The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Whole-brain networks derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data require the identification of seed and target regions of interest (ROIs) to assess connectivity patterns. This study investigated how initiating tracts from gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) seed ROIs impacts (1) structural networks constructed from DTI data from healthy elderly (control) and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and (2) between-group comparisons using these networks. DTI datasets were obtained from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative database...
April 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379188/brief-report-using-the-internet-to-identify-persons-with-cognitive-impairment-for-participation-in-clinical-trials
#14
Lindsay F Morra, Jason Brandt
Identifying, recruiting, and enrolling persons in clinical trials of dementia treatments is extremely difficult. One approach to first-wave screening of potential participants is the use of online assessment tools. Initial studies using the Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA)-which includes a previously validated recognition memory test-support the use of this self-administered assessment to identify individuals with "suspected MCI" or "suspected dementia." In this study, we identified between 71 and 622 persons with suspected dementia and between 128 and 1653 persons with suspected mild cognitive impairment (depending on specific criteria) over the course of 22 months...
April 5, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379187/a-novel-hybrid-mental-spelling-application-based-on-eye-tracking-and-ssvep-based-bci
#15
Piotr Stawicki, Felix Gembler, Aya Rezeika, Ivan Volosyak
Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs)-based Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs), as well as eyetracking devices, provide a pathway for re-establishing communication for people with severe disabilities. We fused these control techniques into a novel eyetracking/SSVEP hybrid system, which utilizes eye tracking for initial rough selection and the SSVEP technology for fine target activation. Based on our previous studies, only four stimuli were used for the SSVEP aspect, granting sufficient control for most BCI users...
April 5, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350371/a-neurophysiological-perspective-on-a-preventive-treatment-against-schizophrenia-using-transcranial-electric-stimulation-of-the-corticothalamic-pathway
#16
REVIEW
Didier Pinault
Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental states for psychosis and first-episode psychosis. So, gamma oscillations represent a bioelectrical marker for cerebral network disorders with prognostic and therapeutic potential...
March 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346384/intensive-sleep-re-training-from-bench-to-bedside
#17
REVIEW
Leon Lack, Hannah Scott, Gorica Micic, Nicole Lovato
Intensive sleep re-training is a promising new therapy for chronic insomnia. Therapy is completed over a 24-h period during a state of sleep deprivation. Improvements of sleep and daytime impairments are comparable to the use of stimulus control therapy but with the advantage of a rapid reversal of the insomnia. The initial studies have been laboratory based and not readily accessible to the patient population. However, new smart phone technology, using a behavioral response to external stimuli as a measure of sleep/wake state instead of EEG determination of sleep, has made this new therapy readily available...
March 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335558/modeling-the-development-of-audiovisual-cue-integration-in-speech-perception
#18
Laura M Getz, Elke R Nordeen, Sarah C Vrabic, Joseph C Toscano
Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories...
March 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304368/correction-krymchantowski-a-v-et-al-medication-overuse-headache-differences-between-daily-and-near-daily-headache-patients-brain-sciences-2016-6-30
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335379/the-role-of-adenosine-signaling-in-headache-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Nathan T Fried, Melanie B Elliott, Michael L Oshinsky
Migraine is the third most prevalent disease on the planet, yet our understanding of its mechanisms and pathophysiology is surprisingly incomplete. Recent studies have built upon decades of evidence that adenosine, a purine nucleoside that can act as a neuromodulator, is involved in pain transmission and sensitization. Clinical evidence and rodent studies have suggested that adenosine signaling also plays a critical role in migraine headache. This is further supported by the widespread use of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, in several headache treatments...
March 13, 2017: Brain Sciences
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