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Brain Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351243/awake-versus-asleep-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-technical-considerations-and-critical-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Ryan B Kochanski, Sepehr Sani
Advancements in neuroimaging have led to a trend toward direct, image-based targeting under general anesthesia without the use of microelectrode recording (MER) or intraoperative test stimulation, also referred to as "asleep" deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Asleep DBS, utilizing imaging in the form of intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) or magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI), has demonstrated reliable targeting accuracy of DBS leads implanted within the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus while also improving clinical outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease...
January 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337888/depression-symptom-patterns-and-social-correlates-among-chinese-americans
#2
Lin Zhu
The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born) and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality...
January 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337870/glioblastoma-under-siege-an-overview-of-current-therapeutic-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Mayra Paolillo, Cinzia Boselli, Sergio Schinelli
Glioblastoma is known to be one of the most lethal and untreatable human tumors. Surgery and radiotherapy in combination with classical alkylating agents such as temozolomide offer little hope to escape a poor prognosis. For these reasons, enormous efforts are currently devoted to refine in vivo and in vitro models with the specific goal of finding new molecular aberrant pathways, suitable to be targeted by a variety of therapeutic approaches, including novel pharmaceutical formulations and immunotherapy strategies...
January 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329250/blood-flow-and-continuous-eeg-changes-during-symptomatic-plateau-waves
#4
Natalie Kreitzer, Maggie Huynh, Brandon Foreman
Benign meningiomas uncommonly lead to significant cerebral edema, with only a few cases previously reported in the medical literature. The present study describes the case of a 49-year-old female who had a meningioma resection. She subsequently developed malignant cerebral edema and had episodes that were initially concerning for seizure activity. However, transient blood flow changes concerning for intracranial pressure (ICP) crises, were demonstrated on electroencephalogram (EEG) as well as noninvasive cerebral blood flow monitoring...
January 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316662/recurrent-hemorrhagic-conversion-of-ischemic-stroke-in-a-patient-with-mechanical-heart-valve-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Micheal Jace Tarver, Tyler Schmidt, Michael T Koltz
The authors present a unique case of recurrent stroke, discovered to be secondary to hemorrhagic conversion of microemboli from a mechanical aortic valve despite anticoagulation with Coumadin. The complexity of this case was magnified by the patient's young age, a mechanical heart valve (MHV), and a need for anticoagulation to maintain MHV patency in a setting of potentially life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy are risk factors for hemorrhagic conversion post-cerebral ischemia; however, the pathophysiology underlying endothelial cell dysfunction causing red blood cell extravasation is an active area of basic and clinical research...
January 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316648/effects-of-early-neglect-experience-on-recognition-and-processing-of-facial-expressions-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Victoria Doretto, Sandra Scivoletto
Background: Child neglect is highly prevalent and associated with a series of biological and social consequences. Early neglect may alter the recognition of emotional faces, but its precise impact remains unclear. We aim to review and analyze data from recent literature about recognition and processing of facial expressions in individuals with history of childhood neglect. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, PsycINFO, ScIELO and EMBASE databases in the search of studies for the past 10 years...
January 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316623/neurodegeneration-and-sensorimotor-deficits-in-the-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Saurav Bhowmick, Veera D'Mello, Nizmi Ponery, P M Abdul-Muneer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which occur through a cascade of deleterious pathophysiological events over time. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI leads to impairments in sensorimotor function. TBI induces the activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which triggers cell apoptosis in an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We analyzed caspase-3 mediated apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and annexin V western blotting...
January 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300304/behavioral-and-brain-activity-indices-of-cognitive-control-deficits-in-binge-drinkers
#8
Sean M Molnar, Lauren E Beaton, Joseph P Happer, Lee A Holcomb, Siyuan Huang, Donatello Arienzo, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED) reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED) who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism...
January 4, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301289/local-choices-rationality-and-the-contextuality-of-decision-making
#9
Ivo Vlaev
Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i...
January 2, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283403/preliminary-findings-that-a-targeted-intervention-leads-to-altered-brain-function-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#10
Kelly Nash, Sara Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Joanne Rovet
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) exhibit behavioral dysregulation, executive dysfunction, and atypical function in associated brain regions. Previous research shows early intervention mitigates these outcomes but corresponding brain changes were not studied. Given the Alert® Program for Self-Regulation improves behavioral regulation and executive function in children with FASD, we asked if this therapy also improves their neural functioning in associated regions. Twenty-one children with FASD aged 8-12 years were randomized to the Alert®-treatment (TXT; n = 10) or waitlist-control (WL; n = 11) conditions...
December 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280957/emotional-encoding-context-leads-to-memory-bias-in-individuals-with-high-anxiety
#11
Christopher Lee, Myra A Fernandes
We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects) using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects). Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto the negative and the neutral contexts...
December 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295569/extent-of-resection-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-impact-of-a-specialized-neuro-oncology-care-center
#12
Amer Haj, Christian Doenitz, Karl-Michael Schebesch, Denise Ehrensberger, Peter Hau, Kurt Putnik, Markus J Riemenschneider, Christina Wendl, Michael Gerken, Tobias Pukrop, Alexander Brawanski, Martin A Proescholdt
Treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) consists of microsurgical resection followed by concomitant radiochemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The best outcome regarding progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) is achieved by maximal resection. The foundation of a specialized neuro-oncology care center (NOC) has enabled the implementation of a large technical portfolio including functional imaging, awake craniotomy, PET scanning, fluorescence-guided resection, and integrated postsurgical therapy. This study analyzed whether the technically improved neurosurgical treatment structure yields a higher rate of complete resection, thus ultimately improving patient outcome...
December 25, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295486/adaptive-deep-brain-stimulation-adbs-for-tourette-syndrome
#13
Sara Marceglia, Manuela Rosa, Domenico Servello, Mauro Porta, Sergio Barbieri, Elena Moro, Alberto Priori
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a novel therapy for the treatment of several movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and may also be suitable for the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). The main DBS targets used to date in patients with TS are located within the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit involved in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. They include the ventralis oralis/centromedian-parafascicular (Vo/CM-Pf) nucleus of the thalamus and the nucleus accumbens. Current DBS treatments deliver continuous electrical stimulation and are not designed to adapt to the patient's symptoms, thereby contributing to unwanted side effects...
December 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295472/a-prospective-birth-cohort-study-on-maternal-cholesterol-levels-and-offspring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-new-insight-on-sex-differences
#14
Yuelong Ji, Anne W Riley, Li-Ching Lee, Heather Volk, Xiumei Hong, Guoying Wang, Rayris Angomas, Tom Stivers, Anastacia Wahl, Hongkai Ji, Tami R Bartell, Irina Burd, David Paige, Margaret D Fallin, Barry Zuckerman, Xiaobin Wang
Growing evidence suggests that maternal cholesterol levels are important in the offspring's brain growth and development. Previous studies on cholesterols and brain functions were mostly in adults. We sought to examine the prospective association between maternal cholesterol levels and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. We analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, enrolled at birth and followed from birth up to age 15 years. The final analyses included 1479 mother-infant pairs: 303 children with ADHD, and 1176 neurotypical children without clinician-diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders...
December 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29267227/stimulation-and-neuromodulation-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
Timothy Marc Eastin, Miguel Angel Lopez-Gonzalez
Invasive brain stimulation technologies are allowing the improvement of multiple neurological diseases that were non-manageable in the past. Nowadays, this technology is widely used for movement disorders and is undergoing multiple clinical and basic science research for development of new applications. Epilepsy is one of the conditions that can benefit from these emerging technologies. The objective of this manuscript is to review literature about historical background, current principles and outcomes of available modalities of neuromodulation and deep brain stimulation in epilepsy patients...
December 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29267205/disturbed-glucose-metabolism-in-rat-neurons-exposed-to-cerebrospinal-fluid-obtained-from-multiple-sclerosis-subjects
#16
Deepali Mathur, Eva María-Lafuente, Juan R Ureña-Peralta, Lucas Sorribes, Alberto Hernández, Bonaventura Casanova, Gerardo López-Rodas, Francisco Coret-Ferrer, Maria Burgal-Marti
Axonal damage is widely accepted as a major cause of permanent functional disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In relapsing-remitting MS, there is a possibility of remyelination by myelin producing cells and restoration of neurological function. The purpose of this study was to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning axonal injury through hitherto unknown factors present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that may regulate axonal damage, remyelinate the axon and make functional recovery possible...
December 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261148/advances-in-brain-tumor-surgery-for-glioblastoma-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Rawan Al-Kharboosh, Stephanie Jeanneret, Carla Vazquez-Ramos, Deependra Mahato, Daryoush Tavanaiepour, Gazanfar Rahmathulla, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary intracranial neoplasia, and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. Despite maximum surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, the histological heterogeneity of GBM makes total eradication impossible, due to residual cancer cells invading the parenchyma, which is not otherwise seen in radiographic images. Even with gross total resection, the heterogeneity and the dormant nature of brain tumor initiating cells allow for therapeutic evasion, contributing to its recurrence and malignant progression, and severely impacting survival...
December 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261133/eeg-dynamics-of-a-go-nogo-task-in-children-with-adhd
#18
Simon Baijot, Carlos Cevallos, David Zarka, Axelle Leroy, Hichem Slama, Cecile Colin, Nicolas Deconinck, Bernard Dan, Guy Cheron
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating event-related potential (ERP) evoked in a Cue-Go/NoGo paradigm have shown lower frontal N1, N2 and central P3 in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing children (TDC). However, the electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics underlying these ERPs remain largely unexplored in ADHD. METHODS: We investigate the event-related spectral perturbation and inter-trial coherence linked to the ERP triggered by visual Cue-Go/NoGo stimuli, in 14 children (7 ADHD and 7 TDC) aged 8 to 12 years...
December 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29257086/investigating-methodological-differences-in-the-assessment-of-dendritic-morphology-of-basolateral-amygdala-principal-neurons-a-comparison-of-golgi-cox-and-neurobiotin-electroporation-techniques
#19
Paul M Klenowski, Sophie E Wright, Erica W H Mu, Peter G Noakes, Nickolas A Lavidis, Selena E Bartlett, Mark C Bellingham, Matthew J Fogarty
Quantitative assessments of neuronal subtypes in numerous brain regions show large variations in dendritic arbor size. A critical experimental factor is the method used to visualize neurons. We chose to investigate quantitative differences in basolateral amygdala (BLA) principal neuron morphology using two of the most common visualization methods: Golgi-Cox staining and neurobiotin (NB) filling. We show in 8-week-old Wistar rats that NB-filling reveals significantly larger dendritic arbors and different spine densities, compared to Golgi-Cox-stained BLA neurons...
December 19, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29257064/a-proposed-mechanism-for-development-of-cte-following-concussive-events-head-impact-water-hammer-injury-neurofilament-release-and-autoimmune-processes
#20
Steven Kornguth, Neal Rutledge, Gabe Perlaza, James Bray, Allen Hardin
During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in early diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) that lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The subjects involved range from soldiers exposed to concussive injuries from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to a significant number of athletes involved in repetitive high force impacts. Although the forces from IEDs are much greater by a magnitude than those from contact sports, the higher frequency associated with contact sports allows for more controlled assessment of the mechanism of action...
December 19, 2017: Brain Sciences
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