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NeuroImage: Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070484/deep-learning-predictions-of-survival-based-on-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Hannelore K van der Burgh, Ruben Schmidt, Henk-Jan Westeneng, Marcel A de Reus, Leonard H van den Berg, Martijn P van den Heuvel
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease, with large variation in survival between patients. Currently, it remains rather difficult to predict survival based on clinical parameters alone. Here, we set out to use clinical characteristics in combination with MRI data to predict survival of ALS patients using deep learning, a machine learning technique highly effective in a broad range of big-data analyses. A group of 135 ALS patients was included from whom high-resolution diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted images were acquired at the first visit to the outpatient clinic...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070483/increased-hippocampal-activation-in-apoe-4-carriers-and-non-carriers-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Tammy T Tran, Caroline L Speck, Aparna Pisupati, Michela Gallagher, Arnold Bakker
Increased fMRI activation in the hippocampus is recognized as a signature characteristic of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous work has localized this increased activation to the dentate gyrus/CA3 subregion of the hippocampus and showed a correlation with memory impairments in those patients. Increased hippocampal activation has also been reported in carriers of the ApoE-4 allelic variation independently of mild cognitive impairment although these findings were not localized to a hippocampal subregion...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066709/alterations-of-white-matter-structural-networks-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-identified-by-probabilistic-tractography-and-connectivity-based-analyses
#3
Man Xu, Xiangliang Tan, Xinyuan Zhang, Yihao Guo, Yingjie Mei, Qianjin Feng, Yikai Xu, Yanqiu Feng
PURPOSE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory female-predominant autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system and exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In SLE patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE), recent diffusion tensor imaging studies showed white matter abnormalities in their brains. The present study investigated the entire brain white matter structural connectivity in non-NPSLE patients by using probabilistic tractography and connectivity-based analyses...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066708/right-inferior-frontal-cortex-activity-correlates-with-tolcapone-responsivity-in-problem-and-pathological-gamblers
#4
Andrew S Kayser, Taylor Vega, Dawn Weinstein, Jan Peters, Jennifer M Mitchell
Failures of self-regulation in problem and pathological gambling (PPG) are thought to emerge from failures of top-down control, reflected neurophysiologically in a reduced capacity of prefrontal cortex to influence activity within subcortical structures. In patients with addictions, these impairments have been argued to alter evaluation of reward within dopaminergic neuromodulatory systems. Previously we demonstrated that augmenting dopamine tone in frontal cortex via use of tolcapone, an inhibitor of the dopamine-degrading enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), reduced delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, in healthy subjects...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066707/longitudinal-changes-in-microstructural-white-matter-metrics-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Chantel D Mayo, Erin L Mazerolle, Lesley Ritchie, John D Fisk, Jodie R Gawryluk
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Current avenues of AD research focus on pre-symptomatic biomarkers that will assist with early diagnosis of AD. The majority of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based biomarker research to date has focused on neuronal loss in grey matter and there is a paucity of research on white matter. METHODS: Longitudinal DTI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 database were used to examine 1) the within-group microstructural white matter changes in individuals with AD and healthy controls at baseline and year one; and 2) the between-group microstructural differences in individuals with AD and healthy controls at both time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066706/initial-and-sustained-brain-responses-to-threat-anticipation-in-blood-injection-injury-phobia
#6
Leonie Brinkmann, Hendrik Poller, Martin J Herrmann, Wolfgang Miltner, Thomas Straube
Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia differs from other subtypes of specific phobia in that it is associated with elevated disgust-sensitivity as well as specific autonomic and brain responses during processing of phobia-relevant stimuli. To what extent these features play a role already during threat anticipation is unclear. In the current fMRI experiment, 16 female BII phobics and 16 female healthy controls anticipated the presentation of phobia-specific and neutral pictures. On the behavioral level, anxiety dominated the anticipatory period in BII phobics relative to controls, while both anxiety and disgust were elevated during picture presentation...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053857/are-we-armed-with-the-right-data-pooled-individual-data-review-of-biomarkers-in-people-with-severe-upper-limb-impairment-after-stroke
#7
Kathryn S Hayward, Julia Schmidt, Keith R Lohse, Sue Peters, Julie Bernhardt, Natasha A Lannin, Lara A Boyd
: To build an understanding of the neurobiology underpinning arm recovery in people with severe arm impairment due to stroke, we conducted a pooled individual data systematic review to: 1) characterize brain biomarkers; 2) determine relationship(s) between biomarkers and motor outcome; and 3) establish relationship(s) between biomarkers and motor recovery. Three electronic databases were searched up to October 2, 2015. Eligible studies included adults with severe arm impairment after stroke...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050345/functional-mri-vs-navigated-tms-to-optimize-m1-seed-volume-delineation-for-dti-tractography-a-prospective-study-in-patients-with-brain-tumours-adjacent-to-the-corticospinal-tract
#8
Carolin Weiss Lucas, Irada Tursunova, Volker Neuschmelting, Charlotte Nettekoven, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, Gabriele Stoffels, Andrea Maria Faymonville, Shah N Jon, Karl Josef Langen, Hannah Lockau, Roland Goldbrunner, Christian Grefkes
BACKGROUND: DTI-based tractography is an increasingly important tool for planning brain surgery in patients suffering from brain tumours. However, there is an ongoing debate which tracking approaches yield the most valid results. Especially the use of functional localizer data such as navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) seem to improve fibre tracking data in conditions where anatomical landmarks are less informative due to tumour-induced distortions of the gyral anatomy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050344/structural-networks-involved-in-attention-and-executive-functions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Sara Llufriu, Eloy Martinez-Heras, Elisabeth Solana, Nuria Sola-Valls, Maria Sepulveda, Yolanda Blanco, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Magi Andorra, Pablo Villoslada, Alberto Prats-Galino, Albert Saiz
Attention and executive deficits are disabling symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) that have been related to disconnection mechanisms. We aimed to investigate changes in structural connectivity in MS and their association with attention and executive performance applying an improved framework that combines high order probabilistic tractography and anatomical exclusion criteria postprocessing. We compared graph theory metrics of structural networks and fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter (WM) connections or edges between 72 MS subjects and 38 healthy volunteers (HV) and assessed their correlation with cognition...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050343/brain-insulin-resistance-deteriorates-cognition-by-altering-the-topological-features-of-brain-networks
#10
Fan Su, Hao Shu, Qing Ye, Zan Wang, Chunming Xie, Baoyu Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Feng Bai
Insulin resistance represents one of the mechanisms underlying the link between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and we explored its in vivo neurobiology related to cognition based on a pathway-based genetic association analyses. Eighty-seven mild cognitive impairment (MCIs) subjects and 135 matched controls (HCs) were employed at baseline, and they underwent functional MRI scans, clinical evaluations and exon sequencings of 20 genes related to brain insulin resistance. A longitudinal study for an average of 35 months was performed to assess their cognitive decline over time...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018854/cholinergic-depletion-and-basal-forebrain-volume-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#11
Jolien Schaeverbeke, Charlotte Evenepoel, Rose Bruffaerts, Koen Van Laere, Guy Bormans, Eva Dries, Thomas Tousseyn, Natalie Nelissen, Ronald Peeters, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Patrick Dupont, Rik Vandenberghe
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a heterogeneous syndrome with various neuropathological causes for which no medical treatment with proven efficacy exists. Basal forebrain (BF) volume loss has been reported in PPA but its relation to cholinergic depletion is still unclear. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether cholinergic alterations occur in PPA variants and how this relates to BF volume loss. An academic memory clinic based consecutive series of 11 PPA patients (five with the semantic variant (SV), four with the logopenic variant (LV) and two with the nonfluent variant (NFV)) participated in this cross-sectional in vivo PET imaging study together with 10 healthy control subjects...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018853/mri-flair-lesion-segmentation-in-multiple-sclerosis-does-automated-segmentation-hold-up-with-manual-annotation
#12
Christine Egger, Roland Opfer, Chenyu Wang, Timo Kepp, Maria Pia Sormani, Lothar Spies, Michael Barnett, Sven Schippling
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become key in the diagnosis and disease monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Both, T2 lesion load and Gadolinium (Gd) enhancing T1 lesions represent important endpoints in MS clinical trials by serving as a surrogate of clinical disease activity. T2- and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) lesion quantification - largely due to methodological constraints - is still being performed manually or in a semi-automated fashion, although strong efforts have been made to allow automated quantitative lesion segmentation...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018852/the-delta-between-postoperative-seizure-freedom-and-persistence-automatically-detected-focal-slow-waves-after-epilepsy-surgery
#13
Margit Schönherr, Hermann Stefan, Hajo M Hamer, Karl Rössler, Michael Buchfelder, Stefan Rampp
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we use a novel automated method for localization and quantitative comparison of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) delta activity in patients with and without recurrent seizures after epilepsy surgery as well as healthy controls. METHODS: We identified the generators of delta activity by source location in frequency domain between 1 and 4 Hz in spontaneous MEG data. Comparison with healthy control subjects by z-transform emphasized relative changes of activation in patients...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018851/functional-and-structural-connectivity-of-the-amygdala-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Oana Georgiana Rus, Tim Jonas Reess, Gerd Wagner, Claus Zimmer, Michael Zaudig, Kathrin Koch
BACKGROUND: The amygdala is known to be involved in anxiety processing, but its role in the psychopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still unclear. AIMS: In this MRI study we investigated potential alterations in structural and functional connectivity of the amygdala in 42 adult patients with OCD and 37 healthy subjects. METHOD: Psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to explore amygdala functional connectivity during a negative affective task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003962/cortical-arousal-in-children-and-adolescents-with-functional-neurological-symptoms-during-the-auditory-oddball-task
#15
Kasia Kozlowska, Dmitriy Melkonian, Chris J Spooner, Stephen Scher, Russell Meares
OBJECTIVE: Stress, pain, injury, and psychological trauma all induce arousal-mediated changes in brain network organization. The associated, high level of arousal may disrupt motor-sensory processing and result in aberrant patterns of motor function, including functional neurological symptoms. We used the auditory oddball paradigm to assess cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder. METHOD: Electroencephalogram (EEG) data was collected in fifty-seven children and adolescents (41 girls; 16 boys, aged 8...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003961/structural-alterations-of-the-brainstem-in-migraine
#16
Catherine D Chong, Jonathan D Plasencia, David H Frakes, Todd J Schwedt
Atypical brainstem modulation of pain might contribute to changes in sensory processing typical of migraine. The study objective was to investigate whether migraine is associated with brainstem structural alterations that correlate with this altered pain processing. MRI T1-weighted images of 55 migraine patients and 58 healthy controls were used to: (1) create deformable mesh models of the brainstem that allow for shape analyses; (2) calculate volumes of the midbrain, pons, medulla and the superior cerebellar peduncles; (3) interrogate correlations between regional brainstem volumes, cutaneous heat pain thresholds, and allodynia symptoms...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003960/development-of-cortical-thickness-and-surface-area-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Vincent T Mensen, Lara M Wierenga, Sarai van Dijk, Yvonne Rijks, Bob Oranje, René C W Mandl, Sarah Durston
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder often associated with changes in cortical volume. The constituents of cortical volume - cortical thickness and surface area - have separable developmental trajectories and are related to different neurobiological processes. However, little is known about the developmental trajectories of cortical thickness and surface area in ASD. In this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we used an accelerated longitudinal design to investigate the cortical development in 90 individuals with ASD and 90 typically developing controls, aged 9 to 20 years...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003959/use-of-t1-weighted-t2-weighted-magnetic-resonance-ratio-to-elucidate-changes-due-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-in-cognitively-normal-subjects
#18
Fumihiko Yasuno, Hiroaki Kazui, Naomi Morita, Katsufumi Kajimoto, Masafumi Ihara, Akihiko Taguchi, Akihide Yamamoto, Kiwamu Matsuoka, Masato Takahashi, Jyoji Nakagawara, Hidehiro Iida, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka
The ratio of signal intensity in T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently proposed to enhance the sensitivity of detecting changes in disease-related signal intensity. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of T1w/T2w image ratios as an easily accessible biomarker for amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation. We performed the T1w/T2w analysis in cognitively normal elderly individuals. We applied [(11)C] Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET to the same individuals, and Aβ deposition was quantified by its binding potential (PiB-BPND)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003958/metrics-of-brain-network-architecture-capture-the-impact-of-disease-in-children-with-epilepsy
#19
Michael J Paldino, Wei Zhang, Zili D Chu, Farahnaz Golriz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is associated with alterations in the structural framework of the cerebral network. The aim of this study was to measure the potential of global metrics of network architecture derived from resting state functional MRI to capture the impact of epilepsy on the developing brain. METHODS: Pediatric patients were retrospectively identified with: 1. Focal epilepsy; 2. Brain MRI at 3 Tesla, including resting state functional MRI; 3. Full scale IQ measured by a pediatric neuropsychologist...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995073/distinct-effects-of-childhood-adhd-and-cannabis-use-on-brain-functional-architecture-in-young-adults
#20
Clare Kelly, F Xavier Castellanos, Olivia Tomaselli, Krista Lisdahl, Leanne Tamm, Terry Jernigan, Erik Newman, Jeffery N Epstein, Brooke S G Molina, Laurence L Greenhill, Steven G Potkin, Stephen Hinshaw, James M Swanson
One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21-25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7-9...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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