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NeuroImage: Clinical

David Rosenbaum, Moritz J Maier, Justin Hudak, Florian G Metzger, Adrian Wells, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
In the current study, we investigate the neuronal correlates of the Attention Training Technique (ATT), a psychotherapeutic intervention used in metacognitive therapy to enhance flexible cognitive control and ameliorate rumination. We adapted the ATT in a neuroscientific attention paradigm in order to investigate the effects of its components: selective attention, attention switching and divided attention in comparison to a control task. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure changes in blood oxygenation of fronto-lateral and parietal cortical areas...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lisa Finkel, Katharina Hogrefe, Scott H Frey, Georg Goldenberg, Jennifer Randerath
For over a century, pantomime of tool use has been employed to diagnose limb apraxia, a disorder of motor cognition primarily induced by left brain damage. While research consistently implicates damage to a left fronto-temporo-parietal network in limb apraxia, findings are inconsistent regarding the impact of damage to anterior versus posterior nodes within this network on pantomime. Complicating matters is the fact that tool use pantomime can be affected and evaluated at multiple levels. For instance, the production of tool use gestures requires the consideration of semantic characteristics (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Miseon Shim, Chang-Hwan Im, Yong-Wook Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee
Background: Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain network analysis is a useful biological correlate reflecting brain function. Sensor-level network analysis might be contaminated by volume conduction and does not explain regional brain characteristics. Source-level network analysis could be a useful alternative. We analyzed EEG-based source-level network in major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Resting-state EEG was recorded in 87 MDD and 58 healthy controls, and cortical source signals were estimated...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Abbas Babajani-Feremi, Negar Noorizadeh, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, James W Wheless
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a low-risk surgical option for patients with drug resistant epilepsy, although it is impossible to predict which patients may respond to VNS treatment. Resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG) connectivity analysis has been increasingly utilized to investigate the impact of epilepsy on brain networks and identify alteration of these networks after different treatments; however, there is no study to date utilizing this modality to predict the efficacy of VNS treatment. We investigated whether the rs-MEG network topology before VNS implantation can be used to predict efficacy of VNS treatment...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Won-Mo Jung, Yeonhee Ryu, Hi-Joon Park, Hyejung Lee, Younbyoung Chae
The brain actively interprets sensory inputs by integrating top-down and bottom-up information. Humans can make inferences on somatosensation based on prior experiences and expectations even without the actual stimulation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural substrates of the expectations of the sensory experience of cutaneous electrical stimulation on acupoint without actual stimuli. This study included 22 participants who wore sticker-type electrodes attached on three different acupoints on different body regions: CV17 (chest), CV23 (chin), and left PC6 (arm)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rebecca J Melrose, Amy M Jimenez, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Gali Weissberger, Joseph Veliz, Arpi S Hasratian, Stacy Wilkins, David L Sultzer
Poor executive functioning increases risk of decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Executive functioning can be conceptualized within the framework of working memory. While some components are responsible for maintaining representations in working memory, the central executive is involved in the manipulation of information and creation of new representations. We aimed to examine the neural correlates of these components of working memory using a maintenance working memory and visuospatial reasoning task...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rutger Heinen, Naomi Vlegels, Jeroen de Bresser, Alexander Leemans, Geert Jan Biessels, Yael D Reijmer
Background and purpose: Mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in patients with small vessel disease (SVD) are still unknown. We hypothesized that cognition is affected by the cumulative effect of multiple SVD-related lesions on brain connectivity. We therefore assessed the relationship between the total SVD burden on MRI, global brain network efficiency, and cognition in memory clinic patients with vascular brain injury. Methods: 173 patients from the memory clinic of the University Medical Center Utrecht underwent a 3 T brain MRI scan (including diffusion MRI sequences) and neuropsychological testing...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
K Conwell, B von Reutern, N Richter, J Kukolja, G R Fink, O A Onur
In recent years, changes in resting-state networks (RSN), identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have gained increasing attention as potential biomarkers and trackers of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intersession reliability of RSN is fundamental to this approach. In this study, we investigated the test-retest reliability of three memory related RSN (i.e., the default mode, salience, and executive control network) in 15 young, 15 healthy seniors (HS), and 15 subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with positive biomarkers suggestive of incipient AD (6 females each)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Zuzana Nedelska, Matthew L Senjem, Scott A Przybelski, Timothy G Lesnick, Val J Lowe, Bradley F Boeve, Arvin Arani, Prashanthi Vemuri, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Tanis J Ferman, David T Jones, Rodolfo Savica, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Kejal Kantarci
Visually preserved metabolism in posterior cingulate cortex relative to hypometabolism in precuneus and cuneus, the cingulate island sign , is a feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) on FDG-PET. Lower cingulate island sign ratio (posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus+precuneus; FDG-CISr) values have been associated with a higher Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage in autopsied DLB. Using voxel-wise analysis, we assessed the patterns of regional cortical perfusion and metabolism, and using an atlas-based approach, we measured perfusion cingulate island sign ratio on arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-CISr), and its associations with FDG-CISr, uptake on tau-PET and clinical severity in DLB...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen Williams, Philip Benjamin, Andrew J Lawrence, Robin G Morris, Andrew D Mackinnon, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus
Sporadic cerebral small vessel disease is an important cause of vascular dementia, a syndrome of cognitive impairment together with vascular brain damage. At post-mortem pure vascular dementia is rare, with evidence of co-existing Alzheimer's disease pathology in 95% of cases. This work used MRI to characterize structural abnormalities during the preclinical phase of vascular dementia in symptomatic small vessel disease. 121 subjects were recruited into the St George's Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke study and followed up longitudinally for five years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Wenjing Zhang, Siyi Li, Xiuli Wang, Yao Gong, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Jieke Liu, Sarah K Keedy, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
Purpose: Auditory hallucinations (AH), typically hearing voices, are a core symptom in schizophrenia. They may result from deficits in dynamic functional connectivity (FC) between cortical regions supporting speech production and language perception that interfere with the ability to recognize self-generated speech as not coming from external sources. We tested this hypothesis by investigating dynamic connectivity between the frontal cortex region related to language production and the temporal cortex region related to auditory processing...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xinyang Feng, Marla J Hamberger, Hannah C Sigmon, Jia Guo, Scott A Small, Frank A Provenzano
Steady-state cerebral blood volume (CBV) is tightly coupled to regional cerebral metabolism, and CBV imaging is a variant of MRI that has proven useful in mapping brain dysfunction. CBV derived from exogenous contrast-enhanced MRI can generate sub-millimeter functional maps. Higher resolution helps to more accurately interrogate smaller cortical regions, such as functionally distinct regions of the hippocampus. Many MRIs have fortuitously adequate sequences required for CBV mapping. However, these scans vary substantially in acquisition parameters...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Felix Mueller, Francesco Musso, Markus London, Peter de Boer, Norman Zacharias, Georg Winterer
Background: Subanesthetic dosages of the NMDAR antagonist, S-Ketamine, can cause changes in behavior in healthy subjects, which are similar to the state acute psychosis and are relevant in translational schizophrenia research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used for non-hypothesis-driven analysis of brain connectivity. The correlation between clinical behavioral scores and neuroimaging can help to characterize ketamine effects on healthy brains in resting state. Method: seventeen healthy, male subjects (mean: 27...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Thanh Vân Phan, Diana M Sima, Caroline Beelen, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Dirk Smeets, Maaike Vandermosten
Pediatric brain volumetric analysis based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is of particular interest in order to understand the typical brain development and to characterize neurodevelopmental disorders at an early age. However, it has been shown that the results can be biased due to head motion, inherent to pediatric data, and due to the use of methods based on adult brain data that are not able to accurately model the anatomical disparity of pediatric brains. To overcome these issues, we proposed child metrix , a tool developed for the analysis of pediatric neuroimaging data that uses an age-specific atlas and a probabilistic model-based approach in order to segment the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sami Obaid, Alan Tucholka, Jimmy Ghaziri, Pierre-Marc Jodoin, Félix Morency, Maxime Descoteaux, Alain Bouthillier, Dang K Nguyen
Background: In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), advanced neuroimaging techniques reveal anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe such as thinning of fronto-central cortices. Operculo-insular epilepsy (OIE) is an under-recognized and poorly characterized condition with the potential of mimicking TLE. In this work, we investigated insular and extra-insular cortical thickness (CT) changes in OIE. Methods: All participants (14 patients with refractory OIE, 9 age- and sex-matched patients with refractory TLE and 26 healthy controls) underwent a T1-weighted acquisition on a 3 T MRI...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Simone J T van Montfort, Edwin van Dellen, Aletta M R van den Bosch, Willem M Otte, Maya J L Schutte, Soo-Hee Choi, Tae-Sub Chung, Sunghyon Kyeong, Arjen J C Slooter, Jae-Jin Kim
Delirium is characterized by inattention and other cognitive deficits, symptoms that have been associated with disturbed interactions between remote brain regions. Recent EEG studies confirm that disturbed global network topology may underlie the syndrome, but lack an anatomical basis. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the global organization of functional connectivity during delirium and to localize possible alterations. Resting-state fMRI data from 44 subjects were analyzed, and motion-free data were available in nine delirious patients, seven post delirium patients and thirteen non-delirious clinical controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Eric D Claus, Matthew S Shane
Error-monitoring abnormalities in stimulant-dependent individuals (SDIs) may be due to reduced awareness of committed errors, or to reduced sensitivity upon such awareness. The distinction between these alternatives remains largely undifferentiated, but may have substantial clinical relevance. We sought to better characterize the nature, and clinical relevance, of SDIs' error-monitoring processes by comparing carefully isolated neural responses during the presentation of negative feedback to a) stimulant dependence status and b) lifetime stimulant use...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Allesandra S Iadipaolo, Hilary A Marusak, Shelley M Paulisin, Kelsey Sala-Hamrick, Laura M Crespo, Farrah Elrahal, Craig Peters, Suzanne Brown, Christine A Rabinak
Background: Most children who are exposed to threat-related adversity (e.g., violence, abuse, neglect) are resilient - that is, they show stable trajectories of healthy psychological development. Despite this, most research on neurodevelopmental changes following adversity has focused on the neural correlates of negative outcomes, such as psychopathology. The neural correlates of trait resilience in pediatric populations are unknown, and it is unclear whether they are distinct from those related to adversity exposure and the absence of negative outcomes (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sabrina Yu, Helen L Carlson, Aleksandra Mineyko, Brian L Brooks, Andrea Kuczynski, Jacquie Hodge, Sean Dukelow, Adam Kirton
Background: Stroke is a leading cause of perinatal brain injury with variable outcomes including cerebral palsy and epilepsy. The biological processes that underlie these heterogeneous outcomes are poorly understood. Alterations in developmental myelination are recognized as a major determinant of outcome in preterm brain injury but have not been explored in perinatal stroke. We aimed to characterize myelination in hemiparetic children after arterial perinatal stroke, hypothesizing that ipsilesional myelination would be impaired, the degree of which would correlate with poor outcome...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Amy Spray, Anton L Beer, Richard P Bentall, Vanessa Sluming, Georg Meyer
Previous studies reported that the volume of the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) is reduced in patients with schizophrenia and negatively correlated with hallucination severity. Moreover, diffusion-tensor imaging studies suggested a relationship between the brain microstructure in the STG of patients and auditory hallucinations. Hallucinations are also experienced in non-patient groups. This study investigated the relationship between hallucination proneness and the brain structure of the STG. Hallucination proneness was assessed by the Launey Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS) in 25 healthy individuals who varied in their propensity to hear voices...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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