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NeuroImage: Clinical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420259/distinct-cortical-responses-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-thalamic-ventral-intermediate-nucleus-and-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#1
C J Hartmann, J Hirschmann, J Vesper, L Wojtecki, M Butz, A Schnitzler
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of cortical responses evoked by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM). METHODS: We investigated 7 patients suffering from Essential tremor (ET) and 7 patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) following the implantation of DBS electrodes (VIM for ET patients, STN for PD patients). Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to record cortical responses evoked by electric stimuli that were applied via the DBS electrode in trains of 5 Hz...
November 3, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412925/profiling-heterogeneity-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-white-matter-impairment-factors
#2
Xiuchao Sui, Jagath C Rajapakse
The clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not unitary as heterogeneity exists in the disease's clinical and anatomical characteristics. MRI studies have revealed that heterogeneous gray matter atrophy patterns are associated with specific traits of cognitive decline. Although white matter (WM) impairment also contributes to AD pathology, its heterogeneity remains unclear. The Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) method is a suitable framework to study heterogeneity and allows to identify latent impairment factors of AD instead of simply mapping an overall disease effect...
October 29, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391858/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-activity-are-associated-with-waning-cognitive-functions-in-hiv-infected-children
#3
Santosh K Yadav, Rakesh K Gupta, Sheema Hashem, Ajaz A Bhat, Ravindra K Garg, Vimala Venkatesh, Pradeep K Gupta, Alok K Singh, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Sabha Nisar Ahmed, Muhammad W Azeem, Mohammad Haris
Delayed brain development in perinatally HIV-infected children may affect the functional brain activity and subsequently cognitive function. The current study evaluated the functional brain activity in HIV-infected children by quantifying the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and functional connectivity (FC). Additionally, correlation of ALFF and FC with cognitive measures was performed. Twenty-six HIV-infected children and 20 control children underwent neuropsychological (NP) assessment and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
October 29, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414987/the-regulation-of-positive-and-negative-emotions-through-instructed-causal-attributions-in-lifetime-depression-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#4
Leonie A K Loeffler, Sina Radke, Ute Habel, Rastko Ciric, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Frank Schneider, Birgit Derntl
Adequate emotional control is essential for mental health. Deficiencies in emotion regulation are evident in many psychiatric disorders, including depression. Patients with depression show, for instance, disrupted neural emotion regulation in cognitive regulation regions such as lateral and medial prefrontal cortices. Since depressed individuals tend to attribute positive events to external circumstances and negative events to themselves, modifying this non-self-serving attributional style may represent a promising regulation strategy...
October 25, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390574/a-comparative-study-on-the-neurophysiological-mechanisms-underlying-effects-of-methylphenidate-and-neurofeedback-on-inhibitory-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Annet Bluschke, Julia Friedrich, Marie Luise Schreiter, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
In Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD(H)D), treatments using methylphenidate (MPH) and behavioral interventions like neurofeedback (NF) reflect major therapeutic options. These treatments also ameliorate executive dysfunctions in AD(H)D. However, the mechanisms underlying effects of MPH and NF on executive functions in AD(H)D (e.g. the ability to inhibit prepotent responses) are far from understood. It is particularly unclear whether these interventions affect similar or dissociable neural mechanisms and associated functional neuroanatomical structures...
October 25, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389345/impaired-neural-processing-of-transitive-relations-in-children-with-math-learning-difficulty
#6
Flora Schwartz, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Jessica Léone, Alice Poisson, Jérôme Prado
Math learning difficulty (i.e., MLD) is common in children and can have far-reaching consequences in personal and professional life. Converging evidence suggests that MLD is associated with impairments in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). However, the role that these impairments play in MLD remains unclear. Although it is often assumed that IPS deficits affect core numerical abilities, the IPS is also involved in several non-numerical processes that may contribute to math skills. For instance, the IPS supports transitive reasoning (i...
October 23, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388599/decreased-subregional-specificity-of-the-putamen-in-parkinson-s-disease-revealed-by-dynamic-connectivity-derived-parcellation
#7
Aiping Liu, Sue-Jin Lin, Taomian Mi, Xun Chen, Piu Chan, Z Jane Wang, Martin J McKeown
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is associated with decreased ability to perform habitual tasks, relying instead on goal-directed behaviour subserved by different cortical/subcortical circuits, including parts of the putamen. We explored the functional subunits in the putamen in PD using novel dynamic connectivity features derived from resting state fMRI recorded from thirty PD subjects and twenty-eight age-matched healthy controls (HC). Dynamic functional segmentation of the putamina was obtained by determining the correlation between each voxel in each putamen along a moving window and applying a joint temporal clustering algorithm to establish cluster membership of each voxel at each window...
October 23, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380517/regionally-specific-volume-deficits-along-the-hippocampal-long-axis-in-early-and-chronic-psychosis
#8
Maureen McHugo, Pratik Talati, Neil D Woodward, Kristan Armstrong, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers
Previous studies in psychosis patients have shown hippocampal volume deficits across anterior and posterior regions or across subfields, but subfield specific changes in volume along the hippocampal long axis have not been examined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that volume changes exist across the hippocampus in chronic psychosis but only the anterior CA region is affected in early psychosis patients. We analyzed structural MRI data from 179 patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder (94 chronic psychosis; 85 early psychosis) and 167 heathy individuals demographically matched to the chronic and early psychosis samples respectively (82 matched to chronic patients; 85 matched to early patients)...
October 23, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380522/methamphetamine-dependence-with-and-without-psychotic-symptoms-a-multi-modal-brain-imaging-study
#9
Daniella Vuletic, Patrick Dupont, Frances Robertson, James Warwick, Jan Rijn Zeevaart, Dan J Stein
OBJECTIVE: Methamphetamine dependence can lead to psychotic symptoms which may be mediated by frontal, striatal, limbic, and thalamic regions. There are few neuroimaging data that allow comparison of individuals with methamphetamine dependence who do, and do not, have psychosis. Two complementary imaging techniques were employed to investigate neurocircuitry associated with methamphetamine dependence with and without psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Three groups of participants were recruited: methamphetamine dependent (MAA) (N = 11), methamphetamine dependent with psychotic symptoms (MAP) (N = 14), and controls (N = 14)...
October 22, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380518/no-association-between-cardiometabolic-risk-and-neural-reactivity-to-acute-psychosocial-stress
#10
Florian Lederbogen, Elisabeth Ulshöfer, Annika Peifer, Phöbe Fehlner, Edda Bilek, Fabian Streit, Michael Deuschle, Heike Tost, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated reactivity to acute psychosocial stress is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. A dysfunction of the cortico-limbic network coordinating the peripheral adaptation to acute stress exposure may constitute a brain mechanism underlying this association. We opted to characterize the changes of this network associated with acute psychosocial stress exposure in individuals with low and high cardiometabolic risk (CMR). METHODS: In 57 subjects without overt cardiac or cerebral disease, the Framingham risk score and presence/absence of type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome defined CMR...
October 22, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380520/relative-contributions-of-lesion-location-and-lesion-size-to-predictions-of-varied-language-deficits-in-post-stroke-aphasia
#11
Melissa Thye, Daniel Mirman
Despite the widespread use of lesion-symptom mapping (LSM) techniques to study associations between location of brain damage and language deficits, the prediction of language deficits from lesion location remains a substantial challenge. The present study examined several factors which may impact lesion-symptom prediction by (1) testing the relative predictive advantage of general language deficit scores compared to composite scores that capture specific deficit types, (2) isolating the relative contribution of lesion location compared to lesion size, and (3) comparing standard voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) with a multivariate method (sparse canonical correlation analysis, SCCAN)...
October 19, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388600/selective-modulation-of-brain-network-dynamics-by-seizure-therapy-in-treatment-resistant-depression
#12
Sravya Atluri, Willy Wong, Sylvain Moreno, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Faranak Farzan
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly effective for treatment-resistant depression, yet its mechanism of action is still unclear. Understanding the mechanism of action of ECT can advance the optimization of magnetic seizure therapy (MST) towards higher efficacy and less cognitive impairment. Given the neuroimaging evidence for disrupted resting-state network dynamics in depression, we investigated whether seizure therapy (ECT and MST) selectively modifies brain network dynamics for therapeutic efficacy...
October 17, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391859/a-dual-modeling-approach-to-automatic-segmentation-of-cerebral-t2-hyperintensities-and-t1-black-holes-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Alessandra M Valcarcel, Kristin A Linn, Fariha Khalid, Simon N Vandekar, Shahamat Tauhid, Theodore D Satterthwaite, John Muschelli, Melissa Lynne Martin, Rohit Bakshi, Russell T Shinohara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial for in vivo detection and characterization of white matter lesions (WML) in multiple sclerosis (MS). The most widely established MRI outcome measure is the volume of hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images (T2L). Unfortunately, T2L are non-specific for the level of tissue destruction and show a weak relationship to clinical status. Interest in lesions that appear hypointense on T1-weighted images (T1L) ("black holes") has grown because T1L provide more specificity for axonal loss and a closer link to neurologic disability...
October 16, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380519/method-for-localizing-intraoperative-recordings-from-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-using-post-operative-structural-mri
#14
McKenzie Winter, Jamie D Costabile, Aviva Abosch, John A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes for the treatment of involuntary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, routinely relies on the use of intraoperative electrophysiological confirmation to identify the optimal therapeutic target in the brain. However, only a few options exist to visualize the relative anatomic localization of intraoperative electrophysiological recordings with respect to post-operative imaging. We have developed a novel processing pipeline to visualize intraoperative electrophysiological signals registered to post-operative neuroanatomical imaging...
October 16, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366279/a-radiomic-signature-as-a-non-invasive-predictor-of-progression-free-survival-in-patients-with-lower-grade-gliomas
#15
Xing Liu, Yiming Li, Zenghui Qian, Zhiyan Sun, Kaibin Xu, Kai Wang, Shuai Liu, Xing Fan, Shaowu Li, Zhong Zhang, Tao Jiang, Yinyan Wang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a radiomics signature for prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) in lower-grade gliomas and to investigate the genetic background behind the radiomics signature. METHODS: In this retrospective study, training (n = 216) and validation (n = 84) cohorts were collected from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas and the Cancer Genome Atlas, respectively. For each patient, a total of 431 radiomics features were extracted from preoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance images...
October 16, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380521/clinical-validation-of-automated-hippocampal-segmentation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Peter N Hadar, Lohith G Kini, Carlos Coto, Virginie Piskin, Lauren E Callans, Stephanie H Chen, Joel M Stein, Sandhitsu R Das, Paul A Yushkevich, Kathryn A Davis
OBJECTIVE: To provide a multi-atlas framework for automated hippocampus segmentation in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and clinically validate the results with respect to surgical lateralization and post-surgical outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 47 TLE patients who underwent surgical resection and 12 healthy controls. T1-weighted 3 T MRI scans were acquired for all subjects, and patients were identified by a neuroradiologist with regards to lateralization and degree of hippocampal sclerosis (HS)...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343250/using-fmri-and-machine-learning-to-predict-symptom-improvement-following-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis
#17
Eva Tolmeijer, Veena Kumari, Emmanuelle Peters, Steven C R Williams, Liam Mason
Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) involves helping patients to understand and reframe threatening appraisals of their psychotic experiences to reduce distress and increase functioning. Whilst CBTp is effective for many, it is not effective for all patients and the factors predicting a good outcome remain poorly understood. Machine learning is a powerful approach that allows new predictors to be identified in a data-driven way, which can inform understanding of the mechanisms underlying therapeutic interventions, and ultimately make predictions about symptom improvement at the individual patient level...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340200/atrophy-metabolism-and-cognition-in-the-posterior-cortical-atrophy-spectrum-based-on-alzheimer-s-disease-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers
#18
Maxime Montembeault, Simona M Brambati, Foudil Lamari, Agnès Michon, Dalila Samri, Stéphane Epelbaum, Lucette Lacomblez, Stéphane Lehéricy, Marie-Odile Habert, Bruno Dubois, Aurélie Kas, Raffaella Migliaccio
INTRODUCTION: In vivo clinical, anatomical and metabolic differences between posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients presenting with different Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers profiles are still unknown. METHODS: Twenty-seven PCA patients underwent CSF examination and were classified as 1) PCA with a typical CSF AD profile (PCA-tAD; abnormal amyloid and T-tau/P-tau biomarkers, n = 13); 2) PCA with an atypical AD CSF profile (PCA-aAD; abnormal amyloid biomarker only, n = 9); and 3) PCA not associated with AD (PCA-nonAD; normal biomarkers, n = 5)...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318403/structural-connectivity-based-segmentation-of-the-thalamus-and-prediction-of-tremor-improvement-following-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-ventral-intermediate-nucleus
#19
Erik H Middlebrooks, Ibrahim S Tuna, Leonardo Almeida, Sanjeet S Grewal, Joshua Wong, Michael G Heckman, Elizabeth R Lesser, Markus Bredel, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun, Vanessa M Holanda
OBJECTIVES: Traditional targeting methods for thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) performed to address tremor have predominantly relied on indirect atlas-based methods that focus on the ventral intermediate nucleus despite known variability in thalamic functional anatomy. Improvements in preoperative targeting may help maximize outcomes and reduce thalamic DBS-related complications. In this study, we evaluated the ability of thalamic parcellation with structural connectivity-based segmentation (SCBS) to predict tremor improvement following thalamic DBS...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343251/cortico-efferent-tract-involvement-in-primary-lateral-sclerosis-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-two-centre-tract-of-interest-based-dti-analysis
#20
Hans-Peter Müller, Federica Agosta, Martin Gorges, Rebecca Kassubek, Edoardo Gioele Spinelli, Nilo Riva, Albert C Ludolph, Massimo Filippi, Jan Kassubek
BACKGROUND: After the demonstration of a corticoefferent propagation pattern in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by neuropathological studies, this concept has been used for in vivo staging of individual patients by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques, both in `classical` ALS and in restricted phenotypes such as primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to investigate that microstructural changes according to the neuropathologically defined ALS alteration pattern in PLS patients could be confirmed to be identical to ´classical´ ALS patients...
October 9, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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