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Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456857/platinum-free-graphene-based-anodes-and-air-cathodes-for-single-chamber-microbial-fuel-cells
#1
Toby P Call, Tian Carey, Paolo Bombelli, David J Lea-Smith, Philippa Hooper, Christopher J Howe, Felice Torrisi
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) exploit the ability of microorganisms to generate electrical power during metabolism of substrates. However, the low efficiency of extracellular electron transfer from cells to the anode and the use of expensive rare metals as catalysts, such as platinum, limit their application and scalability. In this study we investigate the use of pristine graphene based electrodes at both the anode and the cathode of a MFC for efficient electrical energy production from the metabolically versatile bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308202/poly-3-4-ethylenedioxythiophene-tosylate-pedot-tos-electrodes-in-thermogalvanic-cells
#2
Kosala Wijeratne, Mikhail Vagin, Robert Brooke, Xavier Crispin
The interest in thermogalvanic cells (TGCs) has grown because it is a candidate technology for harvesting electricity from natural and waste heat. However, the cost of TGCs has a major component due to the use of the platinum electrode. Here, we investigate new alternative electrode material based on conducting polymers, more especially poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) together with the ferro/ferricyanide redox electrolyte. The power generated by the PEDOT-Tos based TGCs increases with the conducting polymer thickness/multilayer and reaches values similar to the flat platinum electrode based TGCs...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062483/a-highly-stretchable-and-robust-non-fluorinated-superhydrophobic-surface
#3
Jie Ju, Xi Yao, Xu Hou, Qihan Liu, Yu Shrike Zhang, Ali Khademhosseini
Superhydrophobic surface simultaneously possessing exceptional stretchability, robustness, and non-fluorination is highly desirable in applications ranging from wearable devices to artificial skins. While conventional superhydrophobic surfaces typically feature stretchability, robustness, or non-fluorination individually, co-existence of all these features still remains a great challenge. Here we report a multi-performance superhydrophobic surface achieved through incorporating hydrophilic micro-sized particles with pre-stretched silicone elastomer...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456856/design-principles-of-perovskites-for-solar-driven-thermochemical-splitting-of-co-2
#4
Miriam Ezbiri, Michael Takacs, Boris Stolz, Jeffrey Lungthok, Aldo Steinfeld, Ronald Michalsky
Perovskites are attractive redox materials for thermo/electrochemical fuel synthesis. To design perovskites with balanced redox energetics for thermochemically splitting CO2 , the activity of lattice oxygen vacancies and stability against crystal phase changes and detrimental carbonate formation are predicted for a representative range of perovskites by electronic structure computations. Systematic trends in these materials properties when doping with selected metal cations are described in the free energy range defined for isothermal and temperature-swing redox cycles...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308201/the-effect-of-side-chain-substitution-and-hot-processing-on-diketopyrrolopyrrole-based-polymers-for-organic-solar-cells
#5
Gaël H L Heintges, Pieter J Leenaers, René A J Janssen
The effects of cold and hot processing on the performance of polymer-fullerene solar cells are investigated for diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based polymers that were specifically designed and synthesized to exhibit a strong temperature-dependent aggregation in solution. The polymers, consisting of alternating DPP and oligothiophene units, are substituted with linear and second position branched alkyl side chains. For the polymer-fullerene blends that can be processed at room temperature, hot processing does not enhance the power conversion efficiencies compared to cold processing because the increased solubility at elevated temperatures results in the formation of wider polymer fibres that reduce charge generation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580142/enhanced-pyroelectric-and-piezoelectric-properties-of-pzt-with-aligned-porosity-for-energy-harvesting-applications
#6
Yan Zhang, Mengying Xie, James Roscow, Yinxiang Bao, Kechao Zhou, Dou Zhang, Chris R Bowen
This paper demonstrates the significant benefits of exploiting highly aligned porosity in piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials for improved energy harvesting performance. Porous lead zirconate (PZT) ceramics with aligned pore channels and varying fractions of porosity were manufactured in a water-based suspension using freeze-casting. The aligned porous PZT ceramics were characterized in detail for both piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties and their energy harvesting performance figures of merit were assessed parallel and perpendicular to the freezing direction...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580144/oxygen-induced-doping-on-reduced-pedot
#7
E Mitraka, M J Jafari, M Vagin, X Liu, M Fahlman, T Ederth, M Berggren, M P Jonsson, X Crispin
The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has shown promise as air electrode in renewable energy technologies like metal-air batteries and fuel cells. PEDOT is based on atomic elements of high abundance and is synthesized at low temperature from solution. The mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over chemically polymerized PEDOT:Cl still remains controversial with eventual role of transition metal impurities. However, regardless of the mechanistic route, we here demonstrate yet another key active role of PEDOT in the ORR mechanism...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580143/tunable-thermodynamic-activity-of-la-x-sr1-x-mn-y-al1-y-o3-%C3%AE-0-%C3%A2-x-%C3%A2-1-0-%C3%A2-y-%C3%A2-1-perovskites-for-solar-thermochemical-fuel-synthesis
#8
M Ezbiri, M Takacs, D Theiler, R Michalsky, A Steinfeld
Nonstoichiometric metal oxides with variable valence are attractive redox materials for thermochemical and electrochemical fuel processing. To guide the design of advanced redox materials for solar-driven splitting of CO2 and/or H2O to produce CO and/or H2 (syngas), we investigate the equilibrium thermodynamics of the La x Sr1-x Mn y Al1-y O3-δ perovskite family (0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) and La0.6Ca0.4Mn0.8Al0.2O3-δ , and compare them to those of CeO2 as the baseline. Oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements from 1573 to 1773 K and from 0...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261480/a-solid-oxide-photoelectrochemical-cell-with-uv-light-driven-oxygen-storage-in-mixed-conducting-electrodes
#9
Gregor Walch, Bernhard Rotter, Georg Christoph Brunauer, Esmaeil Esmaeili, Alexander Karl Opitz, Markus Kubicek, Johann Summhammer, Karl Ponweiser, Jürgen Fleig
A single crystalline SrTiO3 working electrode in a zirconia-based solid oxide electrochemical cell is illuminated by UV light at temperatures of 360-460 °C. In addition to photovoltaic effects, this leads to the build-up of a battery-type voltage up to more than 300 mV. After switching off UV light, this voltage only slowly decays. It is caused by UV-induced oxygen incorporation into the mixed conducting working electrode and thus by changes of the oxygen stoichiometry δ in SrTiO3-δ under UV illumination...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170714/reduced-bimolecular-recombination-in-blade-coated-high-efficiency-small-molecule-solar-cells
#10
Sebastian Engmann, Hyun Wook Ro, Andrew A Herzing, Dean M DeLongchamp, Chad R Snyder, Lee J Richter, Adam Barito, David J Gundlach
To realize the full promise of solution deposited photovoltaic devices requires processes compatible with high-speed manufacturing. We report the performance and morphology of blade-coated bulk heterojunction devices based on the small molecule donor p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 when treated with a post-deposition solvent vapor annealing (SVA) process. SVA with tetrahydrofuran improves the device performance of blade-coated films more than solvent additive processing (SA) with 1,8-diiodooctane. In spin-coating, SA and SVA achieve similar device performance...
2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308200/enhanced-charge-carrier-transport-properties-in-colloidal-quantum-dot-solar-cells-via-organic-and-inorganic-hybrid-surface-passivation
#11
John Hong, Bo Hou, Jongchul Lim, Sangyeon Pak, Byung-Sung Kim, Yuljae Cho, Juwon Lee, Young-Woo Lee, Paul Giraud, Sanghyo Lee, Jong Bae Park, Stephen M Morris, Henry J Snaith, Jung Inn Sohn, SeungNam Cha, Jong Min Kim
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are extremely promising as photovoltaic materials. In particular, the tunability of their electronic band gap and cost effective synthetic procedures allow for the versatile fabrication of solar energy harvesting cells, resulting in optimal device performance. However, one of the main challenges in developing high performance quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) is the improvement of the photo-generated charge transport and collection, which is mainly hindered by imperfect surface functionalization, such as the presence of surface electronic trap sites and the initial bulky surface ligands...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439415/stretchable-biofuel-cells-as-wearable-textile-based-self-powered-sensors
#12
Itthipon Jeerapan, Juliane R Sempionatto, Adriana Pavinatto, Jung-Min You, Joseph Wang
Highly stretchable textile-based biofuel cells (BFCs), acting as effective self-powered sensors, have been fabricated using screen-printing of customized stress-enduring inks. Due to synergistic effects of nanomaterial-based engineered inks and the serpentine designs, these printable bioelectronic devices endure severe mechanical deformations, e.g., stretching, indentation, or torsional twisting. Glucose and lactate BFCs with the single enzyme and membrane-free configurations generated the maximum power density of 160 and 250 µW cm(-2) with the open circuit voltages of 0...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210491/film-morphology-evolution-during-solvent-vapor-annealing-of-highly-efficient-small-molecule-donor-acceptor-blends
#13
Sebastian Engmann, Hyun Wook Ro, Andrew Herzing, Chad R Snyder, Lee J Richter, Paul B Geraghty, David J Jones
Solution-processable small molecule photovoltaics based on the novel molecular donor, benzodithiophene terthiophene rhodanine (BTR), recently have shown maximum power conversion efficiencies above 8 % for active layer thicknesses up to 400 nm, using post process solvent vapor annealing (SVA) with tetrahydrofuran (THF). Here we report an in-situ study on the morphology evolution during SVA using the moderate solvent THF and the good solvent chloroform (CF). The combination of real-time grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) allows us to draw a complete picture of the evolution of crystallinity and phase purity during post process annealing...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774149/an-assessment-of-silver-copper-sulfides-for-photovoltaic-applications-theoretical-and-experimental-insights
#14
Christopher N Savory, Alex M Ganose, Will Travis, Ria S Atri, Robert G Palgrave, David O Scanlon
As the worldwide demand for energy increases, low-cost solar cells are being looked to as a solution for the future. To attain this, non-toxic earth-abundant materials are crucial, however cell efficiencies for current materials are limited in many cases. In this article, we examine the two silver copper sulfides AgCuS and Ag3CuS2 as possible solar absorbers using hybrid density functional theory, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, XPS and Hall effect measurements. We show that both compounds demonstrate promising electronic structures and band gaps for high theoretical efficiency solar cells, based on Shockley-Queisser limits...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774148/optical-analysis-of-ch3nh3sn-x-pb1-x-i3-absorbers-a-roadmap-for-perovskite-on-perovskite-tandem-solar-cells
#15
Miguel Anaya, Juan P Correa-Baena, Gabriel Lozano, Michael Saliba, Pablo Anguita, Bart Roose, Antonio Abate, Ullrich Steiner, Michael Grätzel, Mauricio E Calvo, Anders Hagfeldt, Hernán Míguez
Organic-inorganic perovskite structures in which lead is substituted by tin are exceptional candidates for broadband light absorption. Herein we present a thorough analysis of the optical properties of CH3NH3Sn x Pb1-x I3 films, providing the field with definitive insights about the possibilities of these materials for perovskite solar cells of superior efficiency. We report a user's guide based on the first set of optical constants obtained for a series of tin/lead perovskite films, which was only possible to measure due to the preparation of optical quality thin layers...
August 7, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774147/photoelectrochemical-water-splitting-strongly-enhanced-in-fast-grown-zno-nanotree-and-nanocluster-structures
#16
Xin Ren, Abhijeet Sangle, Siyuan Zhang, Shuai Yuan, Yin Zhao, Liyi Shi, Robert L Z Hoye, Seungho Cho, Dongdong Li, Judith L MacManus-Driscoll
We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358734/crystal-structure-and-proton-conductivity-of-basn0-6sc0-4o3-%C3%AE-insights-from-neutron-powder-diffraction-and-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#17
Francis G Kinyanjui, Stefan T Norberg, Christopher S Knee, Istaq Ahmed, Stephen Hull, Lucienne Buannic, Ivan Hung, Zhehong Gan, Frédéric Blanc, Clare P Grey, Sten G Eriksson
The solid-state synthesis and structural characterisation of perovskite BaSn1-x Sc x O3-δ (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and its corresponding hydrated ceramics are reported. Powder and neutron X-ray diffractions reveal the presence of cubic perovskites (space group Pm3m) with an increasing cell parameter as a function of scandium concentration along with some indication of phase segregation. (119)Sn and (45)Sc solid-state NMR spectroscopy data highlight the existence of oxygen vacancies in the dry materials, and their filling upon hydrothermal treatment with D2O...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019714/efficient-bifacial-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-through-disorder-by-design
#18
José M Miranda-Muñoz, Sol Carretero-Palacios, Alberto Jiménez-Solano, Yuelong Li, Gabriel Lozano, Hernán Míguez
Herein we realize an optical design that optimizes the performance of bifacial solar cells without modifying any of the usually employed components. In order to do so, dielectric scatterers of controlled size and shape have been successfully integrated in the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in bifacial devices of outstanding performance. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 6.7% and 5.4% have been attained under front and rear illumination, respectively, which represent a 25% and a 33% PCE enhancement with respect to an 8 μm-thick standard solar cell electrode using platinum as the catalytic material...
February 7, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478616/efficient-eco-friendly-inverted-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells
#19
Jinhyung Park, Muhammad T Sajjad, Pierre-Henri Jouneau, Arvydas Ruseckas, Jérôme Faure-Vincent, Ifor D W Samuel, Peter Reiss, Dmitry Aldakov
Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones...
January 21, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919977/efficient-and-selective-oxidation-of-sulfur-mustard-using-singlet-oxygen-generated-by-a-pyrene-based-metal-organic-framework
#20
Yangyang Liu, Cassandra T Buru, Ashlee J Howarth, John J Mahle, James H Buchanan, Jared B DeCoste, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
A pyrene-based metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 was used as a heterogeneous photocatalyst for the degradation of a sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using irradiation from a commercially available and inexpensive ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED), singlet oxygen ((1)O2) is generated by NU-1000 and selectively oxidizes CEES to the nontoxic product 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide (CEESO). More importantly, this method was tested on the warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD) for the first time using (1)O2 and a MOF catalyst, and this method proved to be effective in oxidizing sulfur mustard to nontoxic products without forming the toxic sulfone by-product...
2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
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