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Zohaib Khurshid, Mustafa Naseem, Faris Yahya I Asiri, Maria Mali, Rabia Sannam Khan, Haafsa Arshad Sahibzada, Muhammad Sohail Zafar, Syed Faraz Moin, Erum Khan
Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that play multiple vital roles in the human body, such as their antimicrobial (broad spectrum) role against oral microbes, wound healing, and angiogenesis, with recent evidences about their role in cancer regulation. Cathelicidins are present in humans and other mammals as well. By complex interactions with the microenvironment, it results in pro-inflammatory effects. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted to ultimately conclude that these unique peptides play an essential role in innate immunity...
December 5, 2017: Biomolecules
(no author information available yet)
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as either a primary mode of treatment or an adjunct to non-surgical treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing (SRP) alone in treating chronic periodontitis in terms of clinical attachment level (CAL) gain and probing depth (PD) reduction. The focused question was developed using the Patient, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) format, and two authors independently searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies from January 2008 to December 2016...
November 24, 2017: Biomolecules
Tatiana P Sankova, Iurii A Orlov, Andrey N Saveliev, Demid A Kirilenko, Polina S Babich, Pavel N Brunkov, Ludmila V Puchkova
There is much interest in effective copper chelators to correct copper dyshomeostasis in neurodegenerative and oncological diseases. In this study, a recombinant fusion protein for expression in Escherichia coli cells was constructed from glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the N-terminal domain (ectodomain) of human high affinity copper transporter CTR1 (hNdCTR1), which has three metal-bound motifs. Several biological properties of the GST-hNdCTR1 fusion protein were assessed. It was demonstrated that in cells, the protein was prone to oligomerization, formed inclusion bodies and displayed no toxicity...
November 3, 2017: Biomolecules
Cody L Hoop, Jie Zhu, Ana Monica Nunes, David A Case, Jean Baum
Fibrillar collagens are the most abundant proteins in the extracellular matrix. Not only do they provide structural integrity to all of the connective tissues in the human body, but also their interactions with multiple cell receptors and other matrix molecules are essential to cell functions, such as growth, repair, and cell adhesion. Although specific binding sequences of several receptors have been determined along the collagen monomer, processes by which collagen binding partners recognize their binding sites in the collagen fibril, and the critical driving interactions, are poorly understood...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules
Hisashi Tatebe, Kazuhiro Shiozaki
Target of rapamycin (TOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that controls multiple cellular processes upon various intracellular and extracellular stimuli. Since its first discovery, extensive studies have been conducted both in yeast and animal species including humans. Those studies have revealed that TOR forms two structurally and physiologically distinct protein complexes; TOR complex 1 (TORC1) is ubiquitous among eukaryotes including animals, yeast, protozoa, and plants, while TOR complex 2 (TORC2) is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species other than plants...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules
Daniel R Smith, Janet E Price, Peter E Burby, Luz P Blanco, Justin Chamberlain, Matthew R Chapman
Curli amyloid fibers are the major protein component of the extracellular matrix produced by Enterobacteriaceae during biofilm formation. Curli are required for proper biofilm development and environmental persistence by Escherichia coli. Here, we present a complete and vetted genetic analysis of functional amyloid fiber biogenesis. The Keio collection of single gene deletions was screened on Congo red indicator plates to identify E. coli mutants that had defective amyloid production. We discovered that more than three hundred gene products modulated curli production...
October 31, 2017: Biomolecules
Pratiek N Matkar, Ramya Ariyagunarajah, Howard Leong-Poi, Krishna K Singh
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones is a biological process that ensures an adequate blood flow is maintained to provide the cells with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen within the body. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines, proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules stringently regulate the multi-factorial process of angiogenesis. The properties and interactions of key angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and angiopoietins have been investigated in great detail with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis...
October 2, 2017: Biomolecules
Andrzej Galat
Analyses of sequences and structures of the cyclosporine A (CsA)-binding proteins (cyclophilins) and the immunosuppressive macrolide FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) have revealed that they exhibit peculiar spatial distributions of charges, their overall hydrophobicity indexes vary within a considerable level whereas their points isoelectric (pIs) are contained from 4 to 11. These two families of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) have several distinct functional attributes such as: (1) high affinity binding to some pharmacologically-useful hydrophobic macrocyclic drugs; (2) diversified binding epitopes to proteins that may induce transient manifolds with altered flexibility and functional fitness; and (3) electrostatic interactions between positively charged segments of PPIases and negatively charged intracellular entities that support their spatial integration...
September 29, 2017: Biomolecules
Matthew P Jackson, Eric W Hewitt
Amyloids were first identified in association with amyloidoses, human diseases in which proteins and peptides misfold into amyloid fibrils. Subsequent studies have identified an array of functional amyloid fibrils that perform physiological roles in humans. Given the potential for the production of toxic species in amyloid assembly reactions, it is remarkable that cells can produce these functional amyloids without suffering any obvious ill effect. Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, there are a number of ways in which amyloid toxicity may be prevented...
September 22, 2017: Biomolecules
Létitia Jean, Alex C Foley, David J T Vaux
Hydrogels are water-swollen and viscoelastic three-dimensional cross-linked polymeric network originating from monomer polymerisation. Hydrogel-forming polypeptides are widely found in nature and, at a cellular and organismal level, they provide a wide range of functions for the organism making them. Amyloid structures, arising from polypeptide aggregation, can be damaging or beneficial to different types of organisms. Although the best-known amyloids are those associated with human pathologies, this underlying structure is commonly used by higher eukaryotes to maintain normal cellular activities, and also by microbial communities to promote their survival and growth...
September 22, 2017: Biomolecules
Garima Thakur, Kovur Prashanthi, Keren Jiang, Thomas Thundat
Spontaneous self-assemblies of biomolecules can generate geometrical patterns. Our findings provide an insight into the mechanism of self-assembled ring pattern generation by human serum albumin (HSA). The self-assembly is a process guided by kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The generated protein ring patterns display a behavior which is geometrically related to a n-simplex model and is explained through thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.
September 20, 2017: Biomolecules
Mina Dokouhaki, Emma L Prime, Andrew Hung, Greg G Qiao, Li Day, Sally L Gras
Chaplin F (Chp F) is a secreted surface-active peptide involved in the aerial growth of Streptomyces. While Chp E demonstrates a pH-responsive surface activity, the relationship between Chp F structure, function and the effect of solution pH is unknown. Chp F peptides were found to self-assemble into amyloid fibrils at acidic pH (3.0 or the isoelectric point (pI) of 4.2), with ~99% of peptides converted into insoluble fibrils. In contrast, Chp F formed short assemblies containing a mixture of random coil and β-sheet structure at a basic pH of 10...
September 19, 2017: Biomolecules
Megan Garvey, Heath Ecroyd, Nicholas J Ray, Juliet A Gerrard, John A Carver
Amyloid fibril formation occurs from a wide range of peptides and proteins and is typically associated with a loss of protein function and/or a gain of toxic function, as the native structure of the protein undergoes major alteration to form a cross β-sheet array. It is now well recognised that some amyloid fibrils have a biological function, which has led to increased interest in the potential that these so-called functional amyloids may either retain the function of the native protein, or gain function upon adopting a fibrillar structure...
September 12, 2017: Biomolecules
Françoise M Roelants, Kristin L Leskoske, Maria Nieves Martinez Marshall, Melissa N Locke, Jeremy Thorner
To grow, eukaryotic cells must expand by inserting glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and proteins into their plasma membrane, and maintain the proper levels and bilayer distribution. A fungal cell must coordinate growth with enlargement of its cell wall. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a plasma membrane-localized protein kinase complex, Target of Rapamicin (TOR) complex-2 (TORC2) (mammalian ortholog is mTORC2), serves as a sensor and masterregulator of these plasma membrane- and cell wall-associated events by directly phosphorylating and thereby stimulating the activity of two types of effector protein kinases: Ypk1 (mammalian ortholog is SGK1), along with a paralog (Ypk2); and, Pkc1 (mammalian ortholog is PKN2/PRK2)...
September 5, 2017: Biomolecules
Khadega A Al-Maqdi, Soleiman M Hisaindee, Muhammad A Rauf, Syed Salman Ashraf
Organic pollutants, especially those found in water bodies, pose a direct threat to various aquatic organisms as well as humans. A variety of different remediation approaches, including chemical and biological methods, have been developed for the degradation of various organic pollutants. However, comparative mechanistic studies of pollutant degradation by these different systems are almost non-existent. In this study, the degradation of a model thiazole pollutant, thioflavin T (ThT), was carried out in the presence of either an advanced oxidation process (ultraviolet (UV) + H₂O₂) or a chloroperoxidase enzyme system (CPO + H₂O₂)...
August 24, 2017: Biomolecules
Fotini Karavassili, Alexandros Valmas, Stavroula Fili, Christos D Georgiou, Irene Margiolaki
Human insulin (HI) is a well-characterized natural hormone which regulates glycose levels into the blood-stream and is widely used for diabetes treatment. Numerous studies have manifested that despite significant efforts devoted to structural characterization of this molecule and its complexes with organic compounds (ligands), there is still a rich diagram of phase transitions and novel crystalline forms to be discovered. Towards the improvement of drug delivery, identification of new insulin polymorphs from polycrystalline samples, simulating the commercially available drugs, is feasible today via macromolecular X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD)...
August 22, 2017: Biomolecules
Lauren G Poole, Christine E Dolin, Gavin E Arteel
Alcohol consumption is a common custom worldwide, and the toxic effects of alcohol on several target organs are well-understood. Given the poor prognosis of treating clinically-relevant alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (i.e., alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and cirrhosis), additional research is required to develop more effective therapies. While the stages of ALD have been well-characterized, targeted therapies to prevent or reverse this process in humans are still needed. Better understanding of risk factors and mechanisms underlying disease progression can lead to the development of rational therapies to prevent or reverse ALD in the clinic...
August 16, 2017: Biomolecules
Anuradha Ratna, Pranoti Mandrekar
Several scientific and clinical studies have shown an association between chronic alcohol consumption and the occurrence of cancer in humans. The mechanism for alcohol-induced carcinogenesis has not been fully understood, although plausible events include genotoxic effects of acetaldehyde, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species, aberrant metabolism of folate and retinoids, increased estrogen, and genetic polymorphisms. Here, we summarize the impact of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancer development and potential underlying molecular mechanisms...
August 14, 2017: Biomolecules
Anna Dragoš, Ákos T Kovács, Dennis Claessen
Amyloid fibrils play pivotal roles in all domains of life. In bacteria, these fibrillar structures are often part of an extracellular matrix that surrounds the producing organism and thereby provides protection to harsh environmental conditions. Here, we discuss the role of amyloid fibrils in the two distant Gram-positive bacteria, Streptomyces coelicolor and Bacillus subtilis. We describe how amyloid fibrils contribute to a multitude of developmental processes in each of these systems, including multicellular growth and community development...
August 7, 2017: Biomolecules
Livia Pérez-Hidalgo, Sergio Moreno
Cell growth and division are two processes tightly coupled in proliferating cells. While Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is the master regulator of growth, the cell cycle is dictated by the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). A long-standing question in cell biology is how these processes may be connected. Recent work has highlighted that regulating the phosphatases that revert CDK phosphorylations is as important as regulating the CDKs for cell cycle progression. At mitosis, maintaining a low level of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-B55 activity is essential for CDK substrates to achieve the correct level of phosphorylation...
August 4, 2017: Biomolecules
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