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Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
The biochemical potential of pathogenic bacteria may cause alteration in the neurophysiological environment; consequently, neuroendocrine and immune responses of the host are modulated by endogenously produced metabolic products of neuropathogenic bacteria. The present study was designed to detect the derived biogenic amines in spent culture media of Bacillus cereus (Bc), Clostridium tetani (Ct), Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm). Overnight grown culture in different culture media i...
February 13, 2018: Biomolecules
Hardik Ghelani, Valentina Razmovski-Naumovski, Rajeswara Rao Pragada, Srinivas Nammi
High-carbohydrate containing diets have become a precursor to glucose-mediated protein glycation which has been linked to an increase in diabetic and cardiovascular complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of (R)-α-lipoic acid (ALA) against glucose-induced myoglobin glycation and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vitro. METHODS: The effect of ALA on myoglobin glycation was determined via the formation of AGEs fluorescence intensity, iron released from the heme moiety of myoglobin and the level of fructosamine...
February 8, 2018: Biomolecules
Frank Surup, Kathrin Pommerehne, Hans-Josef Schroers, Marc Stadler
In course of our screening for new secondary metabolites from ecological niche specialized, phytopathogenic fungi, the plant pathogen Elsinoё pyri, strain 2203C, was found to produce four novel compounds (1-4), which were named elsinopirins A-D, in addition to the known metabolite elsinochrome A (5). After isolation by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were elucidated by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) data...
February 5, 2018: Biomolecules
Aziz Ur Rehman Aziz, Sumbal Farid, Kairong Qin, Hanqin Wang, Bo Liu
Ovarian cancer is a medical term that includes a number of tumors with different molecular biology, phenotypes, tumor progression, etiology, and even different diagnosis. Some specific treatments are required to address this heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, thus molecular characterization may provide an important tool for this purpose. On a molecular level, proviral-integration site for Moloney-murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases are over expressed in ovarian cancer and play a vital role in the regulation of different proteins responsible for this tumorigenesis...
February 4, 2018: Biomolecules
Steven G Biesecker, Lauren K Nicastro, R Paul Wilson, Çağla Tükel
Escherichia coli strains may be beneficial or pathogenic. Many E. coli strains that cause human disease, especially those responsible for bacteremia and sepsis, express virulence factors that impart resistance to the complement system. The bacterial amyloid curli functions in bacterial adherence and enhances the formation of biofilms. Survival of curli-producing parental and curli-deficient mutant E. coli in the context of a human complement response was evaluated using an in vivo murine model of bacteremia...
January 24, 2018: Biomolecules
Prashant Kumar, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Suzana K Straus
Antibiotic resistance is projected as one of the greatest threats to human health in the future and hence alternatives are being explored to combat resistance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown great promise, because use of AMPs leads bacteria to develop no or low resistance. In this review, we discuss the diversity, history and the various mechanisms of action of AMPs. Although many AMPs have reached clinical trials, to date not many have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to issues with toxicity, protease cleavage and short half-life...
January 19, 2018: Biomolecules
Shubha Ghosh Dastidar, Jeffrey B Warner, Dennis R Warner, Craig J McClain, Irina A Kirpich
Both chronic and acute (binge) alcohol drinking are important health and economic concerns worldwide and prominent risk factors for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). There are no FDA-approved medications to prevent or to treat any stage of ALD. Therefore, discovery of novel therapeutic strategies remains a critical need for patients with ALD. Relevant experimental animal models that simulate human drinking patterns and mimic the spectrum and severity of alcohol-induced liver pathology in humans are critical to our ability to identify new mechanisms and therapeutic targets...
January 13, 2018: Biomolecules
Franklin Damião Xavier, Gustavo Santos Bezerra, Sharline Florentino Melo Santos, Líbia Sousa Conrado Oliveira, Flávio Luiz Honorato Silva, Aleir Joice Oliveira Silva, Marta Maria Conceição
Recent years have seen an increase in the use of lignocellulosic materials in the development of bioproducts. Because sisal fiber is a low cost raw material and is readily available, this work aimed to evaluate its hemicellulose fraction for the simultaneous production of xylitol and ethanol. The sisal fiber presented a higher hemicellulose content than other frequently-employed biomasses, such as sugarcane bagasse. A pretreatment with dilute acid and low temperatures was conducted in order to obtain the hemicellulose fraction...
January 10, 2018: Biomolecules
Steven A Stacker, Marc G Achen
Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels are located in many tissues and organs throughout the body, and play important roles in a wide variety of prevalent diseases in humans. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) is a secreted protein that can promote the remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics in development and disease. Recent fundamental and translational studies have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms by which VEGF-D exerts its effects in human disease. Hence this protein is now of interest as a therapeutic and/or diagnostic target, or as a potential therapeutic agent, in a diversity of indications in cardiovascular medicine, cancer and the devastating pulmonary condition lymphangioleiomyomatosis...
January 4, 2018: Biomolecules
Zohaib Khurshid, Mustafa Naseem, Faris Yahya I Asiri, Maria Mali, Rabia Sannam Khan, Haafsa Arshad Sahibzada, Muhammad Sohail Zafar, Syed Faraz Moin, Erum Khan
Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that play multiple vital roles in the human body, such as their antimicrobial (broad spectrum) role against oral microbes, wound healing, and angiogenesis, with recent evidences about their role in cancer regulation. Cathelicidins are present in humans and other mammals as well. By complex interactions with the microenvironment, it results in pro-inflammatory effects. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted to ultimately conclude that these unique peptides play an essential role in innate immunity...
December 5, 2017: Biomolecules
(no author information available yet)
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as either a primary mode of treatment or an adjunct to non-surgical treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing (SRP) alone in treating chronic periodontitis in terms of clinical attachment level (CAL) gain and probing depth (PD) reduction. The focused question was developed using the Patient, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) format, and two authors independently searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies from January 2008 to December 2016...
November 24, 2017: Biomolecules
Tatiana P Sankova, Iurii A Orlov, Andrey N Saveliev, Demid A Kirilenko, Polina S Babich, Pavel N Brunkov, Ludmila V Puchkova
There is much interest in effective copper chelators to correct copper dyshomeostasis in neurodegenerative and oncological diseases. In this study, a recombinant fusion protein for expression in Escherichia coli cells was constructed from glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the N-terminal domain (ectodomain) of human high affinity copper transporter CTR1 (hNdCTR1), which has three metal-bound motifs. Several biological properties of the GST-hNdCTR1 fusion protein were assessed. It was demonstrated that in cells, the protein was prone to oligomerization, formed inclusion bodies and displayed no toxicity...
November 3, 2017: Biomolecules
Cody L Hoop, Jie Zhu, Ana Monica Nunes, David A Case, Jean Baum
Fibrillar collagens are the most abundant proteins in the extracellular matrix. Not only do they provide structural integrity to all of the connective tissues in the human body, but also their interactions with multiple cell receptors and other matrix molecules are essential to cell functions, such as growth, repair, and cell adhesion. Although specific binding sequences of several receptors have been determined along the collagen monomer, processes by which collagen binding partners recognize their binding sites in the collagen fibril, and the critical driving interactions, are poorly understood...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules
Hisashi Tatebe, Kazuhiro Shiozaki
Target of rapamycin (TOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that controls multiple cellular processes upon various intracellular and extracellular stimuli. Since its first discovery, extensive studies have been conducted both in yeast and animal species including humans. Those studies have revealed that TOR forms two structurally and physiologically distinct protein complexes; TOR complex 1 (TORC1) is ubiquitous among eukaryotes including animals, yeast, protozoa, and plants, while TOR complex 2 (TORC2) is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species other than plants...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules
Daniel R Smith, Janet E Price, Peter E Burby, Luz P Blanco, Justin Chamberlain, Matthew R Chapman
Curli amyloid fibers are the major protein component of the extracellular matrix produced by Enterobacteriaceae during biofilm formation. Curli are required for proper biofilm development and environmental persistence by Escherichia coli. Here, we present a complete and vetted genetic analysis of functional amyloid fiber biogenesis. The Keio collection of single gene deletions was screened on Congo red indicator plates to identify E. coli mutants that had defective amyloid production. We discovered that more than three hundred gene products modulated curli production...
October 31, 2017: Biomolecules
Pratiek N Matkar, Ramya Ariyagunarajah, Howard Leong-Poi, Krishna K Singh
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones is a biological process that ensures an adequate blood flow is maintained to provide the cells with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen within the body. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines, proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules stringently regulate the multi-factorial process of angiogenesis. The properties and interactions of key angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and angiopoietins have been investigated in great detail with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis...
October 2, 2017: Biomolecules
Andrzej Galat
Analyses of sequences and structures of the cyclosporine A (CsA)-binding proteins (cyclophilins) and the immunosuppressive macrolide FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) have revealed that they exhibit peculiar spatial distributions of charges, their overall hydrophobicity indexes vary within a considerable level whereas their points isoelectric (pIs) are contained from 4 to 11. These two families of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) have several distinct functional attributes such as: (1) high affinity binding to some pharmacologically-useful hydrophobic macrocyclic drugs; (2) diversified binding epitopes to proteins that may induce transient manifolds with altered flexibility and functional fitness; and (3) electrostatic interactions between positively charged segments of PPIases and negatively charged intracellular entities that support their spatial integration...
September 29, 2017: Biomolecules
Matthew P Jackson, Eric W Hewitt
Amyloids were first identified in association with amyloidoses, human diseases in which proteins and peptides misfold into amyloid fibrils. Subsequent studies have identified an array of functional amyloid fibrils that perform physiological roles in humans. Given the potential for the production of toxic species in amyloid assembly reactions, it is remarkable that cells can produce these functional amyloids without suffering any obvious ill effect. Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, there are a number of ways in which amyloid toxicity may be prevented...
September 22, 2017: Biomolecules
Létitia Jean, Alex C Foley, David J T Vaux
Hydrogels are water-swollen and viscoelastic three-dimensional cross-linked polymeric network originating from monomer polymerisation. Hydrogel-forming polypeptides are widely found in nature and, at a cellular and organismal level, they provide a wide range of functions for the organism making them. Amyloid structures, arising from polypeptide aggregation, can be damaging or beneficial to different types of organisms. Although the best-known amyloids are those associated with human pathologies, this underlying structure is commonly used by higher eukaryotes to maintain normal cellular activities, and also by microbial communities to promote their survival and growth...
September 22, 2017: Biomolecules
Garima Thakur, Kovur Prashanthi, Keren Jiang, Thomas Thundat
Spontaneous self-assemblies of biomolecules can generate geometrical patterns. Our findings provide an insight into the mechanism of self-assembled ring pattern generation by human serum albumin (HSA). The self-assembly is a process guided by kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The generated protein ring patterns display a behavior which is geometrically related to a n-simplex model and is explained through thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.
September 20, 2017: Biomolecules
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