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Hélène Pollet, Louise Conrard, Anne-Sophie Cloos, Donatienne Tyteca
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) contribute to several pathophysiological processes and appear as emerging targets for disease diagnosis and therapy. However, successful translation from bench to bedside requires deeper understanding of EVs, in particular their diversity, composition, biogenesis and shedding mechanisms. In this review, we focus on plasma membrane-derived microvesicles (MVs), far less appreciated than exosomes. We integrate documented mechanisms involved in MV biogenesis and shedding, focusing on the red blood cell as a model...
September 14, 2018: Biomolecules
Saif Shahriar Rahman Nirzhor, Rubayat Islam Khan, Sharmind Neelotpol
Even though Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of significant interest to the scientific community, its pathogenesis is very complicated and not well-understood. A great deal of progress has been made in AD research recently and with the advent of these new insights more therapeutic benefits may be identified that could help patients around the world. Much of the research in AD thus far has been very neuron-oriented; however, recent studies suggest that glial cells, i.e., microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (NG2 glia), are linked to the pathogenesis of AD and may offer several potential therapeutic targets against AD...
September 10, 2018: Biomolecules
Waqas Nazeer, Adeel Farooq, Muhammad Younas, Mobeen Munir, Shin Min Kang
Many degree-based topological indices can be obtained from the closed-off M-polynomial of a carbon nanocone. These topological indices are numerical parameters that are associated with a structure and, in combination, determine the properties of the carbon nanocone. In this paper, we compute the closed form of the M-polynomial of generalized carbon nanocone and recover many important degree-based topological indices. We use software Maple 2015 (Maplesoft, Waterloo, ON, Canada) to plot the surfaces and graphs associated with these nanocones, and relate the topological indices to the structure of these nanocones...
September 7, 2018: Biomolecules
Hui Rong Wang, Hao Chen Sui, Yan Yan Ding, Bao Ting Zhu
Ethyl gallate is a phenolic compound richly contained in Longan. In traditional Chinese medicine, Longan is widely known as a fruit with "hot" properties, with a tendency to promote inflammatory and certain other responses. The mechanism for its proinflammatory as well as health beneficial effects is poorly understood. Based on our earlier observation that certain natural phenolic compounds can serve as reducing cosubstrates for cyclooxygenases (COXs), we sought to test a hypothesis that ethyl gallate may activate the catalytic activity of the COX enzymes...
September 6, 2018: Biomolecules
Cyril Favard
The fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique has been used for decades to measure movements of molecules in two-dimension (2D). Data obtained by FRAP experiments in cell plasma membranes are assumed to be described through a means of two parameters, a diffusion coefficient, D (as defined in a pure Brownian model) and a mobile fraction, M. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that recoveries can be nicely fit using anomalous subdiffusion. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) at variable radii has been developed using the Brownian diffusion model to access geometrical characteristics of the surrounding landscape of the molecule...
September 5, 2018: Biomolecules
Eva Rahman Kabir, Shannon Sherwin Moreino, Mohammad Kawsar Sharif Siam
The high demand for and resulting financial success of biopharmaceutical products over the last three decades have seen the door open for close copies of these biological products, also known as biosimilars. This paper seeks to collate all relevant published intelligence with acquired survey data to assess the weight of available evidence that these products hold immense potential for the pharmaceutical industry in terms of their applications and benefits. Biosimilars also pose to be of great promise to the Bangladesh pharmaceutical industry, with the commitment of drastically reducing its dependence on foreign imports of biopharmaceutics to meet local demand...
September 5, 2018: Biomolecules
Nadège Jamin, Manuel Garrigos, Christine Jaxel, Annie Frelet-Barrand, Stéphane Orlowski
Bacterial cytoplasmic membrane stress induced by the overexpression of membrane proteins at high levels can lead to formation of ectopic intracellular membranes. In this review, we report the various observations of such membranes in Escherichia coli , compare their morphological and biochemical characterizations, and we analyze the underlying molecular processes leading to their formation. Actually, these membranes display either vesicular or tubular structures, are separated or connected to the cytoplasmic membrane, present mono- or polydispersed sizes and shapes, and possess ordered or disordered arrangements...
September 4, 2018: Biomolecules
Xiaofei Qin, Jana Emich, Francisco M Goycoolea
New approaches to deal with drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria are urgent. We studied the antibacterial effect of chitosans against an Escherichia coli quorum sensing biosensor reporter strain and selected a non-toxic chitosan to evaluate its quorum sensing (QS) inhibition activity and its effect on bacterial aggregation. To this end, chitosans of varying degree of acetylation (DA) (12 to 69%) and molecular weight ( Mw ) (29 to 288 kDa) were studied. Only chitosans of low DA (~12%) inhibited bacterial growth, regardless of their Mw ...
September 4, 2018: Biomolecules
Christoph Niekamp, Dorothee Atzler, Francisco M Ojeda, Christoph R Sinning, Karl J Lackner, Rainer H Böger, Thomas Munzel, Manfred E Beutel, Irene Schmidtmann, Norbert Pfeiffer, Anja Leuschner, Stefan Blankenberg, Philipp S Wild, Tanja Zeller, Edzard Schwedhelm, Renate B Schnabel
Homoarginine has come into the focus of interest as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality. Whether circulating homoarginine is associated with occurrence or persistence of AF and may serve as a new predictive biomarker remains unknown. We measured plasma levels of homoarginine in the population-based Gutenberg health study (3761 patients included, of them 51.7% males), mean age 55.6 ± 10.9 years-old. Associations between homoarginine and intermediate electrocardiographic and echocardiographic phenotypes and manifest AF were examined...
August 30, 2018: Biomolecules
Ulf Norinder, Glenn Myatt, Ernst Ahlberg
The occurrence of mutagenicity in primary aromatic amines has been investigated using conformal prediction. The results of the investigation show that it is possible to develop mathematically proven valid models using conformal prediction and that the existence of uncertain classes of prediction, such as both (both classes assigned to a compound) and empty (no class assigned to a compound), provides the user with additional information on how to use, further develop, and possibly improve future models. The study also indicates that the use of different sets of fingerprints results in models, for which the ability to discriminate varies with respect to the set level of acceptable errors...
August 29, 2018: Biomolecules
Pelin Uysal, Sinem Durmus, Volkan Sozer, Remise Gelisgen, Ekrem Cengiz Seyhan, Fusun Erdenen, Gonul Simsek, Hafize Uzun
The aims of this study were to describe the clinical, radiological and immunological features of a population of sarcoidosis patients and to analyse chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), neopterin concentrations and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in serum of these patients in order to understand their potential as disease markers. Fifty-nine patients affected by chronic sarcoidosis, in active (20 patients) and inactive (39 patients) phase according to the clinical, radiological and laboratory criteria were studied...
August 28, 2018: Biomolecules
Arne Krüger, Flávia M Zimbres, Thales Kronenberger, Carsten Wrenger
Molecular modeling by means of docking and molecular dynamics (MD) has become an integral part of early drug discovery projects, enabling the screening and enrichment of large libraries of small molecules. In the past decades, special emphasis was drawn to nucleic acid (NA)-based molecules in the fields of therapy, diagnosis, and drug delivery. Research has increased dramatically with the advent of the SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technique, which results in single-stranded DNA or RNA sequences that bind with high affinity and specificity to their targets...
August 27, 2018: Biomolecules
Vasily Golotin, Nina Sanina, Ludmila Davydova, Natalia Chopenko, Andrey Mazeika, Manuel Roig, Valery Shnyrov, Vladimir N Uversky, Eduard Kostetsky
Domain III (DIII) of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) protein E contains epitopes, which induce antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus. To enhance the immunogenicity of this protein, which has a low molecular weight, the aim of the present work was to express, isolate, and characterize a chimeric protein based on the fusion of the bacterial chaperone HSP70 of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and EIII (DIII + stem) as a prospective antigen for an adjuvanted delivery system, the tubular immunostimulating complex (TI-complex)...
August 25, 2018: Biomolecules
Sven Johannsson, Piotr Neumann, Ralf Ficner
RNA modifications have been implicated in diverse and important roles in all kingdoms of life with over 100 of them present on tRNAs. A prominent modification at the wobble base of four tRNAs is the 7-deaza-guanine derivative queuine which substitutes the guanine at position 34. This exchange is catalyzed by members of the enzyme class of tRNA guanine transglycosylases (TGTs). These enzymes incorporate guanine substituents into tRNAAsp , tRNAAsn tRNAHis , and tRNATyr in all kingdoms of life. In contrast to the homodimeric bacterial TGT, the active eukaryotic TGT is a heterodimer in solution, comprised of a catalytic QTRT1 subunit and a noncatalytic QTRT2 subunit...
August 24, 2018: Biomolecules
Yuhua Zhu, Xuemei Xian, Zhenzhen Wang, Yingchao Bi, Quangang Chen, Xufeng Han, Daoquan Tang, Renjin Chen
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease; unstable atherosclerotic plaque rupture, vascular stenosis, or occlusion caused by platelet aggregation and thrombosis lead to acute cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis-related inflammation is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory signaling pathways, bioactive lipids, and adhesion molecules. This review discusses the effects of inflammation and the systemic inflammatory signaling pathway on atherosclerosis, the role of related signaling pathways in inflammation, the formation of atherosclerosis plaques, and the prospects of treating atherosclerosis by inhibiting inflammation...
August 23, 2018: Biomolecules
Francesca Ronca, Antonio Raggi
Multiple muscle-specific isoforms of the Zn2+ metalloenzyme AMP deaminase (AMPD) have been identified based on their biochemical and genetic differences. Our previous observations suggested that the metal binding protein histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) participates in the assembly and maintenance of skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD1) by acting as a zinc chaperone. The evidence of a role of millimolar-strength phosphate in stabilizing the AMPD-HPRG complex of both AMPD1 and cardiac AMP deaminase (AMPD3) is suggestive of a physiological mutual dependence between the two subunit components with regard to the stability of the two isoforms of striated muscle AMPD...
August 23, 2018: Biomolecules
Otávio Augusto Chaves, Maurício Temotheo Tavares, Micael Rodrigues Cunha, Roberto Parise-Filho, Carlos Maurício R Sant'Anna, José Carlos Netto-Ferreira
The interaction between the main carrier of endogenous and exogenous compounds in the human bloodstream (human serum albumin, HSA) and a potential anticancer compound (the capsaicin analogue RPF101 ) was investigated by spectroscopic techniques (circular dichroism, steady-state, time-resolved, and synchronous fluorescence), zeta potential, and computational method (molecular docking). Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments indicated an association in the ground state between HSA: RPF101 . The interaction is moderate, spontaneous (Δ G ° < 0), and entropically driven (Δ S ° = 0...
August 23, 2018: Biomolecules
Fatma Gizem Avci, Berna Sariyar Akbulut, Elif Ozkirimli
In the last 20 years, an increasing number of studies have been reported on membrane active peptides. These peptides exert their biological activity by interacting with the cell membrane, either to disrupt it and lead to cell lysis or to translocate through it to deliver cargos into the cell and reach their target. Membrane active peptides are attractive alternatives to currently used pharmaceuticals and the number of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and peptides designed for drug and gene delivery in the drug pipeline is increasing...
August 22, 2018: Biomolecules
Mahir Karakas, Sarina Schäfer, Sebastian Appelbaum, Francisco Ojeda, Kari Kuulasmaa, Burkhard Brückmann, Filip Berisha, Benedikt Schulte-Steinberg, Pekka Jousilahti, Stefan Blankenberg, Tarja Palosaari, Veikko Salomaa, Tanja Zeller
Most studies reporting on the association of circulating testosterone levels with type 2 diabetes in men are of cross-sectional design. Reports on the relevance of altered testosterone levels in women are scarce. Here, we evaluate the role of low serum testosterone levels for incident diabetes in men and women in a population setting of 7706 subjects (3896 females). During a mean follow up time of 13.8 years, 7.8% developed type 2 diabetes. Significant correlations of testosterone with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol ( R = 0...
August 20, 2018: Biomolecules
Jørn Bolstad Christensen
Donald A. Tomalia is one of the pioneers in the field of dendrimers, who is still active at the age of 80 years-old. The present contribution is a journey through his scientific contributions from the early beginning until his discovery of the poly(amidoamine), (PAMAM)-dendrimers.
August 20, 2018: Biomolecules
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