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Pathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897990/how-to-meet-the-last-oie-expert-surveillance-panel-recommendations-on-equine-influenza-ei-vaccine-composition-a-review-of-the-process-required-for-the-recombinant-canarypox-based-ei-vaccine
#1
REVIEW
Romain Paillot, Nicola L Rash, Dion Garrett, Leah Prowse-Davis, Fernando Montesso, Ann Cullinane, Laurent Lemaitre, Jean-Christophe Thibault, Sonia Wittreck, Agnes Dancer
Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule...
November 25, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869756/a-review-of-temperature-ph-and-other-factors-that-influence-the-survival-of-salmonella-in-mayonnaise-and-other-raw-egg-products
#2
REVIEW
Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne, Kirstin Ross, Howard Fallowfield, Harriet Whiley
Salmonellosis is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, with outbreaks predominately linked to contamination of eggs and raw egg products, such as mayonnaise. This review explores previous studies that have investigated Salmonella control mechanisms utilized in the production of raw egg mayonnaise and other food products. Apart from the use of pasteurized eggs, the main control mechanism identified is the pH of the raw egg products, which plays an important role in the consistency and stability while affecting the survival of Salmonella spp...
November 18, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869755/distribution-of-type-i-restriction-modification-systems-in-streptococcus-suis-an-outlook
#3
Niels Willemse, Constance Schultsz
Streptococcus suis is a porcine commensal and pathogen with zoonotic potential. We recently identified a novel Type I restriction-modification (R-M) system in a zoonotic S. suis clone which has emerged in the Netherlands. Here, we describe the DNA inversions in the specificity subunit of this system in S. suis serotype 2, clonal complex 20 and explain the absence of domain movement by the absence of repeats. In addition, we identified a core Type I R-M system present in 95% of the isolates and found an association of the distribution of Type I R-M systems in the S...
November 18, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754468/molecular-epidemiology-and-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-the-h3n8-equine-influenza-virus-in-south-america
#4
Cecilia Olguin Perglione, Marcelo D Golemba, Carolina Torres, Maria Barrandeguy
Equine influenza virus (EIV) is considered the most important respiratory pathogen of horses as outbreaks of the disease lead to substantial economic losses. The H3N8 EIV has caused respiratory disease in horses across the world, including South American countries. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the complete haemagglutinin gene of the H3N8 EIV detected in South America since 1963 were analyzed. Phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent analyses were carried out to study the origin, the time of the most recent common ancestors (tMRCA), the demographic and the phylogeographic patterns of the H3N8 EIV...
October 16, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706070/rt-qpcr-analysis-of-15-genes-encoding-putative-surface-proteins-involved-in-adherence-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#5
Hung King Tiong, Peter M Muriana
L. monocytogenes adherence to food-associated abiotic surfaces and the development of biofilms as one of the underlying reasons for the contamination of ready-to-eat products is well known. The over-expression of internalins that improves adherence has been noted in cells growing as attached cells or at elevated incubation temperatures. However, the role of other internalin-independent surface proteins as adhesins has been uncharacterized to date. Using two strains each of weakly- and strongly-adherent L. monocytogenes as platforms for temperature-dependent adherence assays and targeted mRNA analyses, these observations (i...
October 1, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706031/advocating-for-both-environmental-and-clinical-approaches-to-control-human-strongyloidiasis
#6
Meruyert Beknazarova, Harriet Whiley, Kirstin Ross
Strongyloidiasis is an underestimated disease caused by the soil-transmitted parasite of the genus Strongyloides. It is prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities and it is estimated that global infection could be as high as 370 million people. This paper explores current methods of strongyloidiasis treatment, which rely on administration of anthelminthic drugs. However these drugs cannot prevent reinfection and drug resistance has already been observed in veterinary models. This highlights the need for a combined approach for controlling Strongyloides that includes both clinical treatment and environmental control methods...
September 30, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649248/parasitic-nematode-immunomodulatory-strategies-recent-advances-and-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Dustin Cooper, Ioannis Eleftherianos
More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response...
September 14, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589809/the-influenza-ns1-protein-what-do-we-know-in-equine-influenza-virus-pathogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Marta Barba, Janet M Daly
Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon...
August 31, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517962/retrospective-analysis-of-the-equine-influenza-virus-a-equine-kirgizia-26-1974-h7n7-isolated-in-central-asia
#9
Kobey Karamendin, Aidyn Kydyrmanov, Marat Sayatov, Vitaliy Strochkov, Nurlan Sandybayev, Kulaysan Sultankulova
A retrospective phylogenetic characterization of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of equine influenza virus A/equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) which caused an outbreak in Kirgizia (a former Soviet Union republic, now Kyrgyzstan) in 1977 was conducted. It was defined that it was closely related to the strain London/1973 isolated in Europe and it shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity at 99% with it. This Central Asian equine influenza virus isolate did not have any specific genetic signatures and can be considered as an epizootic strain of 1974 that spread in Europe...
August 10, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509526/clearance-of-streptococcus-suis-in-stomach-contents-of-differently-fed-growing-pigs
#10
Franziska Warneboldt, Saara J Sander, Andreas Beineke, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Josef Kamphues, Christoph Georg Baums
Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions...
August 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527222/genomic-recombination-leading-to-decreased-virulence-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-a-mouse-model-of-adult-invasive-disease
#11
Sarah Teatero, Paul Lemire, Ken Dewar, Jessica Wasserscheid, Cynthia Calzas, Gustavo V Mallo, Aimin Li, Taryn B T Athey, Mariela Segura, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Adult invasive disease caused by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is increasing worldwide. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) now permits rapid identification of recombination events, a phenomenon that occurs frequently in GBS. Using WGS, we described that strain NGBS375, a capsular serotype V GBS isolate of sequence type (ST)297, has an ST1 genomic background but has acquired approximately 300 kbp of genetic material likely from an ST17 strain. Here, we examined the virulence of this strain in an in vivo model of GBS adult invasive infection...
August 5, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527221/modulation-of-human-airway-barrier-functions-during-burkholderia-thailandensis-and-francisella-tularensis-infection-running-title-airway-barrier-functions-during-bacterial-infections
#12
Cornelia Blume, Jonathan David, Rachel E Bell, Jay R Laver, Robert C Read, Graeme C Clark, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
The bronchial epithelium provides protection against pathogens from the inhaled environment through the formation of a highly-regulated barrier. In order to understand the pulmonary diseases melioidosis and tularemia caused by Burkholderia thailandensis and Fransicella tularensis, respectively, the barrier function of the human bronchial epithelium were analysed. Polarised 16HBE14o- or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were exposed to increasing multiplicities of infection (MOI) of B...
August 3, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483325/deliberate-establishment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-a-novel-strategy-to-prevent-recurrent-uti
#13
REVIEW
Björn Wullt, Catharina Svanborg
We have established a novel strategy to reduce the risk for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), where rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance poses a major threat. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) protects the host against symptomatic infections with more virulent strains. To mimic this protective effect, we deliberately establish ABU in UTI-prone patients, who are refractory to conventional therapy. The patients are inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) 83972, now widely used as a prototype ABU strain...
July 29, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455333/flps-the-fnr-like-protein-of-streptococcus-suis-is-an-essential-oxygen-sensing-activator-of-the-arginine-deiminase-system
#14
Jörg Willenborg, Anna Koczula, Marcus Fulde, Astrid de Greeff, Andreas Beineke, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Claudia Huber, Maren Seitz, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Ralph Goethe
Streptococcus (S.) suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene regulation in various bacteria. The role of CcpA in S. suis is well defined, but the function of the FNR-like protein of S. suis, FlpS, is yet unknown. Transcriptome analyses of wild-type S. suis and a flpS mutant strain suggested that FlpS is involved in the regulation of the central carbon, arginine degradation and nucleotide metabolism...
July 21, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420100/a-review-of-evidence-that-equine-influenza-viruses-are-zoonotic
#15
REVIEW
Tai Xie, Benjamin D Anderson, Ulziimaa Daramragchaa, Maitsetset Chuluunbaatar, Gregory C Gray
Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man...
July 12, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26742080/asymptomatic-bacteriuria-in-clinical-urological-practice-preoperative-control-of-bacteriuria-and-management-of-recurrent-uti
#16
Tommaso Cai, Sandra Mazzoli, Paolo Lanzafame, Patrizio Caciagli, Gianni Malossini, Gabriella Nesi, Florian M E Wagenlehner, Bela Köves, Robert Pickard, Magnus Grabe, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen, Riccardo Bartoletti
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. The reduction of antibiotic overuse for ABU is consequently an important issue for antimicrobial stewardship and to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. There are two issues in everyday urological practice that require special attention: the role of ABU in pre-operative prophylaxis and in women affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs). Nowadays, this is the time to think over our practice and change our way of thinking...
January 5, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420101/bacterial-suppression-of-rna-polymerase-ii-dependent-host-gene-expression
#17
Ines Ambite, Nataliya Lutay, Christoph Stork, Ulrich Dobrindt, Björn Wullt, Catharina Svanborg
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a bacterial carrier state in the urinary tract that resembles commensalism at other mucosal sites. ABU strains often lack the virulence factors that characterize uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains and therefore elicit weak innate immune responses in the urinary tract. In addition, ABU strains are active modifiers of the host environment, which they influence by suppressing RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent host gene expression. In patients inoculated with the ABU strain E...
2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409640/virulence-studies-of-different-sequence-types-and-geographical-origins-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-in-a-mouse-model-of-infection
#18
Jean-Philippe Auger, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano, Mariela Segura, Marcelo Gottschalk
Multilocus sequence typing previously identified three predominant sequence types (STs) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: ST1 strains predominate in Eurasia while North American (NA) strains are generally ST25 and ST28. However, ST25/ST28 and ST1 strains have also been isolated in Asia and NA, respectively. Using a well-standardized mouse model of infection, the virulence of strains belonging to different STs and different geographical origins was evaluated. Results demonstrated that although a certain tendency may be observed, S...
2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399785/recruitment-of-factor-h-to-the-streptococcus-suis-cell-surface-is-multifactorial
#19
David Roy, Daniel Grenier, Mariela Segura, Annabelle Mathieu-Denoncourt, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis is an important bacterial swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent. Recently, two surface proteins of S. suis, Fhb and Fhbp, have been described for their capacity to bind factor H-a soluble complement regulatory protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damages. Results obtained in this study showed an important role of host factor H in the adhesion of S. suis to epithelial and endothelial cells. Both Fhb and Fhbp play, to a certain extent, a role in such increased factor H-dependent adhesion...
2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376336/simultaneous-quantification-and-differentiation-of-streptococcus-suis-serotypes-2-and-9-by-quantitative-real-time-pcr-evaluated-in-tonsillar-and-nasal-samples-of-pigs
#20
Niels Dekker, Ineke Daemen, Koen Verstappen, Astrid de Greeff, Hilde Smith, Birgitta Duim
Invasive Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infections in pigs are often associated with serotypes 2 and 9. Mucosal sites of healthy pigs can be colonized with these serotypes, often multiple serotypes per pig. To unravel the contribution of these serotypes in pathogenesis and epidemiology, simultaneous quantification of serotypes is needed. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting cps2J (serotypes 2 and 1/2) and cps9H (serotype 9) was evaluated with nasal and tonsillar samples from S. suis exposed pigs. qPCR specifically detected serotypes in all pig samples...
2016: Pathogens
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