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Lucia Regina Cangussu da Silva
Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The virus can be found inside spermatozoa and could be directly transferred to the oocyte during fertilization. Sexual transmission of ZIKV can contribute to the rise in number of infected individuals in endemic areas as well as in countries where the mosquito vector does not thrive...
May 11, 2018: Pathogens
José Miguel Flores-Fernández, Vineet Rathod, Holger Wille
Pathogenic amyloids are the main feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Creutzfeldt⁻Jakob disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. High resolution structures of tau paired helical filaments (PHFs), amyloid-β(1-42) (Aβ(1-42)) fibrils, and α-synuclein fibrils were recently reported using cryo-electron microscopy. A high-resolution structure for the infectious prion protein, PrPSc , is not yet available due to its insolubility and its propensity to aggregate, but cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction, and other approaches have defined the overall architecture of PrPSc as a 4-rung β-solenoid...
May 4, 2018: Pathogens
Catalina Alfonso-Parra, Frank W Avila
The Zika virus (ZIKV), originally discovered in 1947, did not become a major concern until the virus swept across the Pacific and into the Americas in the last decade, bringing with it news of neurological complications and birth defects in ZIKV affected areas. This prompted researchers to dissect the molecular interactions between ZIKV and the mosquito vector in an attempt to better understand not only the changes that occur upon infection, but to also identify molecules that may potentially enhance or suppress a mosquito’s ability to become infected and/or transmit the virus...
May 3, 2018: Pathogens
Didier Salmon
Trypanosoma brucei , etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva ( Salivaria ). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC) that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs), rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA)...
April 25, 2018: Pathogens
Florie Desriac, Thomas Clamens, Thibaut Rosay, Sophie Rodrigues, Ali Tahrioui, Jérémy Enault, Lucille Roquigny, Pierre-Jean Racine, Laure Taupin, Alexis Bazire, Alain Dufour, Jérôme Leprince, Emeline Bouffartigues, Sylvie Chevalier, Marc G J Feuilloley, Olivier Lesouhaitier
We have previously shown that the C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), a peptide produced by lungs, is able to impact Pseudomonas aeruginosa physiology. In the present work, the effect of CNP at different concentrations on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was studied and the mechanisms of action of this human hormone on P. aeruginosa were deciphered. CNP was shown to inhibit dynamic biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the bacterial growth at any tested concentrations. The most effective concentrations were 1 and 0...
April 24, 2018: Pathogens
Konstantin P Alekseev, Aleksey A Penin, Alexey N Mukhin, Kizkhalum M Khametova, Tatyana V Grebennikova, Anton G Yuzhakov, Anna S Moskvina, Maria I Musienko, Sergey A Raev, Alexandr M Mishin, Alexandr P Kotelnikov, Oleg A Verkhovsky, Taras I Aliper, Eugeny A Nepoklonov, Diana M Herrera-Ibata, Frances K Shepherd, Douglas G Marthaler
An outbreak of enteric disease of unknown etiology with 60% morbidity and 8% mortality in weaning piglets occurred in November 2015 on a farm in Buryat Republic, Russia. Metagenomic sequencing revealed the presence of rotavirus B in feces from diseased piglets while no other pathogens were identified. Clinical disease was reproduced in experimentally infected piglets, yielding the 11 RVB gene segments for strain Buryat15, with an RVB genotype constellation of G12-P[4]-I13-R4-C4-M4-A8-N10-T4-E4-H7. This genotype constellation has also been identified in the United States...
April 20, 2018: Pathogens
Frances K Shepherd, Diana Maria Herrera-Ibata, Elizabeth Porter, Nitipong Homwong, Richard Hesse, Jianfa Bai, Douglas G Marthaler
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major etiological agent of acute viral gastroenteritis in humans and young animals, with rotavirus B (RVB) often detected in suckling and weaned pigs. Group A rotavirus classification is currently based on the two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, and the middle layer protein, VP6. Using RVB strains generated in this study and reference sequences from GenBank, pairwise identity frequency graphs and phylogenetic trees were constructed for the eleven gene segments of RVB to estimate the nucleotide identity cutoff values for different genotypes and determine the genotype diversity per gene segment...
April 18, 2018: Pathogens
Sarah Gildea, Marie Garvey, Pamela Lyons, Rachel Lyons, Jacinta Gahan, Cathal Walsh, Ann Cullinane
Equine influenza (EI) outbreaks occurred on 19 premises in Ireland during 2014. Disease affected thoroughbred (TB) and non-TB horses/ponies on a variety of premises including four racing yards. Initial clinical signs presented on 16 premises within a two-month period. Extensive field investigations were undertaken, and the diagnostic effectiveness of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay was demonstrated in regularly-vaccinated and sub-clinically-affected horses. Epidemiological data and repeat clinical samples were collected from 305 horses, of which 40% were reported as clinically affected, 39% were identified as confirmed cases and 11% were sub-clinically affected...
April 17, 2018: Pathogens
Carlos Chiluisa-Guacho, Javier Escobar-Perez, Marise Dutra-Asensi
Our aim was identify of the pandemic B2-ST131 Escherichia coli clone by to the Institute Pasteur and Achtman scheme, and investigate the resistance profile phenotypic-genotypic, with identification of class 1 integron. Of thirty-five ESBL-producing isolates recovered of patients with diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI), six E. coli strains serotype O25 were identified with resistance antimicrobial to several groups of antibiotics such as broad-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides, harboring blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes in all isolates and blaTEM in two isolates...
April 16, 2018: Pathogens
Tran Dang Khanh, Tran Dang Xuan
Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae causes serious stem canker in loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica ) trees. This study was conducted to determine whether plasmids are involved with its virulence. The strain NAE89, which belonged to the B group, harbored two plasmids at approximately 6.2 and 50 Mdal that caused stem canker and halo leaf spots on loquat plants. Following digestion with Bam HI and ligation into the Bam HI cloning site of the broad range host cosmid pLAFR3, four DNA fragments at 3.8, 6.6, 12.3, and 22...
April 14, 2018: Pathogens
Geok Wee Tan, Lydia Visser, Lu Ping Tan, Anke van den Berg, Arjan Diepstra
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) can cause a wide variety of cancers upon infection of different cell types and induces a highly variable composition of the tumor microenvironment (TME). This TME consists of both innate and adaptive immune cells and is not merely an aspecific reaction to the tumor cells. In fact, latent EBV-infected tumor cells utilize several specific mechanisms to form and shape the TME to their own benefit. These mechanisms have been studied largely in the context of EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma, undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and EBV+ gastric cancer...
April 13, 2018: Pathogens
Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
Catecholamine and serotonin are biogenic amines (BAs) that serve as neurotransmitters and play an important role in the regulation of cardinal functions that are mainly altered during central nervous system (CNS) infections. A total 92 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were classified into 4 groups based on their etiology. In these samples, BAs/neurotransmitters i.e., dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) were detected and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) to determine the neurophysiology of the CNS infections by bacteria ( Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm)) and herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
April 13, 2018: Pathogens
Sarmila Tandukar, Jeevan B Sherchand, Dinesh Bhandari, Samendra P Sherchan, Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Eiji Haramoto
Quantification of waterborne pathogens in water sources is essential for alerting the community about health hazards. This study determined the presence of human enteric viruses and protozoa in the Bagmati River, Nepal, and detected fecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli , and Enterococcus spp.), human-fecal markers (human Bacteroidales and JC and BK polyomaviruses), and index viruses (tobacco mosaic virus and pepper mild mottle virus). During a one-year period between October 2015 and September 2016, a total of 18 surface water samples were collected periodically from three sites along the river...
April 6, 2018: Pathogens
Pallavi Deol, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Shubhankar Sircar, Munish Batra, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
Rotavirus D (RV-D) is gaining importance as a cause of gastroenteritis and runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry. To date, information is scarce on the molecular analysis of RV-D isolates worldwide. In this study, the VP7 gene, a major constituent of outer capsid structural protein, from a RV-D isolate (UKD48) obtained from Uttarakhand state was analyzed. Phylogenetically, the RV-D isolate was found to be closely related to a South Korean strain, and the nucleotide percent identity varied from 80.4–84...
April 4, 2018: Pathogens
Letícia Marchese, Janaina de Freitas Nascimento, Flávia Silva Damasceno, Frédéric Bringaud, Paul A M Michels, Ariel Mariano Silber
Trypanosoma brucei , as well as Trypanosoma cruzi and more than 20 species of the genus Leishmania , form a group of flagellated protists that threaten human health. These organisms are transmitted by insects that, together with mammals, are their natural hosts. This implies that during their life cycles each of them faces environments with different physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological characteristics. In this work we review how amino acids are obtained from such environments, how they are metabolized, and how they and some of their intermediate metabolites are used as a survival toolbox to cope with the different conditions in which these parasites should establish the infections in the insects and mammalian hosts...
April 1, 2018: Pathogens
Gaochan Wang, Leigh Ann Feuerbacher, Philip R Hardwidge
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating host resistance to enteric pathogens. The relative abundance of the microbiota is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors. The attaching and effacing pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli , enterohemorrhagic E. coli , and Citrobacter rodentium cause diarrheal disease and translocate type III secretion system effector proteins into host cells to inhibit pro-inflammatory host responses. Here we determined the influence of both the intestinal microbiota and the expression of the C...
March 30, 2018: Pathogens
Christine Unterweger, Ursula Ruczizka, Joachim Spergser, Christoph Georg Baums, Isabel Hennig-Pauka
In newborn piglets treatment with long-acting ceftiofur is a common approach to reduce losses due to streptococcal diseases on farms, even if problems start after weaning. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a single early-life treatment on Streptococcus (S.) suis colonization, transmission, immunoreaction, and drug resistance over an observation period of 14 weeks. In a farm with a history of streptococcal disease and isolation of a S. suis cps 7 mrp +, arc A+ isolate from diseased piglets, half of each litter was treated with a long-acting ceftiofur on day 1...
March 29, 2018: Pathogens
Srinivasan Ramakrishnan, Beejan Asady, Roberto Docampo
Membrane contact sites are regions of close apposition between two organelles, typically less than 30 nanometers apart, that facilitate transfer of biomolecules. The presence of contact sites has been demonstrated in yeast, plants, and mammalian cells. Here, we investigated the presence of such contact sites in Trypanosoma brucei . In mammalian cells, endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact sites facilitate mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ released by the ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP₃R)...
March 22, 2018: Pathogens
Evelyn Rogerson, Julien Pelletier, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Clair Rose, Sarah Taylor, Scott Guimond, Marcelo Lima, Mark Skidmore, Edwin Yates
Tsetse flies are the principal insect vectors of African trypanosomes -sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. One of the tsetse fly species, Glossina morsitans morsitans , is host to the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei , a major cause of African trypanosomiasis. Precise details of the life cycle have yet to be established, but the parasite life cycle involves crossing the insect peritrophic matrix (PM). The PM consists of the polysaccharide chitin, several hundred proteins, and both glycosamino- and galactosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides...
March 19, 2018: Pathogens
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