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Pathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149024/the-role-of-the-mammalian-prion-protein-in-the-control-of-sleep
#1
REVIEW
Amber Roguski, Andrew C Gill
Sleep disruption is a prevalent clinical feature in many neurodegenerative disorders, including human prion diseases where it can be the defining dysfunction, as in the case of the "eponymous" fatal familial insomnia, or an early-stage symptom as in certain types of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is important to establish the role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), the key molecule involved in prion pathogenesis, within the sleep-wake system in order to understand fully the mechanisms underlying its contribution to both healthy circadian rhythmicity and sleep dysfunction during disease...
November 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137189/microscopic-and-molecular-tracing-of-cryptosporidium-oocysts-identifying-a-possible-reservoir-of-infection-in-red-grouse
#2
David Baines, Michaela Giles, Michael Richardson
Infection by Cryptosporidiumbaileyi causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis in red grouse Lagopuslagopusscotica. First diagnosed in 2010, it has since been detected across half of moors managed for grouse shooting in northern England. We hypothesised that contaminated grouse faeces within communal trays visited by grouse containing grit coated with flubendazole, provided to control Trichostrongylustenuis parasites of grouse, is a reservoir of infection. To establish the basis to this hypothesis, contents of 23 trays from a grouse moor were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts...
November 13, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099756/italian-physicians-opinions-on-rotavirus-vaccine-implementation
#3
Valentin Mita, Michele Arigliani, Laura Zaratti, Raffaele Arigliani, Elisabetta Franco
Rotavirus (RV) infection is the main cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (GE) in the pediatric population and has a major impact in both developing and industrialized countries. The reduction of severe RVGE cases, followed by death or hospitalization, is considered the main benefit of RV vaccination, even though its implementation often faces obstacles. In Italy, the recently approved National Immunization Plan aims to overcome the differences among regions, offering a universal free RV vaccination. The aim of the study was to evaluate the opinions on benefit and acceptability of RV vaccination related to the perception of the burden of RV disease...
November 3, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077018/the-role-of-cytoplasmic-mrna-cap-binding-protein-complexes-in-trypanosoma-brucei-and-other-trypanosomatids
#4
REVIEW
Eden R Freire, Nancy R Sturm, David A Campbell, Osvaldo P de Melo Neto
Trypanosomatid protozoa are unusual eukaryotes that are well known for having unusual ways of controlling their gene expression. The lack of a refined mode of transcriptional control in these organisms is compensated by several post-transcriptional control mechanisms, such as control of mRNA turnover and selection of mRNA for translation, that may modulate protein synthesis in response to several environmental conditions found in different hosts. In other eukaryotes, selection of mRNA for translation is mediated by the complex eIF4F, a heterotrimeric protein complex composed by the subunits eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF4A, where the eIF4E binds to the 5'-cap structure of mature mRNAs...
October 27, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072631/opportunistic-pathogens-and-microbial-communities-and-their-associations-with-sediment-physical-parameters-in-drinking-water-storage-tank-sediments
#5
Ke Qin, Ian Struewing, Jorge Santo Domingo, Darren Lytle, Jingrang Lu
The occurrence and densities of opportunistic pathogens (OPs), the microbial community structure, and their associations with sediment elements from eight water storage tanks in Ohio, West Virginia, and Texas were investigated. The elemental composition of sediments was measured through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. The occurrence and densities of OPs and amoeba hosts (i.e., Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., P. aeruginosa, V. vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp.) were determined using genus- or species-specific qPCR assays...
October 26, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064408/avian-group-d-rotaviruses-structure-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-perspectives-on-future-research-challenges
#6
Pallavi Deol, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Shubhankar Sircar, Souvik Ghosh, Krisztián Bányai, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
In 1981, a new virus (virus 132) was described for the first time with morphological and biochemical similarities to rotaviruses (RVs), but without antigenic similarity to any of the previously known rotavirus groups. Subsequently, it was re-designated as D/132, and formed a new serogroup among rotaviruses, the group D rotavirus (RVD). Since their identification, RVs are the leading cause of enteritis and diarrhea in humans and various animal species, and are also associated with abridged growth, particularly in avian species...
October 24, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064403/characterization-of-three-ocular-clinical-isolates-of-p-aeruginosa-viability-biofilm-formation-adherence-infectivity-and-effects-of-glycyrrhizin
#7
Xudong Peng, Sandamali A Ekanayaka, Sharon A McClellan, Ronald P Barrett, Kerry Vistisen, Linda D Hazlett
We selectively characterized three isolates from Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis patients and how glycyrrhizin (GLY) affected them. Type III toxins were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of GLY and assays for its effects on: time kill, bacterial permeability, and biofilm/adhesion were done. In vivo, C57BL/6 (B6) mice were treated topically with GLY after G81007 infection. Clinical score, photography with a slit lamp and RT-PCR were used to assess treatment effects...
October 24, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065453/an-update-on-the-sociomicrobiology-of-quorum-sensing-in-gram-negative-biofilm-development
#8
REVIEW
Daniel Passos da Silva, Melissa C Schofield, Matthew R Parsek, Boo Shan Tseng
Bacteria are social creatures that are able to interact and coordinate behaviors with each other in a multitude of ways. The study of such group behaviors in microbes was coined "sociomicrobiology" in 2005. Two such group behaviors in bacteria are quorum sensing (QS) and biofilm formation. At a very basic level, QS is the ability to sense bacterial density via cell-to-cell signaling using self-produced signals called autoinducers, and biofilms are aggregates of cells that are attached to one another via a self-produced, extracellular matrix...
October 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057796/six-years-2011-2016-of-mandatory-nationwide-bovine-viral-diarrhea-control-in-germany-a-success-story
#9
Kerstin Wernike, Jörn Gethmann, Horst Schirrmeier, Ronald Schröder, Franz J Conraths, Martin Beer
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases in cattle, causing major economic losses worldwide. Therefore, control programs have been implemented in several countries. In Germany, an obligatory nationwide eradication program has been in force since 2011. Its centerpiece is the detection of animals persistently infected (PI) with BVD virus, primarily based on the testing of ear tissue samples of all newborn calves for viral genome or antigen, and their removal from the cattle population...
October 18, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027940/zika-virus-persistently-and-productively-infects-primary-adult-sensory-neurons-in-vitro
#10
Brianna K Swartwout, Marta G Zlotnick, Ashley E Saver, Caroline M McKenna, Andrea S Bertke
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently surged in human populations, causing an increase in congenital and Guillain-Barré syndromes. While sexual transmission and presence of ZIKV in urine, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva have been established, the origin of persistent virus shedding into biological secretions is not clear. Using a primary adult murine neuronal culture model, we have determined that ZIKV persistently and productively infects sensory neurons of the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, which innervate glands and mucosa of the face and the genitourinary tract, respectively, without apparent injury...
October 13, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019921/persistence-of-norovirus-gii-genome-in-drinking-water-and-wastewater-at-different-temperatures
#11
Ari Kauppinen, Ilkka T Miettinen
Human norovirus (NoV) causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide suggesting their ability to persist and survive for extended periods in the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the persistence of the NoV GII genome in drinking water and wastewater at three different temperatures (3 °C, 21 °C, and 36 °C). The persistence of two NoV GII inoculums (extracted from stool) and an indigenous NoV GII were studied. The samples were collected for up to one year from drinking water and for up to 140 days from wastewater...
October 11, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981471/microfluidics-based-approaches-to-the-isolation-of-african-trypanosomes
#12
Michael P Barrett, Jonathan M Cooper, Clément Regnault, Stefan H Holm, Jason P Beech, Jonas O Tegenfeldt, Axel Hochstetter
African trypanosomes are responsible for significant levels of disease in both humans and animals. The protozoan parasites are free-living flagellates, usually transmitted by arthropod vectors, including the tsetse fly. In the mammalian host they live in the bloodstream and, in the case of human-infectious species, later invade the central nervous system. Diagnosis of the disease requires the positive identification of parasites in the bloodstream. This can be particularly challenging where parasite numbers are low, as is often the case in peripheral blood...
October 5, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953248/effect-of-simultaneous-exposure-of-pigs-to-streptococcus-suis-serotypes-2-and-9-on-their-colonization-and-transmission-and-on-mortality
#13
Niels Dekker, Annemarie Bouma, Ineke Daemen, Hans Vernooij, Leo van Leengoed, Jaap A Wagenaar, Arjan Stegeman
The distribution of Streptococcus suis serotypes isolated from clinically infected pigs differs between geographical areas, and varies over time. In several European countries, predomination of serotype 2 has changed to serotype 9. We hypothesize a relation, with one serotype affecting the other in colonization and invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether simultaneous exposure of pigs to serotypes 2 and 9 affects colonization and transmission of each type, and mortality. Thirty-six caesarean-derived/colostrum-deprived piglets were randomly assigned to three groups, and there housed pair-wise...
September 27, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946689/the-use-of-hyperimmune-chicken-reference-sera-is-not-appropriate-for-the-validation-of-influenza-pseudotype-neutralization-assays
#14
Francesca Ferrara, Eleonora Molesti, Simon Scott, Giovanni Cattoli, Nigel Temperton
The pseudotype particle neutralization test (pp-NT) is a next-generation serological assay employed for the sensitive study of influenza antibody responses against hemagglutinin (HA), including stalk-directed antibodies. However, a validation of this assay has yet to be performed, and this limits its use to primarily research laboratories. To identify possible serological standards to be used in optimization and validation of the pp-NT, we have evaluated the cross-reactivity of hyperimmune chicken reference antisera in this assay...
September 25, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930155/identification-of-agents-active-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-from-a-clinical-compound-library
#15
Hongxia Niu, Rebecca Yee, Peng Cui, Lili Tian, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, David Sullivan, Bingdong Zhu, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a significant threat for effective treatment of several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. To identify potential new treatment options for MRSA infections, we screened a clinical compound library consisting of 1524 compounds using a growth inhibition assay in 96-well plates. We identified 34 agents which are either bacteriostatic or bactericidal against log-phase clinical MRSA strain USA300. Among them, 9 candidates (thonzonium, cetylpyridinium, trilocarban, benzododecinium, bithionol, brilliant green, chlorquinaldol, methylbenzethonium and green violet) are known antiseptics, 11 candidates are known antibiotics currently recommended for the treatment of MRSA...
September 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927006/emerging-roles-of-heparanase-in-viral-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Neel Thakkar, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Dinesh Jaishankar, Deepak Shukla
Heparan sulfate (HS) is ubiquitously expressed on mammalian cells. It is a polysaccharide that binds growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines, and thereby controls several important physiological functions. Ironically, many human pathogens including viruses interact with it for adherence to host cells. HS functions can be regulated by selective modifications and/or selective cleavage of the sugar chains from the cell surface. In mammals, heparanase (HPSE) is the only known enzyme capable of regulating HS functions via a selective endoglycosidase activity that cleaves polymeric HS chains at internal sites...
September 18, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906463/inhibition-of-adherence-of-mycobacterium-avium-to-plumbing-surface-biofilms-of-methylobacterium-spp
#17
Mari Carmen Muñoz Egea, Pan Ji, Amy Pruden, Joseph O Falkinham Iii
Both Mycobacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens that are found on pipe surfaces in households. However, examination of data published in prior microbiological surveys indicates that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. tend not to coexist in the same household plumbing biofilms. That evidence led us to test the hypothesis that Methylobacterium spp. in biofilms could inhibit the adherence of Mycobacterium avium. Measurements of adherence of M. avium cells to stainless steel coupons using both culture and PCR-based methods showed that the presence of Methylobacterium spp...
September 14, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869552/listeria-monocytogenes-biofilms-in-the-wonderland-of-food-industry
#18
REVIEW
Angelo Colagiorgi, Ilaria Bruini, Pierluigi Aldo Di Ciccio, Emanuela Zanardi, Sergio Ghidini, Adriana Ianieri
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a concern in food safety because of its ability to form biofilm and to persist in food industry. In this mini-review, the issue represented by this pathogen and some of the latest efforts performed in order to investigate the composition of biofilms formed by L. monocytogenes are summarized.
September 4, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869524/hpv16-e6-and-e7-upregulate-interferon-induced-antiviral-response-genes-isg15-and-ifit1-in-human-trophoblast-cells
#19
Lea M M Ambühl, Annemarie B Villadsen, Ulrik Baandrup, Karen Dybkær, Suzette Sørensen
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is suggested to infect trophoblasts in the placenta, and HPV infections are reported to be more prevalent in pregnancies with adverse outcomes. Results are however controversial, and studies investigating the molecular consequences of placental HPV infections are lacking. We studied HPV DNA localization in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortion/spontaneous preterm delivery as well as in elective abortion/normal full-term delivery. Using in vitro assays, we investigated downstream effects of HPV16 E6 and E7 expression in trophoblast cells at the gene expression level in order to gain increased biological insight into the interaction between HPV and the cellular host...
September 3, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837104/the-lipid-raft-proteome-of-african-trypanosomes-contains-many-flagellar-proteins
#20
Aabha I Sharma, Cheryl L Olson, David M Engman
Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered membrane microdomains that form by preferential association of 3-β-hydroxysterols, sphingolipids and raft-associated proteins often having acyl modifications. We isolated lipid rafts of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei and determined the protein composition of lipid rafts in the cell. This analysis revealed a striking enrichment of flagellar proteins and several putative signaling proteins in the lipid raft proteome. Calpains and intraflagellar transport proteins, in particular, were found to be abundant in the lipid raft proteome...
August 24, 2017: Pathogens
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