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Savannah E R Gibson, James Harrison, Jonathan A G Cox
Tuberculosis (TB) is the primary cause of death by a single infectious agent; responsible for around two million deaths in 2016. A major virulence factor of TB is the ability to enter a latent or Non-Replicating Persistent (NRP) state which is presumed untreatable. Approximately 1.7 billion people are latently infected with TB and on reactivation many of these infections are drug resistant. As the current treatment is ineffective and diagnosis remains poor, millions of people have the potential to reactivate into active TB disease...
November 15, 2018: Pathogens
Miaomiao Wu, Philip R Hardwidge
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into host cells. The EHEC NleH1 effector inhibits the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway by reducing the nuclear translocation of the ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3). NleH1 prevents RPS3 phosphorylation by the IκB kinase-β (IKKβ). IKKβ is a central kinase in the NF-κB pathway, yet NleH1 only restricts the phosphorylation of a subset of the IKKβ substrates...
November 13, 2018: Pathogens
Miaomiao Wu, Samir El Qaidi, Philip R Hardwidge
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems to deliver virulence proteins (effectors) into host cells to counteract innate immunity. The ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3) guides NF-κB subunits to specific κB sites and plays an important role in the innate response to bacterial infection. Two E. coli effectors inhibit RPS3 nuclear translocation. NleH1 inhibits RPS3 phosphorylation by IKK-β, an essential aspect of the RPS3 nuclear translocation process. NleC proteolysis of p65 generates an N-terminal p65 fragment that competes for full-length p65 binding to RPS3, thus also inhibiting RPS3 nuclear translocation...
November 7, 2018: Pathogens
Shuang-Chun Li, Wei-da Zeng, Xing-Wei Li, Xiao-Yun Zhou, Qiong-Guang Liu
Anthurium blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae ( Xad ), is one of the most serious diseases of Anthurium andraeanum. However, little is known about variations in virulence between Xad pathotypes. Here, we examined the virulence of 68 Xad strains isolated from 30 anthurium plants from five regions of China against five different anthurium cultivars. Seven bacterial pathotypes were identified based on disease index and incidence analyses following foliar spray or leaf-clip inoculation. The resulting disease susceptibility patterns for pathotypes I⁻VII were RRRSS, RRSRS, RSRSR, RRSSS, RSSRS, RSSSS, and SSSSS, respectively...
November 6, 2018: Pathogens
Juan Carlos Zapata, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Camila Guzmán-Cardozo, Maria S Salvato
In 2017, the global Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness (CEPI) declared Lassa virus disease to be one of the world's foremost biothreats. In January 2018, World Health Organization experts met to address the Lassa biothreat. It was commonly recognized that the diversity of Lassa virus (LASV) isolated from West African patient samples was far greater than that of the Ebola isolates from the West African epidemic of 2013⁻2016. Thus, vaccines produced against Lassa virus disease face the added challenge that they must be broadly-protective against a wide variety of LASV...
October 28, 2018: Pathogens
Martin P A Coetzee, Brenda D Wingfield, Michael J Wingfield
This review considers current knowledge surrounding species boundaries of the Armillaria root-rot pathogens and their distribution. In addition, a phylogenetic tree using translation elongation factor subunit 1-alpha ( tef -1α) from isolates across the globe are used to present a global phylogenetic framework for the genus. Defining species boundaries based on DNA sequence-inferred phylogenies has been a central focus of contemporary mycology. The results of such studies have in many cases resolved the biogeographic history of species, mechanisms involved in dispersal, the taxonomy of species and how certain phenotypic characteristics have evolved throughout lineage diversification...
October 24, 2018: Pathogens
Erminia La Camera, Carlo Bisignano, Giuseppe Crisafi, Antonella Smeriglio, Marcella Denaro, Domenico Trombetta, Giuseppina Mandalari
We characterized a number of clinical strains of Staphylococcus spp. and investigated their sensitivity against polyphenols-rich extracts from natural raw and roasted pistachios (NPRE and RPRE, respectively). Out of 31 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp., 23 were coagulase-positive and identified as S. aureus , of which 21 were MRSA. Polyphenols-rich extracts from natural pistachios and roasted pistachios were prepared: the total phenols content, expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight (FW), was higher in natural pistachios (359...
October 22, 2018: Pathogens
Michelle E H Thompson, Manish N Raizada
Silks are the long threads at the tips of maize ears onto which pollen land and sperm nuclei travel long distances to fertilize egg cells, giving rise to embryos and seeds; however fungal pathogens also use this route to invade developing grain, causing damaging ear rots with dangerous mycotoxins. This review highlights the importance of silks as the direct highways by which globally important fungal pathogens enter maize kernels. First, the most important silk-entering fungal pathogens in maize are reviewed, including Fusarium graminearum , Fusarium verticillioides , and Aspergillus flavus , and their mycotoxins...
October 11, 2018: Pathogens
Karen Hunt, Marjorie Blanc, Avelino Álvarez-Ordóñez, Kieran Jordan
: Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a relatively rare, but potentially fatal, disease, with a mortality rate of 20⁻30%. In general, European Regulations require the absence of L. monocytogenes in five samples of 25 g before the food has left the producer, but if the food has been demonstrated not to support the growth of L. monocytogenes , up to 100 cfu g-1 are allowed in the food (except for foods for infants or medical purposes) during its shelf-life under reasonably foreseeable storage conditions...
October 5, 2018: Pathogens
Myra D Williams, Joseph O Falkinham
Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is widely used to decontaminate water samples for the cultivation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The rationale for using CPC is that it kills more non mycobacteria than NTM and thereby prevents the outgrowth and detection of mycobacterial colonies on solid media. The few CPC-susceptibility measurements that have been published, suggest that CPC-decontamination does kill significant numbers of NTM. We confirm that observation here and further demonstrate that CPC-susceptibility varied significantly by one log between representative NTM species and between strains of the same species...
October 5, 2018: Pathogens
Indeevari A C Wickremsinghe, Vinod R M T Balasubramaniam, Y Yik Mot, Amreeta Dhanoa, Sharifah S Hassan
Dengue virus (DENV) results in 100 million cases of infections and 22,000 deaths per year. Liver involvement, thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage and plasma leakage are characteristic manifestations of severe forms of DENV infection. However, the molecular pathways of DENV infection have not been comprehensively studied compared to the host immunological responses. We performed an in vivo study using the BALB/c mouse model with a modified mRNA differential display methodology (GeneFishingTM ) using the annealing control primer (ACP) system to capture differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in mice liver upon primary infection with DENV1 and sequential heterologous infection with DENV2...
October 2, 2018: Pathogens
Benjamin M Dorsey, Cynthia L Cass, David L Cedeño, Ricardo Vallejo, Marjorie A Jones
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease with 1.6 million new cases reported each year. However, there are few safe, effective, and affordable treatments provided to those affected by this disease. Still under-appreciated as potential pharmaceutical targets, especially for cutaneous leishmaniasis infections, are the two isozymes of secreted acid phosphatase (SAP). These enzymes are involved in the survival of the parasite in the sand fly vector, and in infecting host macrophages. While the application of electric or electromagnetic fields as a medicinal therapeutic is not new, the utility of electric field application for the treatment of leishmaniasis is under studied...
September 27, 2018: Pathogens
An Ceustermans, Wendy Van Hemelrijck, Jelle Van Campenhout, Dany Bylemans
A major problem in fruit cultivation in Flanders is replant disease due to a lack of uncultivated soils available for new plantings. Replant disease can cause poor growth and affect time to full production, however Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can prove their usefulness with regard to these problems. To further investigate the effect of AMF on nematodes, different AMF species were amended to potted apple seedlings in the presence of the nematode Pratylenchus penetrans . Generally, apple seedlings grew better in the presence of nematodes when mycorrhiza were inoculated into the soil...
September 21, 2018: Pathogens
Wadha Alfouzan, Rita Dhar, David P Nicolau
Limited data are available on susceptibilities of these organisms to some of the recently made accessible antimicrobial agents. The in vitro activities of newer antibiotics, such as, ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) and ceftazidime/avibactam (CZA) along with some "older" antibiotics, for example fosfomycin (FOS) and colistin (CL) were determined against selected strains (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial agents) of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution...
September 17, 2018: Pathogens
Jingwei Guo, Gongjun Shi, Zhaohui Liu
The fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis ( Ptr ) causes tan spot of wheat crops, which is an important disease worldwide. Based on the production of the three known necrotrophic effectors (NEs), the fungal isolates are classified into eight races with race 4 producing no known NEs. From a laboratory cross between 86⁻124 (race 2 carrying the ToxA gene for the production of Ptr ToxA) and DW5 (race 5 carrying the ToxB gene for the production of Ptr ToxB), we have obtained some Ptr isolates lacking both the ToxA and ToxB genes, which, by definition, should be classified as race 4...
September 12, 2018: Pathogens
J Luis Espinoza, Suzue Ai, Itaru Matsumura
Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a chronic vasculitis that mainly affects the aorta, its major branches, and the pulmonary arteries. Since the description of the first case by Mikito Takayasu in 1908, several aspects of this rare disease, including the epidemiology, diagnosis, and the appropriate clinical assessment, have been substantially defined. Nevertheless, while it is well-known that TAK is associated with a profound inflammatory process, possibly rooted to an autoimmune disorder, its precise etiology has remained largely unknown...
September 6, 2018: Pathogens
Benjamín Herreros, Isabel Plaza, Rebeca García, Marta Chichón, Carmen Guerrero, Emilio Pintor
An immunocompetent 82-year-old female was admitted to our hospital due to fever without clear origin and hyponatremia. In the following days, an acute and bilateral pulmonary infiltrate appeared with a progressive worsening in respiratory function. Chest x-ray and CT (Computed tomography) showed bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates. Bronchoscopic aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBBX) studies did not reveal microbiological and histopathological diagnosis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were non-effective, and the patient died due to respiratory failure...
September 5, 2018: Pathogens
Beatrice Casini, Benedetta Tuvo, Michele Totaro, Francesco Aquino, Angelo Baggiani, Gaetano Privitera
In healthcare facilities, environmental surfaces may be a reservoir of infectious agents even though cleaning and disinfection practices play a role in the control of healthcare-associated infections. In this study, the effectiveness of cleaning/disinfection procedures has been evaluated in two hospital areas, which have different risk category classifications. According to the contract with the cleaning service, after the daily ambulatory activities, the housekeeping staff apply an alcohol-based detergent followed by a chlorine-based disinfectant (2% Antisapril, Angelini; 540 mg/L active chlorine), properly diluted and sprayed...
August 31, 2018: Pathogens
Shawna M Woollard, Omalla A Olwenyi, Debashis Dutta, Rajnish S Dave, Saumi Mathews, Santhi Gorantla, Noel Johnson, Luis Giavedoni, Robert B Norgren, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites. It can also be transmitted during sexual intercourse and in utero from mother to fetus. To gain preliminary insight into ZIKV pathology and immune responses on route of transmission, rhesus macaques (RMs) were inoculated with ZIKV (PRVABC59) via intravaginal (IVAG) ( n = 3) or subcutaneous (sub Q) ( n = 2) routes. Systemic ZIKV infection was observed in all RMs, regardless of the route of inoculation. After 9 days postinfection (dpi), ZIKV was not detected in the plasma of IVAG- and sub-Q-inoculated RMs...
August 20, 2018: Pathogens
Lucio Ayres Caldas, Wanderley de Souza
The Toxoplasma gondii cellular cycle has been widely studied in many lifecycle stages; however, the egress event still is poorly understood even though different types of molecules were shown to be involved. Assuming that there is no purpose or intentionality in biological phenomena, there is no such question as "Why does the parasite leaves the host cell", but "Under what conditions and how?". In this review we aimed to summarize current knowledge concerning T. gondii egress physiology (signalling pathways), structures, and route...
August 14, 2018: Pathogens
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