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Pathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342100/modulation-of-the-fungal-host-interaction-by-the-intra-species-diversity-of-c-albicans
#1
REVIEW
Christina Braunsdorf, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The incidence of human infections caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. The importance of the immune system in preventing overgrowth of the colonizing fungus and thereby limiting infection is well recognized and host protective mechanisms widely investigated. Only recently, it was recognized that the natural diversity in the fungal species could also influence the outcome of the interaction between the fungus and the host...
January 17, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324702/listeria-monocytogenes-the-impact-of-cell-death-on-infection-and-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Courtney E McDougal, John-Demian Sauer
Listeria monocytogenes has evolved exquisite mechanisms for invading host cells and spreading from cell-to-cell to ensure maintenance of its intracellular lifecycle. As such, it is not surprising that loss of the intracellular replication niche through induction of host cell death has significant implications on the development of disease and the subsequent immune response. Although L. monocytogenes can activate multiple pathways of host cell death, including necrosis, apoptosis, and pyroptosis, like most intracellular pathogens L...
January 11, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320451/the-pathogenesis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-eye-infections
#3
REVIEW
Richard J O'Callaghan
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of the eye able to infect the tear duct, eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior and posterior chambers, and the vitreous chamber. Of these infections, those involving the cornea (keratitis) or the inner chambers of the eye (endophthalmitis) are the most threatening because of their potential to cause a loss in visual acuity or even blindness. Each of these ocular sites is protected by the constitutive expression of a variety of antimicrobial factors and these defenses are augmented by a protective host response to the organism...
January 10, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316615/what-could-be-the-role-of-antifungal-lock-solutions-from-bench-to-bedside
#4
REVIEW
Christine Imbert, Blandine Rammaert
Candidemia related to the presence of a biofilm are often reported in patients with vascular catheters. Once they are mature, biofilms are persistent infectious reservoirs, and the yeasts dispersed from biofilms can cause infections. Sessile yeasts typically display increased levels of resistance to most antimicrobial agents and systemic treatments usually fail to eradicate previously formed fungal biofilms. In a curative strategy, antifungal lock therapy may help to sterilize catheters, with very high concentrations of antifungal agents, which are not compatible with systemic use...
January 6, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316613/limited-interactions-between-streptococcus-suis-and-haemophilus-parasuis-in-in-vitro-co-infection-studies
#5
Annabelle Mathieu-Denoncourt, Corinne Letendre, Jean-Philippe Auger, Mariela Segura, Virginia Aragon, Sonia Lacouture, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are normal inhabitants of the porcine upper respiratory tract but are also among the most frequent causes of disease in weaned piglets worldwide, causing inflammatory diseases such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia. Using an in vitro model of infection with tracheal epithelial cells or primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), it was possible to determine the interaction between S. suis serotype 2 and H. parasuis strains with different level of virulence. Within H...
January 6, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301257/prion-strains-and-transmission-barrier-phenomena
#6
REVIEW
Angélique Igel-Egalon, Vincent Béringue, Human Rezaei, Pierre Sibille
Several experimental evidences show that prions are non-conventional pathogens, which physical support consists only in proteins. This finding raised questions regarding the observed prion strain-to-strain variations and the species barrier that happened to be crossed with dramatic consequences on human health and veterinary policies during the last 3 decades. This review presents a focus on a few advances in the field of prion structure and prion strains characterization: from the historical approaches that allowed the concept of prion strains to emerge, to the last results demonstrating that a prion strain may in fact be a combination of a few quasi species with subtle biophysical specificities...
January 1, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295589/pqsa-promotes-pyoverdine-production-via-biofilm-formation
#7
Donghoon Kang, Kelly E Turner, Natalia V Kirienko
Biofilms create an impermeable barrier against antimicrobial treatment and immune cell access, severely complicating treatment and clearance of nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. We recently reported that biofilm also contributes to pathogen virulence by regulating the production of the siderophore pyoverdine. In this study, we investigated the role of PqsA, a key cell-signaling protein, in this regulatory pathway. We demonstrate that PqsA promotes pyoverdine production in a biofilm-dependent manner...
December 25, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295550/lessons-learned-from-protective-immune-responses-to-optimize-vaccines-against-cryptosporidiosis
#8
REVIEW
Maxime W Lemieux, Karine Sonzogni-Desautels, Momar Ndao
In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis causes moderate-to-severe diarrhea and kills thousands of infants and toddlers annually. Drinking and recreational water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts has led to waterborne outbreaks in developed countries. A competent immune system is necessary to clear this parasitic infection. A better understanding of the immune responses required to prevent or limit infection by this protozoan parasite is the cornerstone of development of an effective vaccine...
December 24, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271903/multifaceted-defense-against-listeria-monocytogenes-in-the-gastro-intestinal-lumen
#9
REVIEW
Simone Becattini, Eric G Pamer
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause febrile gastroenteritis in healthy subjects and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the high prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the environment and frequent contamination of uncooked meat and poultry products, infections with this pathogen are relatively uncommon, suggesting that protective defenses in the general population are effective. In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, a variety of defense mechanisms prevent L...
December 22, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29257110/prebiotic-oligosaccharides-potentiate-host-protective-responses-against-l-monocytogenes-infection
#10
Poyin Chen, Taylor Reiter, Bihua Huang, Nguyet Kong, Bart C Weimer
Prebiotic oligosaccharides are used to modulate enteric pathogens and reduce pathogen shedding. The interactions with prebiotics that alter Listeria monocytogenes infection are not yet clearly delineated. L. monocytogenes cellular invasion requires a concerted manipulation of host epithelial cell membrane receptors to initiate internalization and infection often via receptor glycosylation. Bacterial interactions with host glycans are intimately involved in modulating cellular responses through signaling cascades at the membrane and in intracellular compartments...
December 19, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240682/recombinant-prp-and-its-contribution-to-research-on-transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathies
#11
REVIEW
Jorge M Charco, Hasier Eraña, Vanessa Venegas, Sandra García-Martínez, Rafael López-Moreno, Ezequiel González-Miranda, Miguel Ángel Pérez-Castro, Joaquín Castilla
The misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) and its accumulation as amyloid fibrils in the central nervous system is one of the central events in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Due to the proteinaceous nature of the causal agent the molecular mechanisms of misfolding, interspecies transmission, neurotoxicity and strain phenomenon remain mostly ill-defined or unknown. Significant advances were made using in vivo and in cellula models, but the limitations of these, primarily due to their inherent complexity and the small amounts of PrPSc that can be obtained, gave rise to the necessity of new model systems...
December 14, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231886/feed-intake-and-weight-changes-in-bos-indicus-bos-taurus-crossbred-steers-following-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-1b-challenge-under-production-conditions
#12
Chase A Runyan, Erika D Downey-Slinker, Julia F Ridpath, Thomas B Hairgrove, Jason E Sawyer, Andy D Herring
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV), killed, (KV) or no vaccine (NON). Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge...
December 12, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231855/differences-of-rotavirus-vaccine-effectiveness-by-country-likely-causes-and-contributing-factors
#13
REVIEW
Ulrich Desselberger
Rotaviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide and in many other mammalian and avian host species. Since 2006, two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, have been licensed in >100 countries and are applied as part of extended program of vaccination (EPI) schemes of childhood vaccinations. Whereas the vaccines have been highly effective in high-income countries, they were shown to be considerably less potent in low- and middle-income countries...
December 12, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207506/longitudinal-surveillance-of-porcine-rotavirus-b-strains-from-the-united-states-and-canada-and-in-silico-identification-of-antigenically-important-sites
#14
Frances K Shepherd, Michael P Murtaugh, Fangzhou Chen, Marie R Culhane, Douglas G Marthaler
Rotavirus B (RVB) is an important swine pathogen, but control and prevention strategies are limited without an available vaccine. To develop a subunit RVB vaccine with maximal effect, we characterized the amino acid sequence variability and predicted antigenicity of RVB viral protein 7 (VP7), a major neutralizing antibody target, from clinically infected pigs in the United States and Canada. We identified genotype-specific antigenic sites that may be antibody neutralization targets. While some antigenic sites had high amino acid functional group diversity, nine antigenic sites were completely conserved...
December 3, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194382/liposomal-and-deoxycholate-amphotericin-b-formulations-effectiveness-against-biofilm-infections-of-candida-spp
#15
Célia F Rodrigues, Mariana Henriques
BACKGROUND: candidiasis is the primary fungal infection encountered in patients undergoing prolonged hospitalization, and the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. One of the most important Candida spp. virulence factors is the ability to form biofilms, which are extremely refractory to antimicrobial therapy and very difficult to treat with the traditional antifungal therapies. It is known that the prophylaxis or treatment of a systemic candidiasis are recurrently taken without considering the possibility of a Candida spp...
December 1, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194372/what-is-our-current-understanding-of-prpsc-associated-neurotoxicity-and-its-molecular-underpinnings
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Hughes, Mark Halliday
The prion diseases are a collection of fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that cause rapid onset dementia and ultimately death. Uniquely, the infectious agent is a misfolded form of the endogenous cellular prion protein, termed PrPSc. Despite the identity of the molecular agent remaining the same, PrPSc can cause a range of diseases with hereditary, spontaneous or iatrogenic aetiologies. However, the link between PrPSc and toxicity is complex, with subclinical cases of prion disease discovered, and prion neurodegeneration without obvious PrPSc deposition...
December 1, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189713/low-prevalence-of-enzootic-equine-influenza-virus-among-horses-in-mongolia
#17
Alexandra Sack, Ulziimaa Daramragchaa, Maitsetseg Chuluunbaatar, Battsetseg Gonchigoo, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Nyamdorj Tsogbadrakh, Gregory C Gray
Horses are critically important for Mongolian herders' livelihoods, providing transportation and food products, and playing important cultural roles. Equine influenza virus (EIV) epizootics have been frequent among Mongolia's horses, with five occurring since 1970. We sought to estimate the prevalence for EIV infection among horses and Bactrian camels with influenza-like illness between national epizootics. In 2016-2017, active surveillance for EIV was periodically performed in four aimags (provinces). Nasal swabs were collected from 680 horses and 131 camels...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186791/how-do-prpsc-prions-spread-between-host-species-and-within-hosts
#18
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
Prion diseases are sub-acute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and some domestic and free-ranging animals. Infectious prion agents are considered to comprise solely of abnormally folded isoforms of the cellular prion protein known as PrPSc. Pathology during prion disease is restricted to the central nervous system where it causes extensive neurodegeneration and ultimately leads to the death of the host. The first half of this review provides a thorough account of our understanding of the various ways in which PrPSc prions may spread between individuals within a population, both horizontally and vertically...
November 24, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156605/performance-indices-in-wheat-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-and-protein-quality-influenced-by-fhb
#19
Valentina Spanic, Marija Viljevac Vuletic, Georg Drezner, Zvonimir Zdunic, Daniela Horvat
Very little is known about the physiological interactions between wheat quality and Fusarium head blight (FHB), which substantially reduces wheat grain yield and quality worldwide. In order to investigate stress-induced changes in flag leaves from plants artificially inoculated with Fusarium, we screened for chlorophyll a fluorescence transient at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after Fusarium inoculation. Our results indicate that the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and the performance index (PI) were not affected by FHB, but there were significant differences in those two traits between different varieties and measurement times...
November 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149024/the-role-of-the-mammalian-prion-protein-in-the-control-of-sleep
#20
REVIEW
Amber Roguski, Andrew C Gill
Sleep disruption is a prevalent clinical feature in many neurodegenerative disorders, including human prion diseases where it can be the defining dysfunction, as in the case of the "eponymous" fatal familial insomnia, or an early-stage symptom as in certain types of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is important to establish the role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), the key molecule involved in prion pathogenesis, within the sleep-wake system in order to understand fully the mechanisms underlying its contribution to both healthy circadian rhythmicity and sleep dysfunction during disease...
November 17, 2017: Pathogens
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