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Wadha Alfouzan, Rita Dhar, David P Nicolau
Limited data are available on susceptibilities of these organisms to some of the recently made accessible antimicrobial agents. The in vitro activities of newer antibiotics, such as, ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) and ceftazidime/avibactam (CZA) along with some "older" antibiotics, for example fosfomycin (FOS) and colistin (CL) were determined against selected strains (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial agents) of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution...
September 17, 2018: Pathogens
Jingwei Guo, Gongjun Shi, Zhaohui Liu
The fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis ( Ptr ) causes tan spot of wheat crops, which is an important disease worldwide. Based on the production of the three known necrotrophic effectors (NEs), the fungal isolates are classified into eight races with race 4 producing no known NEs. From a laboratory cross between 86⁻124 (race 2 carrying the ToxA gene for the production of Ptr ToxA) and DW5 (race 5 carrying the ToxB gene for the production of Ptr ToxB), we have obtained some Ptr isolates lacking both the ToxA and ToxB genes, which, by definition, should be classified as race 4...
September 12, 2018: Pathogens
J Luis Espinoza, Suzue Ai, Itaru Matsumura
Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a chronic vasculitis that mainly affects the aorta, its major branches, and the pulmonary arteries. Since the description of the first case by Mikito Takayasu in 1908, several aspects of this rare disease, including the epidemiology, diagnosis, and the appropriate clinical assessment, have been substantially defined. Nevertheless, while it is well-known that TAK is associated with a profound inflammatory process, possibly rooted to an autoimmune disorder, its precise etiology has remained largely unknown...
September 6, 2018: Pathogens
Benjamín Herreros, Isabel Plaza, Rebeca García, Marta Chichón, Carmen Guerrero, Emilio Pintor
An immunocompetent 82-year-old female was admitted to our hospital due to fever without clear origin and hyponatremia. In the following days, an acute and bilateral pulmonary infiltrate appeared with a progressive worsening in respiratory function. Chest x-ray and CT (Computed tomography) showed bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates. Bronchoscopic aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBBX) studies did not reveal microbiological and histopathological diagnosis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were non-effective, and the patient died due to respiratory failure...
September 5, 2018: Pathogens
Beatrice Casini, Benedetta Tuvo, Michele Totaro, Francesco Aquino, Angelo Baggiani, Gaetano Privitera
In healthcare facilities, environmental surfaces may be a reservoir of infectious agents even though cleaning and disinfection practices play a role in the control of healthcare-associated infections. In this study, the effectiveness of cleaning/disinfection procedures has been evaluated in two hospital areas, which have different risk category classifications. According to the contract with the cleaning service, after the daily ambulatory activities, the housekeeping staff apply an alcohol-based detergent followed by a chlorine-based disinfectant (2% Antisapril, Angelini; 540 mg/L active chlorine), properly diluted and sprayed...
August 31, 2018: Pathogens
Shawna M Woollard, Omalla A Olwenyi, Debashis Dutta, Rajnish S Dave, Saumi Mathews, Santhi Gorantla, Noel Johnson, Luis Giavedoni, Robert B Norgren, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites. It can also be transmitted during sexual intercourse and in utero from mother to fetus. To gain preliminary insight into ZIKV pathology and immune responses on route of transmission, rhesus macaques (RMs) were inoculated with ZIKV (PRVABC59) via intravaginal (IVAG) ( n = 3) or subcutaneous (sub Q) ( n = 2) routes. Systemic ZIKV infection was observed in all RMs, regardless of the route of inoculation. After 9 days postinfection (dpi), ZIKV was not detected in the plasma of IVAG- and sub-Q-inoculated RMs...
August 20, 2018: Pathogens
Lucio Ayres Caldas, Wanderley de Souza
The Toxoplasma gondii cellular cycle has been widely studied in many lifecycle stages; however, the egress event still is poorly understood even though different types of molecules were shown to be involved. Assuming that there is no purpose or intentionality in biological phenomena, there is no such question as "Why does the parasite leaves the host cell", but "Under what conditions and how?". In this review we aimed to summarize current knowledge concerning T. gondii egress physiology (signalling pathways), structures, and route...
August 14, 2018: Pathogens
Sang-Im Yun, Young-Min Lee
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus, is an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that can cause a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild febrile illness to severe neuroinvasive disease. Today, several killed and live vaccines are available in different parts of the globe for use in humans to prevent JEV-induced diseases, yet no antivirals are available to treat JEV-associated diseases. Despite the progress made in vaccine research and development, JEV is still a major public health problem in southern, eastern, and southeastern Asia, as well as northern Oceania, with the potential to become an emerging global pathogen...
August 13, 2018: Pathogens
Heidi Knecht, Stephanie L Richards, Jo Anne G Balanay, Avian V White
Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus . Vector⁻virus interactions influencing vector competence vary and depend on biological and environmental factors. A mosquito's chronological age may impact its immune response against virus infection. Insecticides, source reduction, and/or public education are currently the best defense against mosquitoes that transmit ZIKV. This study assessed the effects of a mosquito's chronological age at time of infection on its response to ZIKV infection...
August 12, 2018: Pathogens
Hercules Sakkas, Petros Bozidis, Xenofon Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Sofikitis, Chrissanthy Papadopoulou
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the arthropod-borne flaviviruses (arboviruses) which are mainly transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. ZIKV infection has been known to be rather asymptomatic or presented as febrile self-limited disease; however, during the last decade the manifestation of ZIKV infection has been associated with a variety of neuroimmunological disorders including Guillain⁻Barré syndrome, microcephaly and other central nervous system abnormalities...
August 3, 2018: Pathogens
Silvia Fabiani, Simona Fortunato, Fabrizio Bruschi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of parasitic infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We conducted a systematic review of literature records on post-transplant parasitic infections, published from 1996 to 2016 and available on PubMed database, focusing only on parasitic infections acquired after SOT. The methods and findings of the present review have been presented based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. From data published in the literature, the real burden of parasitic infections among SOT recipients cannot really be estimated...
July 31, 2018: Pathogens
Suguru Saito, Ali F Quadery
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a commensal bacteria on the human skin, which causes serious skin inflammation. Several immune cells, especially effector T cells (Teff), have been identified as key players in S. aureus -derived skin inflammation. However, the bacterial component that induces dramatic host immune responses on the skin has not been well characterized. Here, we report that S. aureus lipoprotein (SA-LP) was recognized by the host immune system as a strong antigen, so this response induced severe skin inflammation...
July 29, 2018: Pathogens
Lili Li, Brigette B Y Ma, Anthony T C Chan, Francis K L Chan, Paul Murray, Qian Tao
: Cancer genome studies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumors, including lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas (LELC) of nasopharyngeal (NPC), gastric (EBVaGC) and lung tissues, and natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), reveal a unique feature of genomic alterations with fewer gene mutations detected than other common cancers. It is known now that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated tumors. As an oncogenic virus, EBV establishes its latent and lytic infections in B-lymphoid and epithelial cells, utilizing hijacked cellular epigenetic machinery...
July 18, 2018: Pathogens
Tooba Mahboob, Muhammad Nawaz, Tan Tian-Chye, Chandramathi Samudi, Christophe Wiart, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres were synthesized as delivery system for the natural anti-parasitic compounds, Periglaucine A (PGA) and Betulinic acid (BA). Periglaucine A and Betulinic acid were encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles by single emulsion method with an average particle size of approximately 100⁻500 nm. Periglaucine A and Betulinic acid encapsulation efficiency was observed to be 90% and 35% respectively. Anti- Acanthamoeba property of Periglaucine A and Betulinic acid remained intact after encapsulation...
July 16, 2018: Pathogens
Larisa A Shcherbakova, Tatyana A Nazarova, Oleg D Mikityuk, Ekaterina A Istomina, Tatyana I Odintsova
An approach to manage seed-transmitted Fusarium crown-foot-root rot (FCR, Fusarium spp.) and common root rot (CRR, Bipolaris sorokiniana ) on wheat, avoiding environmental risks of chemicals, is seed treatments with microbial metabolites. F. sambucinum strain FS-94 that induces resistance to tomato wilt was shown by this study to be a source of non-fungitoxic wheat-protecting metabolites, which were contained in a mycelium extract purified by gel-chromatography and ultrafiltration. Plant-protecting effect of the purified mycelial extract (PME) was demonstrated in vegetation experiments using a rolled-towel assay and by small-plot field trials...
July 14, 2018: Pathogens
Erica Rinehart, Eric Newton, Megan A Marasco, Kaitlin Beemiller, Ashley Zani, Melani K Muratore, John Weis, Nicole Steinbicker, Nathan Wallace, Yvonne Sun
Propionate is a common food preservative and one of the major fermentation acids in the intestines. Therefore, exposure to propionate is frequent for foodborne pathogens and likely takes place under suboxic conditions. However, it is not clear whether the absence of oxygen affects how pathogens respond to propionate. Here, we investigated how propionate exposure affects Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence factor production under aerobic or anaerobic conditions and showed that oxygen indeed plays a key role in modulating L...
June 29, 2018: Pathogens
Katerina Vrzalikova, Taofik Sunmonu, Gary Reynolds, Paul Murray
Pathogenic viruses have evolved to manipulate the host cell utilising a variety of strategies including expression of viral proteins to hijack or mimic the activity of cellular functions. DNA tumour viruses often establish latent infection in which no new virions are produced, characterized by the expression of a restricted repertoire of so-called latent viral genes. These latent genes serve to remodel cellular functions to ensure survival of the virus within host cells, often for the lifetime of the infected individual...
June 27, 2018: Pathogens
Moustafa Eldakak, Aayudh Das, Yongbin Zhuang, Jai S Rohila, Karl Glover, Yang Yen
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a highly detrimental disease of wheat. A quantitative trait locus for FHB resistance, Qfhb1 , is the most utilized source of resistance in wheat-breeding programs, but very little is known about its resistance mechanism. In this study, we elucidated a prospective FHB resistance mechanism by investigating the proteomic signatures of Qfhb1 in a pair of contrasting wheat near-isogenic lines (NIL) after 24 h of inoculation of wheat florets by Fusarium graminearum . Statistical comparisons of the abundances of protein spots on the 2D-DIGE gels of contrasting NILs (fhb1+ NIL = Qfhb1 present; fhb1- NIL = Qfhb1 absent) enabled us to select 80 high-ranking differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots...
June 22, 2018: Pathogens
Ulrich Desselberger
The mammalian gut is colonized by a large variety of microbes, collectively termed ‘the microbiome’. The gut microbiome undergoes rapid changes during the first few years of life and is highly variable in adulthood depending on various factors. With the gut being the largest organ of immune responses, the composition of the microbiome of the gut has been found to be correlated with qualitative and quantitative differences of mucosal and systemic immune responses. Animal models have been very useful to unravel the relationship between gut microbiome and immune responses and for the understanding of variations of immune responses to vaccination in different childhood populations...
June 21, 2018: Pathogens
Katarzyna Gucwa, Barbara Kusznierewicz, Sławomir Milewski, Patrick Van Dijck, Piotr Szweda
The aim of our work was to check if one of the products of natural origin, namely honey bee propolis, may be an alternative or supplement to currently used antifungal agents. The activity of 50 ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs), harvested in Polish apiaries, was tested on a group of 69 clinical isolates of C. albicans . Most of the EEPs showed satisfactory activity, with minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) mainly in the range of 0.08⁻1.25% ( v / v ). Eradication of biofilm from polystyrene microtitration plates in 50% (MBEC50 , Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration) required concentrations in the range of 0...
June 19, 2018: Pathogens
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