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Translational Vision Science & Technology

Alison J Hardcastle, Paul A Sieving, José-Alain Sahel, Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, John G Flannery, William A Beltran, Gustavo D Aguirre
The following review summarizes the state of the art in representative aspects of gene therapy/translational medicine and evolves from a symposium held at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania on November 16, 2017 honoring Dr. Gustavo Aguirre, recipient of ARVO's 2017 Proctor Medal. Focusing on the retina, speakers highlighted current work on moving therapies for inherited retinal degenerative diseases from the laboratory bench to the clinic.
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Esma Islamaj, Caroline P Jordaan-Kuip, Koen A Vermeer, Hans G Lemij, Peter W T de Waard
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify any diplopia and motility changes after the implantation of a Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI) or after trabeculectomy (TE). Methods: We analyzed 51 patients with a BGI and 52 patients with a TE from a prospective cohort study. To quantify any diplopia, we asked patients about the presence of diplopia at 1 year after surgery. To quantify any ocular motility changes, we measured ductions in eight gaze directions, the patients' ocular alignment and their fusion range before and 1 year after surgery...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Tommaso Salgarello, Andrea Giudiceandrea, Luigi Calandriello, Dario Marangoni, Alberto Colotto, Aldo Caporossi, Benedetto Falsini
Purpose: We evaluated the clinical ability of pattern electroretinogram (PERG) to detect functional losses in the affected hemifield of open-angle glaucoma patients with localized perimetric defects. Methods: Hemifield (horizontally-defined) steady-state PERGs (h-PERGs) were recorded in response to 1.7 c/deg alternating gratings from 32 eyes of 29 glaucomatous patients with a perimetric, focal one-hemifield defect, 10 eyes of 10 glaucomatous patients with a diffuse perimetric defect, and 18 eyes of 18 age-matched normal subjects...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Zohreh Hosseinaee, Bingyao Tan, Adam Martinez, Kostadinka K Bizheva
Purpose: To compare the accuracy of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) for measuring retinal blood vessel caliber at different flow rates. Methods: A research-grade 1060-nm OCT system with 3.5-μm axial resolution in retinal tissue and 92,000 A scan/s image acquisition rate was used in this study. DOCT and OCTA measurements were acquired both from a flow phantom and in vivo from retinal blood vessels in six male Brown Norway rats...
August 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
So Hyun Bae, Joonsoo Jeong, Sung June Kim, Hum Chung, Jong-Mo Seo
Purpose: To investigate reproducible surgical techniques to optimize the long-term safety of liquid crystal polymer (LCP)-based retinal prosthesis implantation. Methods: An LCP-based retinal prosthesis is fabricated monolithically on a single-body LCP substrate with all components, including the package and electrode array. We implanted the electrode array into the suprachoroidal space and anchored the package and transition part to the sclera in rabbits ( n = 11)...
August 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Mehmet Coskun, Nurhayat O Sevencan
Purpose: To determine whether there are differences in the central corneal thickness (CCT), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) in women with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (B12DA). Methods: The patients were divided and evaluated in three groups as IDA (group 1), combined IDA-B12DA (group 2), and healthy females (group 3). Each group constituted 35 subjects. CCT, endothelial cell density (CD), the coefficient of variation (CV), and hexagonality (HEX) values were evaluated...
August 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Vijaya K Gothwal, Seelam Bharani, Anil K Mandal
Purpose: We assess parent-child agreement regarding child's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children operated for congenital glaucoma (CG). Methods: A total of 121 children aged 8 to 18 years (mean age, 11.8 years) operated for CG (mean duration since surgery, 10.2 years) and their parents (mean age, 36.5 years) completed the child and parent versions of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire, respectively. Psychometric properties of Kidscreen-27 were assessed using Rasch analysis, and child-parent agreement regarding child's HRQoL was investigated using the Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LoA) method...
August 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Keunheung Park, Jinmi Kim, Jiwoong Lee
Purpose: We evaluate the relationship between Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFLT) and develop a new parameter combining BMO-MRW and pRNFLT using a neural network to maximize their compensatory values. Methods: A total of 402 subjects were divided into two groups: 273 (validation group) and 129 (neural net training) subjects. Linear quadratic and broken-stick regression models were used to explore the relationship between BMO-MRW and pRNFLT...
August 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Nobuo Machinaga, Gary W Ashley, Ralph Reid, Atsushi Yamasaki, Kyosuke Tanaka, Koichi Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Yabe, Yasushi Yoshigae, Daniel V Santi
Purpose: The short half lives of small molecules in the vitreous requires frequent repeated intravitreal injections that are impractical for treatment of chronic eye diseases. We sought to develop a method for increasing the intravitreal half-life of small-molecule drugs. Methods: We adapted a technology for controlled release of drugs from macromolecular carriers for use as a long-acting intravitreal delivery system for small molecules. As a prototype, a small molecule complement factor D inhibitor with an intravitreal half-life of 7 hours was covalently attached to a 4-arm PEG40kDa by a self-cleaving β-eliminative linker with a cleavage half-life of approximately 1 week...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Wouter Vehmeijer, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson, Kelly Jonkman, Leon Aarts, Albert Dahan, Einar Stefánsson, Nicoline Schalij-Delfos
Purpose: The objective of this study was to measure the relative retinal oxygen saturation with a prototype, mobile handheld oximeter in upright and supine position and to compare these measurements to the gold standard Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter in upright position. A handheld oximeter is needed for measurements of infants with retinopathy of prematurity as well as acutely injured and bedridden adults. Methods: Healthy volunteers (age 18-35) were recruited at the Leiden University Medical Center...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Zhichao Wu, Felipe A Medeiros
Purpose: To compare global trend-based and point-wise event-based analysis for detecting visual field progression in eyes with glaucoma. Methods: The study included a cohort of 367 glaucoma eyes from 265 participants seen over a mean follow-up period of 10 years to develop a computer simulation model of "real-world" visual field results. Progression was evaluated with point-wise event-based analysis using the Guided Progression Analysis (GPA) and global trend-based analysis using the mean deviation (MD) and visual field index (VFI) measures...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Francisco M Costela, Daniel R Saunders, Sidika Kajtezovic, Dylan J Rose, Russell L Woods
Purpose: If you cannot follow the story when watching a video, then the viewing experience is degraded. We measured the difficulty of following the story, defined as the ability to acquire visual information, which is experienced by people with homonymous hemianopia (HH). Further, we proposed and tested a novel rehabilitation aid. Methods: Participants watched 30-second directed video clips. Following each video clip, subjects described the visual content of the clip...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Qihua Le, Daniel Cordova, Jianjiang Xu, Sophie X Deng
Purposes: To investigate the limbal structure using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and compare the difference between a Chinese Han population and a Caucasian population. Methods: Sixty healthy Chinese Han subjects (109 eyes, Chinese group) and 32 healthy Caucasian subjects (51 eyes, Caucasian group) were included in this comparative cross-sectional study. The central cornea and the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal limbal regions of each subject underwent Fourier-domain AS-OCT...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Gonzalo Carracedo, Carlos Carpena-Torres, Maria Serramito, Laura Batres-Valderas, Anahi Gonzalez-Bergaz
Purpose: We evaluate the efficacy of a new system of binocular refraction, mainly based on ocular aberrometry (EYER) and compare it with the traditional subjective refraction as gold standard. Methods: A prospective, double blind, and transversal study was performed on 99 subjects (35 men, 64 women; mean age 37.22 ± 18.04 years; range, 7-70 years). Refractive surgery or irregular cornea were considered exclusion criteria. Subjective refraction was performed by three different optometrists and EYER by other optometrists on three different days randomly...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Kim Lajoie, Andreas B Miller, Robert A Strath, David R Neima, Daniel S Marigold
Purpose: Safe navigation requires avoiding objects. Visual field loss may affect how one visually samples the environment, and may thus contribute to bumping into objects and falls. We tested the hypothesis that gaze strategies and the number of collisions differ between people with glaucoma and normally sighted controls when navigating around obstacles, particularly under multitasking situations. Methods: Twenty persons with moderate-severe glaucoma and 20 normally sighted controls walked around a series of irregularly spaced vertical obstacles under the following three conditions: walking with obstacles only, walking and counting backward to simulate a conversation, and walking while performing a concurrent visual search task to simulate locating a landmark...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Duoru Lin, Jingjing Chen, Zhenzhen Liu, Zhuoling Lin, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaohang Wu, Qianzhong Cao, Haotian Lin, Weirong Chen, Yizhi Liu
Purpose: We investigate visual function impairment and ocular structure in patients with unilateral posterior lens opacity, a type of congenital cataract (CC) in our novel CC category system. Methods: We studied patients aged 3 to 15 years who were diagnosed with unilateral posterior CC. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were examined. Corneal astigmatism (CA), mean keratometry, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and axial length were measured by Pentacam and IOL-Master...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Peter Maloca, Pascal W Hasler, Daniel Barthelmes, Patrik Arnold, Mooser Matthias, Hendrik P N Scholl, Heinrich Gerding, Justus Garweg, Tjebo Heeren, Konstantinos Balaskas, J Emanuel Ramos de Carvalho, Catherine Egan, Adnan Tufail, Sandrine A Zweifel
Purpose: To study a novel and fast optical coherence tomography (OCT) device for home-based monitoring in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a small sample yielding sparse OCT (spOCT) data and to compare the device to a commercially available reference device. Methods: In this prospective study, both eyes of 31 participants with AMD were included. The subjects underwent scanning with an OCT prototype and a spectral-domain OCT to compare the accuracy of the central retinal thickness (CRT) measurements...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Zhichao Wu, Denis S D Weng, Rashmi Rajshekhar, Robert Ritch, Donald C Hood
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a qualitative approach toward evaluating optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging improves the ability to detect glaucomatous damage compared to a conventional metric of global circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness. Methods: A total of 394 healthy eyes and 272 glaucoma eyes were evaluated. Glaucoma eyes were categorized as perimetric (156 eyes) based on a history of three or more consecutive abnormal 24-2 visual field tests or suspected glaucoma if they did not (116 eyes)...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Jacque L Duncan, Eric A Pierce, Amy M Laster, Stephen P Daiger, David G Birch, John D Ash, Alessandro Iannaccone, John G Flannery, José A Sahel, Donald J Zack, Marco A Zarbin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Antoine Herbaut, Hong Liang, Ghislaine Rabut, Liem Trinh, Karima Kessal, Christophe Baudouin, Antoine Labbé
Purpose: We evaluated the relationship between ocular surface clinical tests and quality of vision in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Methods: In this study, 136 eyes of 72 dry eye patients were evaluated retrospectively using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT), the Oxford score, Van Bijsterveld score, and Schirmer I test. Quality of vision was assessed with the optical quality analysis system (OQAS) using the objective scatter index (OSI) recorded over 20 seconds without blinking...
July 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
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