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Translational Vision Science & Technology

Isaac D Bleicher, Moseph Jackson-Atogi, Christian Viehland, Hesham Gabr, Joseph A Izatt, Cynthia A Toth
Purpose: We develop and assess the impact of depth-based, motion-stabilized colorization (color) of microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (MIOCT) volumes on microsurgical performance and ability to interpret surgical volumes. Methods: Color was applied in real-time as gradients indicating axial position and stabilized based on calculated center of mass. In a test comparing colorization versus grayscale visualizations of prerecorded intraoperative volumes from human surgery, ophthalmologists ( N = 7) were asked to identify retinal membranes, the presence of an instrument, its contact with tissue, and associated deformation of the retina...
November 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Andrew Turpin, William H Morgan, Allison M McKendrick
Purpose: Correctly classifying progression in moderate to advanced glaucoma is difficult. Pointwise visual field test-retest variability is high for sensitivities below approximately 20 dB; hence, reliably detecting progression requires many test repeats. We developed a testing approach that does not attempt to threshold accurately in areas with high variability, but instead expends presentations increasing spatial fidelity. Methods: Our visual field procedure Australian Reduced Range Extended Spatial Test (ARREST; a variant of the Bayesian procedure Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing [ZEST]) applies the following approach: once a location has an estimated sensitivity of <17 dB (a "defect"), it is checked that it is not an absolute defect (<0 dB, "blind")...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Johannes Ledolter, Randy H Kardon
Purpose: Clinical decisions on treatment are usually based on short-term records of consecutive measurements of structure and function. Useful models for analyzing average trends and a description of statistical methods for classifying individual subjects on the basis of subject-specific trend progressions are presented. Methods: Random effects trend models allow intercepts and slopes of the trend regression to vary across subjects around group-specific mean intercepts and mean slopes...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Kiran Nimmagadda, James D Weiland
Purpose: Electronic retinal prostheses restore vision in people with outer retinal degeneration by electrically stimulating the inner retina. We characterized visual cortex electrophysiologic response elicited by electrical stimulation of retina in normally sighted and retinal degenerate rats. Methods: Nine normally sighted Long Evans and 11 S334ter line 3 retinal degenerate ( rd ) rats were used to map cortical responses elicited by epiretinal electrical stimulation in four quadrants of the retina...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Matthew Adams, Chi Yun Doreen Ho, Elizabeth Baglin, Pyrawy Sharangan, Zhichao Wu, David J Lawson, Chi D Luu, Andrew Turpin, Allison M McKendrick, Robyn H Guymer
Purpose: We determine the feasibility of using a home-based tablet device to monitor retinal sensitivity (RS) in intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD), the benefits of weekly reminders, and the comparison with clinic-based results. Methods: A customized test for tablets was designed to measure RS (within central 2°) in individuals with iAMD at weekly intervals in their home, with remote data collection. Half of the participants were randomized to receive weekly test reminders...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Jae Yong Park, Bum Gi Kim, Jae Suk Kim, Je Hyung Hwang
Purpose: We evaluate a matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) point-of-care immunoassay (InflammaDry) as a prognostic tool for topical cyclosporine treatment. Methods: A total of 20 healthy subjects and 40 patients meeting >3 dry eye disease (DED) criteria (ocular surface disease index [OSDI] score ≥ 12, tear film breakup time [TBUT] ≤10 seconds, Schirmer I test result ≤10 mm/5 minutes, corneal staining ≥1) were included. DED patients were treated with topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Brian J Nguyen, Yeji Kim, Kathryn Park, Allison J Chen, Scarlett Chen, Donald Van Fossan, Daniel L Chao
Purpose: We evaluate patient-reported quality of life outcomes in severely visually impaired (SVI) individuals using the Aira system, an on demand assistive wearable technology. Methods: Aira is an on-demand assistive wearable technology designed for the severely visually impaired (visual acuity of better eye <20/200). The user wears glasses with a video camera mounted that, when activated, livestreams to a human agent who assists the user in the specified task...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Cheng Qiu, Kassandra R Lee, Jae-Hyun Jung, Robert Goldstein, Eli Peli
Purpose: Efficacy of current visual prostheses in object recognition is limited. Among various limitations to be addressed, such as low resolution and low dynamic range, here we focus on reducing the impact of background clutter on object recognition. We have proposed the use of motion parallax via head-mounted camera lateral scanning and computationally stabilizing the object of interest (OI) to support neural background decluttering. Simulations in head-mounted displays (HMD), mimicking the proposed effect, were used to test object recognition in normally sighted subjects...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Steven M Thurman, Marcello Maniglia, Pinakin G Davey, Mandy K Biles, Kristina M Visscher, Aaron R Seitz
Purpose: In order to monitor visual defects associated with macular degeneration (MD), we present a new psychophysical assessment called multiline adaptive perimetry (MAP) that measures visual field integrity by simultaneously estimating regions associated with perceptual distortions (metamorphopsia) and visual sensitivity loss (scotoma). Methods: We first ran simulations of MAP with a computerized model of a human observer to determine optimal test design characteristics...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Nicolas Alejandre-Alba, Rocio Gutierrez-Contreras, Carlos Dorronsoro, Susana Marcos
Purpose: Accommodating intraocular lenses (A-IOLs) require capturing the ciliary muscle forces. Prior work demonstrated strong photo-initiated bonding between strips of capsular bag and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate); (pHEMA) polymer in an extraocular setting. We demonstrate that photobonding can be achieved intraocularly. Methods: Phacoemulsification was performed in porcine eyes (<24 hours postmortem). A commercial intraocular lens (IOL; pHEMA-MMA material) was inserted in the capsular bag...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Sezen Karakus, Esen K Akpek, Devika Agrawal, Robert W Massof
Purpose: We evaluated the validity of a single dry eye severity measure estimated using Rasch analysis from a battery of clinical tests and patient symptoms. Methods: This study included 203 dry eye patients and 51 controls. Administered tests included the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear osmolarity, Schirmer's test, noninvasive break-up time, and ocular surface staining. Each of the 12 OSDI questions and each clinical test was defined to be a separate indicator to estimate a single dry eye severity measure from Rasch analysis...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Chen-Wei Pan, Ou Zhang, Dan-Ning Hu, Rong-Kun Wu, Jun Li, Hua Zhong, Min Hu
Purpose: We aimed to determine the association of iris color with lens thickness (LT) in a school-based sample of Chinese teenagers. Methods: In total, 2346 grade 7 students, from 10 middle schools, aged 13 to 14 years in Mojiang located in Southwestern China were included in the analysis. A grading system was developed to assess iris color based on standardized slit-lamp photographs. LT was measured by the LenStar LS900. Refractive error was measured after cycloplegia using an autorefractor and ocular biometric parameters, including axial length (AL), were measured using an IOL Master...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Terry G Coursey, Ronald A Wassel, Alexander B Quiambao, Rafal A Farjo
Purpose: To determine if a Microemulsion Drug Ocular Penetration System (MiDROPS) formulation of cyclosporine A (CsA) delivers more drug and is more efficacious for treatment of dry eye disease (DED) than the current clinical formulation. Methods: Tissue distribution of CsA was quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To assess tolerability, CsA-MiDROPS (0.1%) was applied to the eyes of rabbits twice per day for 14 days and assessed using ophthalmoscopic examinations...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Juan Yang, Jung Woo Park, Dejin Zheng, Ren-He Xu
Purpose: We generated universal corneal epithelial cells (CEC) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by genetically removing human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I from the cell surface. Methods: The serum-free, growth factor-free, and defined medium E6 was used to differentiate hESC to CEC. Decellularized murine corneas were recellularized with hESC-derived CEC. Using CRISPR/Cas9, β-2-microglobulin ( B2M ) was deleted in hESC to block the assembly of HLA class-I antigens on the cell surface to generate B2M -/- CEC...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Jack Phu, Michael Kalloniatis, Henrietta Wang, Sieu K Khuu
Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that clinical statokinetic dissociation (SKD, defined as the difference in sensitivity to static and kinetic stimuli) at the scotoma border in retinal disease is due to individual criterion bias and that SKD can be eliminated by equating the psychophysical procedures for testing static and kinetic stimulus detection. Methods: Six subjects with glaucoma and six with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were tested. Clinical procedures (standard automated perimetry [SAP] and manual kinetic perimetry [MKP]) were used to determine clinical SKD and the region of interest for laboratory-based testing...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Tyson N Kim, Frank Myers, Clay Reber, P J Loury, Panagiota Loumou, Doug Webster, Chris Echanique, Patrick Li, Jose R Davila, Robi N Maamari, Neil A Switz, Jeremy Keenan, Maria A Woodward, Yannis M Paulus, Todd Margolis, Daniel A Fletcher
Purpose: High-quality, wide-field retinal imaging is a valuable method for screening preventable, vision-threatening diseases of the retina. Smartphone-based retinal cameras hold promise for increasing access to retinal imaging, but variable image quality and restricted field of view can limit their utility. We developed and clinically tested a smartphone-based system that addresses these challenges with automation-assisted imaging. Methods: The system was designed to improve smartphone retinal imaging by combining automated fixation guidance, photomontage, and multicolored illumination with optimized optics, user-tested ergonomics, and touch-screen interface...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Rachel E Linderman, Manickam N Muthiah, Sarah B Omoba, Katie Litts, Sergey Tarima, Alexis Visotcky, Judy E Kim, Joseph Carroll
Purpose: To characterize sources of inter- and intrasubject variability in quantitative foveal avascular zone (FAZ) metrics. Methods: Two 3×3-mm optical coherence tomography angiography scans (centered on the fovea) were acquired in both eyes of 175 subjects. An image of the superficial plexus was extracted from each scan and segmented twice by a single observer. Four quantitative FAZ morphology metrics (area, axis ratio, acircularity, major horizontal axis angle) were calculated, and a variance components analysis was performed...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Alison D Treister, Peter L Nesper, Alaa E Fayed, Manjot K Gill, Rukhsana G Mirza, Amani A Fawzi
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of subclinical choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in fellow eyes of patients with unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to quantify choriocapillaris nonperfusion adjacent to CNV. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with AMD who underwent OCTA and identified eyes with unilateral exudative AMD. We determined the presence of subclinical CNV on custom en face macular slabs of the outer retina and choriocapillaris and confirmed on cross-sectional scans...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Shuhei Onomura, Motoko Kawashima, Naohiko Aketa, Shinichiro Kondo, Kazuo Tsubota
Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a novel humidifying eyeglass-shaped device-ultrasonic moisture glasses-on dry eye signs and symptoms. Methods: A total of 18 subjects with dry eye symptoms underwent a crossover test. A water cartridge was set on each temple of the eyeglass-shaped device. All subjects randomly wore the device twice in different settings, each for 10 minutes. Subjects wore the glasses once with the cartridges filled with water (the intervention group), and once with the cartridges empty (the control group)...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Carla N Urata, Livia S Mazzoli, Niro Kasahara
Purpose: Falls are very prevalent in the older population. Visually impaired elderly patients are prone to falls as the result of visual loss and ageing. The purpose of the study was to compare the fear of falling (FoF) between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) patients who live in a developing country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study. After a complete eye examination including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, and automated visual field, all subjects completed the Fall Efficacy Scale International Brazil (FES-I-Brazil) questionnaire...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
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