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Translational Vision Science & Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516002/transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-cells-into-the-subretinal-space-of-a-non-human-primate
#1
Jennifer R Chao, Deepak A Lamba, Todd R Klesert, Anna La Torre, Akina Hoshino, Russell J Taylor, Anu Jayabalu, Abbi L Engel, Thomas H Khuu, Ruikang K Wang, Maureen Neitz, Jay Neitz, Thomas A Reh
PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of retinal cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to survive, integrate into the host retina, and mediate light responses in murine mouse models. Our aim is to determine whether these cells can also survive and integrate into the retina of a nonhuman primate, Saimiri sciureus, following transplantation into the subretinal space. METHODS: hESCs were differentiated toward retinal neuronal fates using our previously published technique and cultured for 60 to 70 days...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516001/validity-usefulness-and-cost-of-reteval-system-for-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#2
Humoud Al-Otaibi, Mohammed D Al-Otaibi, Rajiv Khandekar, Ches Souru, Abdulelah A Al-Abdullah, Hassan Al-Dhibi, Donald U Stone, Igor Kozak
PURPOSE: We studied the validity, usefulness, and relative cost to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) and sight-threatening DR (STDR) by using a hand-held electrophysiologic tool compared to digital fundus photography. METHOD: Patients with diabetes attending the screening unit of King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were evaluated by "RETeval", Amsler grid, and digital dilated fundus photography. Fundus images were evaluated by a retina specialist to determine grade of DR...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516000/role-of-a-dual-splicing-and-amino-acid-code-in-myopia-cone-dysfunction-and-cone-dystrophy-associated-with-l-m-opsin-interchange-mutations
#3
Scott H Greenwald, James A Kuchenbecker, Jessica S Rowlan, Jay Neitz, Maureen Neitz
PURPOSE: Human long (L) and middle (M) wavelength cone opsin genes are highly variable due to intermixing. Two L/M cone opsin interchange mutants, designated LIAVA and LVAVA, are associated with clinical diagnoses, including red-green color vision deficiency, blue cone monochromacy, cone degeneration, myopia, and Bornholm Eye Disease. Because the protein and splicing codes are carried by the same nucleotides, intermixing L and M genes can cause disease by affecting protein structure and splicing...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473945/does-testing-more-frequently-shorten-the-time-to-detect-disease-progression
#4
Johannes Ledolter, Randy H Kardon
PURPOSE: With the rise of smartphone devices to monitor health status remotely, it is tempting to conclude that sampling more often will provide a more sensitive means of detecting changes in health status earlier over time, when interventions may improve outcomes. METHODS: The answer to this question is derived in the context of a model where observations are generated from a linear-trend model with independent as well as autocorrelated autoregressive-moving average, or ARMA(1,1), errors...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473944/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-contact-lens-care-solutions-against-neutrophil-enhanced-bacterial-biofilms
#5
Jorge A Hinojosa, Naiya B Patel, Meifang Zhu, Danielle M Robertson
PURPOSE: Neutrophil-derived extracellular debris has been shown to accelerate bacterial biofilm formation on hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lens surfaces compared to lenses inoculated with bacteria alone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of four standard commercial contact lens cleaning regimens against neutrophil-enhanced bacterial biofilms formed on silicone hydrogel contact lenses. METHODS: Four reference strains were used: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Staphylococcus aureus...
April 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458957/dramatic-effect-of-oral-csf-1r-kinase-inhibitor-on-retinal-microglia-revealed-by-in-vivo-scanning-laser-ophthalmoscopy
#6
Andreas Ebneter, Despina Kokona, Joël Jovanovic, Martin S Zinkernagel
This report provides sound evidence that the small molecule pharmaceutical PLX5622, a highly selective CSF-1R kinase inhibitor, crosses the blood-retina barrier and suppresses microglia activity. Members of this class of drug are in advanced clinical development stages and may represent a novel approach to modulate ocular inflammatory processes.
April 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392976/an-automated-reference-frame-selection-arfs-algorithm-for-cone-imaging-with-adaptive-optics-scanning-light-ophthalmoscopy
#7
Alexander E Salmon, Robert F Cooper, Christopher S Langlo, Ahmadreza Baghaie, Alfredo Dubra, Joseph Carroll
PURPOSE: To develop an automated reference frame selection (ARFS) algorithm to replace the subjective approach of manually selecting reference frames for processing adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) videos of cone photoreceptors. METHODS: Relative distortion was measured within individual frames before conducting image-based motion tracking and sorting of frames into distinct spatial clusters. AOSLO images from nine healthy subjects were processed using ARFS and human-derived reference frames, then aligned to undistorted AO-flood images by nonlinear registration and the registration transformations were compared...
April 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392975/the-effect-of-retinal-melanin-on-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#8
Melissa A Wilk, Alison L Huckenpahler, Ross F Collery, Brian A Link, Joseph Carroll
PURPOSE: We assessed the effect of melanin on the appearance of hyperreflective outer retinal bands in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. METHODS: A total of 23 normal subjects and 51 patients with albinism were imaged using the Bioptigen high-resolution spectral-domain OCT. In addition, three wild type, three albino (slc45a2(b4/b4) ), and eight tyrosinase mosaic zebrafish were imaged with the hand-held Bioptigen Envisu R2200 OCT. To identify pigmented versus nonpigmented regions in the tyrosinase mosaic zebrafish, en face summed volume projections of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were created from volume scans...
April 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377846/a-quantitative-approach-to-predict-differential-effects-of-anti-vegf-treatment-on-diffuse-and-focal-leakage-in-patients-with-diabetic-macular-edema-a-pilot-study
#9
Michael J Allingham, Dibyendu Mukherjee, Erin B Lally, Hossein Rabbani, Priyatham S Mettu, Scott W Cousins, Sina Farsiu
PURPOSE: We use semiautomated segmentation of fluorescein angiography (FA) to determine whether anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) differentially affects microaneurysm (MA)-associated leakage, termed focal leakage, versus non-MA-associated leakage, termed diffuse leakage. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 29 subjects treated with at least three consecutive injections of anti-VEGF agents for DME (mean 4...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377845/time-dependent-decline-in-multifocal-electroretinogram-requires-faster-recording-procedures-in-anesthetized-pigs
#10
Nina Buus Sørensen, Anders Tolstrup Christiansen, Troels Wesenberg Kjær, Kristian Klemp, Morten la Cour, Jens Folke Kiilgaard
PURPOSE: The time-dependent effect of anesthetics on the retinal function is debated. We hypothesize that in anesthetized animals there is a time-dependent decline that requires optimized multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) recording procedures. METHODS: Conventional and four-frame global-flash mfERG recordings were obtained approximately 15, 60, and 150 minutes after the induction of propofol anesthesia (20 pigs) and isoflurane anesthesia (nine pigs). In six of the propofol-anesthetized pigs, the mfERG recordings were split in 3-minute segments...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316878/report-on-the-national-eye-institute-audacious-goals-initiative-replacement-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-endogenous-cell-sources
#11
Monica L Vetter, Peter F Hitchcock
This report emerges from a workshop convened by the National Eye Institute (NEI) as part of the "Audacious Goals Initiative" (AGI). The workshop addressed the replacement of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from exogenous and endogenous sources, and sought to identify the gaps in our knowledge and barriers to progress in devising cellular replacement therapies for diseases where RGCs die. Here, we briefly review relevant literature regarding common diseases associated with RGC death, the genesis of RGCs in vivo, strategies for generating transplantable RGCs in vitro, and potential endogenous cellular sources to regenerate these cells...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316877/progression-of-pro23his-retinopathy-in-a-miniature-swine-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#12
Patrick A Scott, Juan P Fernandez de Castro, Paul J DeMarco, Jason W Ross, Josephat Njoka, Eric Walters, Randall S Prather, Maureen A McCall, Henry J Kaplan
PURPOSE: We characterize the progression of retinopathy in Filial 1 (F1) progeny of a transgenic (Tg) founder miniswine exhibiting severe Pro23His (P23H) retinopathy. METHODS: The F1 TgP23H miniswine progeny were created by crossing TgP23H founder miniswine 53-1 with wild type (WT) inbred miniature swine. Scotopic (rod-driven) and photopic (cone-driven) retinal functions were evaluated in F1 TgP23H and WT littermates using full field electroretinograms (ffERGs) at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age, as well as the Tg founder miniswine at 6 years of age...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316876/automated-brightness-and-contrast-adjustment-of-color-fundus-photographs-for-the-grading-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
Edem Tsikata, Inês Laíns, João Gil, Marco Marques, Kelsey Brown, Tânia Mesquita, Pedro Melo, Maria da Luz Cachulo, Ivana K Kim, Demetrios Vavvas, Joaquim N Murta, John B Miller, Rufino Silva, Joan W Miller, Teresa C Chen, Deeba Husain
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm to automatically standardize the brightness, contrast, and color balance of digital color fundus photographs used to grade AMD and to validate this algorithm by determining the effects of the standardization on image quality and disease grading. METHODS: Seven-field color photographs of patients (>50 years) with any stage of AMD and a control group were acquired at two study sites, with either the Topcon TRC-50DX or Zeiss FF-450 Plus cameras...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299240/validation-of-the-total-visual-acuity-extraction-algorithm-tova-for-automated-extraction-of-visual-acuity-data-from-free-text-unstructured-clinical-records
#14
Douglas M Baughman, Grace L Su, Irena Tsui, Cecilia S Lee, Aaron Y Lee
PURPOSE: With increasing volumes of electronic health record data, algorithm-driven extraction may aid manual extraction. Visual acuity often is extracted manually in vision research. The total visual acuity extraction algorithm (TOVA) is presented and validated for automated extraction of visual acuity from free text, unstructured clinical notes. METHODS: Consecutive inpatient ophthalmology notes over an 8-year period from the University of Washington healthcare system in Seattle, WA were used for validation of TOVA...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299239/variability-of-retinal-thickness-measurements-in-tilted-or-stretched-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#15
Akihito Uji, Nizar Saleh Abdelfattah, David S Boyer, Siva Balasubramanian, Jianqin Lei, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To investigate the level of inaccuracy of retinal thickness measurements in tilted and axially stretched optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. METHODS: A consecutive series of 50 eyes of 50 patients with age-related macular degeneration were included in this study, and Cirrus HD-OCT images through the foveal center were used for the analysis. The foveal thickness was measured in three ways: (1) parallel to the orientation of the A-scan (Tx), (2) perpendicular to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) surface in the instrument-displayed aspect ratio image (Ty), and (3) thickness measured perpendicular to the RPE surface in a native aspect ratio image (Tz)...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275528/signal-normalization-reduces-image-appearance-disparity-among-multiple-optical-coherence-tomography-devices
#16
Chieh-Li Chen, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Gadi Wollstein, Richard A Bilonick, Larry Kagemann, Joel S Schuman
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of the previously reported optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal normalization method on reducing the discrepancies in image appearance among spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) devices. METHODS: Healthy eyes and eyes with various retinal pathologies were scanned at the macular region using similar volumetric scan patterns with at least two out of three SD-OCT devices at the same visit (Cirrus HD-OCT, Zeiss, Dublin, CA; RTVue, Optovue, Fremont, CA; and Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany)...
February 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275527/individual-drusen-segmentation-and-repeatability-and-reproducibility-of-their-automated-quantification-in-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#17
Luis de Sisternes, Gowtham Jonna, Margaret A Greven, Qiang Chen, Theodore Leng, Daniel L Rubin
PURPOSE: To introduce a novel method to segment individual drusen in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and evaluate its accuracy, and repeatability/reproducibility of drusen quantifications extracted from the segmentation results. METHODS: Our method uses a smooth interpolation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) outer boundary, fitted to candidate locations in proximity to Bruch's Membrane, to identify regions of substantial lifting in the inner-RPE or inner-segment boundaries, and then separates and evaluates individual druse independently...
February 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275526/quantifying-variability-in-longitudinal-peripapillary-rnfl-and-choroidal-layer-thickness-using-surface-based-registration-of-oct-images
#18
Sieun Lee, Morgan Heisler, Paul J Mackenzie, Marinko V Sarunic, Mirza Faisal Beg
PURPOSE: To assess within-subject variability of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal layer thickness in longitudinal repeat optical coherence tomography (OCT) images with point-to-point measurement comparison made using nonrigid surface registration. METHODS: Nine repeat peripapillary OCT images were acquired over 3 weeks from 12 eyes of 6 young, healthy subjects using a 1060-nm prototype swept-source device. The RNFL, choroid and the Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) were segmented, and point-wise layer thicknesses and BMO dimensions were measured...
February 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217428/erratum
#19
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 1 in vol. 5.].
February 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180033/platform-independent-cirrus-and-spectralis-thickness-measurements-in-eyes-with-diabetic-macular-edema-using-fully-automated-software
#20
Alex S Willoughby, Stephanie J Chiu, Rachel K Silverman, Sina Farsiu, Clare Bailey, Henry E Wiley, Frederick L Ferris, Glenn J Jaffe
PURPOSE: We determine whether the automated segmentation software, Duke Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Analysis Program (DOCTRAP), can measure, in a platform-independent manner, retinal thickness on Cirrus and Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) under treatment in a clinical trial. METHODS: Automatic segmentation software was used to segment the internal limiting membrane (ILM), inner retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Bruch's membrane (BM) in SD-OCT images acquired by Cirrus and Spectralis commercial systems, from the same eye, on the same day during a clinical interventional DME trial...
February 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
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