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Microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100661/weak-beam-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy-for-quantitative-dislocation-density-measurement-in-steels
#1
Kenta Yoshida, Masaki Shimodaira, Takeshi Toyama, Yasuo Shimizu, Koji Inoue, Toshimasa Yoshiie, Konstantinovic J Milan, Robert Gerard, Yasuyoshi Nagai
To evaluate dislocations induced by neutron irradiation, we developed a weak-beam scanning transmission electron microscopy (WB-STEM) system by installing a novel beam selector, an annular detector, a high-speed CCD camera and an imaging filter in the camera chamber of a spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The capabilities of the WB-STEM with respect to wide-view imaging, real-time diffraction monitoring and multi-contrast imaging are demonstrated using typical reactor pressure vessel steel that had been used in an European nuclear reactor for 30 years as a surveillance test piece with a fluence of 1...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100660/secondary-electron-effect-on-electron-beam-induced-charging-of-sio2-particle-analyzed-by-electron-holography
#2
Hiroaki Suzuki, Zentaro Akase, Kodai Niitsu, Toshiaki Tanigaki, Daisuke Shindo
Charging of a SiO2 particle induced by electron illumination was investigated by changing the illuminated area of the particle and its support film through control of the position of the mask plate inserted in a transmission electron microscope illumination system. The electric fields around the charged SiO2 particle were analyzed using electron holography. The amount of charge was evaluated quantitatively by comparing the reconstructed phase images with the simulated phase images. When the support film was not covered against the incident electron beam, secondary electrons emitted from the conductive support film were attracted to the charged particle, resulting in particle discharge...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043995/simultaneous-imaging-of-multiple-cellular-events-using-high-accuracy-fluorescence-polarization-microscopy
#3
Sang-Yeob Kim, Yoshiyuki Arai, Tomomi Tani, Hirofumi Takatsuka, Yoshiharu Saito, Takayuki Kawashima, Shojiro Kawakami, Atsushi Miyawaki, Takeharu Nagai
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been widely used to design indicators for biomolecules. Conventional FRET-based indicators enable quantitative measurements of analyzes by calculating the ratio between donor and acceptor fluorophores. However, such 'hetero-FRET'-based indicators, which use multiple differently colored fluorophores, restrict the simultaneous use of other colors of fluorescent molecules. To overcome this problem, we developed a 'homo-FRET'-based Ca(2+) indicator, W-Cameleon, composed of two identical yellow fluorescent proteins...
January 1, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993950/in-situ-straining-and-time-resolved-electron-tomography-data-acquisition-in-a-transmission-electron-microscope
#4
S Hata, S Miyazaki, T Gondo, K Kawamoto, N Horii, K Sato, H Furukawa, H Kudo, H Miyazaki, M Murayama
This paper reports the preliminary results of a new in-situ three-dimensional (3D) imaging system for observing plastic deformation behavior in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) as a directly relevant development of the recently reported straining-and-tomography holder [Sato K et al (2015) Development of a novel straining holder for transmission electron microscopy compatible with single tilt-axis electron tomography. Microsc. 64: 369-375]. We designed an integrated system using the holder and newly developed straining and image-acquisition software and then developed an experimental procedure for in-situ straining and time-resolved electron tomography (ET) data acquisition...
December 18, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940609/surface-defects-generated-by-extrinsic-origins-on-4h-sic-epitaxial-wafers-observed-by-scanning-electron-microscopy
#5
Hirofumi Matsuhata, Naoyuki Sugiyama, Bin Chen, Tamotsu Yamashita, Tetsuo Hatakeyama, Takashi Sekiguchi
Surface defects on 4H-SiC wafers with an epitaxial layer grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Commercially available epitaxial-wafers with four or eight deg-off surface from the [0001] toward the [Formula: see text] directions were used for this experiment. 3C-SiC particles, triangular-defects, comets, obtuse-triangular-shaped-defects and micro-holes were identified in the SEM images. This paper can be considered as a catalog of SEM images and descriptions of various surface defects for 4H-SiC wafers with a CVD-grown epilayer...
December 8, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940608/surface-defects-generated-by-intrinsic-origins-on-4h-sic-epitaxial-wafers-observed-by-scanning-electron-microscopy
#6
Hirofumi Matsuhata, Naoyuki Sugiyama, Bin Chen, Tamotsu Yamashita, Tetsuo Hatakeyama, Takashi Sekiguchi
Surface defects with intrinsic origins in an epitaxial layer on 4H-SiC wafers were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Commercially available 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers with 4° or 8° off-axis angles from the [0001] direction toward the [[Formula: see text]] direction were used in this experiment. Various types of defects, including micropipes, pits, carrots, stacking faults and wide terrace and high step structures, were observed and clearly identified. The defects are presented as a catalog that can be used in the identification of surface defects...
December 8, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927876/operando-observations-of-solid-state-electrochemical-reactions-in-li-ion-batteries-by-spatially-resolved-tem-eels-and-electron-holography
#7
Kazuo Yamamoto, Yasutoshi Iriyama, Tsukasa Hirayama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927875/three-dimensional-characterization-of-guinier-preston-zones-in-an-al-cu-alloy-using-depth-sectioning-technique
#8
Takumi Hamaoka, Chih-Yu Jao, Xiaobin Zhang, Yoshifumi Oshima, Masaki Takeguchi
Guinier-Preston (GP) zones formed as nanometer-sized Cu-rich monolayers in α-Al matrix phase during aging process have been investigated using depth-sectioning technique, where through-focal high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images were recorded along a <001> zone axis of the α-Al phase using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HAADF intensities of the GP zones in the through-focal series vary with defocus settings, depending on the depths of the GP zones in the sample...
December 6, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927874/three-dimensional-studies-of-intergranular-carbides-in-austenitic-stainless-steel
#9
Minoru Ochi, Rika Kawano, Takuya Maeda, Yukio Sato, Ryo Teranishi, Toru Hara, Masao Kikuchi, Kenji Kaneko
A large number of morphological studies of intergranular carbides in steels have always been carried out in two dimensions without considering their dispersion manners. In this article, focused ion beam serial-sectioning tomography was carried out to study the correlation among the grain boundary characteristics, the morphologies and the dispersions of intergranular carbides in 347 austenitic stainless steel. More than hundred intergranular carbides were characterized in three dimensions and finally classified into three different types, two types of carbides probably semi-coherent to one of the neighboring grains with plate-type morphology, and one type of carbides incoherent to both grains with rod-type morphology...
December 6, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927873/the-special-issue-of-microscopy-on-challenges-for-lithium-detection
#10
EDITORIAL
Yoshifumi Oshima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856513/analytical-abf-stem-imaging-of-li-ions-in-rechargeable-batteries
#11
REVIEW
Yuren Wen, Tongtong Shang, Lin Gu
Rechargeable batteries are being intensively investigated in an attempt to solve the energy issues while meeting the environmental demands. Even though Li-ion batteries (LIB) with high energy and light weight have been commercialized within the last 20 years, these devices currently require higher energy density, output power and sustainability characteristics. The atomic behavior of Li ion that determines LIB's performance is hardly characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) owing to its weak electron-scattering power...
November 17, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852638/sem-observation-and-analysis-of-ingan-gan-multiple-quantum-well-structure-using-obliquely-polished-sample
#12
Shigeyasu Tanaka, Takahiro Karumi
The InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures on sapphire substrates were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) using obliquely polished samples. From the contrast change across the p-n junction, piezoelectric fields were deduced. The direction of the piezoelectric field was consistent with the theoretical prediction, but the strength was smaller. Strain-stress calculation showed that strain relief along the surface is not significant; therefore, it is not responsible for the smaller value of the obtained field strength...
November 16, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836989/quantitative-fe-epma-measurement-of-formation-and-inhibition-of-carbon-contamination-on-fe-for-trace-carbon-analysis
#13
Yuji Tanaka, Takako Yamashita, Masayasu Nagoshi
Hydrocarbon contamination introduced during point, line and map analyses in a field emission electron probe microanalysis (FE-EPMA) was investigated to enable reliable quantitative analysis of trace amounts of carbon in steels. The increment of contamination on pure iron in point analysis is proportional to the number of iterations of beam irradiation, but not to the accumulated irradiation time. A combination of a longer dwell time and single measurement with a liquid nitrogen (LN2) trap as an anti-contamination device (ACD) is sufficient for a quantitative point analysis...
November 11, 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920166/revealing-the-heterogeneous-contamination-process-in-metal-nanoparticulate-catalysts-in-co-gas-without-purification-by-in-situ-environmental-transmission-electron-microscopy
#14
Tetsuya Uchiyama, Hideto Yoshida, Naoto Kamiuchi, Hideo Kohno, Seiji Takeda
It is known that samples become contaminated in CO gas of high pressure unless care is taken with the gas supply line to an environmental transmission electron microscope. This technical note reveals the heterogeneous formation process of contamination in situ on a nanoparticulate catalyst sample. It is shown that the surface of metal nanoparticles is preferentially contaminated, while the surface of metal oxide supports remains uncontaminated. It is also demonstrated that the contamination is suppressed by introducing a gas purifier in a gas supply line...
December 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920165/microscopy-in-this-issue
#15
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655937/electron-microscopic-study-of-capillary-network-remodeling-in-the-extensor-digitorum-longus-muscle-of-normal-adult-rat
#16
Shuji Kitahara, Junzo Desaki, Asuka Yoshii, Aya Matsui, Shunichi Morikawa, Taichi Ezaki
Capillary networks demonstrate structural changes during maturation, aging, vascular disease, and cancer. Their morphological structure and function have an important influence on each other. Understanding the process of morphological vascular changes in the capillary network with advancing age may help overcome fatal vascular diseases. Aging-related structural changes of the capillary segments may accompany degeneration and regeneration of muscle fibers and serve to remodel the capillary network as a means of adapting to the changing environment...
December 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609112/strain-mapping-in-a-nanoscale-triangular-sige-pattern-by-dark-field-electron-holography-with-medium-magnification-mode
#17
Van Vuong Hoang, Youngji Cho, Jung Ho Yoo, Soon-Ku Hong, Yong Ho Choi, Sungha Choi, Wooduck Jung, Chang Kyu Jeong, Jun-Mo Yang
Recent years have seen a great deal of progress in the development of transmission electron microscopy-based techniques for strain measurement. Dark-field electron holography (DFEH) is a new technique offering configuration of the off-axis principle. Using this technique with medium magnification (Holo-M), we carried out strain measurements in nanoscale-triangular SiGe/(001) Si with (004), (2(-)20) and ((-)111) diffraction spots. The reconstruction of holograms and interpretation of strain maps in term of strain precision were discussed and the strain distributions in the SiGe/(001) Si patterns were visualized...
December 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590354/foucault-imaging-and-small-angle-electron-diffraction-in-controlled-external-magnetic-fields
#18
Hiroshi Nakajima, Atsuhiro Kotani, Ken Harada, Yui Ishii, Shigeo Mori
We report a method for acquiring Foucault images and small-angle electron diffraction patterns in external magnetic fields using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any modification. In the electron optical system that we have constructed, external magnetic fields parallel to the optical axis can be controlled using the objective lens pole piece under weak excitation conditions in the Foucault mode and the diffraction mode. We observe two ferromagnetic perovskite-type manganese oxides, La0...
December 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587511/common-fixation-permeabilization-methods-cause-artifactual-localization-of-a-type-ii-transmembrane-protein
#19
Ron Benyair, Gerardo Z Lederkremer
We found that a localization artifact can arise from common immunofluorescence methods. Specifically, cell fixation and permeabilization can cause mislocalization of a type II membrane-bound protein, ER mannosidase I, from its native localization in vesicles to the Golgi complex. Live cell microscopy and interestingly also mild cell fixation with paraformaldehyde without membrane permeabilization do not present this artifact.
December 2016: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587510/a-new-approach-for-the-direct-visualization-of-the-membrane-cytoskeleton-in-cryo-electron-microscopy-a-comparative-study-with-freeze-etching-electron-microscopy
#20
Masaki Makihara, Takashi Watanabe, Eiji Usukura, Kozo Kaibuchi, Akihiro Narita, Nobuo Tanaka, Jiro Usukura
An improved unroofing method consisting of tearing off the cell membrane using an adhesive electron microscopy (EM) grid instead of vitreous ice sectioning (cryo-sectioning) has enabled us to panoramically view the membrane cytoskeleton in its native state with extremely high contrast. Grids pre-treated with Alcian blue were placed on cells, and a portion of the dorsal plasma membrane was transferred onto the grid, which was then floated in buffer solution. These membrane fragments contained sufficient cytoskeleton and were of suitable thickness for observation by cryo-EM...
December 2016: Microscopy
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