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Kazuo Yamamoto, Yasutoshi Iriyama, Tsukasa Hirayama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Microscopy
Takumi Hamaoka, Chih-Yu Jao, Xiaobin Zhang, Yoshifumi Oshima, Masaki Takeguchi
Guinier-Preston (GP) zones formed as nanometer-sized Cu-rich monolayers in α-Al matrix phase during aging process have been investigated using depth-sectioning technique, where through-focal high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images were recorded along a <001> zone axis of the α-Al phase using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HAADF intensities of the GP zones in the through-focal series vary with defocus settings, depending on the depths of the GP zones in the sample...
December 6, 2016: Microscopy
Minoru Ochi, Rika Kawano, Takuya Maeda, Yukio Sato, Ryo Teranishi, Toru Hara, Masao Kikuchi, Kenji Kaneko
A large number of morphological studies of intergranular carbides in steels have always been carried out in two dimensions without considering their dispersion manners. In this article, focused ion beam serial-sectioning tomography was carried out to study the correlation among the grain boundary characteristics, the morphologies and the dispersions of intergranular carbides in 347 austenitic stainless steel. More than hundred intergranular carbides were characterized in three dimensions and finally classified into three different types, two types of carbides probably semi-coherent to one of the neighboring grains with plate-type morphology, and one type of carbides incoherent to both grains with rod-type morphology...
December 6, 2016: Microscopy
Yoshifumi Oshima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Microscopy
Yuren Wen, Tongtong Shang, Lin Gu
Rechargeable batteries are being intensively investigated in an attempt to solve the energy issues while meeting the environmental demands. Even though Li-ion batteries (LIB) with high energy and light weight have been commercialized within the last 20 years, these devices currently require higher energy density, output power and sustainability characteristics. The atomic behavior of Li ion that determines LIB's performance is hardly characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) owing to its weak electron-scattering power...
November 17, 2016: Microscopy
Shigeyasu Tanaka, Takahiro Karumi
The InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures on sapphire substrates were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) using obliquely polished samples. From the contrast change across the p-n junction, piezoelectric fields were deduced. The direction of the piezoelectric field was consistent with the theoretical prediction, but the strength was smaller. Strain-stress calculation showed that strain relief along the surface is not significant; therefore, it is not responsible for the smaller value of the obtained field strength...
November 16, 2016: Microscopy
Yuji Tanaka, Takako Yamashita, Masayasu Nagoshi
Hydrocarbon contamination introduced during point, line and map analyses in a field emission electron probe microanalysis (FE-EPMA) was investigated to enable reliable quantitative analysis of trace amounts of carbon in steels. The increment of contamination on pure iron in point analysis is proportional to the number of iterations of beam irradiation, but not to the accumulated irradiation time. A combination of a longer dwell time and single measurement with a liquid nitrogen (LN2) trap as an anti-contamination device (ACD) is sufficient for a quantitative point analysis...
November 11, 2016: Microscopy
Yoshifumi Oshima, Soyeon Lee, Kunio Takayanagi
The detection of lithium ions is required for characterization of lithium ion batteries, since the movement of lithium ions in the battery is one of the key ways to improve the performance. Annular bright field (ABF) imaging enables us to visualize individual lithium atomic columns simultaneously with heavy elements. Furthermore, it has been found that the number of lithium ions at the column is countable when the specimen is thin. These results suggest that movement of lithium ions in the material can be observed by taking consecutive ABF images during operation or in situ ABF observation...
October 14, 2016: Microscopy
Kazuo Yamamoto, Yasutoshi Iriyama, Tsukasa Hirayama
All-solid-state Li-ion batteries having incombustible solid electrolytes are promising energy storage devices because they have significant advantages in terms of safety, lifetime and energy density. Electrochemical reactions, namely, Li-ion insertion/extraction reactions, commonly occur around the nanometer-scale interfaces between the electrodes and solid electrolytes. Thus, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an appropriate technique to directly observe such reactions, providing important information for understanding the fundamental solid-state electrochemistry and improving battery performance...
October 12, 2016: Microscopy
Shunsuke Muto, Kazuyoshi Tatsumi
Advancements in the field of renewable energy resources have led to a growing demand for the analysis of light elements at the nanometer scale. Detection of lithium is one of the key issues to be resolved for providing guiding principles for the synthesis of cathode active materials, and degradation analysis after repeated use of those materials. We have reviewed the different techniques currently used for the characterization of light elements such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS)...
September 21, 2016: Microscopy
Scott David Findlay, Rong Huang, Ryo Ishikawa, Naoya Shibata, Yuichi Ikuhara
Annular bright field (ABF) scanning transmission electron microscopy has proven able to directly image lithium columns within crystalline environments, offering much insight into the structure and properties of lithium-ion battery materials. We summarize the image formation mechanisms underpinning ABF imaging, review the experimental application of this technique to imaging lithium in materials and overview the conditions that help maximize the visibility of lithium columns.
September 21, 2016: Microscopy
Tetsuya Uchiyama, Hideto Yoshida, Naoto Kamiuchi, Hideo Kohno, Seiji Takeda
It is known that samples become contaminated in CO gas of high pressure unless care is taken with the gas supply line to an environmental transmission electron microscope. This technical note reveals the heterogeneous formation process of contamination in situ on a nanoparticulate catalyst sample. It is shown that the surface of metal nanoparticles is preferentially contaminated, while the surface of metal oxide supports remains uncontaminated. It is also demonstrated that the contamination is suppressed by introducing a gas purifier in a gas supply line...
December 2016: Microscopy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Microscopy
Shuji Kitahara, Junzo Desaki, Asuka Yoshii, Aya Matsui, Shunichi Morikawa, Taichi Ezaki
Capillary networks demonstrate structural changes during maturation, aging, vascular disease, and cancer. Their morphological structure and function have an important influence on each other. Understanding the process of morphological vascular changes in the capillary network with advancing age may help overcome fatal vascular diseases. Aging-related structural changes of the capillary segments may accompany degeneration and regeneration of muscle fibers and serve to remodel the capillary network as a means of adapting to the changing environment...
December 2016: Microscopy
Van Vuong Hoang, Youngji Cho, Jung Ho Yoo, Soon-Ku Hong, Yong Ho Choi, Sungha Choi, Wooduck Jung, Chang Kyu Jeong, Jun-Mo Yang
Recent years have seen a great deal of progress in the development of transmission electron microscopy-based techniques for strain measurement. Dark-field electron holography (DFEH) is a new technique offering configuration of the off-axis principle. Using this technique with medium magnification (Holo-M), we carried out strain measurements in nanoscale-triangular SiGe/(001) Si with (004), (2(-)20) and ((-)111) diffraction spots. The reconstruction of holograms and interpretation of strain maps in term of strain precision were discussed and the strain distributions in the SiGe/(001) Si patterns were visualized...
December 2016: Microscopy
Hiroshi Nakajima, Atsuhiro Kotani, Ken Harada, Yui Ishii, Shigeo Mori
We report a method for acquiring Foucault images and small-angle electron diffraction patterns in external magnetic fields using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any modification. In the electron optical system that we have constructed, external magnetic fields parallel to the optical axis can be controlled using the objective lens pole piece under weak excitation conditions in the Foucault mode and the diffraction mode. We observe two ferromagnetic perovskite-type manganese oxides, La0...
December 2016: Microscopy
Ron Benyair, Gerardo Z Lederkremer
We found that a localization artifact can arise from common immunofluorescence methods. Specifically, cell fixation and permeabilization can cause mislocalization of a type II membrane-bound protein, ER mannosidase I, from its native localization in vesicles to the Golgi complex. Live cell microscopy and interestingly also mild cell fixation with paraformaldehyde without membrane permeabilization do not present this artifact.
December 2016: Microscopy
Masaki Makihara, Takashi Watanabe, Eiji Usukura, Kozo Kaibuchi, Akihiro Narita, Nobuo Tanaka, Jiro Usukura
An improved unroofing method consisting of tearing off the cell membrane using an adhesive electron microscopy (EM) grid instead of vitreous ice sectioning (cryo-sectioning) has enabled us to panoramically view the membrane cytoskeleton in its native state with extremely high contrast. Grids pre-treated with Alcian blue were placed on cells, and a portion of the dorsal plasma membrane was transferred onto the grid, which was then floated in buffer solution. These membrane fragments contained sufficient cytoskeleton and were of suitable thickness for observation by cryo-EM...
December 2016: Microscopy
Kazutoshi Inoue, Mitsuhiro Saito, Chunlin Chen, Motoko Kotani, Yuichi Ikuhara
A collaborative work between mathematics and atom-resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has been conducted. The grain boundary in a bicrystal of a simple rock-salt oxide can show a complicated arrangement of structural units, which can be well predicted by an algorithm utilizing the Farey sequence. The estimated arrangements had a nice agreement with those observed by STEM in atomic-scale up to several tens of nanometers.
December 2016: Microscopy
Yunjie Chang, Yumei Wang, Yanxiang Cui, Binghui Ge
Transmission cross-coefficient theory and pseudo-weak-phase object approximation theory were combined to investigate the non-linear imaging in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The analytical expressions of linear and non-linear imaging components in diffractogram were obtained and changes of linear and non-linear components over sample thickness were analyzed. Moreover, the linear and non-linear components are found to be an odd and even-function of the defocus and Cs, respectively...
December 2016: Microscopy
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