journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pathogens and Disease

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449098/insights-on-persistent-airway-infection-by-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Christian P Ahearn, Mary C Gallo, Timothy F Murphy
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common bacterial cause of infection of the lower airways in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Infection of the COPD airways causes acute exacerbations, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. NTHi has evolved multiple mechanisms to establish infection in the hostile environment of the COPD airways, allowing the pathogen to persist in the airways for months to years. Persistent infection of the COPD airways contributes to chronic airway inflammation that increases symptoms and accelerates the progressive loss of pulmonary function, which is a hallmark of the disease...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449081/the-coxiella-burnetii-type-ivb-secretion-system-t4bss-component-dota-is-released-secreted-during-infection-of-host-cells-and-during-in-vitro-growth-in-a-t4bss-dependent-manner
#2
Brandon E Luedtke, Saugata Mahapatra, Erika I Lutter, Edward I Shaw
Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q-fever. To cause disease, C. burnetii requires a functional type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to transfer effector proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of a membrane bound parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and further modulation of host cell process. However, it is not clear how the T4BSS interacts with the PV membrane since neither a secretion pilus nor an extracellular pore forming apparatus has not been described...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449072/functions-of-galectins-as-self-non-self-recognition-and-effector-factors
#3
Gerardo R Vasta, Chiguang Feng, Nuria González-Montalbán, Justin Mancini, Lishi Yang, Kelsey Abernathy, Graeme Frost, Cheyenne Palm
Carbohydrate structures on the cell surface encode complex information that through specific recognition by carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins), modulates interactions between cells, cells and the extracellular matrix, or mediates recognition of potential microbial pathogens. Galectins are a family of ß-galactoside-binding lectins, which are evolutionary conserved and have been identified in most organisms, from fungi to invertebrates and vertebrates, including mammals. Since their discovery in the 1970s, their biological roles, initially understood as limited to recognition of endogenous carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis and development, have expanded in recent years by the discovery of their roles in tissue repair and regulation of immune homeostasis...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431099/effect-of-cold-water-induced-stress-on-immune-response-pathology-and-fertility-in-mice-during-chlamydia-muridarum-genital-infection
#4
Tesfaye Belay, Anthony Woart, Vincent Graffeo
Genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. It causes serious reproductive health complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Stress is implicated as a risk factor for various infections; however, its effect on chlamydia genital infection is unknown. We previously showed that repeated exposure of mice to cold water results in increased severity of chlamydia genital infection. In the present study, cold water-induced stress resulted in: i) elevated levels of NE and EP in the spleen and genital tract of stressed mice; ii) elevated IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production in macrophage-rich peritoneal cells of mice; iii) supplement of NE in vitro exerts an immunosuppressive effect on splenic T cell production of cytokines; iv) decreased C...
April 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430970/helicobacter-pylori-outer-membrane-vesicles-inhibit-human-t-cell-responses-via-induction-of-monocyte-cox-2-expression
#5
Barry D Hock, Judith L McKenzie, Jacqueline I Keenan
The modulation of T cell responses by Helicobacter pylori is thought to potentiate both H. pylori persistence and development of gastric pathologies including cancer. Release of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) by H. pylori provides a potential vehicle for modulation of the immune system. Although OMV are thought to have T cell suppressive activity this has not yet been demonstrated. Their suppressive activity was investigated in this study using the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to T cell stimuli as a readout...
April 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430965/nrf2-regulates-the-inflammatory-response-including-heme-oxygenase-1-induction-by-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-lipid-associated-membrane-proteins-in-thp-1-cells
#6
Jihong Hu, Chunyan Chen, Guangli Ou, Xiaoxing You, Tianping Tan, Xinnian Hu, Yihua Zeng, Minjun Yu, Cuiming Zhu
A series of inflammatory responses caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae largely depend on the lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor, is considered to be a critical modulator of inflammatory responses and cellular redox homeostasis. Monocytes play an important role in the invasion and immunity to resist pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in the anti-inflammatory response stimulated by LAMPs using the human monocyte cell line THP-1...
April 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402532/strain-specific-inhibition-of-the-adherence-of-uropathogenic-bacteria-to-bladder-cells-by-probiotic-lactobacillus-spp
#7
Dolores González de Llano, Amalia Arroyo, Nivia Cárdenas, Juan Miguel Rodríguez, M Victoria Moreno-Arribas, Begoña Bartolomé
Urinary tract infections (UTI), one of most common infections worldwide, face high recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance. Probiotic bacteria, especially of the genus Lactobacillus are considered a promising preventive and/or treatment therapy against UTI. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects, we studied the impact of different Lactobacillus strains (L. salivarius UCM572, L. plantarum CLC17 and L. acidophilus 01) in the adherence of reference and clinical uropathogenic strains (Escherichia coli ATCC® 53503™, E...
April 11, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387837/genomic-sequencing-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-respond-to-the-urgent-threat-of-antimicrobial-resistant-gonorrhea
#8
A Jeanine Abrams, David L Trees
The development of resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to available first-line antibiotics, including penicillins, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, has led to the circulation of multidrug-resistant gonorrhea at a global scale. Advancements in high-throughput whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provide useful tools that can be used to enhance gonococcal detection, treatment and management capabilities, which will ultimately aid in the control of antimicrobial resistant gonorrhea worldwide. In this minireview, we discuss the application of WGS of N...
April 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387835/coxiella-burnetii-isolates-originating-from-infected-cattle-induce-a-more-pronounced-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-response-compared-to-isolates-from-infected-goats-and-sheep
#9
Anne Ammerdorffer, Runa Kuley, Annemieke Dinkla, Leo A B Joosten, Rudolf Toman, Hendrik-Jan Roest, Tom Sprong, Johanna M Rebel
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Although the prevalence of C. burnetii in cattle is much higher than in goats and sheep, infected cattle are rarely associated with human outbreaks. We investigated whether the immune response of humans differs after contact with C. burnetii isolates from different host origins or with different multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) genotypes.Cytokine responses were measured in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with 16 C...
April 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387800/molecular-characterization-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-associated-to-atherosclerosis
#10
Loubna El Yazouli, Alexis Criscuolo, Hicham Hejaji, Mohamed Bouaaza, Naima Elmdaghri, Aziz Aroussi Alami, Abderahim Amraoui, Nadia Dakka, Fouzia Radouani
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis, and its detection in human carotid and coronary atheroma suggests some support for its involvement in atherogenesis. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis in Moroccan patients through a case/control approach and detected strain genotyping. A total of 137 cases and 124 controls were enrolled, nested PCR was performed for Chlamydia pneumoniae screening of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both cases and controls as well as atheroma plaques from 37 cases, and positive samples were subjected to sequencing for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis...
April 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379411/comparison-of-the-inflammatory-response-of-brain-microvascular-and-peripheral-endothelial-cells-following-infection-with-neisseria-meningitidis
#11
Julia Dick, Sabrina Hebling, Jérôme Becam, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
The interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with both peripheral and brain endothelial cells is a critical event in the development of invasive meningococcal disease. In this study, we used in vitro models based on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), and peripheral endothelial EA.hy926 cells, to investigate their roles in the inflammatory response towards meningococcal infection. Both cell lines were infected with two pathogenic N. meningitidis isolates and secretion of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), the CXC chemokine IL-8 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were estimated by ELISA...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369433/the-crispr-cas9-system-in-neisseria-spp
#12
Yan Zhang
Bacteria and archaea possess numerous defense systems to combat viral infections and other mobile genetic elements. Uniquely among these, CRISPR-Cas (clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) provides adaptive genetic interference against foreign nucleic acids. Here we review recent advances on the CRISPR-Cas9 system in Neisseria spp, with a focus on its biological functions in genetic transfer, its mechanistic features that establish new paradigms, and its technological applications in eukaryotic genome engineering...
March 28, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369432/complete-genome-sequence-of-achromobacter%C3%A2-insolitus-type-strain-lmg-6003t-a-pathogen-isolated-from-leg-wound
#13
Gengmi Li, Tao Zhang, Li Yang, Yingjiang Cao, Xiaojiao Guo, Jian Qin, Qianhua Yang, Shumei You, Guoliang Yuan, Kaifeng Jiang, Jing Luo, Zhaoxiang Li, Lei Gao, Kaifeng Jiang, Lijuan Wu, Jiakui Zheng
Achromobacter insolitus is a new described, Gram-negative, small (1-2 mm long) and coccoid pathogen that isolated from leg wound. Due to its potential threat to human beings, the type strain of this species LMG 6003T was completely sequenced in this study. The genomic analysis revealed that the genome of LMG 6003T consists of one circular DNA chromosome of 6,492,697 bp with a GC content of 65.10%. The entire genome contains 6208 predicted coding genes, 61 tRNAs and 13 rRNA genes. Comparative genome analysis between LMG 6003T and other selected 10 sequenced Achromobacter revealed that 725 genes only exist in LMG 6003T...
March 28, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369428/novel-approaches-to-neisseria-meningitidis-vaccine-design
#14
Myron Christodoulides, John Heckels
A range of vaccines is available for preventing life-threatening diseases caused by infection with Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus, Men). Capsule polysaccharide (CPS)-conjugate vaccines are successful prophylactics for serogroup MenA, MenC, MenW and MenY infections and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines have been used successfully for controlling clonal serogroup MenB infections. MenB vaccines based on recombinant proteins identified by reverse vaccinology (Bexsero®) and proteomics (Trumenba®) approaches have recently been licensed and Bexsero® has been introduced into the UK infant immunization program...
March 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334288/genome-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-three-hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-in-russia
#15
Angelina A Kislichkina, Anastasia I Lev, Ekaterina V Komisarova, Nadezhda K Fursova, Vera P Myakinina, Tatiana N Mukhina, Alexander A Bogun, Nikolay V Volozhantsev
The prevalence and characteristics of hypermucoviscous (HV) strains among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in Russian hospitals were investigated. The HV strains were accounted for 11% K. pneumoniae isolates collected on the period from 2011 to 2016, and were characterized by belonging to K1, K2, K20 and K57 serotypes. Whole genome sequences (WGSs) of K. pneumoniae HV clinical strains KPi261 (SCPM-O-B-7850) and KPB4010 (SCPM-O-B-7846) belonging to K1 and K2 capsular types, as well as WGSs of K. pneumoniae strain KPM9 (SCPM-O-B-7749) of K20 capsular type isolated from freshwater were completed...
March 9, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334216/deletion-of-mazf-increases-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-an-ica-dependent-manner
#16
Fuminori Kato, Yusuke Yabuno, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Motoyuki Sugai, Masayori Inouye
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a toxin that inhibits an essential cellular process (e.g., DNA replication, transcription, membrane integrity) and its cognate antitoxin that neutralizes the effect of the toxin. Staphylococcus aureus harbors two types of chromosomally encoded TA systems, namely mazEFsa encoding a UACAU-specific mRNA interferase and two paralogous genes of yefM-yoeBsa encoding a ribosome-dependent endoribonuclease system. However, little is known about the physiological role of MazEFsa and YefM-YoeBsa in S...
March 8, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423169/innate-immune-response-to-lipooligosaccharide-pivotal-regulator-of-the-pathobiology-of-invasive-neisseria-meningitidis-infections
#17
Constance M John, Nancy J Phillips, Daniel C Stein, Gary A Jarvis
Infections due to Neisseria meningitidis afflict more than one million people worldwide annually and cause death or disability in many survivors. The clinical course of invasive infections has been well studied, but our understanding of the cause of differences in patient outcomes has been limited because these are dependent on multiple factors including the response of the host, characteristics of the bacteria and interactions between the host and the bacteria. The meningococcus is a highly inflammatory organism, and the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) on the outer membrane is the most potent inflammatory molecule it expresses due to the interactions of the lipid A moiety of LOS with receptors of the innate immune system...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423168/the-significance-of-candida-in-the-human-respiratory-tract-our-evolving-understanding
#18
Kathryn M Pendleton, Gary B Huffnagle, Robert P Dickson
Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423167/what-pre-columbian-mummies-could-teach-us-about-south-american-leishmaniases
#19
Denis Sereno, Mohammad Akhoundi, Franck Dorkeld, Bruno Oury, Hooman Momen, Pascale Perrin
A recent report on the taxonomic profile of the human gut microbiome in pre-Columbian mummies (Santiago-Rodriguez et al. 2016) gives for the first time evidence of the presence of Leishmania DNA (sequences similar to Leishmania donovani according to the authors) that can be reminiscent of visceral leishmaniasis during the pre-Columbian era. It is commonly assumed that Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) was introduced into the New World by the Iberian conquest...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369531/infection-of-porcine-colon-explants-with-brachyspira-hampsonii-leads-to-increased-epithelial-necrosis-and-catarrhal-exudate
#20
Matheus O Costa, Champika Fernando, Roman Nosach, John C S Harding, Janet E Hill
Mucohemorrhagic diarrhea in pigs caused by Brachyspira spp. has a global distribution, and an economic impact on affected farms due to poor performance of animals. Demonstrations that "Brachyspira hampsonii" is pathogenic have been achieved using in vivo animal models, but a critical knowledge gap exists regarding the pathogenic mechanisms employed by Brachyspira. Here, we used in vitro organ culture of porcine colon to investigate interactions between "B. hampsonii" and explants during the first 12 h of contact...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
journal
journal
47541
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"