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Pathogens and Disease

Seyed Farid Sadati, Abbas Jamali, Asghar Abdoli, Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi, Shima Gholami, Samira Alipour, Sepehr Soleymani, Masoumeh Tavassoti Kheiri, Fatemeh Atyabi
Lack of efficient delivery systems for transporting antigenic molecules to the cytosol of antigen presenting cells presents a major obstacle for antigen uptake by immune cells. To this end, influenza Whole Inactivated Virus (WIV) vaccines were formulated with chitosan nanoparticles and CpG oligonucleotide as a biodegradable delivery system and a Th1-specific adjuvant, respectively. Intradermal injection of a single high dose and low dose of formulated candidate vaccines was carried out. Thirty days after injection; cell proliferation assay (MTT), IFN-gamma and IL-4 ELISpot assays were carried out...
September 3, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Ana Dienstbier, Derek Pouchnik, Mark Wildung, Fabian Amman, Ivo L Hofacker, Julian Parkhill, Jana Holubova, Peter Sebo, Branislav Vecerek
Bordetella pertussis is a strictly human pathogen causing the respiratory infectious disease called whooping cough or pertussis. B. pertussis adaptation to acellular pertussis vaccine pressure has been repeatedly highlighted, but recent data indicate that adaptation of circulating strains started already in the era of the whole cell pertussis vaccine (wP) use. We sequenced the genomes of five B. pertussis wP vaccine strains isolated in the former Czechoslovakia in the pre-wP (1954 - 1957) and early wP (1958 - 1965) eras, when only limited population travel into and out of the country was possible...
September 3, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
NPraveen Rishi, Tanvi Vashist, Avantika Sharma, Amrita Kaur, Arashdeep Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Indu Pal Kaur, Rupinder Tewari
Due to emergence of multidrug resistance in pathogens, attention of the scientific community is now directed towards strengthening the reservoir of antimicrobial compounds. Prior to in vivo studies, the interaction and penetration of a hybrid peptide K11 in bacterial cells using confocal microscopy was assessed which was observed as early as 10 min after incubation with the peptide. Cell lysis along with leakage of cytoplasmic content was confirmed by electron microscopy. To evaluate the in vivo performance of the peptide, it was contained in carbopol hydrogel...
September 3, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Sherry L Kurtz, Alin Voskanian-Kordi, Vahan Simonyan, Karen L Elkins
Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative organism found in many regions of the world. F. tularensis can cause a fatal, febrile illness, although these natural tularemia infections are rare in the United States. However, the development of F. tularensis as a potential weapon of bioterrorism during the Cold War spurred the development of a live attenuated vaccine, LVS, from F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in the 1960s. Two colony morphology variants, LVS-G and LVS-R, were generated from parental LVS by plate passage and by acridine orange mutagenesis, respectively...
August 23, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
M Suleman, P Novakovic, C M Malgarin, S E Detmer, J C S Harding, D J MacPhee
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection causes severe reproductive failure characterized by high fetal morbidity and mortality leading to substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Evaluation of spatiotemporal transmission of PRRSV at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI) is critical for understanding fetal infection. Localization of PRRSV-2 strain NVSL 97-7895 at different regions of the MFI in 20 pregnant gilts at 2, 5, 8, 12 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) were analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF)...
July 7, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Anna Bershteyn, Jaline Gerardin, Daniel Bridenbecker, Christopher W Lorton, Jonathan Bloedow, Robert S Baker, Guillaume Chabot-Couture, Ye Chen, Thomas Fischle, Kurt Frey, Jillian S Gauld, Hao Hu, Amanda S Izzo, Daniel J Klein, Kevin A McCarthy, Joel C Miller, Andre Lin Ouedraogo, Svetlana Titova, Bradley G Wagner, Philip A Welkhoff, Edward A Wenger, Christian N Wiswell
Individual-based models provide modularity and structural flexibility necessary for modeling of infectious diseases at the within-host and population levels, but are challenging to implement. Levels of complexity can exceed the capacity and timescales for students and trainees in most academic institutions. Here we describe the process and advantages of a multi-disease framework approach developed with formal software support. The epidemiological modeling software, EMOD, has undergone a decade of software development...
July 6, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
F Cools, E Torfs, B Vanhoutte, M Bidart de Macedo, L Bonofiglio, M Mollerach, L Maes, G Caljon, P Delputte, D Cappoen, P Cos
Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, has developed a wide range of virulence factors to evade the immune system of which the polysaccharide capsule is the most important one. Formation of this capsule is dependent on the cps gene locus, but also involves other genes-like galU. The pyrophosphorylase encoded by galU plays a role in the UDP-glucose metabolism of prokaryotes and is required for the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharides. In this paper, the effect of a galU mutation leading to a dysfunctional UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UDPG:PP) on in vitro biofilm biomass, adherence to lung epithelial cells and macrophage phagocytosis is studied...
October 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Maya Azrad, Zohar Hamo, Linda Tkhawkho, Avi Peretz
The current research investigated immunoglobulin A levels in serum of patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Our main aim was to test whether immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels at the early stage of infection can predict disease severity of C. difficile infection. Fifty-four patients were enrolled in the study. Stool samples were collected and analyzed by PCR for detection of C. difficile. IgA levels were measured in serum samples that were collected from each patient immediately after receiving a positive PCR result...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Antal Martinecz, Pia Abel Zur Wiesch
Treatment of infectious diseases is often long and requires patients to take drugs even after they have seemingly recovered. This is because of a phenomenon called persistence, which allows small fractions of the bacterial population to survive treatment despite being genetically susceptible. The surviving subpopulation is often below detection limit and therefore is empirically inaccessible but can cause treatment failure when treatment is terminated prematurely. Mathematical models could aid in predicting bacterial survival and thereby determine sufficient treatment length...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Tom Coenye, Birthe Kjellerup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Xiaolei Wang, Xiaowei Tang, Zheng Zhou, Qing Huang
Interleukin (IL)-10 plays a key role in immune response following mycobacterial infection, which can be inhibited by histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6. In this study, we explored whether Tubastatin A, a HDAC6 inhibitor, could enhance immune response and restrain mycobacterial growth. We established a mouse model using attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tbH37Ra) infection. The growth of mycobacteria was evaluated using colony form unit assays. Immune response statues were investigated using flow cytometry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to study the influence of HDAC6 on IL10 transcription...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Giliane da Silva de Souza, Ana Barbara F Rodriguez, Maria Isabel Romano, Efranci Seliprandy Ribeiro, Walter M R Oelemann, David Gitirana da Rocha, Wilmar Dias da Silva, Elena B Lasunskaia
Paratuberculosis (PTB) or Johne's disease is a chronic intestinal infection of ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The shedding of mycobacteria in the feces starts at the initial stages and increases with disease progression, suggesting that antigens secreted by mycobacteria could be excreted in the feces. Previously, we demonstrated that the alanine and proline-rich antigen (Apa), a secretory antigen of Map, could be detected in the intestine of cows with PTB using a monoclonal antibody...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Lina Salazar-Peláez, Liliana Acevedo-Saenz, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This disease is characterized by skin and peripheral nerve trunk damage. The mechanisms responsible for the observed nerve damage in leprosy could be directly related to the ability of M. leprae to infect Schwann cells, leading to triggering of signaling events. Therefore, we hypothesize that in response to M. leprae infection, activation of the Notch signaling pathway in Schwann cells could play a crucial role in glial cell dedifferentiation...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
S Agarwal, S Ghosh, S Sharma, K Kaur, I Verma
Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives within the infected host cells by escaping phagolysosomal fusion and adaptation to hosts' intracellular milieu. Recently, the role of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in the survival of intracellular M. tuberculosis has gained importance. It has been reported that M. tuberculosis causes cytotoxicity in AECs, a phenotype attributed to M. tuberculosis virulence that could be due to the differential gene/protein expression of bacilli in these cells. Thus, the present study focused on comparative proteomic analysis of intracellular mycobacteria within macrophages and epithelial cells...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Sai Qiao, Ningbo Zheng, Lida Sun, Gaoju Pang, Shuhe Wang, Ping Jia, Jude Ezeh Uzonna, Hong Bai, Xi Yang
PI3Ks display integrant significance in T-cell development and differentiation, which is related to host defense against infections. Here, we investigated the role of p110δ isoform of PI3Ks in host defense against chlamydial lung infection in a mouse model. Our data showed that lung infection with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) activated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Compared to WT mice, p110δD910A mice, mice with an inactivating knockin mutation in the p110δ Isoform of PI3Ks, showed more sever disease phenotype and slower recovery, which was associated with reduced Chlamydia-specific Th1 and Th17 immune responses following infection...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
María Soledad Miró, Emilse Rodríguez, Cecilia Vigezzi, Paula Alejandra Icely, Luciana N García, Nahuel Peinetti, Cristina A Maldonado, Fernando Oscar Riera, Juan Pablo Caeiro, Claudia Elena Sotomayor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Susmita Das, Nirmal K Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Bikash R Sahu
Gut infections triggered by pathogenic bacteria lead to most frequently occurring diarrhea in humans accounting for million deaths annually. Currently, only a few licensed vaccines are available against these pathogens for mostly travelers moving to diarrheal endemic areas. Besides commercialized vaccines, there are many formulations that are either under clinical or pre-clinical stages of development and despite several efforts to improve safety, immunogenicity and efficacy, none of them can confer long-term protective immunity, for which repeated booster doses are always recommended...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Jerome Prusa, Dennis X Zhu, Christina L Stallings
During infection, the host restrains Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) from proliferating by imposing an arsenal of stresses. Despite this onslaught of attacks, Mtb is able to persist for the lifetime of the host, indicating that this pathogen has substantial molecular mechanisms to resist host-inflicted damage. The stringent response is a conserved global stress response in bacteria that involves the production of the hyperphosphorylated guanine nucleotides ppGpp and pppGpp (collectively called (p)ppGpp). (p)ppGpp then regulates a number of cellular processes to adjust the physiology of the bacteria to promote survival in different environments...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Reda H El Bakary, Mohamed A El Barody
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of retinochoroiditis worldwide in humans. Some studies highlighted the idea that ocular lesions differ according to the route of infection but none of them mimicked the natural route. The current study aimed to investigate the ophthalmic outcomes in congenital and oral routes of infection with Toxoplasma in experimental animals. Mice were divided into three groups; group I: congenital infection, group II: acquired oral infection and group III: non-infected. We used Me49 chronic low-virulence T...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Richard M Johnson, Kathleen A McDonough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most successful microbial pathogens, and currently infects over a quarter of the world's population. Mtb's success depends on the ability of the bacterium to sense and respond to dynamic and hostile environments within the host, including the ability to regulate bacterial metabolism and interactions with the host immune system. One of the ways Mtb senses and responds to conditions it faces during infection is through the concerted action of multiple cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
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