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Pathogens and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520925/the-ironclad-truth-how-in-vivo-transcriptomics-and-in-vitro-mechanistic-studies-shape-our-understanding-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-gene-regulation-during-mucosal-infection
#1
Matthew R Moreau, Paola Massari, Caroline A Genco
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. This obligate human pathogen has been extensively studied in vitro, where bacterial factors that are known to contribute to gonococcal disease and their regulation are relatively well defined. However, these in vitro experimental conditions only loosely replicate the host specific environment encountered by the bacteria in vivo. We recently reported on the complete gonococcal transcriptome expressed during natural human mucosal infection using RNA-seq analysis...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520869/comparative-pathogenomic-characterization-of-a-non-invasive-serotype-m71-strain-streptococcus-pyogenes-ns53-reveals-incongruent-phenotypic-implications-from-distinct-genotypic-markers
#2
Yun-Juan Bao, Yang Li, Zhong Liang, Garima Agrahari, Shaun W Lee, Victoria A Ploplis, Francis J Castellino
The strains serotyped as M71 from group A Streptococcus are common causes of pharyngeal and skin diseases worldwide. Here we characterize the genome of a unique non-invasive M71 human isolate, NS53. The genome does not contain structural rearrangements or large-scale gene gains/losses, but encodes a full set of non-truncated known virulence factors, thus providing an ideal reference for comparative studies. However, the NS53 genome showed incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers. NS53 is characterized as an emm pattern D and FCT (fibronectin-collagen-T-antigen) type-3 strain, typical of skin tropic strains, but is phylogenetically close to emm pattern E strains with preference for both skin and pharyngeal infections...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505248/lactobacilli-lactoferrin-interplay-in-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#3
Rosa Sessa, Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Alessia Bressan, Paola Mastromarino, Alessandra Vittoria Biasucci, Luigi Rosa, Antimo Cutone, Francesca Berlutti, Rosalba Paesano, Piera Valenti
In the cervico-vaginal micro-environment, lactobacilli are known to protect against genital infections and, amongst the host defence compounds, lactoferrin has recently acquired importance for its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. An abnormal genital micro-environment facilitates the acquisition of pathogens like Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus brevis and bovine lactoferrin on chlamydial infection, in order to shed light on the complex interplay between host defence mechanisms and C...
May 15, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505288/effect-of-different-antibiotics-on-biofilm-produced-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#4
María José González, Luciana Robino, Victoria Iribarnegaray, Pablo Zunino, Paola Scavone
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) occur frequently in children and women. Intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli are risk factors for recurrence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different antibiotics on biofilms by E. coli strains isolated from children with UTI and to correlate virulence factors and IBC with biofilm formation. 116 E. coli strains were tested for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate technique. 58...
May 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475711/cellular-immune-response-to-dna-and-vaccinia-prime-boost-immunization-kills-plasmodium-yoelii-infected-hepatocytes-in-vitro
#5
John B Sacci, Michael R Hollingdale, Martha Sedegah
Background: Plasmid DNA encoding Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (PyCSP) and boosted with recombinant vaccinia virus containing the PyCSP elicited significant protective immunity in mice that was primarily mediated by CD8+ T-cell responses directed to P. yoelii -infected hepatocytes. This study was to further explore protection using in vitro cultures of P. yoelii parasites in mouse hepatocytes. Methods: Spleen cells from DNA/vaccinia virus-immunized mice were co-cultured in vitro with mouse hepatocytes containing developing P...
May 5, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475673/role-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-in-polymicrobial-biofilm-infections-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-candida-albicans-modelled-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
J E Holt, A Houston, C Adams, S Edwards, B V Kjellerup
Biofilms are formed by communities of microorganisms living in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix attached to a surface. When living in a biofilm microorganisms change phenotype thus are less susceptible to antibiotic treatment and biofilm infections can become severe. The aim of this study was to determine if the presence of multi-kingdom microorganisms alter the virulence of a biofilm infection in a host organism. The coexistence of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis in biofilm was examined in the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans...
May 5, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472466/spatial-clustering-of-high-load-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-trachoma-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#7
Anna Last, Sarah Burr, Neal Alexander, Emma Harding-Esch, Chrissy H Roberts, Meno Nabicassa, Eunice Teixeira da Silva Cassama, David Mabey, Martin Holland, Robin Bailey
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the commonest cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection and infectious cause of blindness (trachoma) worldwide. Understanding the spatial distribution of Ct infection may enable us to identify populations at risk and improve our understanding of Ct transmission. In this study we sought to investigate the spatial distribution of Ct infection and the clinical features associated with high Ct load in trachoma-endemic communities on the Bijagós Archipelago (Guinea Bissau)...
May 3, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472295/biochemical-characterization-of-the-gtp-sensing-protein-cody-of-bacillus-anthracis
#8
Shikha Joon, Monisha Gopalani, Amit Rahi, Parul Kulshreshtha, Himanshu Gogoi, Sonika Bhatnagar, Rakesh Bhatnagar
The pleiotropism of the GTP-sensing transcriptional regulator CodY is evident by the gamut of processes that it regulates in almost all low G+C gram-positive bacteria, including general metabolism, biosynthesis of some amino acids and transport systems, nitrogen uptake, sporulation, biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The role of CodY in virulence has been established in Bacillus anthracis, the top rated bioterrorism agent. In this study, we investigated the biochemical attributes of this global regulator...
May 3, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460033/gonococcal-lipooligosaccharide-sialylation-virulence-factor-and-target-for-novel-immunotherapeutics
#9
Sanjay Ram, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Rosane B de Oliveira, Lisa A Lewis, Sunita Gulati, Peter A Rice
Gonorrhea has become resistant to most conventional antimicrobials used in clinical practice. The global spread of multidrug-resistant isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae could lead to an era of untreatable gonorrhea. New therapeutic modalities with novel mechanisms of action that do not lend themselves to the development of resistance are urgently needed. Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialylation is critical for complement resistance and for establishing infection in humans and in experimental mouse models...
April 27, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449072/functions-of-galectins-as-self-non-self-recognition-and-effector-factors
#10
Gerardo R Vasta, Chiguang Feng, Nuria González-Montalbán, Justin Mancini, Lishi Yang, Kelsey Abernathy, Graeme Frost, Cheyenne Palm
Carbohydrate structures on the cell surface encode complex information that through specific recognition by carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins), modulates interactions between cells, cells and the extracellular matrix, or mediates recognition of potential microbial pathogens. Galectins are a family of ß-galactoside-binding lectins, which are evolutionary conserved and have been identified in most organisms, from fungi to invertebrates and vertebrates, including mammals. Since their discovery in the 1970s, their biological roles, initially understood as limited to recognition of endogenous carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis and development, have expanded in recent years by the discovery of their roles in tissue repair and regulation of immune homeostasis...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431099/effect-of-cold-water-induced-stress-on-immune-response-pathology-and-fertility-in-mice-during-chlamydia-muridarum-genital-infection
#11
Tesfaye Belay, Anthony Woart, Vincent Graffeo
Genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. It causes serious reproductive health complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Stress is implicated as a risk factor for various infections; however, its effect on chlamydia genital infection is unknown. We previously showed that repeated exposure of mice to cold water results in increased severity of chlamydia genital infection. In the present study, cold water-induced stress resulted in: i) elevated levels of NE and EP in the spleen and genital tract of stressed mice; ii) elevated IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production in macrophage-rich peritoneal cells of mice; iii) supplement of NE in vitro exerts an immunosuppressive effect on splenic T cell production of cytokines; iv) decreased C...
April 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430970/helicobacter-pylori-outer-membrane-vesicles-inhibit-human-t-cell-responses-via-induction-of-monocyte-cox-2-expression
#12
Barry D Hock, Judith L McKenzie, Jacqueline I Keenan
The modulation of T cell responses by Helicobacter pylori is thought to potentiate both H. pylori persistence and development of gastric pathologies including cancer. Release of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) by H. pylori provides a potential vehicle for modulation of the immune system. Although OMV are thought to have T cell suppressive activity this has not yet been demonstrated. Their suppressive activity was investigated in this study using the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to T cell stimuli as a readout...
April 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387837/genomic-sequencing-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-respond-to-the-urgent-threat-of-antimicrobial-resistant-gonorrhea
#13
A Jeanine Abrams, David L Trees
The development of resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to available first-line antibiotics, including penicillins, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, has led to the circulation of multidrug-resistant gonorrhea at a global scale. Advancements in high-throughput whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provide useful tools that can be used to enhance gonococcal detection, treatment and management capabilities, which will ultimately aid in the control of antimicrobial resistant gonorrhea worldwide. In this minireview, we discuss the application of WGS of N...
April 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387800/molecular-characterization-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-associated-to-atherosclerosis
#14
Loubna El Yazouli, Alexis Criscuolo, Hicham Hejaji, Mohamed Bouaaza, Naima Elmdaghri, Aziz Aroussi Alami, Abderahim Amraoui, Nadia Dakka, Fouzia Radouani
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis, and its detection in human carotid and coronary atheroma suggests some support for its involvement in atherogenesis. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis in Moroccan patients through a case/control approach and detected strain genotyping. A total of 137 cases and 124 controls were enrolled, nested PCR was performed for Chlamydia pneumoniae screening of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both cases and controls as well as atheroma plaques from 37 cases, and positive samples were subjected to sequencing for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis...
April 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379411/comparison-of-the-inflammatory-response-of-brain-microvascular-and-peripheral-endothelial-cells-following-infection-with-neisseria-meningitidis
#15
Julia Dick, Sabrina Hebling, Jérôme Becam, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
The interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with both peripheral and brain endothelial cells is a critical event in the development of invasive meningococcal disease. In this study, we used in vitro models based on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), and peripheral endothelial EA.hy926 cells, to investigate their roles in the inflammatory response towards meningococcal infection. Both cell lines were infected with two pathogenic N. meningitidis isolates and secretion of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), the CXC chemokine IL-8 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were estimated by ELISA...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369433/the-crispr-cas9-system-in-neisseria-spp
#16
Yan Zhang
Bacteria and archaea possess numerous defense systems to combat viral infections and other mobile genetic elements. Uniquely among these, CRISPR-Cas (clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) provides adaptive genetic interference against foreign nucleic acids. Here we review recent advances on the CRISPR-Cas9 system in Neisseria spp, with a focus on its biological functions in genetic transfer, its mechanistic features that establish new paradigms, and its technological applications in eukaryotic genome engineering...
March 28, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369432/complete-genome-sequence-of-achromobacter%C3%A2-insolitus-type-strain-lmg-6003t-a-pathogen-isolated-from-leg-wound
#17
Gengmi Li, Tao Zhang, Li Yang, Yingjiang Cao, Xiaojiao Guo, Jian Qin, Qianhua Yang, Shumei You, Guoliang Yuan, Kaifeng Jiang, Jing Luo, Zhaoxiang Li, Lei Gao, Kaifeng Jiang, Lijuan Wu, Jiakui Zheng
Achromobacter insolitus is a new described, Gram-negative, small (1-2 mm long) and coccoid pathogen that isolated from leg wound. Due to its potential threat to human beings, the type strain of this species LMG 6003T was completely sequenced in this study. The genomic analysis revealed that the genome of LMG 6003T consists of one circular DNA chromosome of 6,492,697 bp with a GC content of 65.10%. The entire genome contains 6208 predicted coding genes, 61 tRNAs and 13 rRNA genes. Comparative genome analysis between LMG 6003T and other selected 10 sequenced Achromobacter revealed that 725 genes only exist in LMG 6003T...
March 28, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369428/novel-approaches-to-neisseria-meningitidis-vaccine-design
#18
Myron Christodoulides, John Heckels
A range of vaccines is available for preventing life-threatening diseases caused by infection with Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus, Men). Capsule polysaccharide (CPS)-conjugate vaccines are successful prophylactics for serogroup MenA, MenC, MenW and MenY infections and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines have been used successfully for controlling clonal serogroup MenB infections. MenB vaccines based on recombinant proteins identified by reverse vaccinology (Bexsero®) and proteomics (Trumenba®) approaches have recently been licensed and Bexsero® has been introduced into the UK infant immunization program...
March 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334288/genome-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-three-hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-in-russia
#19
Angelina A Kislichkina, Anastasia I Lev, Ekaterina V Komisarova, Nadezhda K Fursova, Vera P Myakinina, Tatiana N Mukhina, Alexander A Bogun, Nikolay V Volozhantsev
The prevalence and characteristics of hypermucoviscous (HV) strains among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in Russian hospitals were investigated. The HV strains were accounted for 11% K. pneumoniae isolates collected on the period from 2011 to 2016, and were characterized by belonging to K1, K2, K20 and K57 serotypes. Whole genome sequences (WGSs) of K. pneumoniae HV clinical strains KPi261 (SCPM-O-B-7850) and KPB4010 (SCPM-O-B-7846) belonging to K1 and K2 capsular types, as well as WGSs of K. pneumoniae strain KPM9 (SCPM-O-B-7749) of K20 capsular type isolated from freshwater were completed...
March 9, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334216/deletion-of-mazf-increases-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-an-ica-dependent-manner
#20
Fuminori Kato, Yusuke Yabuno, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Motoyuki Sugai, Masayori Inouye
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a toxin that inhibits an essential cellular process (e.g., DNA replication, transcription, membrane integrity) and its cognate antitoxin that neutralizes the effect of the toxin. Staphylococcus aureus harbors two types of chromosomally encoded TA systems, namely mazEFsa encoding a UACAU-specific mRNA interferase and two paralogous genes of yefM-yoeBsa encoding a ribosome-dependent endoribonuclease system. However, little is known about the physiological role of MazEFsa and YefM-YoeBsa in S...
March 8, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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