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Pathogens and Disease

Melaine Delcroix, Kartoosh Heydari, Ren Dodge, Lee W Riley
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is characterized by an inflammatory response resulting in the formation of granulomas. These tight aggregates of immune cells play an important role in bacterial containment and in the eventual outcome of infection. Monocytes are a major component of the early immune response to Mtb and contribute to the cellular matrix of the newly forming granuloma. Therefore, defining which monocyte subset is the target of mycobacterial infection is critical. Here, we describe a flow-cytometry-based assay to analyze infectivity in vitro of monocyte subsets by Mycobacterium bovis BCG before granuloma formation...
November 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Nicole Borel, Hanna Marti, Andreas Pospischil, Theresa Pesch, Barbara Prähauser, Sabina Wunderlin, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Nicola Low, Renata Flury
Chlamydia trachomatis is frequently detected in anorectal specimens from men and women. A recent hypothesis suggests that C. trachomatis is a natural commensal organism asymptomatically colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we investigated the presence of chlamydial DNA and antigen in intestinal biopsy samples taken during colonoscopy. Cases (n = 32) were patients whose histopathology reports included the term 'chlamydia', suggesting a possible history of infection. Control patients (n = 234) did not have chlamydia mentioned in their histopathology report and all tested negative for Chlamydiaceae DNA by 23S ribosomal RNA-based real-time PCR...
November 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Kavindra V Singh, Kenneth L Pinkston, Peng Gao, Barrett R Harvey, Barbara E Murray
Ace (Adhesin to collagen from Enterococcus faecalis) is a cell-wall anchored protein that is expressed conditionally and is important for virulence in a rat infective endocarditis (IE) model. Previously, we showed that rats immunized with the collagen binding domain of Ace (domain A), or administered anti-Ace domain A polyclonal antibody, were less susceptible to E. faecalis endocarditis than sham immunized controls. In this work, we demonstrated that a sub nanomolar monoclonal antibody (mAb), anti-Ace mAb70, significantly diminished E...
November 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Andreas Kühbacher, Karel Novy, Juan J Quereda, Martin Sachse, Maryse Moya-Nilges, Bernd Wollscheid, Pascale Cossart, Javier Pizarro-Cerdá
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium that invades epithelial cells by activating host signaling cascades which promote bacterial engulfment within a phagosome. The pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), which is required for bacteria phagosomal escape, has also been associated with the activation of several signaling pathways when secreted by extracellular bacteria, including Ca2+ influx and promotion of L. monocytogenes entry. Quantitative host surfaceome analysis revealed significant quantitative remodeling of a defined set of cell surface glycoproteins upon LLO treatment, including a subset previously identified to play a role in the L...
November 15, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Mathilde Gondard, Lorraine Michelet, Athinna Nisavanh, Elodie Devillers, Sabine Delannoy, Patrick Fach, Anna Aspan, Karin Ullman, Jan Chirico, Bernd Hoffmann, Fimme Jan van der Wal, Aline de Koeijer, Conny van Solt-Smits, Seta Jahfari, Hein Sprong, Karen L Mansfield, Anthony R Fooks, Kirstine Klitgaard, Rene Bødker, Sara Moutailler
Ticks are one of the principal arthropod vectors of human and animal infectious diseases. Whereas the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in Europe is well studied, there is less information available on the prevalence of the other tick-borne viruses (TBVs) existing worldwide. The aim of this study was to improve the epidemiological survey tools of TBVs by the development of an efficient high-throughput test to screen a wide range of viruses in ticks.In this study, we developed a new high-throughput virus-detection assay based on parallel real-time PCRs on a microfluidic system, and used it to perform a large scale epidemiological survey screening for the presence of 21 TBVs in 18,135 nymphs of I...
November 13, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Philippe Bercier, Marcelo Gottschalk, Daniel Grenier
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen that causes porcine pleuropneumonia, a fatal respiratory disease responsible for high economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. With the objective to better understand the interactions between A. pleuropneumoniae and the porcine respiratory epithelium, we investigated the capacity of this pathogen to damage the epithelial barrier and induce an inflammatory response. We showed that A. pleuropneumoniae, even at a multiplicity of infection of 10, is able to break the tracheal epithelial barrier integrity as determined by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance and FITC-dextran transport...
November 3, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Jahanarah Khatoon, Kashi Nath Prasad, Ravi Prakash Rai, Sanket Kumar Shukla, Narendra Krishnani, Uday Chand Ghoshal
Expression levels of ADAMs(A disintegrin and metalloproteases)(10 and 17) and Th17 related cytokines(IL17A,IL17F,IL33,IL23,IL23R) were investigated by quantitative real time PCR(RT-PCR) in gastric biopsies of patients with different gastro-duodenal pathologies in presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Patient with gastric cancer(GC)70 [intestinal type 38 and diffuse type 32], peptic ulcer disease(PUD)50[duodenal ulcer(DU)16 and gastric ulcer(GU)34]and functional dyspepsia(FD)120were included in the study...
October 26, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Sasanka S Chukkapalli, Sriram Ambadapadi, Kyle Varkoly, Jessica Jiron, Jose Ignacio Aguirre, Indraneel Bhattacharyya, Laurence M Morel, Alexandra R Lucas, Kesavalu Lakshmyya
Plasma membrane-associated Toll-like receptor (TLR2 and TLR4) signaling contributes to oral microbe infection-induced periodontitis and atherosclerosis. We recently reported that either TLR2 or TLR4 receptor deficiency alters recognition of a consortium of oral pathogens, modifying host responses in periodontitis and atherosclerosis. We evaluated the effects of combined TLR2-/-TLR4-/- double knockout mice on innate immune signaling and induction of periodontitis and atherosclerosis after polybacterial infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in a mouse model...
October 23, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Evida A Dennis, Mamie T Coats, Sarah Griffin, Bing Pang, David E Briles, Marilyn J Crain, W Edward Swords
Mucoid bacteria, predominately Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are commonly associated with decline in pulmonary function in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), and are thought to persist at least in part due to a greater propensity toward forming biofilms. We isolated a higher frequency of mucoid Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) expressing high levels of capsular polysaccharides from sputa from children with CF, compared to those without CF. We compared biofilm formation and maturation by mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of Sp collected from children with and without CF...
September 28, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Jessica A Slade, Jennifer V Hall, Jennifer Kintner, Robert V Schoborg
Chlamydia trachomatis/HSV-2 vaginal co-infections are seen clinically, suggesting that these sexually transmitted pathogens may interact. We previously established an intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum/HSV-2 super-infection model and observed that chlamydial pre-infection protects mice from a subsequent lethal HSV-2 challenge. However, the mechanism of protection remains unknown. The type I interferon, IFN-β, binds to the type I interferon receptor (IFNR), elicits a host cellular antiviral response and inhibits HSV replication in vitro and in vivo...
November 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Seyed Farid Sadati, Abbas Jamali, Asghar Abdoli, Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi, Shima Gholami, Samira Alipour, Sepehr Soleymani, Masoumeh Tavassoti Kheiri, Fatemeh Atyabi
Lack of efficient delivery systems for transporting antigenic molecules to the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells presents a major obstacle for antigen uptake by immune cells. To this end, influenza whole inactivated virus vaccines were formulated with chitosan nanoparticles and CpG oligonucleotide as a biodegradable delivery system and a Th1-specific adjuvant, respectively. Intradermal injections of a single high dose and low dose of formulated candidate vaccines were carried out. Thirty days after injection, cell proliferation assay (MTT), IFN-gamma and IL-4 ELISpot assays were conducted...
November 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Alexandra Tikhomirova, Claudia Trappetti, Alistair J Standish, Yiwen Zhou, James Breen, Stephen Pederson, Peter S Zilm, James C Paton, Stephen P Kidd
Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are known aetiologic agents of chronic otitis media, frequently as a multispecies infection. In this study, we show that the outcome of H. influenzae/S. pneumoniae interactions is dependent on the nutrient source. In continuous culture containing chemically defined media with lactose, S. pneumoniae was non-viable in mono-culture, and in co-culture remained non-viable until 288 h. With glucose, S. pneumoniae became non-viable in mono-culture, but uniquely existed in 3 distinct states in co-culture: parental cells (until 24 h), a dormant state until 336 h and its re-emergence as a non-mucoidal, small colony variant (SCV)...
October 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Tom Coenye, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Paul Stoodley, Kendra Rumbaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
F Cools, E Torfs, B Vanhoutte, M Bidart de Macedo, L Bonofiglio, M Mollerach, L Maes, G Caljon, P Delputte, D Cappoen, P Cos
Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, has developed a wide range of virulence factors to evade the immune system of which the polysaccharide capsule is the most important one. Formation of this capsule is dependent on the cps gene locus, but also involves other genes-like galU. The pyrophosphorylase encoded by galU plays a role in the UDP-glucose metabolism of prokaryotes and is required for the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharides. In this paper, the effect of a galU mutation leading to a dysfunctional UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UDPG:PP) on in vitro biofilm biomass, adherence to lung epithelial cells and macrophage phagocytosis is studied...
October 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Ana Dienstbier, Derek Pouchnik, Mark Wildung, Fabian Amman, Ivo L Hofacker, Julian Parkhill, Jana Holubova, Peter Sebo, Branislav Vecerek
Bordetella pertussis is a strictly human pathogen causing the respiratory infectious disease called whooping cough or pertussis. B. pertussis adaptation to acellular pertussis vaccine pressure has been repeatedly highlighted, but recent data indicate that adaptation of circulating strains started already in the era of the whole cell pertussis vaccine (wP) use. We sequenced the genomes of five B. pertussis wP vaccine strains isolated in the former Czechoslovakia in the pre-wP (1954-1957) and early wP (1958-1965) eras, when only limited population travel into and out of the country was possible...
October 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Praveen Rishi, Tanvi Vashist, Avantika Sharma, Amrita Kaur, Arashdeep Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Indu Pal Kaur, Rupinder Tewari
Due to emergence of multidrug resistance in pathogens, the attention of the scientific community is now directed towards strengthening the reservoir of antimicrobial compounds. Prior to in vivo studies, the interaction and penetration of a hybrid peptide K11 in bacterial cells using confocal microscopy was assessed which was observed as early as 10 min after incubation with the peptide. Cell lysis along with leakage of cytoplasmic content was confirmed by electron microscopy. To evaluate the in vivo performance of the peptide, it was contained in carbopol hydrogel...
October 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Sherry L Kurtz, Alin Voskanian-Kordi, Vahan Simonyan, Karen L Elkins
Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative organism found in many regions of the world. F. tularensis can cause a fatal, febrile illness, although these natural tularemia infections are rare in the United States. However, the development of F. tularensis as a potential weapon of bioterrorism during the Cold War spurred the development of a live attenuated vaccine, LVS, from F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in the 1960s. Two colony morphology variants, LVS-G and LVS-R, were generated from parental LVS by plate passage and by acridine orange mutagenesis, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Maya Azrad, Zohar Hamo, Linda Tkhawkho, Avi Peretz
The current research investigated immunoglobulin A levels in serum of patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Our main aim was to test whether immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels at the early stage of infection can predict disease severity of C. difficile infection. Fifty-four patients were enrolled in the study. Stool samples were collected and analyzed by PCR for detection of C. difficile. IgA levels were measured in serum samples that were collected from each patient immediately after receiving a positive PCR result...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Antal Martinecz, Pia Abel Zur Wiesch
Treatment of infectious diseases is often long and requires patients to take drugs even after they have seemingly recovered. This is because of a phenomenon called persistence, which allows small fractions of the bacterial population to survive treatment despite being genetically susceptible. The surviving subpopulation is often below detection limit and therefore is empirically inaccessible but can cause treatment failure when treatment is terminated prematurely. Mathematical models could aid in predicting bacterial survival and thereby determine sufficient treatment length...
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Tom Coenye, Birthe Kjellerup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
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