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Pathogens and Disease

S Agarwal, S Ghosh, S Sharma, K Kaur, I Verma
Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives within the infected host cells by escaping phago-lysosomal fusion and adaptation to hosts' intracellular milieu. Recently, role of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in survival of intracellular M. tuberculosis is gaining importance. It has been reported that M. tuberculosis causes cytotoxicity in AECs, a phenotype attributed to M. tuberculosis virulence that could be due to differential gene/protein expression of bacilli in these cells. Thus, present study was focused on comparative proteomic analysis of intracellular mycobacteria within macrophages and epithelial cells...
July 11, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
M Suleman, P Novakovic, C M Malgarin, S E Detmer, J C S Harding, D J MacPhee
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection causes severe reproductive failure characterized by high fetal morbidity and mortality leading to substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Evaluation of spatiotemporal transmission of PRRSV at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI) is critical for understanding fetal infection. Localization of PRRSV-2 strain NVSL 97-7895 at different regions of the MFI in 20 pregnant gilts at 2, 5, 8, 12 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) were analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF)...
July 7, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Anna Bershteyn, Jaline Gerardin, Daniel Bridenbecker, Christopher W Lorton, Jonathan Bloedow, Robert S Baker, Guillaume Chabot-Couture, Ye Chen, Thomas Fischle, Kurt Frey, Jillian S Gauld, Hao Hu, Amanda S Izzo, Daniel J Klein, Kevin A McCarthy, Joel C Miller, Andre Lin Ouedraogo, Svetlana Titova, Bradley G Wagner, Philip A Welkhoff, Edward A Wenger, Christian N Wiswell
Individual-based models provide modularity and structural flexibility necessary for modeling of infectious diseases at the within-host and population levels, but are challenging to implement. Levels of complexity can exceed the capacity and timescales for students and trainees in most academic institutions. Here we describe the process and advantages of a multi-disease framework approach developed with formal software support. The epidemiological modeling software, EMOD, has undergone a decade of software development...
July 6, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Reda H El Bakary, Mohamed A El Barody
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of retinochoroiditis worldwide in humans. Some studies highlighted the idea that ocular lesions differ according to the route of infection but none of them mimicked the natural route. The current study aimed to investigate the ophthalmic outcomes in congenital and oral routes of infection with Toxoplasma in experimental animals. Mice were divided into three groups; group I: congenital infection, group II: acquired oral infection and group III: non-infected. We used Me49 chronic low-virulence T...
June 14, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Sai Qiao, Ningbo Zheng, Lida Sun, Gaoju Pang, Shuhe Wang, Ping Jia, Jude Ezeh Uzonna, Hong Bai, Xi Yang
PI3Ks display integrant significance in T cell development and differentiation, which is related to host defense against infections. Here, we investigated the role of p110δ isoform of PI3Ks in host defense against chlamydial lung infection in a mouse model. Our data showed that lung infection with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) activated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Compared to WT mice, p110δD910A mice, mice with an inactivating knock-in mutation in the p110δ Isoform of PI3Ks, showed more sever disease phenotype and slower recovery, which was associated with reduced chlamydia specific Th1 and Th17 immune responses following infection...
June 11, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Arunachalam Kannappan, Ramar Mohankumar, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Govindaraju Archunan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Kandasamy Ruckmani, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Staphylococcal infections associated with indwelling medical devices are difficult to eradicate owing to its recalcitrant nature of biofilms to conventional antibiotics. In our earlier study, we reported the efficacy of geraniol (GE) in inhibiting the in vitro biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and adaptive resistant development. To examine the in vivo potential of GE in eradicating the in vivo colonization of S. epidermidis, an implanted rat jugular vein catheter model was developed. Oral supplementation of GE (GE at 200 mg/kg bw for three days) in rats infected with S...
June 11, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Kouki Yoshikawa, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kentaro Imamura, Atsushi Saito, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Interaction between two periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola, contributes to plaque biofilm formation. P. gingivalis forms aggregates with T. denticola through its adhesion/hemagglutinin domain (Hgp44). In this study, we investigated the specific domain of P. gingivalis Hgp44 responsible for adhesion to T. denticola using expression vectors harboring P. gingivalis Hgp44 DNA sequences encoding amino acid residues 1-419. Six plasmids harboring fragments in this region were generated by PCR amplification and self-ligation, and recombinant proteins r-Hgp44 (residues 1-419), r-Hgp441 (residues 1-124), r-Hgp442 (1-199), r-Hgp443 (1-316), r-Hgp444 (199-419), r-Hgp445 (124-198), and r-Hgp446 (199-316) were produced, as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting...
May 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Jerome Prusa, Dennis X Zhu, Christina L Stallings
During infection, the host restrains Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) from proliferating by imposing an arsenal of stresses. Despite this onslaught of attacks, Mtb is able to persist for the lifetime of the host, indicating that this pathogen has substantial molecular mechanisms to resist host-inflicted damage. The stringent response is a conserved global stress response in bacteria that involves the production of the hyperphosphorylated guanine nucleotides ppGpp and pppGpp (collectively called (p)ppGpp). (p)ppGpp then regulates a number of cellular processes to adjust the physiology of the bacteria to promote survival in different environments...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Richard M Johnson, Kathleen A McDonough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most successful microbial pathogens, and currently infects over a quarter of the world's population. Mtb's success depends on the ability of the bacterium to sense and respond to dynamic and hostile environments within the host, including the ability to regulate bacterial metabolism and interactions with the host immune system. One of the ways Mtb senses and responds to conditions it faces during infection is through the concerted action of multiple cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Hayden T Pacl, Vineel P Reddy, Vikram Saini, Krishna C Chinta, Adrie J C Steyn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, encounters variable and hostile environments within the host. A major component of these hostile conditions is reductive and oxidative stresses induced by factors modified by the host immune response, such as oxygen tension, NO or CO gases, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, the availability of different carbon sources and changes in pH. It is therefore essential for Mtb to continuously monitor and appropriately respond to the microenvironment...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Songyuan Yao, Yongqiang Li, Qianru Zhang, Huiwen Zhang, Libao Zhou, Hui Liao, Chenggang Zhang, Mingkai Xu
Rabies vaccine administration is the most effective method to prevent the occurrence of rabies disease. However, administration of rabies vaccine without adjuvant always shows low efficiency. As a member of superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) non-specifically activates T-cells at extremely low concentration. It enlightens us that SEC2 may be used as an adjuvant. We carried out the experiment that the mice received twice immunization with rabies vaccine in the presence or absence of SEC2 at 1-week interval...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Débora C Coraça-Huber, Stefanie Dichtl, Stephan Steixner, Michael Nogler, Günter Weiss
OBJECTIVES: The ability of certain bacteria to form biofilms underlies their capacity to cause medical device-associated infections. Most bacteria need the metal iron for their proliferation but also to form biofilms. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether iron restriction upon application of the iron chelator deferiprone (DFP) impacts on bacterial biofilm formation and whether such an intervention can exert synergistic effects towards the antibacterial activity of three antibiotic compounds against coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) residing on titanium plates...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Talita B Aiello, Carlos E Levy, Tânia R Zaccariotto, Ilma A Paschoal, Mônica C Pereira, Marcos T Nolasco da Silva, José D Ribeiro, Antônio F Ribeiro, Adyléia A D C Toro, Renan M Mauch
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been well established as an opportunistic pathogenic bacterial group for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with a prevalence ranging from 3% to 23% worldwide. A myriad of factors can bias the prevalence rate in different CF centers, especially misdiagnosis as systematic screening for NTM are still lacking in a number of centers. Here, we evaluated the presence and clinical outcomes of NTM isolation in microbiological respiratory cultures from CF patients attending a Brazilian reference center after setting up a systematic diagnostic protocol...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Mengfei Ho, Amel Mettouchi, Brenda A Wilson, Emmanuel Lemichez
Alterations of the cellular proteome over time due to spontaneous or toxin-mediated enzymatic deamidation of glutamine (Gln) and asparagine (Asn) residues contribute to bacterial infection and might represent a source of aging-related diseases. Here, we put into perspective what is known about the mode of action of the CNF1 toxin from pathogenic Escherichia coli, a paradigm of bacterial deamidases that activate Rho GTPases, to illustrate the importance of determining whether exposure to these factors are risk factors in the etiology age-related diseases, such as cancer...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Luis Franco-Serrano, Juan Cedano, Josep Antoni Perez-Pons, Angel Mozo-Villarias, Jaume Piñol, Isaac Amela, Enrique Querol
Moonlighting or multitasking proteins refer to those proteins with two or more functions performed by a single polypeptide chain. Proteins that belong to key ancestral functions and metabolic pathways such as primary metabolism typically exhibit moonlighting phenomenon. We have collected 698 moonlighting proteins in MultitaskProtDB-II database. A survey shows that 25% of the proteins of the database correspond to moonlighting functions related to pathogens virulence activity. Why is the canonical function of these virulence proteins mainly from ancestral key biological functions (especially of primary metabolism)? Our hypothesis is that these proteins present a high conservation between the pathogen protein and the host counterparts...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Manzour Hernando Hazbón, Leen Rigouts, Marco Schito, Matthew Ezewudo, Takuji Kudo, Takashi Itoh, Moriya Ohkuma, Katalin Kiss, Linhuan Wu, Juncai Ma, Moriyuki Hamada, Michael Strong, Max Salfinger, Charles L Daley, Jerry A Nick, Jung-Sook Lee, Nalin Rastogi, David Couvin, Raquel Hurtado-Ortiz, Chantal Bizet, Anita Suresh, Timothy Rodwell, Audrey Albertini, Karen A Lacourciere, Ana Deheer-Graham, Sarah Alexander, Julie E Russell, Rebecca Bradford, Marco A Riojas
There are many resources available to mycobacterial researchers, including culture collections around the world that distribute biomaterials to the general scientific community, genomic and clinical databases, and powerful bioinformatics tools. However, many of these resources may be unknown to the research community. This review article aims to summarize and publicize many of these resources, thus strengthening the quality and reproducibility of mycobacterial research by providing the scientific community access to authenticated and quality-controlled biomaterials and a wealth of information, analytical tools and research opportunities...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Stefan Schwenk, Kristine B Arnvig
Since the turn of the millenium, RNA-based control of gene expression has added an extra dimension to the central dogma of molecular biology. Still, the roles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulatory RNAs and the proteins that facilitate their functions remain elusive, although there can be no doubt that RNA biology plays a central role in the baterium's adaptation to its many host environments. In this review, we have presented examples from model organisms and from M. tuberculosis to showcase the abundance and versatility of regulatory RNA, in order to emphasise the importance of these 'fine-tuners' of gene expression...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Richard A Slayden, Clinton C Dawson, Jason E Cummings
There has been a significant reduction in annual tuberculosis incidence since the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis a global health threat. However, treatment of M. tuberculosis infections requires lengthy multidrug therapeutic regimens to achieve a durable cure. The development of new drugs that are active against resistant strains and phenotypically diverse organisms continues to present the greatest challenge in the future. Numerous phylogenomic analyses have revealed that the Mtb genome encodes a significantly expanded repertoire of toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci that makes up the Mtb TA system...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Jacob D Pierson, Melanie A Hansmann, Catherine C Davis, Larry J Forney
Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is associated with vaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus strains that encode toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst+). Interestingly, a small proportion of women are colonized by S. aureus tst+ but do not have symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Here we sought to determine if differences in the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities reflect a differential risk of colonization by S. aureus capable of producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). The composition of vaginal communities of women that were or were not colonized with S...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
S Upadhyay, E Mittal, J A Philips
Macrophages are first-line responders against microbes. The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) rests upon its ability to convert these antimicrobial cells into a permissive cellular niche. This is a remarkable accomplishment, as the antimicrobial arsenal of macrophages is extensive. Normally bacteria are delivered to an acidic, degradative lysosome through one of several trafficking pathways, including LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) and autophagy. Once phagocytozed, the bacilli are subjected to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and they induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which serve to augment host responses...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
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