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Pathogens and Disease

Yoo Jeong Kim, Hyejin Jeon, Seok Hyeon Na, Hyo Il Kwon, Gati Noble Selasi, Asiimwe Nicholas, Tae In Park, Sang Hwa Lee, Je Chul Lee
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has become one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. This microorganism secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), but the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia as it relates to OMVs has not been characterized. This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of S. maltophilia OMVs and their ability to induce inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo S. maltophilia ATCC 13637 and two clinical isolates were found to secrete spherical OMVs during in vitro culture...
October 17, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Kristen L Lokken, Gregory T Walker, Renée M Tsolis
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars (NTS) are generally associated with gastroenteritis; however, the very young and elderly, as well as individuals with compromised immunity, are at risk of developing disseminated infection that can manifest as bacteremia or focal infections at systemic sites. Disseminated NTS infections can be fatal and are responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually. Most of these deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa, where multi-drug resistant NTS clones are currently circulating in a population with a high proportion of individuals that are susceptible to disseminated disease...
October 8, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
James B Kaper, Martin F Flajnik, Harry L T Mobley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Carina Ferreira, Bruna Gonçalves, Diana Vilas Boas, Hugo Oliveira, Mariana Henriques, Joana Azeredo, Sónia Silva
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to investigate the role of pH on C. tropicalis virulence determinants, namely the ability to form biofilms and to colonize/invade reconstituted human vaginal epithelia. METHODS: Biofilm formation was evaluated by enumeration of cultivable cells, total biomass quantification and structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. C. tropicalis human vaginal epithelium colonization and invasiveness were examined qualitatively by epifluorescence microscopy and quantitatively by a novel qPCR protocol for Candida quantification in tissues...
October 4, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Julie E Choe, Matthew D Welch
A diverse spectrum of intracellular bacterial pathogens that inhabit the cytosol have evolved the ability to polymerize actin on their surface to power intracellular actin-based motility (ABM). These include species of Listeria, Burkholderia and Rickettsia, as well as Shigella and Mycobacteria Here, we provide an overview of the roles of bacterial ABM in survival and virulence. Moreover, we survey the molecular mechanisms of actin polymerization in host cells and describe how bacterial pathogens mimic or harness the full diversity of these mechanisms for ABM...
September 20, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Habib Jmii, Aymen Halouani, Firas Elmastour, Eseoghene Ifie, Sarah J Richardson, Famara Sane, Moncef Mokni, Mahjoub Aouni, Didier Hober, Hela Jaïdane
Coxsackie B viruses (CV-B) are important pathogens associated with several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. CV-B are mainly transmitted by the faecal-oral route, but there is also evidence for vertical transmission. The outcome of in utero CV-B infections on offspring's CNS is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to investigate vertical transmission of CV-B to the CNS. For this purpose, pregnant Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with CV-B4 E2 at gestational days 10G or 17G. Different CNS compartments were collected and analyzed for virus infection and histopathological changes...
September 20, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Madushini N Dharmasena, Manuel Osorio, Svetlana Filipova, Christina Marsh, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
Typhoid fever and shigellosis cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet no anti-Shigella vaccine is currently available. However, to protect against typhoid fever, an approved vaccine, based on the attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a is available. We have investigated Ty21a as a live oral vaccine vector for expression of heterologous foreign antigens to protect against other diseases (e.g. shigellosis, anthrax, and plague). Shigella LPS is a potent vaccine antigen for serotype-specific protection against Shigellae...
September 20, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Alison J Scott, Bryn Flinders, Joanna Cappell, Tao Liang, Rebecca S Pelc, Bao Tran, David P A Kilgour, Ron M A Heeren, David R Goodlett, Robert K Ernst
The discovery of novel pathogenic mechanisms engaged during bacterial infections requires the evolution of advanced techniques. Here, we evaluate the dual polarity matrix norharmane (NRM) to improve detection of bacterial lipid A (endotoxin), from host and vector tissues infected with Francisella novicida (Fn). We evaluated NRM for improved detection and characterization of a wide range of lipids in both positive and negative polarities, including lipid A and phospholipids across a range of matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI)-coupled applications...
September 19, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Sambit Roy, Tapas Patra, Taniya Golder, Soniya Chatterjee, Hemanta Koley, Ranjan K Nandy
Orthologs search identified that the Vibrio cholerae gluconate (Gnt) utilization system minimally consisted of the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway (edd and eda) and three other genes namely gntU, gntK and gntR This system appeared unique, by genomic organization of component genes into two operons transcribed in opposite directions. In silico analysis indicated GntU as inner-membrane protein functioning for transport and GntK as kinase with cytosolic localization which generates Gnt6P, then metabolized through the ED pathway...
September 19, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Damien Costa, Anne Mercier, Kevin Gravouil, Jérôme Lesobre, Julien Verdon, Christine Imbert
Chemical disinfectants are widely advocated to reduce the microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines (DUWL). However, until now their efficacy has been poorly examined after long-term application. In this study, through quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing, both bacterial and fungal communities were profiled from 8-12 year-old DUWL treated with disinfectants commonly used by European dentists. Water was collected from the tap water supplying units to the output exposure point of the turbine handpiece following a stagnation period and dental care activity...
September 13, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Dharmaprakash Viszwapriya, Ganapathy Ashwinkumar Subramenium, Udayakumar Prithika, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
The present study demonstrates the antivirulence potential of betulin, an abundantly available triterpenoid against Streptococcus pyogenes, a multi-virulent and exclusive human pathogen. Crystal violet assay and microscopic examination revealed that betulin (100 μg mL(-1)) exhibits surface independent antibiofilm activity and mitigates extracellular polymeric substance production. Betulin treatment enhanced the rate of auto-aggregation in liquid medium. Results of real-time PCR and biochemical assays demonstrated that, betulin suppresses the expression of ropB core regulon, sagA and dltA, which correspondingly affects SpeB production, hemolysis and cell surface hydrophobicity, for the observed impairment in virulence and biofilm formation...
September 4, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Laura Heyen, Uwe Müller, Sabine Siegemund, Bianca Schulze, Martina Protschka, Gottfried Alber, Daniel Piehler
Inhalation of the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) results in pulmonary cryptococcosis associated with IL-33-dependent type 2 immunity. Lung epithelium represents the initial contact site of infection. The role of IL-33 in type 2 immunity has been analyzed, but the source of this cytokine and its effect on lung epithelial cell function in pulmonary cryptococcosis remained unclear. In mice infected with C. neoformans, we identified alveolar type 2 epithelial cells as major source of IL-33. On both, IL-33-positive and IL-33-negative epithelial cells, IL-33 receptor expression was detectable...
September 4, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Ana Carolina Morandini, Carlos F Santos, Ӧzlem Yilmaz
Epigenetic mechanisms have rapidly and controversially emerged as silent modulators of host defenses that can lead to a more prominent immune response and shape the course of inflammation in host. Thus, the epigenetics can both drive the production of specific inflammatory mediators and control the magnitude of host response. The epigenetic actions that are predominantly shown to modulate the host defense against microbial pathogens are DNA methylation, histone modification, and the activity of non-coding RNAs...
August 18, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Ghazal Sadat Fatemi Nasab, Vahid Salimi, Simin Abbasi, Fatemeh Adjami Nezhad Fard, Talat Mokhtari Azad
Despite the accessibility of a promising vaccine, outbreaks of the measles virus (MV) take place even in well-vaccinated populations. D4, H1 and B3 genotypes have been detected regularly in different regions of Iran. These observations highlight the necessity of evaluating the protective efficacy of the vaccine against currently circulating MV genotypes during the elimination phase. A focus reduction neutralization test has been developed to measure the neutralizing antibodies against different genotypes of MV, such as H1, D4, B3 and vaccine strain (A), in children after second doses of measles vaccine...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Marina Pekmezovic, Ivana Aleksic, Aleksandra Barac, Valentina Arsic-Arsenijevic, Branka Vasiljevic, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic, Lidija Senerovic
Mixed microbial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pathogenic fungi are commonly found in patients with chronic infections and constitute a significant health care burden. The aim of this study was to address the potential polymicrobial antibiofilm activity of pompia and grapefruit essential oils (EOs). The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of EOs was analysed. EOs of pompia and grapefruit inhibited fungal growth with MIC concentrations between 50 and 250 mg L(-1), whereas no effect on P. aeruginosa growth was observed...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Ellen E Higginson, James E Galen, Myron M Levine, Sharon M Tennant
Space exploration programs have long been interested in the effects of spaceflight on biology. This research is important not only in its relevance to future deep space exploration, but also because it has allowed investigators to ask questions about how gravity impacts cell behavior here on Earth. In the 1980s, scientists designed and built the first rotating wall vessel, capable of mimicking the low shear environment found in space. This vessel has since been used to investigate growth of both microorganisms and human tissue cells in low shear modeled microgravity conditions...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Li Wang, Xiangying Deng, Haican Liu, Lanhua Zhao, Xiaolong You, Pei Dai, Kanglin Wan, Yanhua Zeng
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate pathogenic bacterial species in the family of Mycobacteriaceae and attracts excessive immune responses which cause pathology of the lungs in active tuberculosis. The lack of more sensitive and effective diagnosis reagents advocates a further recognition for the fast diagnostic and immunological measures for tuberculosis. Here, two 12-mer peptides with core sequences of SVSVGMKPSPRP (CS1) and TMGFTAPRFPHY (CS2) were screened from a phage display random peptide library using the purified mixed tuberculosis-positive serum as a target...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Yogesh D Walawalkar, Yatindra Vaidya, Vijayashree Nayak
Salmonella Typhi can chronically persist within the gallbladder of patients suffering from gallbladder diseases. This study, intended to improve our understanding of bacterial mechanisms underlying bile adaptation, revealed that bile, which is a bactericidal agent, led to the generation of reactive oxygen species in S Typhi. Salmonella Typhi in response showed a significant increase in the production of anti-oxidative enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase and catalase. The work reports that the quorum-sensing (QS) system of S Typhi regulates the level of these enzymes during oxidative stress...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Karina Basso Santiago, Bruno José Conti, Eliza de Oliveira Cardoso, Marjorie de Assis Golim, José Maurício Sforcin
Propolis is a bee product used in folk medicine to improve health and prevent inflammatory diseases. It has attracted the attention of researchers from the odontological field lately, reducing inflammation resulting from surgical procedures and as an antimicrobial agent in the control of bacterial plaque. Thus far, no side-effects that might compromise oral health have been observed. Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent widely used as an antiseptic, but side-effects restrict its use. This work investigated the effects of an odontological product containing propolis in combination with chlorhexidine in lower concentrations on human monocytes...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Meghan Zuck, Ashley Sherrid, Robert Suchland, Tisha Ellis, Kevin Hybiske
Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed...
October 2016: Pathogens and Disease
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