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Pathogens and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087650/simkania-negevensis-may-produce-long-lasting-infections-in-human-pneumocytes-and-endometrial-cells
#1
Manon Vouga, David Baud, Gilbert Greub
Simkania negevensis is a novel Chlamydia-related bacterium and the founding member of the Simkaniaceae family within the Chlamydiales order. Little is known about the biology and pathogenesis of this bacterium. So far, S. negevensis has been considered as an amoebal symbiont, but its natural host remains unknown. Moreover, evidence of human exposition has been reported worldwide and an association with pneumonia and bronchiolitis is suspected. Here, we evaluated the ability of S. negevensis to replicate in potential environmental reservoirs, namely amoebae and arthropods, as well as in mammalian cells (Vero cells, pneumocytes and endometrial cells) and further evaluated the characteristics of its replicative vacuole...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087649/identification-of-unique-essential-proteins-from-a-m-tuberculosis-f15-lam4-kzn-phage-secretome-library
#2
Thamsanqa Emmanuel Chiliza, Manormoney Pillay, Balakrishna Pillay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis disease (TB), the leading cause of death from bacterial infection worldwide. Although treatable, the resurgence of multi- and extensively-drug resistance TB is a major setback for the fight against TB globally. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new Mtb derived biomarkers for use in the design of new drugs and rapid point-of-care diagnostic or prognostic tools for management of TB transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify unique Mtb secreted proteins from the extensively drug resistant Mtb F15/LAM4/KZN phage secretome library...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087648/effect-of-in-vivo-neutralisation-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-on-the-efficacy-of-antibiotic-treatment-in-systemic-salmonella-enterica-infections
#3
Omar Rossi, Andrew J Grant, Pietro Mastroeni
Immunity can co-operate with antibiotics, but can also antagonize drug efficacy by segregating the bacteria to areas of the body that are less accessible to antimicrobials, and by selecting for subpopulations with low division rates that are often difficult to eradicate. We studied the effect of an anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive anti-TNFα treatment, which accelerates bacterial growth in the tissues and inhibits or reverses the formation of granulomas, on the efficacy of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin during a systemic Salmonella enterica infection of the mouse...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057727/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activity-is-associated-with-regulatory-t-cell-response-in-acute-puumala-hantavirus-infection
#4
Tuisku-Tuulia Koivula, Anni Tuulasvaara, Iivo Hetemäki, Mikko Hurme, Satu Mäkelä, Jukka Mustonen, Antti Vaheri, T Petteri Arstila
High indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity is associated with clinically severe acute infection caused by Puumala hantavirus. The immunoregulatory effects of IDO can be mediated either through metabolic control of effector T cells, caused by depletion of the essential amino acid tryptophan, or intercellular signaling and activation of regulatory T cell responses. Here we have studied 24 patients with acute PUUV infection to distinguish between these possibilities. Maximum IDO activity showed a significant positive correlation with FOXP3 expression levels in regulatory T cells, a quantitative surrogate marker for suppressive capability...
January 5, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956465/hfq-and-three-hfq-dependent-small-regulatory-rnas-mgrr-ryhb-and-mcas-coregulate-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#5
Shantanu Bhatt, Marisa Egan, Jasmine Ramirez, Christian Xander, Valerie Jenkins, Sarah Muche, Jihad El-Fenej, Jamie Palmer, Elisabeth Mason, Elizabeth Storm, Thomas Buerkert
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a significant cause of infantile diarrhea and death in developing countries. The pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for EPEC to cause diarrhea. Besides EPEC, the LEE is also present in other gastrointestinal pathogens, most notably enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Whereas transcriptional control of the LEE has been meticulously examined, posttranscriptional regulation, including the role of Hfq-dependent small RNAs, remains undercharacterized...
February 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956464/resistance-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilms-is-independent-of-biofilm-size
#6
Jennifer L Reimche, Daniel J Kirse, Amy S Whigham, W Edward Swords
The inflammatory middle ear disease known as otitis media can become chronic or recurrent in some cases due to failure of the antibiotic treatment to clear the bacterial etiological agent. Biofilms are known culprits of antibiotic-resistant infections; however, the mechanisms of resistance for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we utilized in vitro static biofilm assays to characterize clinical strain biofilms and addressed the hypothesis that biofilms with greater biomass and/or thickness would be more resistant to antimicrobial-mediated eradication than thinner and/or lower biomass biofilms...
February 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915228/cytokines-il-17-and-il-22-in-the-host-response-to-infection
#7
Maria Valeri, Manuela Raffatellu
Cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 play pivotal roles in host defense against microbes and in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. These cytokines are produced by cells that are often located in epithelial barriers, including subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In general, IL-17 and IL-22 can be characterized as important cytokines in the rapid response to infectious agents, both by recruiting neutrophils and by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides. Although each cytokine induces an innate immune response in epithelial cells, their functional spectra are generally distinct: IL-17 mainly induces an inflammatory tissue response and is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, whereas IL-22 is largely protective and regenerative...
December 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856491/excavating-the-surface-associated-and-secretory-proteome-of-mycobacterium-leprae-for-identifying-vaccines-and-diagnostic-markers-relevant-immunodominant-epitopes
#8
Aarti Rana, Shweta Thakur, Nupur Bhardwaj, Devender Kumar, Yusuf Akhter
For centuries, Mycobacterium leprae, etiological agent of leprosy, has been afflicting mankind regardless of extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines and antibiotics. Surface-associated and secretory proteins (SASPs) are attractive targets against bacteria. We have integrated biological knowledge with computational approaches and present a proteome-wide identification of SASPs. We also performed computational assignment of immunodominant epitopes as coordinates of prospective antigenic candidates in most important class of SASPs, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs)...
December 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815313/thermoregulation-as-a-disease-tolerance-defense-strategy
#9
Alexandria M Palaferri Schieber, Janelle S Ayres
Physiological responses that occur during infection are most often thought of in terms of effectors of microbial destruction through the execution of resistance mechanisms, due to a direct action of the microbe, or are maladaptive consequences of host-pathogen interplay. However, an examination of the cellular and organ-level consequences of one such response, thermoregulation that leads to fever or hypothermia, reveals that these actions cannot be readily explained within the traditional paradigms of microbial killing or maladaptive consequences of host-pathogen interactions...
December 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815312/antibody-profiles-induced-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-chagasic-patients-with-previous-or-current-exposure-to-mycobacteria
#10
Luz Peverengo, Estefanía Prochetto, Luz Rodeles, Ignacio Valenzuela, Iván Sergio Marcipar, Oscar Bottasso, Miguel Hernán Vicco
Since the immune response mounted by the host to a particular microorganism might be influenced by the acquired immunological experience due to previous contact with other microorganisms, we performed a cross-sectional study to explore the pattern of Trypanosoma cruzi infection-related antibodies in T. cruzi-seropositive individuals presenting concomitant tuberculosis, or the antecedent of BCG vaccination. Sampled individuals were grouped as follows: patients with Chagas disease, not vaccinated with BCG, who further developed pulmonary tuberculosis; individuals with Chagas disease, BCG-vaccinated; and subjects with Chagas disease, presenting neither BCG scar nor tuberculosis disease...
December 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811049/phage-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer-of-both-prophage-and-heterologous-dna-by-%C3%AF-bb-1-a-bacteriophage-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#11
Christian H Eggers, Carlie M Gray, Alexander M Preisig, Danielle M Glenn, Jessica Pereira, Ryan W Ayers, Mohammad Alshahrani, Christopher Acabbo, Maria R Becker, Kimberly N Bruenn, Timothy Cheung, Taylor M Jendras, Aron B Shepley, John T Moeller
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, is likely mediated by bacteriophage. Studies of the B. burgdorferi phage, ϕBB-1 and its role in HGT have been hindered by the lack of an assay for readily characterizing phage-mediated DNA movement (transduction). Here we describe an in vitro assay in which a clone of B. burgdorferi strain CA-11.2A encoding kanamycin resistance on a ϕBB-1 prophage is co-cultured with different clones encoding gentamicin resistance on a shuttle vector; transduction is monitored by enumerating colonies selected in the presence of both kanamycin and gentamicin...
December 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811048/monitoring-of-dynamin-during-the-toxoplasma-gondii-cell-cycle
#12
Lucio Ayres Caldas, Leandro Lemgruber Soares, Sergio Henrique Seabra, Marcia Attias, Wanderley de Souza
The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii actively invades virtually all warm-blooded nucleated cells. This process results in a non-fusogenic vacuole, inside which the parasites replicate continuously until egress signaling is triggered. In this work, we investigated the role of the large GTPase dynamin in the interaction of T. gondii with the host cell by using laser and electron microscopy during three key stages: invasion, development and egress. The detection of dynamin during invasion indicates the occurrence of endocytosis, while T...
December 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852620/cyclic-di-gmp-binding-induces-structural-rearrangements-in-the-plza-and-plzc-proteins-of-the-lyme-disease-and-relapsing-fever-spirochetes-a-possible-switch-mechanism-for-c-di-gmp-mediated-effector-functions
#13
Katherine L Mallory, Daniel P Miller, Lee D Oliver, John C Freedman, Jessica L Kostick-Dunn, Jason A Carlyon, James D Marion, Jessica K Bell, Richard T Marconi
The c-di-GMP network of Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme disease, consists of Rrp1, a diguanylate cyclase/response regulator; Hpk1, a histidine kinase; PdeA and PdeB, c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases; and PlzA, a PilZ domain c-di-GMP receptor. Borrelia hermsii, a causative agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, possesses a putative c-di-GMP regulatory network that is uncharacterized. While B. burgdorferi requires c-di-GMP to survive within ticks, the associated effector mechanisms are poorly defined...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777263/comparison-of-neutralizing-antibody-titers-against-outbreak-associated-measles-genotypes-d4-h1-and-b3-in-iran
#14
Ghazal Sadat Fatemi Nasab, Vahid Salimi, Simin Abbasi, Fatemeh Adjami Nezhad Fard, Talat Mokhtari Azad
Despite the accessibility of a promising vaccine, outbreaks of the measles virus (MV) take place even in well-vaccinated populations. D4, H1 and B3 genotypes have been detected regularly in different regions of Iran. These observations highlight the necessity of evaluating the protective efficacy of the vaccine against currently circulating MV genotypes during the elimination phase. A focus reduction neutralization test has been developed to measure the neutralizing antibodies against different genotypes of MV, such as H1, D4, B3 and vaccine strain (A), in children after second doses of measles vaccine...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702795/prevention-of-polymicrobial-biofilms-composed-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-pathogenic-fungi-by-essential-oils-from-selected-citrus-species
#15
Marina Pekmezovic, Ivana Aleksic, Aleksandra Barac, Valentina Arsic-Arsenijevic, Branka Vasiljevic, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic, Lidija Senerovic
Mixed microbial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pathogenic fungi are commonly found in patients with chronic infections and constitute a significant health care burden. The aim of this study was to address the potential polymicrobial antibiofilm activity of pompia and grapefruit essential oils (EOs). The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of EOs was analysed. EOs of pompia and grapefruit inhibited fungal growth with MIC concentrations between 50 and 250 mg L(-1), whereas no effect on P. aeruginosa growth was observed...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630185/microgravity-as-a-biological-tool-to-examine-host-pathogen-interactions-and-to-guide-development-of-therapeutics-and-preventatives-that-target-pathogenic-bacteria
#16
Ellen E Higginson, James E Galen, Myron M Levine, Sharon M Tennant
Space exploration programs have long been interested in the effects of spaceflight on biology. This research is important not only in its relevance to future deep space exploration, but also because it has allowed investigators to ask questions about how gravity impacts cell behavior here on Earth. In the 1980s, scientists designed and built the first rotating wall vessel, capable of mimicking the low shear environment found in space. This vessel has since been used to investigate growth of both microorganisms and human tissue cells in low shear modeled microgravity conditions...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609463/the-mimic-epitopes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-screened-by-phage-display-peptide-library-have-serodiagnostic-potential-for-tuberculosis
#17
Li Wang, Xiangying Deng, Haican Liu, Lanhua Zhao, Xiaolong You, Pei Dai, Kanglin Wan, Yanhua Zeng
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate pathogenic bacterial species in the family of Mycobacteriaceae and attracts excessive immune responses which cause pathology of the lungs in active tuberculosis. The lack of more sensitive and effective diagnosis reagents advocates a further recognition for the fast diagnostic and immunological measures for tuberculosis. Here, two 12-mer peptides with core sequences of SVSVGMKPSPRP (CS1) and TMGFTAPRFPHY (CS2) were screened from a phage display random peptide library using the purified mixed tuberculosis-positive serum as a target...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609462/response-of-salmonella-typhi-to-bile-generated-oxidative-stress-implication-of-quorum-sensing-and-persister-cell-populations
#18
Yogesh D Walawalkar, Yatindra Vaidya, Vijayashree Nayak
Salmonella Typhi can chronically persist within the gallbladder of patients suffering from gallbladder diseases. This study, intended to improve our understanding of bacterial mechanisms underlying bile adaptation, revealed that bile, which is a bactericidal agent, led to the generation of reactive oxygen species in S Typhi. Salmonella Typhi in response showed a significant increase in the production of anti-oxidative enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase and catalase. The work reports that the quorum-sensing (QS) system of S Typhi regulates the level of these enzymes during oxidative stress...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566297/immunomodulatory-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-propolis-containing-mouthwash-on-human-monocytes
#19
Karina Basso Santiago, Bruno José Conti, Eliza de Oliveira Cardoso, Marjorie de Assis Golim, José Maurício Sforcin
Propolis is a bee product used in folk medicine to improve health and prevent inflammatory diseases. It has attracted the attention of researchers from the odontological field lately, reducing inflammation resulting from surgical procedures and as an antimicrobial agent in the control of bacterial plaque. Thus far, no side-effects that might compromise oral health have been observed. Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent widely used as an antiseptic, but side-effects restrict its use. This work investigated the effects of an odontological product containing propolis in combination with chlorhexidine in lower concentrations on human monocytes...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756813/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-outer-membrane-vesicles-elicit-a-potent-inflammatory-response-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Yoo Jeong Kim, Hyejin Jeon, Seok Hyeon Na, Hyo Il Kwon, Gati Noble Selasi, Asiimwe Nicholas, Tae In Park, Sang Hwa Lee, Je Chul Lee
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has become one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. This microorganism secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), but the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia as it relates to OMVs has not been characterized. This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of S. maltophilia OMVs and their ability to induce inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo S. maltophilia ATCC 13637 and two clinical isolates were found to secrete spherical OMVs during in vitro culture...
October 17, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
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