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Pathogens and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633281/the-sweet-side-of-the-pathogenic-neisseria-the-role-of-glycan-interactions-in-colonisation-and-disease
#1
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Evgeny A Semchenko, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Glycomics is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the structure and function of carbohydrates (glycans) in biological systems. Glycan interactions play a major role in infectious disease, at all stages of colonisation and disease progression. Neisseria meningitidis, the cause of meningococcal sepsis and meningitis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. N. meningitidis displays a range of surface glycosylations including capsule polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins...
June 13, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605543/dual-action-of-bacteriocin-plnc8-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-through-inhibition-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-and-promotion-of-cell-proliferation
#2
Torbjörn Bengtsson, Boxi Zhang, Robert Selegård, Emanuel Wiman, Daniel Aili, Hazem Khalaf
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by accumulation of pathogenic bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, in periodontal pockets. The lack of effective treatments has emphasized in an intense search for alternative methods to prevent bacterial colonization and disease progression. Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides gaining increased consideration as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. We show rapid permeabilization and aggregation of P. gingivalis by the two-peptide bacteriocin PLNC8 αβ...
June 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605517/perspective-the-one-health-concept-the-aztec-empire-and-beyond
#3
José Luis Puente, Edmundo Calva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591853/neisseria-genomics-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#4
Odile B Harrison, Christoph Schoen, Adam C Retchless, Xin Wang, Keith A Jolley, James E Bray, Martin C J Maiden
High-throughput whole genome sequencing has unlocked a multitude of possibilities enabling members of the Neisseria genus to be examined with unprecedented detail, including the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. To maximise the potential benefit of this for public health, it is becoming increasingly important to ensure that this plethora of data are adequately stored, disseminated and made readily accessible. Investigations facilitating cross-species comparisons as well as the analysis of global datasets will allow differences among and within species and across geographic locations and different times to be identified, improving our understanding of the distinct phenotypes observed...
June 7, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591848/comparative-genomics-of-free-living-gamma-proteobacteria-pathogenesis-related-genes-or-interaction-related-genes
#5
Mirna Vázquez-Rosas-Landa, Gabriel Yaxal Ponce-Soto, Luis E Eguiarte, V Souza
Bacteria have numerous strategies to interact with them and with their environment. However, genes associated with these interactions are usually cataloged as pathogenic. To understand the role that these genes have not only in pathogenesis but also in bacterial interactions, we compared the genomes of eight bacteria from human-impacted environments with free-living bacteria from the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB), a relatively pristine oligotrophic site. Fifty-one genomes from CCB bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Photobacterium, and Aeromonas were analyzed...
June 7, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582496/vaginal-candida-spp-genomes-from-women-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#6
L Latéy Bradford, Marcus Chibucos, Bing Ma, Vincent Bruno, Jacques Ravel
Candida albicans is the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Little is known regarding the genetic diversity of Candida spp. in the vagina or the microvariations in strains over time that may contribute to the development of VVC. This study reports the draft genome sequences of four Candida albicans and one Candida glabrata strains isolated from women with VVC. A SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny indicates that these isolates are closely related, however phylogenetic distances between them suggest there may be genetic adaptations driven by unique host environments...
June 4, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582495/burden-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-india-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
Pierre Thomas, Joke Spaargaren, Rajiv Kant, Rubina Lawrence, Arvind Dayal, Jonathan A Lal, Servaas A Morré
Chlamydia trachomatis (hereafter CT) is gram negative, obligate intracellular pathogen. It causes the world' s most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. India is home to the world's greatest burden of infectious diseases, yet information on prevalence rates of C. trachomatis is scarce. This article systematically reviews the literature for the prevalence rates and testing methods in India. A total of 27 studies were included. Four main patients groups (symptomatic women, Infertile women, pregnant women and asymptomatic population groups) could be identified with varying rates of C ...
June 4, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535299/analysis-of-bacterial-metagenomes-from-the-southwestern-gulf-of-mexico-for-pathogens-detection
#8
Wendy Escobedo-Hinojosa, Liliana Pardo-López
Little is known about the diversity of bacteria in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The aim of the study illustrated in this perspective was to search for the presence of bacterial pathogens in this ecosystem, using metagenomic data recently generated by the Mexican research group known as the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium. Several genera of bacteria annotated as pathogens were detected in water and sediment marine samples. As expected, native and ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria genera such as Burkolderia, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio were highly represented...
May 23, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520925/the-ironclad-truth-how-in-vivo-transcriptomics-and-in-vitro-mechanistic-studies-shape-our-understanding-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-gene-regulation-during-mucosal-infection
#9
Matthew R Moreau, Paola Massari, Caroline A Genco
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. This obligate human pathogen has been extensively studied in vitro, where bacterial factors that are known to contribute to gonococcal disease and their regulation are relatively well defined. However, these in vitro experimental conditions only loosely replicate the host specific environment encountered by the bacteria in vivo. We recently reported on the complete gonococcal transcriptome expressed during natural human mucosal infection using RNA-seq analysis...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520869/comparative-pathogenomic-characterization-of-a-non-invasive-serotype-m71-strain-streptococcus-pyogenes-ns53-reveals-incongruent-phenotypic-implications-from-distinct-genotypic-markers
#10
Yun-Juan Bao, Yang Li, Zhong Liang, Garima Agrahari, Shaun W Lee, Victoria A Ploplis, Francis J Castellino
The strains serotyped as M71 from group A Streptococcus are common causes of pharyngeal and skin diseases worldwide. Here we characterize the genome of a unique non-invasive M71 human isolate, NS53. The genome does not contain structural rearrangements or large-scale gene gains/losses, but encodes a full set of non-truncated known virulence factors, thus providing an ideal reference for comparative studies. However, the NS53 genome showed incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers. NS53 is characterized as an emm pattern D and FCT (fibronectin-collagen-T-antigen) type-3 strain, typical of skin tropic strains, but is phylogenetically close to emm pattern E strains with preference for both skin and pharyngeal infections...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505248/lactobacilli-lactoferrin-interplay-in-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#11
Rosa Sessa, Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Alessia Bressan, Paola Mastromarino, Alessandra Vittoria Biasucci, Luigi Rosa, Antimo Cutone, Francesca Berlutti, Rosalba Paesano, Piera Valenti
In the cervico-vaginal micro-environment, lactobacilli are known to protect against genital infections and, amongst the host defence compounds, lactoferrin has recently acquired importance for its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. An abnormal genital micro-environment facilitates the acquisition of pathogens like Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus brevis and bovine lactoferrin on chlamydial infection, in order to shed light on the complex interplay between host defence mechanisms and C...
May 15, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472466/spatial-clustering-of-high-load-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-trachoma-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#12
Anna Last, Sarah Burr, Neal Alexander, Emma Harding-Esch, Chrissy H Roberts, Meno Nabicassa, Eunice Teixeira da Silva Cassama, David Mabey, Martin Holland, Robin Bailey
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the commonest cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection and infectious cause of blindness (trachoma) worldwide. Understanding the spatial distribution of Ct infection may enable us to identify populations at risk and improve our understanding of Ct transmission. In this study we sought to investigate the spatial distribution of Ct infection and the clinical features associated with high Ct load in trachoma-endemic communities on the Bijagós Archipelago (Guinea Bissau)...
May 3, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449072/functions-of-galectins-as-self-non-self-recognition-and-effector-factors
#13
Gerardo R Vasta, Chiguang Feng, Nuria González-Montalbán, Justin Mancini, Lishi Yang, Kelsey Abernathy, Graeme Frost, Cheyenne Palm
Carbohydrate structures on the cell surface encode complex information that through specific recognition by carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins), modulates interactions between cells, cells and the extracellular matrix, or mediates recognition of potential microbial pathogens. Galectins are a family of ß-galactoside-binding lectins, which are evolutionary conserved and have been identified in most organisms, from fungi to invertebrates and vertebrates, including mammals. Since their discovery in the 1970s, their biological roles, initially understood as limited to recognition of endogenous carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis and development, have expanded in recent years by the discovery of their roles in tissue repair and regulation of immune homeostasis...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431099/effect-of-cold-water-induced-stress-on-immune-response-pathology-and-fertility-in-mice-during-chlamydia-muridarum-genital-infection
#14
Tesfaye Belay, Anthony Woart, Vincent Graffeo
Genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. It causes serious reproductive health complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Stress is implicated as a risk factor for various infections; however, its effect on chlamydia genital infection is unknown. We previously showed that repeated exposure of mice to cold water results in increased severity of chlamydia genital infection. In the present study, cold water-induced stress resulted in: i) elevated levels of NE and EP in the spleen and genital tract of stressed mice; ii) elevated IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production in macrophage-rich peritoneal cells of mice; iii) supplement of NE in vitro exerts an immunosuppressive effect on splenic T cell production of cytokines; iv) decreased C...
April 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387800/molecular-characterization-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-associated-to-atherosclerosis
#15
Loubna El Yazouli, Alexis Criscuolo, Hicham Hejaji, Mohamed Bouaaza, Naima Elmdaghri, Aziz Aroussi Alami, Abderahim Amraoui, Nadia Dakka, Fouzia Radouani
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis, and its detection in human carotid and coronary atheroma suggests some support for its involvement in atherogenesis. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis in Moroccan patients through a case/control approach and detected strain genotyping. A total of 137 cases and 124 controls were enrolled, nested PCR was performed for Chlamydia pneumoniae screening of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both cases and controls as well as atheroma plaques from 37 cases, and positive samples were subjected to sequencing for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis...
April 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379411/comparison-of-the-inflammatory-response-of-brain-microvascular-and-peripheral-endothelial-cells-following-infection-with-neisseria-meningitidis
#16
Julia Dick, Sabrina Hebling, Jérôme Becam, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
The interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with both peripheral and brain endothelial cells is a critical event in the development of invasive meningococcal disease. In this study, we used in vitro models based on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), and peripheral endothelial EA.hy926 cells, to investigate their roles in the inflammatory response towards meningococcal infection. Both cell lines were infected with two pathogenic N. meningitidis isolates and secretion of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), the CXC chemokine IL-8 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were estimated by ELISA...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369432/complete-genome-sequence-of-achromobacter%C3%A2-insolitus-type-strain-lmg-6003t-a-pathogen-isolated-from-leg-wound
#17
Gengmi Li, Tao Zhang, Li Yang, Yingjiang Cao, Xiaojiao Guo, Jian Qin, Qianhua Yang, Shumei You, Guoliang Yuan, Kaifeng Jiang, Jing Luo, Zhaoxiang Li, Lei Gao, Kaifeng Jiang, Lijuan Wu, Jiakui Zheng
Achromobacter insolitus is a new described, Gram-negative, small (1-2 mm long) and coccoid pathogen that isolated from leg wound. Due to its potential threat to human beings, the type strain of this species LMG 6003T was completely sequenced in this study. The genomic analysis revealed that the genome of LMG 6003T consists of one circular DNA chromosome of 6,492,697 bp with a GC content of 65.10%. The entire genome contains 6208 predicted coding genes, 61 tRNAs and 13 rRNA genes. Comparative genome analysis between LMG 6003T and other selected 10 sequenced Achromobacter revealed that 725 genes only exist in LMG 6003T...
March 28, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475673/role-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-in-polymicrobial-biofilm-infections-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-candida-albicans-modelled-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Jillian E Holt, Asia Houston, Clare Adams, Sarah Edwards, Birthe V Kjellerup
Biofilms are formed by communities of microorganisms living in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix attached to a surface. When living in a biofilm microorganisms change phenotype and thus are less susceptible to antibiotic treatment and biofilm infections can become severe. The aim of this study was to determine if the presence of multikingdom microorganisms alters the virulence of a biofilm infection in a host organism. The coexistence of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis in biofilm was examined in the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans...
July 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505288/effect-of-different-antibiotics-on-biofilm-produced-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#19
María José González, Luciana Robino, Victoria Iribarnegaray, Pablo Zunino, Paola Scavone
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur frequently in children and women. Intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli are risk factors for recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different antibiotics on biofilms by E. coli strains isolated from children with UTI and to correlate virulence factors and IBCs with biofilm formation. A total of 116 E. coli strains were tested for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate technique...
June 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475711/cellular-immune-response-to-dna-and-vaccinia-prime-boost-immunization-kills-plasmodium-yoelii-infected-hepatocytes-in-vitro
#20
John B Sacci, Michael R Hollingdale, Martha Sedegah
Plasmid DNA encoding Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (PyCSP) followed by boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus containing the PyCSP elicited significant protective immunity in mice that was primarily mediated by CD8+ T-cell responses directed to P. yoelii -infected hepatocytes. This study was to further explore protection using in vitro cultures of P. yoelii parasites in mouse hepatocytes. Spleen cells from DNA/vaccinia virus-immunized mice were co-cultured in vitro with mouse hepatocytes containing developing P...
June 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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