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Pathogens and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645187/salmonella-virulence-plasmid-pathogenesis-and-ecology
#1
Claudia Silva, José Luis Puente, Edmundo Calva
A current view on the role of the Salmonella virulence plasmid in the pathogenesis of animal and human hosts is discussed; including the possible relevance in secondary ecological niches. Various strategies towards further studies in this respect are proposed within the One Health Concept.
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645177/mobile-genetic-elements-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-movement-for-change
#2
Ana Cehovin, Steven B Lewis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoeae, possesses several mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The MGEs such as transposable elements mediate intra-chromosomal rearrangements, while plasmids and the gonococcal genetic island are involved in inter-chromosomal gene transfer. Additionally, gonococcal MGEs serve as hotspots for recombination and integration of other genetic elements such as bacteriophages, contribute to gene regulation or spread genes through gonococcal populations by horizontal gene transfer...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645176/efficacy-of-histatin5-in-a-murine-model-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-caused-by-candida-albicans
#3
Hong Liao, Shanling Liu, He Wang, Hang Su, Zhenjun Liu
Histatin5 (Hst-5) is a member of the histatin family of antimicrobial peptides secreted by human parotid and submandibular glands. With the natural antibacterial activity, it plays an important role in the first-line barrier of oral cave against pathogens, especially for the fungal intrusion. In this study, we explored the utility of Hst-5 in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, a common condition of women of the childbearing age. we used a synthesized Hst-5 over five consecutive days as the topical treatment in a murine model of vulvovaginal candidiasis...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645160/chronic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-infection-impairs-murine-s100a8-a9-and-neutrophil-effector-cytokines-implications-for-delayed-wound-closure
#4
Hannah Trøstrup, Christian Johann Lerche, Lars Jackie Christophersen, Kim Thomsen, Peter Østrup Jensen, Hans Petter Hougen, Niels Høiby, Claus Moser
The impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in chronic wounds and clinical implication for healing is receiving increased attention. However, the pathophysiology of host/pathogen interplay is not fully understood. By further revealing the mechanisms, necessary new treatment strategies may be identified. Since the background for chronic wounds is diverse, representative animal models are important. We assessed host response and spontaneous wound closure in the relatively resistant C3H/HeN and the susceptible BALB/c mouse strain...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645157/secretory-iga-response-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-the-upper-airways-and-the-link-with-chronic-lung-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Renan Mauch, Claudio Rossi, Talita Aiello, José Ribeiro, Antonio Ribeiro, Niels Høiby, Carlos Levy
We assessed the diagnostic ability of an ELISA test for measurement of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva to identify Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients with P. aeruginosa chronic lung infection and intermittent lung colonization. A total of 102 Brazilian CF patients and 53 healthy controls were included. Specific serum IgG response was used as a surrogate to distinguish CF patients according to their P. aeruginosa colonization/infection status. The rate of sIgA positivity was 87.1% in CF chronically infected patients (Median value = 181...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637198/multi-target-activity-of-hemidesmus-indicus-decoction-against-innovative-hiv-1-drug-targets-and-characterization-of-lupeol-mode-of-action
#6
Francesca Esposito, Manuela Mandrone, Claudia Del Vecchio, Ilaria Carli, Simona Distinto, Angela Corona, Mariacaterina Lianza, Dario Piano, Massimo Tacchini, Elias Maccioni, Filippo Cottiglia, Elisa Saccon, Ferruccio Poli, Cristina Parolin, Enzo Tramontano
Despite the availability of several anti-retrovirals there is still an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies and finding new drugs against underexplored HIV-1 targets. Among them, there are the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) function and the cellular α-glucosidase, involved in the control mechanisms of N-linked glycoproteins formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that many natural compounds, such as pentacyclic triterpenes, are a promising class of HIV-1 inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637194/high-iron-supply-inhibits-the-synthesis-of-the-genotoxin-colibactin-by-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-non-canonical-fur-ryhb-mediated-pathway
#7
Sophie Tronnet, Christophe Garcie, Alexander O Brachmann, Jörn Piel, Eric Oswald, Patricia Martin
The genotoxin colibactin is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of pathogenic Enterobacteria, and is associated with colon cancer development and acute systemic infections. The colibactin biosynthesis requires the enzymatic activity of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase ClbA. We recently evidenced that two master regulators of bacterial iron homeostasis, i.e. the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and the small regulatory non-coding RNA RyhB, were involved in the regulation of the clbA transcription and of the colibactin production...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633281/the-sweet-side-of-the-pathogenic-neisseria-the-role-of-glycan-interactions-in-colonisation-and-disease
#8
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Evgeny A Semchenko, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Glycomics is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the structure and function of carbohydrates (glycans) in biological systems. Glycan interactions play a major role in infectious disease, at all stages of colonisation and disease progression. Neisseria meningitidis, the cause of meningococcal sepsis and meningitis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. N. meningitidis displays a range of surface glycosylations including capsule polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins...
June 13, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605543/dual-action-of-bacteriocin-plnc8-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-through-inhibition-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-and-promotion-of-cell-proliferation
#9
Torbjörn Bengtsson, Boxi Zhang, Robert Selegård, Emanuel Wiman, Daniel Aili, Hazem Khalaf
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by accumulation of pathogenic bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, in periodontal pockets. The lack of effective treatments has emphasized in an intense search for alternative methods to prevent bacterial colonization and disease progression. Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides gaining increased consideration as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. We show rapid permeabilization and aggregation of P. gingivalis by the two-peptide bacteriocin PLNC8 αβ...
June 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605517/perspective-the-one-health-concept-the-aztec-empire-and-beyond
#10
José Luis Puente, Edmundo Calva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591853/neisseria-genomics-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#11
Odile B Harrison, Christoph Schoen, Adam C Retchless, Xin Wang, Keith A Jolley, James E Bray, Martin C J Maiden
High-throughput whole genome sequencing has unlocked a multitude of possibilities enabling members of the Neisseria genus to be examined with unprecedented detail, including the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. To maximise the potential benefit of this for public health, it is becoming increasingly important to ensure that this plethora of data are adequately stored, disseminated and made readily accessible. Investigations facilitating cross-species comparisons as well as the analysis of global datasets will allow differences among and within species and across geographic locations and different times to be identified, improving our understanding of the distinct phenotypes observed...
June 7, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591848/comparative-genomics-of-free-living-gamma-proteobacteria-pathogenesis-related-genes-or-interaction-related-genes
#12
Mirna Vázquez-Rosas-Landa, Gabriel Yaxal Ponce-Soto, Luis E Eguiarte, V Souza
Bacteria have numerous strategies to interact with them and with their environment. However, genes associated with these interactions are usually cataloged as pathogenic. To understand the role that these genes have not only in pathogenesis but also in bacterial interactions, we compared the genomes of eight bacteria from human-impacted environments with free-living bacteria from the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB), a relatively pristine oligotrophic site. Fifty-one genomes from CCB bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Photobacterium, and Aeromonas were analyzed...
June 7, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582496/vaginal-candida-spp-genomes-from-women-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#13
L Latéy Bradford, Marcus Chibucos, Bing Ma, Vincent Bruno, Jacques Ravel
Candida albicans is the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Little is known regarding the genetic diversity of Candida spp. in the vagina or the microvariations in strains over time that may contribute to the development of VVC. This study reports the draft genome sequences of four Candida albicans and one Candida glabrata strains isolated from women with VVC. A SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny indicates that these isolates are closely related, however phylogenetic distances between them suggest there may be genetic adaptations driven by unique host environments...
June 4, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582495/burden-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-india-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
Pierre Thomas, Joke Spaargaren, Rajiv Kant, Rubina Lawrence, Arvind Dayal, Jonathan A Lal, Servaas A Morré
Chlamydia trachomatis (hereafter CT) is gram negative, obligate intracellular pathogen. It causes the world' s most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. India is home to the world's greatest burden of infectious diseases, yet information on prevalence rates of C. trachomatis is scarce. This article systematically reviews the literature for the prevalence rates and testing methods in India. A total of 27 studies were included. Four main patients groups (symptomatic women, Infertile women, pregnant women and asymptomatic population groups) could be identified with varying rates of C ...
June 4, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535299/analysis-of-bacterial-metagenomes-from-the-southwestern-gulf-of-mexico-for-pathogens-detection
#15
Wendy Escobedo-Hinojosa, Liliana Pardo-López
Little is known about the diversity of bacteria in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The aim of the study illustrated in this perspective was to search for the presence of bacterial pathogens in this ecosystem, using metagenomic data recently generated by the Mexican research group known as the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium. Several genera of bacteria annotated as pathogens were detected in water and sediment marine samples. As expected, native and ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria genera such as Burkolderia, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Vibrio were highly represented...
July 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520925/the-ironclad-truth-how-in-vivo-transcriptomics-and-in-vitro-mechanistic-studies-shape-our-understanding-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-gene-regulation-during-mucosal-infection
#16
Matthew R Moreau, Paola Massari, Caroline A Genco
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. This obligate human pathogen has been extensively studied in vitro, where bacterial factors that are known to contribute to gonococcal disease and their regulation are relatively well defined. However, these in vitro experimental conditions only loosely replicate the host specific environment encountered by the bacteria in vivo. We recently reported on the complete gonococcal transcriptome expressed during natural human mucosal infection using RNA-seq analysis...
July 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520869/comparative-pathogenomic-characterization-of-a-non-invasive-serotype-m71-strain-streptococcus-pyogenes-ns53-reveals-incongruent-phenotypic-implications-from-distinct-genotypic-markers
#17
Yun-Juan Bao, Yang Li, Zhong Liang, Garima Agrahari, Shaun W Lee, Victoria A Ploplis, Francis J Castellino
The strains serotyped as M71 from group A Streptococcus are common causes of pharyngeal and skin diseases worldwide. Here we characterize the genome of a unique non-invasive M71 human isolate, NS53. The genome does not contain structural rearrangements or large-scale gene gains/losses, but encodes a full set of non-truncated known virulence factors, thus providing an ideal reference for comparative studies. However, the NS53 genome showed incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers. NS53 is characterized as an emm pattern D and FCT (fibronectin-collagen-T antigen) type-3 strain, typical of skin tropic strains, but is phylogenetically close to emm pattern E strains with preference for both skin and pharyngeal infections...
July 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505248/lactobacilli-lactoferrin-interplay-in-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#18
Rosa Sessa, Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Alessia Bressan, Paola Mastromarino, Alessandra Vittoria Biasucci, Luigi Rosa, Antimo Cutone, Francesca Berlutti, Rosalba Paesano, Piera Valenti
In the cervicovaginal microenvironment, lactobacilli are known to protect against genital infections and, amongst the host defence compounds, lactoferrin has recently acquired importance for its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. An abnormal genital microenvironment facilitates the acquisition of pathogens like Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus brevis and bovine lactoferrin on chlamydial infection, in order to shed light on the complex interplay between host defence mechanisms and C...
July 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475673/role-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-in-polymicrobial-biofilm-infections-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-candida-albicans-modelled-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Jillian E Holt, Asia Houston, Clare Adams, Sarah Edwards, Birthe V Kjellerup
Biofilms are formed by communities of microorganisms living in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix attached to a surface. When living in a biofilm microorganisms change phenotype and thus are less susceptible to antibiotic treatment and biofilm infections can become severe. The aim of this study was to determine if the presence of multikingdom microorganisms alters the virulence of a biofilm infection in a host organism. The coexistence of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis in biofilm was examined in the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans...
July 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472466/spatial-clustering-of-high-load-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-trachoma-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#20
Anna Last, Sarah Burr, Neal Alexander, Emma Harding-Esch, Chrissy H Roberts, Meno Nabicassa, Eunice Teixeira da Silva Cassama, David Mabey, Martin Holland, Robin Bailey
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection and infectious cause of blindness (trachoma) worldwide. Understanding the spatial distribution of Ct infection may enable us to identify populations at risk and improve our understanding of Ct transmission. In this study, we sought to investigate the spatial distribution of Ct infection and the clinical features associated with high Ct load in trachoma-endemic communities on the Bijagós Archipelago (Guinea Bissau)...
July 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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