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Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics

Niels Ove Illum, Kim Oren Gradel
AIM: To help parents assess disability in their own children using World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) code qualifier scoring and to assess the validity and reliability of the data sets obtained. METHOD: Parents of 162 children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability, or disability following brain tumours performed scoring for 26 body functions qualifiers (b codes) and activities and participation qualifiers (d codes)...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Caitriona Gilleece McEvoy, Emilienne Descloux, Mirjam Schuler Barazzoni, Corinne Stadelmann Diaw, Jean-François Tolsa, Matthias Roth-Kleiner
Neonatal transport is an essential part of regionalization for highly specialized neonatal intensive care. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on neonatal transport activity in a large Swiss perinatal network more than 1 year, aimed to quantify this activity, to identify the needs for staff, and the demands regarding know-how and equipment. Of the 565 admissions to the tertiary neonatology clinic, 176 (31.2%) were outborn patients, transported as emergencies to the level III unit. In 71...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Aldo Recinos, Tarik Zahouani, Juan Guillen, Benamanahalli Rajegowda
Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Murat Özcan, S Ümit Sarici, Yüksel Yurdugül, Melis Akpinar, Demet Altun, Begüm Özcan, Muhittin A Serdar, Dilek Sarici
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Etiologic role, incidence, demographic, and response-to-treatment characteristics of urinary tract infection (UTI) among neonates, its relationship with significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and abnormalities of the urinary system were studied in a prospective investigation in early (⩽10 days) idiopathic neonatal jaundice in which all other etiologic factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were ruled out. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Urine samples for microscopic and bacteriologic examination were obtained with bladder catheterization from 155 newborns with early neonatal jaundice...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Riyadh A Alzaheb
BACKGROUND: Breast milk contains all the nutrients infants need for their first 6 months of life. However, only a minority of Saudi Arabian mothers exclusively breastfeed, so the influencing factors must be examined to encourage more to do so. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and its associated factors in Tabuk, North West Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A total of 589 mothers of healthy infants aged between 6 and 24 months were interviewed while attending Well-Baby Clinics within 5 primary health care centers...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Chizoma I Eneh, Ikenna K Ndu
BACKGROUND: The pattern of infant feeding during the first 1000-day period-from conception to the second birthday-has a significant influence on the child's growth trajectory. The relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and lower risk of childhood obesity has elicited much scientific interest, given the fact that this form of malnutrition is becoming a global epidemic. AIM: This narrative review aims to examine the evidence in the literature linking exclusive breastfeeding with reduction in obesity in children...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Peter Cooper, Keith D Bolton, Sithembiso Velaphi, Nanda de Groot, Shahram Emady-Azar, Sophie Pecquet, Philippe Steenhout
The gut microbiota of infants is shaped by both the mode of delivery and the type of feeding. The gut of vaginally and cesarean-delivered infants is colonized at different rates and with different bacterial species, leading to differences in the gut microbial composition, which may persist up to 6 months. In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial conducted in South Africa, we tested the effect of a formula supplemented with a prebiotic (a mixture of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides [BMOS] generated from whey permeate and containing galactooligosaccharides and milk oligosaccharides such as 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose) and the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Ashwaq Shukri Altawil, Horia Ahmad Mawlawi, Khalid Ateeq Alghamdi, Faten Fohaid Almijmaj
BACKGROUND: Monogenic obesity is a rare type of obesity caused by a mutation in a single gene. Patients with monogenic obesity may develop early onset of obesity and severe metabolic abnormalities. CASE PRESENTATION: A two-and-half-year-old girl was presented to our clinic because of excessive weight gain and hyperphagia. She was born at full term, by normal vaginal delivery with birth weight of 2.82 kg and no complications during pregnancy. The patient was the second child of two healthy, non-obese Saudis with known consanguinity...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Michelle Demeule-Hayes, Matthew W Winters, Elizabeth A Getzoff, Bradley A Schwimmer, Vicky S Rogers, Ann O Scheimann
This article describes the outcomes of a pediatric weight management program for a population primarily composed of minority ethnic groups and those from a lower socioeconomic status group. As these groups are disproportionally affected by pediatric obesity and overweight complicated by higher rates of attrition and poorer response to intervention, it is important that adequate and effective treatment exists for patients in these groups. Further research is needed to analyze the outcomes and attrition in these high-risk populations...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Mohammed Farouk M Afify, Sheren Esam Maher, Nora Mohamed Ibrahim, Waleed Mahamoud Abd El-Hamied
PURPOSE: To validate serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an early biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis-related conditions and its predictive and prognostic values. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 65 patients, who were clinically evaluated for sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock, and 20 apparently healthy served as controls. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (AKI-sepsis): 65 newly admitted patients diagnosed as sepsis, who were further divided into three subgroups according to the severity: systemic inflammatory response syndrome, severe sepsis, and septic shock, and Group II (control group): 20 apparently healthy subjects matched for age and sex, serum creatinine and serum NGAL concentrations were estimated initially within 24 hours of admission and after 72 hours of admission in all patients and control groups...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Deepak Sharma, Sweta Shastri, Pradeep Sharma
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Corinne A Muirhead, Jillian N Sanford, Benjamin G McCullar, Dawn Nolt, Kelvin D MacDonald
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disorder characterized by acute pulmonary exacerbations that comprise increased cough, chest congestion, increased mucus production, shortness of breath, weight loss, and fatigue. Typically, severe episodes are treated in the inpatient setting and include intravenous antimicrobials, airway clearance therapy, and nutritional support. Children with less-severe findings can often be managed as outpatients with oral antimicrobials and increased airway clearance therapy at home without visiting the specialty CF center to begin treatment...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Richard E Frye, Daniel A Rossignol
Despite the fact that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to rise, no effective medical treatments have become standard of care. In this paper we review some of the pathophysiological abnormalities associated with ASD and their potential associated treatments. Overall, there is evidence for some children with ASD being affected by seizure and epilepsy, neurotransmitter dysfunction, sleep disorders, metabolic abnormalities, including abnormalities in folate, cobalamin, tetrahydrobiopterin, carnitine, redox and mitochondrial metabolism, and immune and gastrointestinal disorders...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Praveen Kumar
Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a major cause of infant death and morbidity worldwide. An early diagnosis and timely intervention can significantly reduce the likelihood of an adverse outcome. However, studies from the United States and other developed countries have shown that as many as 30%-50% of infants with CCHD are discharged after birth without being identified. This diagnostic gap is likely to be even higher in low-resource countries. Several large randomized trials have shown that the use of universal pulse-oximetry screening (POS) at the time of discharge from birth hospital can help in early diagnosis of these infants...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Deepak Sharma, Mukesh Choudhary, Mamta Lamba, Sweta Shastri
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the correlation of Apgar score with asphyxial hepatic injury and neonatal mortality in moderately and severely asphyxiated newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of our prospective observational case-controlled study. Sixteen neonates with severe birth asphyxia (five-minute Apgar ≤3) were compared with either 54 moderate asphyxia neonates (five-minute Apgar >3) or 30 normal neonates...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Ghaleb Elyamany, Azzah Alzahrani, Huda Elfaraidi, Omar Alsuhaibani, Nada Othman, Eman Al Mussaed, Fahad Alabbas
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but potentially fatal disease that commonly appears in infancy, although it has been reported in adults. Chemoimmunotherapy-based treatments have improved the survival of patients with HLH; however, overall survival is still poor. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 12 HLH patients who were admitted between 2005 and 2014. All patients were Saudi Arabia in origin with a female predominance (75%) and a median age of onset of 9.5 months. The consanguinity rates were significantly high (75%) with a positive family history in 41% of cases...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
L Baglatzi, S Gavrili, K Stamouli, S Zachaki, L Favre, S Pecquet, J Benyacoub, C Costalos
BACKGROUND: In the absence of breast-feeding and its immunomodulatory factors, supplementation of starter infant formula (IF) with probiotics is currently used to support immune functions and gut development. AIM: To assess whether immune-related beneficial effects of regular dose (10(7) CFU/g of powder) of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-3446 (hereafter named B. lactis) in starter IF supplementation can be maintained with starter IF containing a low dose (10(4) CFU/g of powder) of B...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Mark Corkins, Laura A Czerkies, Heidi M Storm, Shumei Sun, José M Saavedra
OBJECTIVE: This study's primary aim was to compare the growth (daily weight gain) of infants consuming a new (Test) amino acid-based formula (AAF) or a commercially available AAF (Control). METHODS: Healthy infants were randomized to Test or Control from 14 to 112 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days of age. Tolerance records were completed prior to each visit. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids were ascertained in a subset of infants at 84 days of age...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Praveen Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
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