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Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774001/the-significance-of-the-enteric-microbiome-on-the-development-of-childhood-disease-a-review-of-prebiotic-and-probiotic-therapies-in-disorders-of-childhood
#1
REVIEW
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547045/serum-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-infants-and-children-with-sepsis-related-conditions-with-or-without-acute-renal-dysfunction
#2
Mohammed Farouk M Afify, Sheren Esam Maher, Nora Mohamed Ibrahim, Waleed Mahamoud Abd El-Hamied
PURPOSE: To validate serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an early biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis-related conditions and its predictive and prognostic values. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 65 patients, who were clinically evaluated for sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock, and 20 apparently healthy served as controls. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (AKI-sepsis): 65 newly admitted patients diagnosed as sepsis, who were further divided into three subgroups according to the severity: systemic inflammatory response syndrome, severe sepsis, and septic shock, and Group II (control group): 20 apparently healthy subjects matched for age and sex, serum creatinine and serum NGAL concentrations were estimated initially within 24 hours of admission and after 72 hours of admission in all patients and control groups...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441006/intrauterine-growth-restriction-antenatal-and-postnatal-aspects
#3
REVIEW
Deepak Sharma, Sweta Shastri, Pradeep Sharma
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429564/one-center-s-guide-to-outpatient-management-of-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis-acute-pulmonary-exacerbation
#4
Corinne A Muirhead, Jillian N Sanford, Benjamin G McCullar, Dawn Nolt, Kelvin D MacDonald
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disorder characterized by acute pulmonary exacerbations that comprise increased cough, chest congestion, increased mucus production, shortness of breath, weight loss, and fatigue. Typically, severe episodes are treated in the inpatient setting and include intravenous antimicrobials, airway clearance therapy, and nutritional support. Children with less-severe findings can often be managed as outpatients with oral antimicrobials and increased airway clearance therapy at home without visiting the specialty CF center to begin treatment...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330338/identification-and-treatment-of-pathophysiological-comorbidities-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-to-achieve-optimal-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Richard E Frye, Daniel A Rossignol
Despite the fact that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to rise, no effective medical treatments have become standard of care. In this paper we review some of the pathophysiological abnormalities associated with ASD and their potential associated treatments. Overall, there is evidence for some children with ASD being affected by seizure and epilepsy, neurotransmitter dysfunction, sleep disorders, metabolic abnormalities, including abnormalities in folate, cobalamin, tetrahydrobiopterin, carnitine, redox and mitochondrial metabolism, and immune and gastrointestinal disorders...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279759/universal-pulse-oximetry-screening-for-early-detection-of-critical-congenital-heart-disease
#6
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar
Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a major cause of infant death and morbidity worldwide. An early diagnosis and timely intervention can significantly reduce the likelihood of an adverse outcome. However, studies from the United States and other developed countries have shown that as many as 30%-50% of infants with CCHD are discharged after birth without being identified. This diagnostic gap is likely to be even higher in low-resource countries. Several large randomized trials have shown that the use of universal pulse-oximetry screening (POS) at the time of discharge from birth hospital can help in early diagnosis of these infants...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199578/correlation-of-apgar-score-with-asphyxial-hepatic-injury-and-mortality-in-newborns-a-prospective-observational-study-from-india
#7
Deepak Sharma, Mukesh Choudhary, Mamta Lamba, Sweta Shastri
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the correlation of Apgar score with asphyxial hepatic injury and neonatal mortality in moderately and severely asphyxiated newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of our prospective observational case-controlled study. Sixteen neonates with severe birth asphyxia (five-minute Apgar ≤3) were compared with either 54 moderate asphyxia neonates (five-minute Apgar >3) or 30 normal neonates...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081327/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-single-center-series-of-12-cases-from-saudi-arabia
#8
Ghaleb Elyamany, Azzah Alzahrani, Huda Elfaraidi, Omar Alsuhaibani, Nada Othman, Eman Al Mussaed, Fahad Alabbas
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but potentially fatal disease that commonly appears in infancy, although it has been reported in adults. Chemoimmunotherapy-based treatments have improved the survival of patients with HLH; however, overall survival is still poor. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 12 HLH patients who were admitted between 2005 and 2014. All patients were Saudi Arabia in origin with a female predominance (75%) and a median age of onset of 9.5 months. The consanguinity rates were significantly high (75%) with a positive family history in 41% of cases...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997881/effect-of-infant-formula-containing-a-low-dose-of-the-probiotic-bifidobacterium-lactis-cncm-i-3446-on-immune-and-gut-functions-in-c-section-delivered-babies-a-pilot-study
#9
L Baglatzi, S Gavrili, K Stamouli, S Zachaki, L Favre, S Pecquet, J Benyacoub, C Costalos
BACKGROUND: In the absence of breast-feeding and its immunomodulatory factors, supplementation of starter infant formula (IF) with probiotics is currently used to support immune functions and gut development. AIM: To assess whether immune-related beneficial effects of regular dose (10(7) CFU/g of powder) of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-3446 (hereafter named B. lactis) in starter IF supplementation can be maintained with starter IF containing a low dose (10(4) CFU/g of powder) of B...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862300/assessment-of-growth-of-infants-fed-an-amino-acid-based-formula
#10
Mark Corkins, Laura A Czerkies, Heidi M Storm, Shumei Sun, José M Saavedra
OBJECTIVE: This study's primary aim was to compare the growth (daily weight gain) of infants consuming a new (Test) amino acid-based formula (AAF) or a commercially available AAF (Control). METHODS: Healthy infants were randomized to Test or Control from 14 to 112 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days of age. Tolerance records were completed prior to each visit. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids were ascertained in a subset of infants at 84 days of age...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862299/notice-of-redundant-publication
#11
Praveen Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448697/an-overview-of-iron-in-term-breast-fed-infants
#12
REVIEW
Wafaa A Qasem, James K Friel
BACKGROUND: Iron is an essential nutrient for normal growth and neurodevelopment of infants. Iron deficiency (ID) remains the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. There are convincing data that ID is associated with negative effects on neurological and psychomotor development. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge of the importance of iron in normal term breast-fed infants with a focus on recommendations, metabolism, and iron requirements...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26309424/pattern-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-children-attending-the-department-of-pediatrics-in-a-tertiary-care-center-a-prospective-observational-study
#13
Kishour Kumar Digra, Aakash Pandita, G S Saini, Rajni Bharti
AIM: To study the pattern of various adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurring in children attending the Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital, Jammu over 1 year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study, with study population of patients attending Department of Pediatrics over a period of 1 year. A structured format was used to enroll the participants. A pilot study was conducted to test the suitability of the format and feasibility of the study. The study was carried out to review various pattern of ADRs by using the Naranjo probability scale, and severity was assessed by using the Hartwig severity scale...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26309423/phenobarbital-and-phototherapy-combination-enhances-decline-of-total-serum-bilirubin-and-may-decrease-the-need-for-blood-exchange-transfusion-in-newborns-with-isoimmune-hemolytic-disease
#14
Mahmoud Af Kaabneh, Ghassan Sa Salama, Ayoub Ga Shakkoury, Ibrahim Mh Al-Abdallah, Afrah Alshamari, Ruba Aa Halaseh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenobarbital and phototherapy combination on the total serum bilirubin of the newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic disease (IHD) and its impact on blood exchange transfusion rates. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This single-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between March 2013 and December 2014 at the pediatric ward of two Military Hospitals in Jordan. A total of 200 full-term neonates with IHD were divided randomly into two groups: (1) the phenobarbital plus phototherapy group (n = 103), and (2) the phototherapy-only group (n = 97)...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26124695/presentation-of-a-clitoral-mass-in-a-prepubescent-female-a-case-report-and-discussion-of-the-evaluation
#15
Garjae Lavien, Kristina D Suson, Brian Kim, Ming-Hsien Wang
Clitoral masses are rare. We present a case report of a prepubescent female with a periclitoral mass.
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26124694/comment-on-safety-and-tolerance-evaluation-of-milk-fat-globule-membrane-enriched-infant-formulas-a-randomized-controlled-multicenter-non-inferiority-trial-in-healthy-term-infants
#16
Niklas Timby, Magnus Domellöf, Bo Lönnerdal, Olle Hernell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25987857/the-effects-of-celecoxib-or-naproxen-on-blood-pressure-in-pediatric-patients-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#17
B Falkner, M Berger, P Bhadra Brown, D Iorga, R W Nickeson, L Zemel
BACKGROUND: Selective and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are indicated for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). However, the effect of NSAIDs on blood pressure (BP) in children has not been rigorously examined. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter, active-controlled, 6-week trial, the safety and efficacy of celecoxib (50 mg twice daily [bid] or 100 mg bid) or naproxen (7.5 mg/kg bid) was evaluated in patients aged 2-17 years with JIA...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25922589/mimics-of-duplication-cysts-intraperitoneal-nodules-in-a-14-year-old-boy
#18
Sara E Ohanessian, Dorothy V Rocourt, Karmaine A Millington
Hemangiomas are the most common primary hepatic tumors, but there are few reports of their occurrence elsewhere in the abdomen. The concurrent existence of multiple fibrous nodules of the omentum, mesentery, and porta hepatis, along with a gastric hemangioma, in a child raises the question of syndromic association. Our search of the English literature revealed only rare mentions of hemangiomas involving the stomach and mesentery or omentum. These lesions have attracted clinical attention by symptoms of obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, intussusception, infection, perforation, or vague abdominal pain...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25788839/normal-growth-of-healthy-infants-born-from-hiv-mothers-fed-a-reduced-protein-infant-formula-containing-the-prebiotics-galacto-oligosaccharides-and-fructo-oligosaccharides-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Hugo da Costa Ribeiro, Tereza Cristina Medrado Ribeiro, Angela Peixoto de Mattos, Mariana Pontes, Roseli Oselka Saccardo Sarni, Maria Letícia Santos Cruz, Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Rocksane de Carvalho Norton, Philippe Steenhout
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal) infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). METHODS: Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers were randomized to a test (n = 65) or control (n = 63) formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed (n = 79) or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65)...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25698888/intravenous-lipids-for-preterm-infants-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Ghassan Sa Salama, Mahmmoud Af Kaabneh, Mai N Almasaeed, Mohammad Ia Alquran
Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) are born at a time when the fetus is undergoing rapid intrauterine brain and body growth. Continuation of this growth in the first several weeks postnatally during the time these infants are on ventilator support and receiving critical care is often a challenge. These infants are usually highly stressed and at risk for catabolism. Parenteral nutrition is needed in these infants because most cannot meet the majority of their nutritional needs using the enteral route...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
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