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CNS Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392968/single-institution-validation-of-a-modified-graded-prognostic-assessment-of-patients-with-breast-cancer-brain-metastases
#1
Cheng-Hung Tai, Cheng-Chia Wu, Mark E Hwang, Anurag Saraf, Christopher Grubb, Ashish Jani, Matthew E Lapa, Jacquelyn I S Andrews, Steven R Isaacson, Adam M Sonabend, Sameer A Sheth, Guy M McKhann, Michael B Sisti, Jeffrey N Bruce, Simon K Cheng, Eileen P Connolly, Tony Jc Wang
AIM: The number of breast cancer brain metastases is a prognostic clinical variable in the modified graded prognostic assessment (GPA) Index for breast cancer. PATIENTS & METHODS: We retrospectively gathered data from 127 breast cancer patients who underwent radiation therapy for brain metastasis. Patients were stratified by both breast GPA and modified breast GPA scores, and survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model...
February 2, 2018: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390865/holocord-oligodendroglioma-with-intracranial-extension-in-a-young-adult-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Romulus Emmanuel H Cruz, Ranhel C De Roxas, Carmela Concepcion A Sales-Callangan, Roland Dominic G Jamora
Widespread primary spinal oligodendrogliomas are a rare variety of tumors that usually affect children. Currently, there are only two adult cases reported worldwide. We report the first case of primary holocord oligodendroglioma with intracranial extension in a young adult female. The patient presented with a 4-month history of fluctuating hemiparesis of the left upper extremity eventually becoming quadriplegic after 1 month. Imaging findings revealed a contrast-enhancing holocord neoplasm spanning from the cervical region to the conus medullaris and with extension to the lower medulla...
February 2, 2018: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388793/radiographic-patterns-of-recurrence-and-pathologic-correlation-in-malignant-gliomas-treated-with-bevacizumab
#3
Alissa Thomas, Marc Rosenblum, Sasan Karimi, Lisa M DeAngelis, Antonio Omuro, Thomas J Kaley
Interpretation of MRI abnormalities in patients with malignant gliomas (MG) treated with bevacizumab is challenging. Recent reports describe quantitative analyses of diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities not available in standard clinical settings, to differentiate tumor recurrence from treatment necrosis. We retrospectively reviewed bevacizumab treated MG patients who underwent surgery or autopsy to correlate radiographic recurrence patterns with pathologic findings. 32 patients with MG (26 glioblastoma, three anaplastic astrocytoma and three anaplastic oligodendroglioma) were identified...
February 1, 2018: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378419/clinical-importance-of-eflornithine-%C3%AE-difluoromethylornithine-for-the-treatment-of-malignant-gliomas
#4
Victor A Levin, Sandra E Ictech, Kenneth R Hess
This review covers the literature between 1989 and 2007 on studies relevant to the neuro-oncology usage of eflornithine (α-difluoromethylornithine), an oral agent that irreversibly inhibits the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. It covers the use of eflornithine, alone or in combination, to treat high-grade gliomas. In addition, we provide an update on overall survival from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program and Clinical Trials Data Office that demonstrates a meaningful benefit in overall survival for eflornithine as a single agent and in combination with nitrosourea-based therapies for anaplastic gliomas...
January 30, 2018: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347839/brain-metastases-epidemiology-in-a-tunisian-population-trends-and-outcome
#5
Mehdi Benna, Nesrine Mejri, Manel Mabrouk, Houda El Benna, Soumaya Labidi, Nouha Daoud, Hamouda Boussen
AIM: We reported anatomo-clinical features of brain metastases (BMs) collected in a Tunisian medical oncology department. PATIENTS & METHODS: We retrospectively identified all cases of BM within a cohort of 7055 patients, treated for a histologically confirmed nonhematological cancer between 2000 and 2016. Data about age, sex and primary tumor were collected. RESULTS: Incidence was 1.9% and mean age was 54 years with a 1.24 sex ratio. BMs were symptomatic in 73...
January 19, 2018: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303363/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-1-mutation-subtypes-at-site-132-and-their-translational-potential-in-glioma
#6
Victor M Lu, Kerrie L McDonald
In recent years, de novo missense structural mutations in the IDH1 gene of arginine at site 132 (R132) have become a standard for diagnostication and prognostication in glioma management. As our clinical understanding of this mutation grows, so too does the number of mutation subtypes reported in the literature. By synergizing current knowledge of IDH1 activity in glioma with the emerging evidence of different enzyme kinetics between R132 IDH1 mutation subtypes, the translational potential in improving glioma management based on mutated IDH1 subtype in glioma is described...
January 5, 2018: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241354/contemporary-management-of-high-grade-gliomas
#7
Hao-Wen Sim, Erin R Morgan, Warren P Mason
High-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma, are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite intensive efforts to develop new therapies for these diseases, treatment options remain limited and prognosis is poor. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of glioma, leading to refinements in our diagnostic and management approach. There is new evidence to guide the treatment of elderly patients. A multitude of new agents have been investigated, including targeted therapies, immunotherapeutics and tumor-treating fields...
December 15, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239214/brainstem-metastases-treated-with-gamma-knife-stereotactic-radiosurgery-the-indiana-university-health-experience
#8
Ajay Patel, Homan Mohammadi, Tuo Dong, Kevin Ren-Yeh Shiue, Douglas Frye, Yi Le, Shaheryar Ansari, Gordon A Watson, James C Miller, Tim Lautenschlaeger
Brainstem metastases offer a unique challenge in cancer treatment, yet stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has proven to be an effective modality in treating these tumors. This report discusses the clinical outcomes of patients with brainstem metastases treated at Indiana University with Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery from 2008 to 2016. 19 brainstem metastases from 14 patients who had follow-up brain imaging were identified. Median tumor volume was 0.04 cc (range: 0.01-2.0 cc). Median prescribed dose was 17...
December 14, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206049/rationale-and-design-of-the-500-patient-3-year-and-prospective-vigilant-observation-of-gliadel-wafer-implant-registry
#9
Kevin O Lillehei, Steven N Kalkanis, Linda M Liau, Dellann Elliott Mydland, Jeffrey Olson, Nina A Paleologos, Timothy Ryken, Tania Johnson, Evan Scullin
Implantation of biodegradable wafers impregnated with carmustine (BCNU) is one of the few chemotherapeutic modalities that have been evaluated in Phase III trials and approved by the US FDA for treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and recurrent glioblastoma. Enrolling up to 500 patients for 3-year follow-up at over 30 sites, the prospective Vigilant ObservatIon of GlIadeL WAfer ImplaNT (VIGILANT) registry (NCT02684838) will evaluate BCNU wafers for treatment of CNS malignancies in contemporary practice and in the new era of molecular tumor analysis...
December 5, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057672/chemical-meningitis-related-to-intra-csf-liposomal-cytarabine
#10
B Durand, F Zairi, T Boulanger, J Bonneterre, L Mortier, Emilie Le Rhun
Therapeutic options of leptomeningeal metastases include intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy. Among intra-CSF agents, liposomal cytarabine has advantages but can induce specific toxicities. A BRAF-V600E-mutated melanoma leptomeningeal metastases patient, treated by dabrafenib and liposomal cytarabine, presented after the first injection of liposomal cytarabine with hyperthermia and headaches. Despite sterile CSF/blood analyses, extended intravenous antibiotics were given and the second injection was delayed...
October 23, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034739/regression-of-an-intramedullary-spinal-cord-metastasis-with-a-checkpoint-inhibitor-a-case-report
#11
Kester A Phillips, Elizabeth Gaughan, Alejandro Gru, David Schiff
Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis is an increasingly common diagnosis in patients with cancer largely owing to new imaging techniques and the increase lifespan of patients with malignant tumors. The diagnosis confers significant morbidity and a poor prognosis. Mainstay palliative treatment options include corticosteroids, fractionated radiotherapy and surgery in select cases. In the modern era of immunotherapy for the treatment of several tumor types, the efficacy of these agents against parenchymal CNS tumors remains unanswered...
October 16, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017367/our-panel-of-experts-highlight-the-most-important-research-articles-across-the-spectrum-of-topics-relevant-to-the-field-of-cns-oncology
#12
Larry Junck, Maura Massimino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990813/glioblastoma-of-pineal-region-report-of-four-cases-and-literature-review
#13
Enrique Orrego, Sandro Casavilca, Pamela Garcia-Corrochano, Sugey Rojas-Meza, Miluska Castillo, Carlos A Castaneda
We report four cases of glioblastoma in the pineal region. The patients presented a severe headache and vomiting. Brain imaging showed a heterogeneously enhanced tumor in the pineal region with obstructive hydrocephalus. Case 3 developed a subependymal dissemination. The patient went to ventricular-peritoneal shunt and subtotal or total resection and radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy. Cases 1 and 2 received radiation and died 8 and 11 later months. Cases 3 and 4 completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and survived 28 and 31 months after the initial diagnosis...
October 9, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990810/cns-metastasis-secondary-to-malignant-mixed-m%C3%A3-llerian-tumor-case-report-and-review-of-therapeutics
#14
Vincent Healy, Sorca O'Brien, Philip O'Halloran, Alan Beausang, John Caird
This paper reviews CNS involvement secondary to malignant-mixed Müllerian tumor or uterine carcinosarcoma, a rare aggressive biphasic Müllerian tumor. We report a cerebellar metastasis with epithelial and mesenchymal components, demonstrating heterologous rhabdomyogenic and chondroblastic differentiation. The patient had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for palliation of symptomatic chemotherapy-resistant node-positive disease. CNS involvement is rare, and prognostically poor, and suggestively poorer in predominantly sarcomatous metastases...
October 9, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990795/postprogression-survival-in-patients-with-glioblastoma-treated-with-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-a-routine-care-cohort-study
#15
Paulina Majewska, Stefanos Ioannidis, Muhammad Hasan Raza, Nikhil Tanna, Helen Bulbeck, Mathew Williams
Glioblastoma is the commonest malignant brain tumor in adults. Most patients develop progressive disease before they die. However, survival after developing progressive disease is infrequently reported. We identified patients with histologically proven disease who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy during 2006-2013. We analyzed overall survival (OS), progression-free survival and postprogression survival (PPS) in relation to age, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation and extent of surgical resection...
October 9, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990793/leiomyosarcoma-of-the-infratemporal-fossa-with-perineurial-spread-along-the-right-mandibular-nerve-a-case-report
#16
Frank J Barbiero, Anita J Huttner, Benjamin L Judson, Joachim M Baehring
Leiomyosarcomas are malignant tumors displaying strong smooth muscle differentiation [ 1 ]. They can often develop within the GI tract and myometrium, but are particularly rare in the head and neck [ 2 , 3 ]. Perineurial spread of head and neck cancer is observed in patients with neoplasms of the skin (squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) or skin appendages (adenoid cystic carcinoma) [ 4-6 ]. We report the case of a woman who presented with diplopia and headaches. MRI showed an infratemporal mass lesion and faint enhancement tracking along the mandibular nerve into the wall of the right cavernous sinus...
October 9, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984142/visual-inspection-of-mr-relative-cerebral-blood-volume-maps-has-limited-value-for-distinguishing-progression-from-pseudoprogression-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-patients
#17
Melissa Kerkhof, Pauline L Tans, Rogier E Hagenbeek, Geert J Lycklama À Nijeholt, Finn K Holla, Tjeerd J Postma, Chiara S Straathof, Linda Dirven, Martin Jb Taphoorn, Maaike J Vos
AIM: We examined whether visual interpretation of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) color maps made with dynamic susceptibility-weighted perfusion MRI can reliably distinguish progressive disease (PD) from pseudoprogression (PsPD) in glioblastoma patients during treatment with temozolomide chemoradiation. MATERIALS & METHODS: Magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion-weighted images were evaluated based on visual inspection of rCBV maps. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to assess if rCBV can reliably differentiate between PD and PsPD, during standard chemoradiation therapy...
October 6, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984140/spinal-cord-involvement-in-two-children-with-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#18
Maurizio Lucchesi, Mario Mascalchi, Federico Mussa, Claudio Favre, Lorenzo Genitori, Iacopo Sardi
Spinal cord involvement (SCI) is a rare feature of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), especially in children. SCI is generally symptomatic, and may have a different outcome compared with encephalic localization of PRES. We reported about two cases of SCI in pediatric patients with PRES, after multimodal anticancer therapies, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted agents.
October 6, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984139/neurological-improvement-of-perineural-and-leptomeningeal-spread-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-intrathecal-chemotherapy-and-systemic-egfr-inhibition
#19
Vincent Alexander van Vugt, Marlon Garzo Saria, Andres Javier, Navin Kesari, Tiffany Turpin, Santosh Kesari
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common cancer of the skin. Risk factors include fair skin, excessive sun and ultraviolet light exposure, and history of xeroderma pigmentosa. Perineural invasion (PNI), an uncommon manifestation of SCC, involves microscopic tumor cells invading various layers of the nerve sheath. It is associated with a poorer prognosis. Standard treatment for PNI includes radiation therapy. Here, we describe a case an older gentleman with a history of SCC with PNI successfully treated with erlotinib and intrathecal chemotherapy...
October 6, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984137/imaging-and-clinical-end-points-in-brain-metastases-trials
#20
Riccardo Soffietti, Carlotta Chiavazza, Roberta Rudà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: CNS Oncology
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