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CNS Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001090/recent-technological-advances-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-surgery
#1
Bassel Zebian, Francesco Vergani, José Pedro Lavrador, Soumya Mukherjee, William John Kitchen, Vita Stagno, Christos Chamilos, Benedetta Pettorini, Conor Mallucci
X-rays and ventriculograms were the first imaging modalities used to localize intracranial lesions including brain tumors as far back as the 1880s. Subsequent advances in preoperative radiological localization included computed tomography (CT; 1971) and MRI (1977). Since then, other imaging modalities have been developed for clinical application although none as pivotal as CT and MRI. Intraoperative technological advances include the microscope, which has allowed precise surgery under magnification and improved lighting, and the endoscope, which has improved the treatment of hydrocephalus and allowed biopsy and complete resection of intraventricular, pituitary and pineal region tumors through a minimally invasive approach...
December 21, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001089/the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-associated-nervous-system-tumors
#2
Souvik Karmakar, Karlyne M Reilly
With the recent development of new anticancer therapies targeting the immune system, it is important to understand which immune cell types and cytokines play critical roles in suppressing or promoting tumorigenesis. The role of mast cells in promoting neurofibroma growth in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients was hypothesized decades ago. More recent experiments in mouse models have demonstrated the causal role of mast cells in neurofibroma development and of microglia in optic pathway glioma development...
December 21, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001088/glioblastoma-in-the-elderly-treatment-patterns-and-survival
#3
Jean-Aine Pretanvil, Isaac Q Salinas, David E Piccioni
AIM: The optimal treatment for elderly glioblastoma patients is unclear. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Cancer Registry to examine treatment patterns and survival by age. METHODS: We identified 2670 adult patients from the California Cancer Registry with glioblastoma. We compared the extent of resection, treatment type and modality. RESULTS: Elderly patients had the greatest overall survival (OS) with combined surgery, radiation and chemotherapy...
December 21, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918194/first-report-of-tumor-treating-fields-use-in-combination-with-bevacizumab-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-report
#4
Daniel O'Connell, Violet Shen, William Loudon, Daniela A Bota
We report the first case of a pediatric patient with glioblastoma (GBM; WHO grade IV astrocytoma) successfully treated with tumor treating fields (TTF). The patient was diagnosed with GBM when 13 years of age and progressed through surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Discrete tumor growth visualized on MRI with stable neurological examination was monitored for 6 months with subsequent stable disease observed radiographically and clinically for 7 months while adherent to Optune(®) (TTF). TTF thereby played a role in forestalling recurrent GBM growth in this young woman for 7 months without significant adverse effects...
December 5, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781490/dabrafenib-in-brafv600-mutated-anaplastic-pleomorphic-xanthoastrocytoma
#5
Nicholas F Brown, Thomas Carter, Paul Mulholland
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare brain tumor. Anaplastic features are found in 20-30% of cases of PXA and are associated with poor outcomes. Typical treatment is with gross total resection, followed by radiation therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy at relapse. BRAFV600 mutations have been identified in 38-60% of patients with PXA. Several case reports and small case series have identified clinical benefit with BRAF inhibition in patients with BRAFV600-mutated PXA. We report the second published case of successful treatment with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib in a female patient with relapsed anaplastic PXA with a BRAFV600 mutation, and the first published case of dabrafinib treatment following intolerance to vemurafenib...
October 26, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059580/our-panel-of-experts-highlight-the-most-important-research-articles-across-the-spectrum-of-topics-relevant-to-the-field-of-cns-oncology
#6
Larry Junck, Maura Massimino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001091/treatment-options-for-recurrent-high-grade-gliomas
#7
Harjus S Birk, Seunggu J Han, Nicholas A Butowski
High-grade gliomas are aggressive brain tumors encompassing Grade III and IV classifications. Of these, glioblastoma (GB) is the most malignant with a high rate of recurrence after initial resection. Although standard treatment does exist for newly diagnosed GBs, therapeutic strategies for recurrent GB are less solidified. However, mounting evidence describes the role of re-resection, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, targeted molecular therapies, immunotherapeutic approaches and radiotherapy in recurrent GB management...
January 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671322/endoscopic-transnasal-surgery-for-planum-and-tuberculum-sella-meningiomas-decision-making-technique-and-outcomes
#8
Varun R Kshettry, Khaled Elshazly, James J Evans
Tuberculum sella and planum sphenoidale meningiomas pose a management challenge given their intimate relationship to surrounding critical neurovascular structures. The development and advancement of expanded endoscopic transnasal surgery has provided a good surgical option that in well-selected cases, may provide several advantages over a transcranial route. These include early devascularization, complete dura and bone removal, elimination of brain retraction and enhanced visualization of the optic apparatus perforating vessels...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671321/our-panel-of-experts-highlights-the-most-important-research-articles-across-the-spectrum-of-topics-relevant-to-the-field-of-cns-oncology
#9
Larry Junck, Maura Massimino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616612/neuro-oncology-a-selected-review-of-asco-2016-abstracts
#10
Marc C Chamberlain
ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616484/upfront-targeted-therapy-for-symptomatic-melanoma-brain-metastases-paradigm-changing
#11
Denis Migliorini, Sara Fertani, Pierre-Yves Dietrich
The standard management of a single brain metastasis is usually maximal resection when feasible followed by radiotherapy. In case of multiple lesions, several options have to be considered depending on the natural behavior of the primary tumor, the localization of brain lesions, their functional impact and related symptoms. In case of life-threatening brain metastasis, debulking surgery is often proposed first, with the risk of major bleeding and postponing the initiation of other treatments. This approach is now challenged by the rapid tumor shrinkage that could be observed with novel targeted therapies...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616346/clinical-trials-in-pediatric-neuro-oncology-what-is-missing-and-how-we-can-improve
#12
Lennox Byer, Cassie Kline, Sabine Mueller
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, yet outcomes vary dramatically. High-grade gliomas have dismal outcomes with poor survival. By contrast, low-grade gliomas, have high survival rates, but children suffer from morbidity of tumor burden and therapy-associated side effects. In this article, we discuss how current trial designs often miss the opportunity to include end points beyond tumor response and thus fail to offer complete assessments of therapeutic approaches. Quality of life, neurocognitive function and neurofunctional deficits need to be considered when assessing overall success of a therapy...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616199/diapeutic-cancer-targeting-alkylphosphocholine-analogs-may-advance-management-of-brain-malignancies
#13
Ray R Zhang, Kyle I Swanson, Lance T Hall, Jamey P Weichert, John S Kuo
The following is a special report on alkylphosphocholine analogs as targeted imaging and therapy agents for cancer, and their potential role in diagnosis and treatment in glioblastoma and brain metastases. These novel cancer-targeting agents display impressive tumor avidity with low background in the normal brain, and multimodal diagnostic imaging and therapy capabilities. The use of these agents may significantly improve diagnosis, treatment and post-treatment follow-up in patients with brain malignancies.
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616054/adhering-towards-tumorigenicity-altered-adhesion-mechanisms-in-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Soumya M Turaga, Justin D Lathia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in adults with a high recurrence and mortality rate. GBM tumors contain a high degree of cellular heterogeneity, with cells exhibiting stem-like properties (cancer stem cells; CSCs) that are highly efficient at tumor initiation and are resistant to conventional therapies. CSCs interact with their tumor microenvironment by a large group of diverse cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that participate in intercellular, intracellular and cell-extracellular matrix interactions...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615706/widely-metastatic-atypical-pituitary-adenoma-with-mtor-pathway-stk11-f298l-mutation-treated-with-everolimus-therapy
#15
Laura E Donovan, Ashley V Arnal, Shih-Hsiu Wang, Yazmin Odia
Pituitary adenomas are the commonest intracranial tumor, but metastases are rare (0.2% yearly incidence) and portend poor prognosis. CAPecitabine and TEMozolomide improved outcomes for neuroendocrine tumors. However, no chemotherapy is approved for refractory pituitary carcinomas. Next-generation sequencing revealed an actionable mTOR pathway STK11 mutation in a woman with adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary carcinoma refractory to six resections, radiation and CAPecitabine and TEMozolomide. Given efficacy in preclinical pancreatic cancer models with STK11 mutations, she received radiation and everolimus leading to clinical improvement and stability on MRI and PET for >6 months...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397796/psychosocial-distress-and-its-effects-on-the-health-related-quality-of-life-of-primary-brain-tumor-patients
#16
Dina Randazzo, Katherine B Peters
All cancer patients experience distress from the diagnosis, the effects of the disease or the treatment. Clinically significant distress decreases overall quality of life and the recognition of distress with prompt intervention is essential. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network distress thermometer (NCCN-DT) is a validated measuring tool that has been utilized in the primary brain tumor population to detect psychologic distress thereby provoking a referral process to the appropriate support system. Brain tumor patients commonly reported emotional and physical distress encompassing: fatigue, fears, memory and concentration and worry...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628854/a-state-of-the-art-review-and-guidelines-for-tumor-treating-fields-treatment-planning-and-patient-follow-up-in-glioblastoma
#17
John Trusheim, Erin Dunbar, James Battiste, Fabio Iwamoto, Nimish Mohile, Denise Damek, Daniela A Bota, Jennifer Connelly
Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are an integral treatment modality in the management of glioblastoma and extend overall survival when combined with maintenance temozolomide in newly diagnosed patients. Complexities exist regarding correct selection of imaging sequences with which to perform TTFields treatment planning. Guidelines are warranted first, to facilitate treatment planning standardization across medical disciplines and institutions, to ensure optimal TTFields delivery to the tumor and peritumoral brain zone while maximizing patient safety, and also to mitigate the risk of premature cessation of a potentially beneficial treatment...
September 15, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328655/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314746/why-hypofractionate-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases
#19
Sten Myrehaug, Hany Soliman, Chia-Lin Tseng, Mark Ruschin, David Larson, Arjun Sahgal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230976/our-panel-of-experts-highlights-the-most-important-research-articles-across-the-spectrum-of-topics-relevant-to-the-field-of-cns-oncology
#20
Larry Junck, Maura Massimino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: CNS Oncology
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