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Biomaterials Science

Inbar Schlachet, Alejandro Sosnik
Two main hurdles persist towards the more extensive bench-to-bed side translation of non-parenteral polymeric micelles. The first pertains to their thermodynamically-driven disassembly under uncontrolled dilution conditions in the biological milieu and upon interaction with biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins). The second is related to the relatively poor understanding of the pathways by which polymeric micelles improve the bioavailability of the payload by mucosal routes (e.g., intestinal). In this work, a chitosan-g-oligo(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CS-g-oligo(NiPAAm)) copolymer was modified with non-cytotoxic amounts of protoporphyrin IX (PP), a planar molecule of amphiphilic character that undergoes self-aggregation in water by forming π-π stacked supramolecular structures, to induce micellization under disfavored conditions and to serve as a fluorescent tracer for the measurement of the micelle permeability across a model of the intestinal epithelium in vitro...
December 1, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Ping Huang, Jing Zhao, Chiju Wei, Xiaohu Hou, Pingzhang Chen, Yan Tan, Cheng-Yi He, Zhiyong Wang, Zhi-Ying Chen
Gene therapy has great promise for the treatment of obtained and inherited serious diseases. However, the lack of safe and efficient gene delivery systems remains a barrier for their clinical application. Here, we reported a potential gene delivery vehicle composed of the erythrocyte membrane and cationic polymers, for example the XtremeGENE from Roche and the ε-caprolactone modified polyethylenimine. In addition to high efficiency, this system showed negligible cytotoxicity compared to the two cationic polymers alone in various cell lines, including human embryonic kidney cells (293T), human liver cancer cells (Huh7 and HepG2), murine dendritic cells (DC2...
November 28, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Dong Luo, Xi Zhang, Saroash Shahid, Michael J Cattell, David J Gould, Gleb B Sukhorukov
The treatment of persistent infections often requires a high local drug concentration and sustained release of antimicrobial agents. This paper proposes the use of novel electrospinning of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers containing uncoated and encapsulated chlorhexidine particles. Chlorhexidine particles with a mean (SD) diameter of 17.15 ± 1.99 μm were fabricated by the precipitation of chlorhexidine diacetate with calcium chloride. Layer-by-layer (LbL) encapsulation of the chlorhexidine particles was carried out to produce encapsulated particles...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Zeeshan Ali, Jiuhai Wang, Yongjun Tang, Bin Liu, Nongyue He, Zhiyang Li
Nucleic acid testing (NAT) based methods are more sensitive and specific, and are preferred over enzyme immunoassays. Different NAT based protocols have been designed to detect multiple pathogens in order to reduce the inherent high cost for detection. However, these assays do not reliably detect a large number of pathogens at once. In this report, a DNA hybridization based chemiluminescence detection method has been proposed for reliable detection of multiple pathogens. The idea was practically demonstrated by carrying out simultaneous extraction and amplification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 group M, herein referred to as HIV) through the one step multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
November 15, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Liu-Jie Zhang, Bo Wu, Wei Zhou, Cai-Xia Wang, Qian Wang, Hui Yu, Ren-Xi Zhuo, Zhi-Lan Liu, Shi-Wen Huang
An amphiphilic polymer DLPE-S-S-MPEG was synthesized and employed with PCL to prepare two-component reduction-sensitive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (SLPNPs) for in vitro and in vivo delivery of a hydrophobic anticancer drug (Doxorubicin, DOX). Insensitive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (ILPNPs) were prepared as a control. The mean sizes of the LPNPs ranged from 100 nm to 120 nm. The TEM observations showed that the LPNPs have spherical morphologies with homogeneous distribution. The disulfide bond of DLPE-S-S-MPEG was cleaved by dithiothreitol (DTT), which resulted in the disassembly of SLPNPs and triggered the release of encapsulated DOX...
November 14, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Kunchi Zhang, Yi Cao, Ye Kuang, Min Liu, Yang Chen, Zhili Wang, Shanni Hong, Jine Wang, Renjun Pei
Herein, we fabricated efficient MR imaging probes by incorporating gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd2O3) and gadolinium hybrid nanoparticles (GH) within RBCs. The Gd2O3 and GH encapsulated in the RBCs exhibited high relaxation rates and revealed high sensitivity for T1 MR imaging.
November 14, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Ruairí P Brannigan, Andrew P Dove
Polyester-based polymers represent excellent candidates in synthetic biodegradable and bioabsorbable materials for medical applications owing to their tailorable properties. The use of synthetic polyesters as biomaterials offers a unique control of morphology, mechanical properties and degradation profile through monomer selection, polymer composition (i.e. copolymer vs. homopolymer, stereocomplexation etc.) and molecular weight. Within this review, the synthetic routes, degradation modes and application of aliphatic polyester- and polycarbonate-based biomaterials are discussed...
November 14, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Yun Zeng, Liqin Wang, Zijian Zhou, Xiaoyong Wang, Yang Zhang, Junqing Wang, Peng Mi, Gang Liu, Liming Zhou
Tracking of cells in biological systems is critically important for monitoring disease treatment, such as in stem cell therapy. This report prepared new types of biocompatible gadolinium hybrid iron oxide (GdIO) nanocomposites, which demonstrated high sensitivity for dual T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The GdIO nanocomposites could efficiently label mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by incubation for 24 h at a safe dose, as they did not affect the cell viability, proliferation or differentiation capacity...
November 14, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Chun Li, Junqing Hu, Wenyao Li, Guosheng Song, Jia Shen
Our previous work reported the development of a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (BTZ) encapsulated hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres (HMSNs), as a biocompatible and effective drug-delivery system for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. Then we found that the tumor-suppressing effect of BTZ or HMSNs-BTZ was compromised in p53 null/mutant NSCLC. In fact, clinical studies have shown a beneficial effect of the combination of p53 gene therapy and chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with NSCLC, especially with the p53 gene null/mutant NSCLC...
November 8, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Hasitha de Alwis Weerasekera, María Jazmín Silvero, Daliane Regis Correa da Silva, Juan C Scaiano
Colloidal stability of nanoparticles in biological media is an important consideration when trying to ensure reliable data interpretation of in vitro and in vivo systems. We have developed a detailed colloidal stability library of newly synthesized gold, silver and gold-core silver-shell plasmonic nanoparticles, stabilized with aspartame, glucosamine and sucralose, in various biologically relevant buffers and bacterial and mammalian cell culture media. The stabilizer selection reflects the preference for molecules that are non-toxic, inexpensive, readily available, water soluble and easy-to-replace if that is the end-user preference...
November 8, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Goksu Cinar, Ayse Ozdemir, Seren Hamsici, Gokhan Gunay, Aykutlu Dana, Ayse B Tekinay, Mustafa O Guler
Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) self-assemble into supramolecular nanofiber gels that provide a suitable environment for encapsulation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. The PA gels have significant advantages for controlled delivery applications due to their high capacity to retain water, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this study, we demonstrate injectable supramolecular PA nanofiber gels for drug delivery applications. Doxorubicin (Dox), as a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for breast cancer treatment, was encapsulated within the PA gels prepared at different concentrations...
November 7, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Na Peng, Bo Wu, Lei Wang, Weiyang He, Ziye Ai, Xingjian Zhang, Yanfeng Wang, Lin Fan, Qifa Ye
To increase the accumulation of nanocarriers at the tumor site and reduce premature drug leakage, we fabricated alginate modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with magnetic targeting capability for pH-responsive release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in tumor-cell microenvironments. The drug loading content (DLC) of SPION-4 was as high as 48.98% with a stable size of 135 nm, whereas the DLC of SPION-2 (amine-functionalized SPIONs as the control) was 7.58%. The in vitro release studies revealed that the acidic environment (pH 6...
October 28, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Ya-Ting Tsai, Chao-Wei Huang, Hui-Yu Liu, Mei-Ching Huang, Ting-Pi Sun, Wen-Chien Chen, Chih-Yu Wu, Shih-Torng Ding, Hsien-Yeh Chen
The ability to induce osteointegration was introduced to a parylene-C surface via the simple and intuitive process of protein adsorption mediated by hydrophobic interactions. In this way, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, fibronectin, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could be immobilized on parylene-C surfaces. This approach alleviates concerns related to the use of potentially harmful substances in parylene-C modification processes. The adsorbed protein molecules were quantitatively characterized with respect to adsorption efficacy and binding affinity, and the important biological activities of the proteins were also examined using both early and late markers of osteogenetic activity, including alkaline phosphatase expression, calcium mineralization and marker gene expression...
October 26, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Bailiang Wang, Zi Ye, Qingwen Xu, Huihua Liu, Quankui Lin, Hao Chen, Kaihui Nan
Once a biomedical implant is implanted into a human body, proteins and bacteria can easily colonize the implant, and subsequently, a biofilm can grow on the surface. A biofilm can protect the inhabiting bacteria against macrophages and neutrophil cell attack from the host immune system. The most important issue for artificial antibacterial surfaces is the accumulation of the bacteria corpse after they are killed by contact, which promotes further adhesion of bacteria and biofilm formation. Therefore, we constructed a novel multifunctional bactericidal and fouling release antibacterial surface through the combination of temperature-responsive N-vinylcaprolactam (VCL), hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and a bactericidal quaternary ammonium salt (2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA(+)))...
October 26, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Mthulisi Khuphe, Clare S Mahon, Paul D Thornton
The glucoseamine-initiated ring-opening polymerisation of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides and O-carboxanhydrides to yield amphiphilic block copolymers that are capable of self-assembly in aqueous solution to form well-defined, glucose-presenting, particles is reported. The particles formed are susceptible to enzyme-mediated (lipase and protease) and pH-induced degradation, and can selectively bind the lectin concanavalin A. Consequently, such glycoparticles are of significance for the controlled release of payload molecules in response to an acidic environment, for instance cancerous tissue, and upon interaction with target enzymes...
October 25, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Abdul K Parchur, Qifei Li, Anhong Zhou
We report the synthesis, characterization, and application of Prussian blue (PB) functionalized CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2@Au nanorod hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs), with multimodal capabilities such as fluorescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection and photothermal therapy (PTT). The average size of CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2 NPs was 206 nm. The HNPs are highly dispersible in water for several weeks without settling and show a strong absorption in the near-infrared region, overlapping with the PB absorption between 600 nm and 1000 nm and the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods around 800 nm...
October 21, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Sarah A Altınoğlu, Ming Wang, Kathleen Q Li, Yuyang Li, Qiaobing Xu
The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor, mutated or inactive in a large percentage of human cancers. Restoring PTEN activity in cancer cells through gene therapy has shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis, particularly in cells with a PTEN deficiency. Gene therapy, however, comes with some inherent risks such as triggering an immune response and permanent off target effects. Nanoparticle assisted protein delivery could mitigate these liabilities while maintaining therapeutic integrity...
October 17, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Suhas Ramesh, Marcelo Grijalva, Alexis Debut, Beatriz G de la Torre, Fernando Albericio, Luis H Cumbal
Nanotechnology is gaining impetus in the present century and particularly the use of nanoparticles (NPs), whose properties are significantly different from the larger matter. These have found wider and potential applications in the fields of medicine, energy, cosmetics, environment and biomedicine. Among the NPs, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of particular interest for scientists and technologists due to their unique physico-chemical and biological properties. Besides, AgNPs by themselves also possess broad-spectrum microbial activity, which has further expanded their application in both academia and industries...
October 17, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Yeji Kim, Julie C Liu
Peripheral artery disease often requires treatments with vascular grafts for vessel reconstruction. Endothelialization of the vascular grafts is important to achieve long-term patency because endothelial cells regulate thrombosis, inflammation, and growth of smooth muscle cells. One potential source of endothelial cells is human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which can be routinely differentiated towards the endothelial lineage using exogenous growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Yang J Xu, Kongchang Wei, Pengchao Zhao, Qian Feng, Chun Kit K Choi, Liming Bian
Mussel adhesion has inspired the development of catechol-based adhesive polymers. However, conventional strategies require basic pH conditions and lead to the loss of adhesion. To solve the problem, we report the first attempt to use thiourea-functionalized polymers for preserving hydrogel adhesion. We believe that this simple thiourea-quinone coupling chemistry is instrumental to synthetic adhesive materials.
October 10, 2016: Biomaterials Science
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